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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(6): 792-799, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between personality factors (PF) and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. This allows for the investigation of obstacles related to treatment type and the presence of complications in HRQoL. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 78 patients aged 13-67 years from two diabetes clinics. PF was evaluated using the validated questionnaire Inventory of the Five Great Personality Factors. HRQoL was determined using the Brazilian Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (B-PAID) questionnaire. The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Welch's modified two-sample t-test were used to establish relationships. Results: In this sample of 46 women and 32 men with T1D and mean A1C of 8%-9%, we observed great suffering in 58.97% and that HRQoL was worse in women. "Openness" was the most prevalent PF and "extroversion" the least prevalent. "Neuroticism" facilitated a tendency to tolerate suffering. Conclusion: T1D patients' personalities influence their treatment. The PF "neuroticism" is potentially related to better HRQoL. Brazilian T1D patients indicated great suffering in their HRQoL, which may be characteristic across the country. Women experienced worse HRQoL, which is in line with world literature. However, the limited sample size in this study warrant further research to test the hypotheses.

2.
Entramado ; 18(2): e212, jul.-dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404713

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este artículo tiene como objetivo complementar la teoria del levantamiento corporativo definida por los máximos tribunales colombianos con reflexiones doctrinales sobre el principio de la buena fe y del abuso del derecho. El texto presenta los hallazgos de una investigación Qualitativa con un enfoque dogmático de técnica documental especializada, que permitió identificar y seleccionar sentencias hito en el período 1999-2019 que caracterizaran el levantamiento del velo corporativo y además, permitió identificar y seleccionar estudios doctrinales, con preferencia de la misma época, que permiten consolidar la teoria. La estrategia de búsqueda inició con la delimitación de las variables de análisis con base en el proyecto de investigación, que fueron usadas posteriormente en la consulta y selección de artículos de investigación jurídica en las bases de datos especializadas a partir de criterios de elección temáticos, temporales, geográficos, idiomáticos y de tipo de publicación. Con la investigación se concluye que no es suficiente con mencionar la buena fe y el abuso del derecho en los procesos de desestimación de la personalidad jurídica, se hace necesario dotar estos principios de contenido normativo para realizar una tarea de identificación de actos antijurídicos en el contexto societario.


ABSTRACT This article aims to complement the theory of the disregard of the legal entity defined by the highest Colombian courts with doctrinal reflections on the principles of good faith and abuse of law.The text presents the findings of a qualitative research with a dogmatic approach of specialized documentary technique, which allowed to identify and select landmark sentences in the period 1999-2019 that characterized the lifting of the corporate veil and allowed to identify and select doctrinal studies, with preference of the same period, which permit to consolidate the theory The search strategy began with the delimitation of variables for analysis based on the research project, which were subsequently used in the consultation and selection of legal research articles in specialized databases based on thematic, temporal, geographical, idiomatic and publication-type selection criteria. With the investigation it is concluded that it is not enough to mention the good faith and the abuse of the right in the processes of dismissal of the legal personality it is necessary to provide these principles with normative content to carry out a task of identifying unlawful acts in the context corporate law.


RESUMO Este artigo tem como objetivo complementar a teoria do levantamento corporativo definida pelos máximos tribunais colombianos com reflexões doutrinais sobre o princípio da boa-fé e do abuso do direito. O texto apresenta os resultados de uma investigação qualitativa com uma abordagem dogmática de técnica documental especializada, que permitiu identificar e selecionar sentenças marco no período 1999-2019 que caracterizaram o levantamento do véu corporativo e, além disso, permitiu identificar e selecionar estudos doutrinários, com preferência da mesma época, que permitem consolidar a teoria. A estratégia de pesquisa começou com a delimitação das variáveis para a análise com base no projeto de pesquisa, que foram usadas posteriormente na consulta e seleção de artigos de pesquisa jurídica nas bases de dados especializadas a partir de critérios de eleição temáticos, temporais, geográficos, idiomáticos e de tipo de publicação. A investigação concluiu que não basta mencionar a boa fé e o abuso do direito nos processos de rejeição da personalidade jurídica, é necessário dotar estes princípios de conteúdo normativo para realizar uma tarefa de identificação de atos antijundicos no contexto societário.

3.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(3): 166-179, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406724

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Personalidad Proactiva en una muestra de profesores de escuelas de Lima (Perú). Participaron 302 profesores de ambos sexos (72.20 % mujeres) seleccionados a través de un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, cuyas edades estaban en el rango de 24 a 65 años (M = 43.04, DE = 10.75) y que enseñaban en los niveles educativos de educación primaria y secundaria (75.83 % en educación secundaria). Además de la Escala de Personalidad Proactiva, se aplicó la Escala Sentimiento de Autoeficacia en el Profesor para evaluar la validez convergente. Los resultados indican que la Escala de Personalidad Proactiva se ajusta a una estructura unifactorial (CFI = .949, TLI = .934, RMSEA = .076 y SRMR = .044), se evidencian correlaciones estadísticamente significativas (p < .001) y un tamaño del efecto mediano (rs > .10) con la mayoría de las dimensiones de la Escala Sentimiento de Autoeficacia, y presenta una adecuada consistencia interna (ω = .89). Se concluye que la Escala de Personalidad Proactiva cuenta con evidencias de validez basada en la estructura interna, validez convergente y una fiabilidad adecuada para medir la personalidad proactiva en profesores de escuela.


Abstract The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Proactive Personality Scale in a sample of teachers from schools in Lima (Peru). Participants were 302 teachers of both sexes (72.20% women) selected through a non-probabilistic sampling of intentional type, whose ages were in the range from 24 to 65 (M = 43.04, DE = 10.75) and who taught at the educational levels of primary and secondary education (75.83% in secondary education). In addition to the Proactive Personality Scale, the Teachers Self Efficacy Scale was applied to assess convergent validity. The results indicate that the Proactive Personality Scale was adjusted to a unifactorial structure (CFI = .949, TLI = .934, RMSEA = .076 y SRMR = .044), there are statistically significant correlations (p <.001) and with a mean effect size (rs> .10) with most of the dimensions of self-efficacy feeling and adequate internal consistency (.89). The Proactive Personality Scale has evidence of validity based on internal structure, convergent validity, and adequate reliability to measure proactive personality in schoolteachers.

4.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 54: 76-85, ene.-dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409662

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud indica que es necesario eliminar los valores, las actitudes y los estereotipos basados en el género que afectan la salud y el bienestar de las niñas y mujeres en el mundo. Desde la psicología de la personalidad, algunos trabajos científicos han demostrado que rasgos como la triada oscura de la personalidad (maquiavelismo, psicopatía y narcisismo) y la desconexión moral aumentan la susceptibilidad al sesgo de género, la amenaza y la agresión interpersonal. Como contribución al diseño de un perfil personológico propenso a aceptar y justificar las actitudes sexistas, el objetivo principal de este trabajo fue estudiar el rol mediador de la desconexión moral entre la triada oscura de la personalidad y el sexismo ambivalente en adolescentes. Método: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 803 adolescentes (M = 15.33, DT = 0.99; 50.3% chicos) tras utilizar un muestreo por conveniencia para realizar un análisis de la varianza y la comparación de varios modelos mediacionales a partir de la técnica de bootstrapping. Resultados: Los rasgos de la triada oscura de la personalidad se relacionan directa y significativamente con el sexismo hostil y benevolente de los/as adolescentes, y la desconexión moral tiene un efecto mediador importante en esta relación. Conclusiones: Finalmente, se discute cómo trabajar la desconexión moral para la transformación de estas creencias y actitudes de género que perpetúan la discriminación hacia las adolescentes en programas de prevención.


Abstract Introduction: The World Health Organization indicates that gender-based values, attitudes and stereotypes that affect the health and well-being of girls and women around the world need to be eliminated. From personality psychology, scientific studies have shown that traits such as the dark personality triad (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) and moral disengagement increase susceptibility to gender bias, threat, and interpersonal aggression. As a contribution to the design of a personological profile prone to accept and justify sexist attitudes, the main aim of this paper was to study the mediating role of moral disengagement between the dark personality triad and ambivalent sexism in a sample of adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 803 adolescents (M = 15.33, SD = 0.99; 50.3% boys) using convenience sampling to assess ambivalent sexism, dark personality triad and moral disengagement. An analysis of variance and comparison of various mediational models was carried out using the bootstrapping technique. Results: The dark personality triad traits are directly and significantly related to adolescents' hostile and benevolent sexism, and that moral disengagement has a relevant mediating effect on this relationship. Conclusions: Finally, the implications of these findings for the transformation of these gendered beliefs and attitudes that perpetuate discrimination against girls and women are discussed in relation with prevention programs.

5.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(5): 469-477, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403778

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the impact of defense mechanisms at baseline on depressive symptoms after brief psychotherapies and after 6-months of follow-up among depressed patients with and without cluster B personality disorders (PDs). Methods: This quasi-experimental study nested within a randomized clinical trial included a clinical sample of adults (18-60 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III was applied to assess PD, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40 was used to analyze defense mechanisms, and the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the severity of depressive symptoms. Adjusted analysis was performed by linear regression. Results: The final sample consisted of 177 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, of whom 39.5% had cluster B PDs. Immature defenses at baseline significantly predicted the persistence of depressive symptoms at post-intervention and at 6-months of follow-up only in patients with PDs. Conclusion: In depressed patients with cluster B PDs, immature defenses predicted a poor response to brief therapies. The assessment of immature defenses at baseline can help identify patients at greater risk of poor therapeutic results and enable more appropriate treatment choices.

6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(8): 862-866, Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Paul Bouts (1900-1999) was a Belgian pedagogue, a Roman Catholic priest, and the founder of Psychognomy, which is a personality diagnostic system combining phrenology and several related practices - typology, craniofacial measurements, physiognomy, graphology etc. Bouts had a fragile health; therefore, it is unlikely that he travelled to Brazil. Despite this, his most famous book, rich in conservative and religious thoughts, was translated to Portuguese and published with ecclesiastic support in 1943, and the doctrine acquired good reputation among Brazilian members of the clergy, politicians, teachers, and military personnel. Lay scholars and medical doctors founded a Brazilian institute devoted to the study and diffusion of psychognomy in 1949. They published two volumes of a psychognomy treatise, and the institute was active until the early 1960s, when social interest in the subject rapidly vanished.


Resumo Paul Bouts (1900-1999) foi um pedagogo e padre católico belga que criou a psicognomia, um sistema de análise caracterológica que combinava elementos da frenologia, tipologia, medições craniofaciais, fisionomia, grafologia etc. Suas teorias influenciaram acadêmicos, religiosos, políticos e militares brasileiros. Bouts tinha uma saúde frágil, e não há evidências de que tenha estado no Brasil. Seu livro mais famoso, Psicognomia, foi publicado no país em 1943 com aval da censura eclesiástica e com apêndices especiais. A doutrina levou, ainda, à criação, em 1949, de um instituto privado de divulgação e estudos de psicognomia com sede no Rio de Janeiro, que publicou dois volumes de um tratado sobre o tema e permaneceu ativo até o início da década de 1960, quando o interesse pelo assunto rapidamente desapareceu na sociedade.

7.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(2): 23-43, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387204

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo estudiar si los problemas emocionales (depresión y ansiedad) y la Personalidad Oscura eran predictores del sexting y el grooming, y si este comportamiento varía según el género y la edad. Se constituyó una muestra de 728 adolescentes entre 11 y 18 años (38% hombres) de tres escuelas secundarias privadas ubicadas en Buenos Aires y Paraná, Argentina. Completaron un Cuestionario de sexting, el Cuestionario de Solicitación e Interacción Sexual a menores online por parte de adultos para evaluar el comportamiento de grooming, la Escala de síntomas psicosomáticos de Rosenberg, el Inventario de depresión de Kovacs para niños y el Dirty Dozen para los rasgos de Personalidad Oscura. Los resultados mostraron que 12% de los adolescentes admitió haber padecido una conducta de grooming. Las formas más frecuentes fueron el envío de mensajes escritos de carácter sexual (11%) y fotos (10%) y luego, en orden de frecuencia, el envío de videos (4%), pero no se detectaron diferencias por género. Los predictores significativos de sexting y el tamaño de su varianza explicada variaban según el género (R² = 47% para mujeres y R² = 12% para hombres, respectivamente). En el caso de las mujeres, mayor edad y puntajes de psicopatía fueron predictores significativos, y en el de los hombres, menor ansiedad fue el predictor significativo. Un modelo estructural explicó una varianza del 6% para el sexting y 21% para el grooming, indicando que no hubo invarianza, según el género. Las regresiones lineales para predecir el grooming a partir del sexting también sugirieron que el género moderaba esta relación.


Abstract The present study aimed to study if emotional problems (depression and anxiety) and Dark Personality were predictors of sexting and grooming, and if this behavior differs by gender and age. A sample of 728 adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age (38% male) from three private high schools located in Buenos Aires and Paraná, Argentina, was drawn. They completed a Sexting questionnaire, the Questionnaire for Online Sexual Solicitation and Interaction of Minors with Adults for grooming behavior, Rosenberg Scale of Psychosomatic Symptoms, the Kovacs Depression Inventory for Children and the Dirty Dozen for dark personality traits. Results showed that 12% of adolescents admitted having carried out a sexting behavior. Sending written messages of a sexual nature (11%) and photos (10%) were the most prevalent ways, followed by videos (4%), but no differences were detected according to gender. Significant predictors of sexting and the size of its explained variance ranged by gender (R² = 47% for females and R² = 12% for men, respectively). In the case of females, older age and psychopathy were the significant predictors. In the case of males, less anxiety was the significant predictors. A structural model explained a variance of 6% for sexting and 21% for grooming, indicating that there was no inavariance, according to gender. Linear regressions to predict grooming from sexting also suggested this relationship was moderated by gender.

8.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(2): 135-150, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387210

ABSTRACT

Resumen El uso de instrumentos para evaluar la personalidad es una práctica común en psicología, de ahí que su validación y adaptación a diferentes grupos poblacionales sea fundamental. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la validez de constructo del NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) en un grupo de 617 personas adultas mayores en Bogotá, Colombia. Se realizaron análisis factoriales confirmatorios, así como un análisis bifactorial. Los resultados mostraron que el inventario no logra un ajuste adecuado en ninguno de los modelos de primer orden, ni en el modelo bifactorial, como tampoco en el análisis de los factores por separado. Solamente, presentó un ajuste adecuado en los modelos AFC modificados que evalúan cada factor como individual, a excepción del factor Amabilidad. Precisamente, los ítems que tuvieron bajas cargas factoriales son aquellos ítems negativos o reversos, y, dado que la comprensión de este tipo de ítems requiere de mejores habilidades lingüísticas, se infiere que el bajo nivel educativo de las personas que conformaron la muestra pudo interferir en el logro de un ajuste adecuado de los modelos; en consecuencia, se recomienda estudiar este aspecto en futuras investigaciones.


Abstract The use of instruments to assess personality is a common practice in psychology, therefore its validation and adaptation to different population groups is fundamental. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the construct validity of the NEO-FFI Inventory in a group of 617 elderly people in Bogotá, Colombia. First ordered confirmatory factor analyses and bi-factor models were performed. The results showed that the Inventory does not achieve an adequate adjustment in any of the first-order models, nor in the bi-factorial model, nor in the analysis of the factors separately. Only in the modified CFA models that evaluate each factor individually, with the exception of Agreeableness, an adequate fit was achieved. The items registering low factor loadings are especially those negative or reverse items, and since the understanding this type of items requires better linguistic skills, it is inferred that the low educational level of the sample could interfere in achieving an adequate adjustment of the models. Consequently, it is recommended to study this aspect in future research.

9.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(2): e2625, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408992

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El bienestar y la salud de cada uno de los trabajadores son primordiales en el Departamento de Salud Ocupacional de la Fundación Hospital Universitario Metropolitano. Es importante que el personal goce de un nivel de vida saludable para cumplir satisfactoriamente con todas sus obligaciones y las metas planeadas de la organización. Objetivo: Analizar los factores neuropsicológicos y de personalidad asociados en un grupo de personas que se han accidentado dos o más veces (poliaccidentados). Métodos: Se desarrolló un diseño metodológico de casos y controles. Se tomó como población las bases de datos del departamento de seguridad y salud en el trabajo, con 50 trabajadores accidentados en dos o más ocasiones (poliaccidentados). Se aplicaron como técnicas de recolección de datos la escala abreviada de inteligencia Reynolds (Rist) para apreciar el coeficiente de inteligencia de los sujetos y el cuestionario de personalidad de Cattell (16 Pf), que midió 16 factores primarios y cuatro secundarios. Se utilizó la Batería Neuropsicológica de Funciones Ejecutivas y Lóbulos Frontales (BANFE) para evaluar los factores neuropsicológicos. Resultados: fue procesados mediante el paquete estadístico Statistical package Social Science (Spss) versión 21.0 que permitió realizar la prueba de hipótesis para las variables estudiadas, se utilizó la prueba U de Mann Whitney, con un criterio alfa de 0,05 y un nivel de confianza del 95 por ciento. Conclusiones: El grupo de poliaccidentados presentó alteraciones en las áreas orbito-medial, ventromedial y dorso-laterales lo que los predispone a una mayor posibilidad de realizar actividades riesgosas y presentar menor consciencia del riesgo(AU)


Introduction: The well-being and health of each of the workers are paramount in the Department of Occupational Health at Fundación Hospital Universitario Metropolitano. It is important that the staff enjoy a healthy standard of living in order to satisfactorily fulfil all their obligations and the planned goals of the organization. Objective: To look at the neuropsychological and personality factors associated in a group of individuals who have been injured two or more times (poly-accidented). Methods: A case-control methodological design was developed. The databases of the Department of Labor Safety and Health were taken as the population, with 50 workers injured on two or more occasions (poly-accidents). The abbreviated Reynolds Intelligence Scale (Rist) was applied as data collection techniques to assess the intelligence coefficient of the subjects and Cattell personality questionnaire (16 Pf), to measured 16 primary factors and four secondary factors. The Neuropsychological Battery of Executive Functions and Frontal Lobes (BANFE) was used to evaluate neuropsychological factors. Results: They were processed using the Statistical Package Social Science (Spss) version 21.0 that allowed the hypothesis test to be carried out for the variables studied, Mann Whitney U test was used, with 0.05 alpha criterion and 95 percent level of confidence. Conclusions: The group of poly-accidented patients showed alterations in the orbito-medial, ventromedial and dorso-lateral areas, which predisposes them to greater possibility of carrying out risky activities and presenting less risk awareness(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Accidents, Occupational/psychology , Risk Factors , Neuropsychological Tests/standards , Colombia
10.
Liberabit ; 28(1): e540, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Personality disorder (PD) is an important predictor of the commission of crimes; however, there is a lack of clinical instruments adjusted to the characteristics of Peruvian convicts. Objective: To develop a reliable and valid comprehensive personality measurement instrument, the Integrative Dimensional Personality Inventory, ICD-11 version (IDPI-11), according to the standards of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Method: A stratified simple of prisoners from the Huancayo Penitentiary (HP) was selected (n study 1 = 60; n study 2 = 1095). Results: High reliability indices(McDonald's _ _ .73) and adequate levels of content validity(CVI-S ≥ .87), construct validity, and criterion validity of the scales were found. This could explain the probability (a) of belonging to the group of inmates with instrumental or impulsive crimes (R2 N ≥ .52, OR ≥ 1.02, p ≤ .021), and (b) that recidivism, designated by the prison security level imposed, increases (R2≥ .53, β ≥ 1.16, p ≤ .008). Conclusions: The instrument is a valid and reliable measure that allows a dimensional and integrative assessment of the personality of convicts of the HP, according to ICD-11 standards


Resumen Antecedentes: el trastorno de la personalidad (TP) es un predictor importante en la comisión de delitos; sin embargo, existe una ausencia de instrumentos clínicos para las características del convicto peruano. Objetivo: desarrollar un instrumento de medición integral de la personalidad confiable y válido, el Inventario Integrativo de Personalidad Dimensional versión CIE-11 (IDPI-11), según los estándares de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-11). Método: se utilizó una muestra estratificada de reclusos del Establecimiento Penitenciario de Huancayo (EPH) (n estudio 1 = 60; n estudio 2 = 1095). Resultados: se encontraron altos índices de confiabilidad (ω de McDonald ≥ .73) y niveles adecuados de validez de contenido (CVI-S ≥ .87), constructo y criterio de sus escalas, pudiendo explicar la probabilidad de: (a) pertenecer al grupo de internos con delitos instrumentales o impulsivos (R2≥ .52, OR ≥ 1.02, p ≤ .021);y(b) que la tendencia a reincidir, designada por el grado de seguridad penitenciaria impuesto, aumente (R2 ≥ .53, β ≥ 1,16, p ≤ .008). Conclusiones: el instrumento construido es una medida válida y confiable que permite una evaluación dimensional e integrada de la personalidad del convicto de la EP de Huancayo, de acuerdo con los estándares de la CIE-11.

11.
Medisur ; 20(3)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405927

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento En el contexto de la evaluación de los trastornos de personalidad, resulta relevante el empleo adecuado de cada uno de los instrumentos existentes para realizarla. De este modo, es necesario el conocimiento a cabalidad de las propiedades psicométricas de estos. Objetivo describir estudios que evalúan los trastornos de personalidad mediante el empleo de instrumentos. Métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática, a través de la Declaración PRISMA, en las bases de datos Cochrane, PubMed, Scielo, EBSCO, y PsycInfo, en el período octubre-diciembre de 2019. Un total de 183 artículos fueron considerados elegibles. Luego de aplicados los criterios de selección, conformaron la muestra 12 artículos. Resultados el Inventario Clínico Dimensional de Personalidad fue el más utilizado, el cual se encontró en las tres modalidades de artículos incluidos; especialmente en estudios de adaptación y validación de instrumentos de evaluación de los trastornos de personalidad (también en su versión 2); así como el Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Conclusión La revisión desarrollada se caracterizó por su heterogeneidad, y evidenció la falta de consenso en la comunidad científica, acerca cuáles instrumentos son los más idóneos para la valoración de los trastornos de personalidad en la actualidad.


ABSTRACT Background In the personality disorders evaluation context, the proper use of each of the existing instruments to carry it out is relevant. Thus, full knowledge of the psychometric properties is necessary. Objective to describe studies that evaluates personality disorders through the use of instruments. Methods: a systematic review was carried out, through the PRISMA Statement, in the Cochrane, PubMed, Scielo, EBSCO, and PsycInfo databases, from October to December 2019. A total of 183 articles were considered eligible. After applying the selection criteria, the sample comprised 12 articles. Results the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory was the most used, which was found in the three types of articles included; mainly in studies of adaptation and validation of assessment instruments for personality disorders (also in version 2); as well as the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Conclusion The developed review was characterized by its heterogeneity, and evidenced the lack of consensus in the scientific community, about which instruments are the most suitable for the assessment of personality disorders today.

12.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 16(2): 187-193, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384673

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Changes in personality traits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are extremely common throughout the course of the pathology, and these behavioral changes present themselves as challenges in clinical management and as a significant cause of caregivers' burden. Objective: Using a personality inventory based on the five-factor model of personality, this study aimed to assesses the change in these factors by comparing the premorbid and current personality of individuals recently diagnosed with AD. Methods: A total of 30 AD patients were recruited, and their respective family members responded to the personality inventory at home through a hosted site. The patients were also divided into two groups according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): mild dementia (CDR 1) and moderate dementia (CDR 2). Results: Among all patients, there was a significant increase in neuroticism factor levels and a significant decrease in the extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and socialization factors. When comparing the groups, only the extraversion factor showed a difference, with CDR 1 group accusing a higher change in scores. Higher scores in the factor neuroticism in the premorbid personality correlated with the current severity of the disease. Conclusions: This research draws the attention of family members and health professionals to changes in personality traits or behavior of relatives or patients, because it can reflect an underlying neurodegenerative process.


RESUMO. Mudanças em traços de personalidade em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA) são extremamente comuns ao longo do curso da referida patologia, e essas alterações comportamentais apresentam-se como desafios no manejo clínico e como causa significativa de esgotamento dos cuidadores. Objetivo: Por meio de um inventário de personalidade baseado nos cinco fatores de personalidade, este estudo avalia a mudança nos escores desses fatores comparando a personalidade pré-mórbida e a atual dos indivíduos com DA. Métodos: O total de 30 pacientes com DA foi recrutado, e seus familiares responderam ao inventário de personalidade. Os pacientes também foram divididos em dois grupos conforme a avaliação clínica da demência: demência leve (CDR1) e demência moderada (CDR2). Resultados: Em todos os pacientes, houve aumento significativo nos escores do fator neuroticismo e decréscimos significativos nos fatores extroversão, realização, abertura e socialização. Quando feita a comparação entre grupos, apenas o fator extroversão apresentou diferença, com o grupo CDR 1 mostrando maiores mudanças nos escores. Os níveis do fator neuroticismo da personalidade pré-mórbida correlacionaram-se com a gravidade da doença no momento do diagnóstico. Conclusões: Este estudo procura esclarecer aos familiares e profissionais de saúde que mudanças em traços de personalidade de seus parentes ou pacientes podem refletir processos neurodegenerativos subjacentes.

13.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(1): 27-40, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360478

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los familiares de personas con enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) se enfrentan a una variedad de situaciones estresantes como consecuencia del desempeño de su rol de cuidadores. Esto puede tener un impacto negativo en su calidad de vida. Un mayor conocimiento de la relación entre las variables evaluadas en los cuidadores puede ser importante de cara a implementar programas de intervención eficaces. El objetivo fue explorar la personalidad y las estrategias de afrontamiento en familiares cuidadores de personas con EP, estudiando su relación con el malestar psicológico y el grado de implicación en los cuidados. Se trabajó con una muestra de 106 cuidadores que completaron los cuestionarios de personalidad NEO-FFI, estrategias de afrontamiento COPE-28, malestar psicológico CORE-OM y un instrumento para evaluar la implicación del cuidador realizado a partir del índice Katz. El análisis de regresión logística mostró que las personas con puntuaciones por encima de la media en neuroticismo y por debajo en el resto de factores de personalidad y estrategias de afrontamiento tenían más riesgo de padecer malestar psicológico (OR = 9.250; p < .001) y una menor implicación en los cuidados (OR = 4.125; p < .001). Estos resultados sugieren que la personalidad y las estrategias de afrontamiento pueden contribuir a identificar estilos para los cuidados más eficientes, que impliquen una mayor participación en los cuidados con un menor impacto negativo.


Abstract Carers of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience stressful situations as a result of performing their role as caregivers. This can have a negative outcome on their quality of life. A greater understanding of the relationship between the variables assessed in caregivers can be important in implementing effective intervention programs. The aim of this study was to explore the personality and coping strategies used by family caregivers of people with PD, analyzing their relationship with psychological distress and the carer involvement. A cross-sectional study based on a sample of 106 caregivers of people with Parkinson's disease tested the hypothesis that personality and coping strategies can contribute to identifying differences in carer involvement and psychological distress. Caregiver psychological distress was assessed using the CORE-OM questionnaire. The CORE-OM is able to distinguish the population within the clinical and non-clinical range. NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was used to assess personality. Coping strategies were evaluated with the COPE-28 inventory. An operational measure of the carer involvement was also used. For this purpose, an adaptation of the Katz index assessing basic functional capacity was made. Results: First, all cases were clustered according to personality variables and coping strategies. A K-means cluster analysis was performed and two groups were requested. After this, binary logistic regression analysis was used to test the research hypothesis. The resulting clusters in the above analysis were selected as predictors. Two analyses were performed. In the first, the dependent variable in logistic regression analysis was the psychological distress of the caregivers (dichotomized variable: clinical and non-clinical). Results showed that people clustered within cluster 1 had a 9.250 times higher risk of psychological distress than those included in cluster 2 (OR = 9.250; p < .001). In a second logistic regression analysis, the dependent variable was participation in care (dichotomized variable: low - high carer involvement). The group of people belonging to cluster 1 showed a carer involvement 4.125 times lower than the people grouped in cluster 2 (OR = 4.125; p < .001). The results of this research suggest the existence of a relationship between psychological variables and carer involvement, showing two different styles of care, which are described based on the personality and coping strategies of the family caregivers. In addition, we found that these styles of care show clear differences in efficiency, reflected in greater carer involvement and a lower psychological distress. The results reported that the cluster of people with below-average scores on neuroticism and above-average scores on the other personality factors (extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and coping strategies (planning; active coping; emotional support; social support; positive re-evaluation and acceptance) were associated with increased carer involvement and reduced risk of psychological distress. It has already been suggested that high scores in neuroticism may affect the need to take on a large number of care-related tasks or manage stressful situations in people with PD (Tew et al., 2013). However, our results indicate that the definition of different types of caregivers, where other care-related variables are also included, can help define more efficient styles of care. This is associated with increased carer involvement and minor psychological distress. We propose that in the future these variables be investigated in order to know the outcome of carer involvement and psychological distress, contributing to the description of more efficient care styles in family caregivers.

14.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(2): 16-24, 20220504.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369899

ABSTRACT

El estudio realizado fue no experimental correlacional de corte transversal con enfoque cuantitativo, en una población de 100 trabajadores de seguridad de una empresa en la ciudad de Quito, que desempeñaban funciones de guardias de seguridad. Los datos se recolectaron mediante dos instrumentos validados: cuestionario factorial de personalidad 16PF-V y el test AUDIT (por sus siglas en inglés: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Los rasgos de riesgo más observa-dos fueron: imperturbable-con poca ansiedad (52%) e introvertido-socialmente inhibido (49%), el 79% de los participantes no mostró dificultades con el consumo de alcohol. El nivel de consumo de alcohol se correlacionó positiva y estadísticamente significativa con la dimensión de personalidad ansiedad. Se destaca la necesidad de dar seguimiento constante a esta problemática y generar estrategias preventivas y de afrontamiento al respecto.


The research was non-experimental, correlational and cross-sectional with a quantitative approach. The population consisted of 100 security workers of a company who performed func-tions of security guards in the city of Quito. Data were collected using two validated instruments: the 16PF-V factorial personality questionnaire and the AUDIT test (for its acronym in English: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). The most observed risk traits were: unper-turbed, with little anxiety (52%) and introverted, socially inhibited (49%), 79% of the partici-pants did not show difficulties with alcohol consumption. The level of alcohol consumption was positively correlated and statistically significant with the anxiety personality dimension. Moni-toring this problem and generating preventive and coping strategies in this regard is highlighted


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anxiety , Personality , Alcoholism , Safety , Alcohol Drinking , Occupational Groups
15.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(1): 1-23, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376227

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es aportar nuevas evidencias de calidad psicométrica para la adaptación argentina de la versión reducida del Cuestionario de Personalidad de Eysenck (EPQ-RS). Participaron 1136 personas de población general (52.5% femenino, edad media = 29.6 años, DE = 11.9) residentes en Buenos Aires, Argentina. La adaptación argentina se compone de 42 ítems con formato de respuesta dicotómica. Se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio a partir de la matriz de correlaciones tetracóricas. Esto permitió replicar la estructura propuesta por Eysenck para el modelo PEN (Psicoticismo-Extraversión-Neuroticismo) y la escala Sinceridad. Posteriormente, se ajustó el modelo logístico de dos parámetros por separado para los ítems de cada escala. Los ítems no mostraron funcionamiento diferencial según género. La discriminación de los ítems resultó moderada-alta. Los parámetros b se localizaron en rangos acotados de cada uno de los rasgos medidos, lo que originó que la precisión de las escalas varíe en el recorrido de los continuos. La escala Neuroticismo aporta más información en niveles medios del rasgo, Psicoticismo en los medio-bajos y Extraversión en los medio-altos. La escala Sinceridad mostró una función de información relativamente plana en todo el recorrido del rasgo. Se brindan evidencias de validez basadas en la relación con otras pruebas que miden facetas del neuroticismo y sintomatología. Las evidencias de validez y confiabilidad obtenidas ofrecen garantías de calidad suficientes para la aplicación de este instrumento en el contexto local y confirman la vigencia del modelo teórico que operacionaliza el EPQ-RS.


Abstract The aim of this work is to provide new evidence of psychometric quality for the Argentinean adaptation of the brief version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-RS). 1136 people from the general population (52.5% female, mean age = 29.6 years, SD = 11.9) residing in Buenos Aires, Argentina participated. The Argentinean adaptation consists of 42 items with dichotomous response format. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed from the tetrachoric correlation matrix. This allowed replicating the structure proposed by Eysenck for the PEN model (Psychoticism - Extroversion - Neuroticism) and the Lie scale. Subsequently, the two-parameter logistic model was adjusted separately for the items of each scale. The items did not show differential functioning by gender. Items discrimination was moderate-high. Parameters b were located in narrow ranges of each one of the measured traits, which caused the precision of the scales to vary along the trait continuums. The Neuroticism scale provides more information at medium levels of the trait, Psychoticism in the medium-low and Extraversion in the medium-high. The Lie scale showed a relatively flat information function throughout the trait. Evidence of validity based on the relationship with other tests that measure facets of neuroticism and symptomatology is provided. The evidence of validity and reliability obtained offers sufficient quality guarantees for the application of this instrument in the local context and confirms topicality of the theoretical model that operationalizes the EPQ-RS.

16.
Psicol. pesq ; 16(1): 1-21, jan.-abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356620

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo adaptar a Light Triad Scale para o contexto brasileiro. Foram realizados dois estudos. O primeiro testou evidências de validade baseadas na estrutura interna, e o segundo, as evidências baseadas na relação com outras variáveis. A amostra foi composta por 454 participantes, com idades entre 18 e 64 anos, que responderam a Light Triad Scale, a Escala de Forças de Caráter, a Prosocial Personality Inventory e o Inventário de Competências Emocionais. O instrumento em sua versão brasileira apresentou evidências satisfatórias e demonstrou ser útil para a mensuração de traços positivos de personalidade.


This research aimed to adapt the Light Triad Scale to the Brazilian context. Two studies were carried out. The first tested for evidence based on internal structure, while the second evidence based on relations to other variables. The sample consisted of 454 participants, aged between 18 and 64 years, who responded to the Light Triad Scale, the Escala de Forças de Caráter, the Prosocial Personality Inventory, and the Inventário de Competências Emocionais. The Brazilian version of the instrument presented satisfactory evidence and proved to be useful for measuring positive personality traits.


Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo adaptar la Light Triad Scale al contexto brasileño. Se realizaron dos estudios. El primero probó evidencias de validez basada en la estructura interna y el segundo, las evidencias basadas en la relación con otras variables. La muestra consistió en 454 participantes, con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 64 años, que respondieron la Light Triad Scale, la Escala de Fuerzas de Carácter, la Prosocial Personality Inventory y el Inventario de Competencias Emocionales. La versión brasileña del instrumento presentó evidencias satisfactorias y demostró ser útil para medir rasgos de personalidad positivos.

17.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 24(1): 125-138, jan-abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1371677

ABSTRACT

A contratransferência (CT) é um elemento do relacionamento terapêutico que possui valor clínico, especialmente com pacientes com personalidade borderline (PB). Este estudo, qualitativo e exploratório, visou identificar os sentimentos despertados em psicoterapeutas frente a um caso de paciente com PB, buscando compreendê-los em relação às características da paciente ou da sua narrativa, bem como explorar de que forma a CT seria idealmente manejada. Oito psicoterapeutas assistiram ao vídeo de uma sessão real com paciente com PB e, após, responderam a uma entrevista. As transcrições das entrevistas foram analisadas com o método Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR). Os dados organizaram-se em relação às facetas da CT, características da paciente que mobilizam afetos, e manejo da CT. Os resultados sugerem que pacientes com PB tendem a suscitar sentimentos intensos, vinculados a sua história e seu funcionamento em situação observacional, apontando para a viabilidade do método para o estudo empírico da CT. Resultados de estudos como esse podem ser utilizados como guia para jovens terapeutas compreenderem o mundo interno dos seus pacientes. A validação empírica de hipóteses clínicas fortalece a teorização e enriquece a prática psicanalítica.(AU)


Countertransference (CT) is an element of the therapeutic relationship that has clinical value, especially with borderline personality patients (BP). This qualitative and exploratory study aimed to identify the feelings aroused in psychotherapists in the case of a BP patient, seeking to understand them in relation to the patient's characteristics or her narrative, as well as exploring how the CT would be ideally managed. Eight psychotherapists watched the video of a real session with a BP patient and responded to an interview. The interview transcripts were analyzed using the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method. The data were organized in relation to the facets of the CT, characteristics of the patient that mobilize affections, and management of the CT. The results suggest that patients with BP tend to elicit intense feelings, linked to their history and functioning, in an observational situation, pointing to the feasibility of the method for the empirical study of CT. Results from studies like this one can be used as a guide for young therapists to understand the inner world of their patients. Empirical validation of clinical hypotheses strengthens theorization and enriches psychoanalytic practice.(AU)


La contratransferencia (CT) es un elemento de la relación terapéutica que tiene valor clínico, especialmente en pacientes con personalidad límite (BP). Este estudio cualitativo y exploratorio tuvo como objetivo identificar los sentimientos que despiertan los psicoterapeutas en el caso de un paciente con BP, buscando comprenderlos en relación con las características de la paciente o su narrativa, así como explorar cómo se manejaría idealmente la CT. Ocho psicoterapeutas vieron el video de una sesión real y luego respondieron a una entrevista. Las transcripciones de las entrevistas se analizaron utilizando el método de Investigación Cualitativa Consensual (CQR). Los datos se organizaron en relación a las facetas del CT, características del paciente que movilizan afectos y manejo de la CT. Los resultados sugieren que los pacientes con BP tienden a provocar sentimientos intensos, ligados a su historia y funcionamiento, en una situación de observación, lo que apunta a la viabilidad del método para el estudio empírico de la CT. Los resultados de estudios como este pueden usarse como una guía para que los terapeutas jóvenes comprendan el mundo interior de sus pacientes. La validación empírica de hipótesis clínicas fortalece la teorización y enriquece la práctica psicoanalítica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Borderline Personality Disorder , Countertransference , Psychotherapists
18.
Psocial (Ciudad AutoÌün. B. Aires) ; 8(1): 3-3, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406444

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: People with comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance abuse disorder (SUD) show great affectation and poorer treatment outcomes. Objective: The aim was to examine useful psychological treatments for people with co-morbid BPD and SUD. Method: The Cochrane Library, ISOC, Psychodoc, ProQuest Central, Pubmed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were consulted using a systematic literature review following PRISMA standards. A 185 articles were obtained, of which 12 were selected taking into account the inclusion criteria. The process was carried out by two independent evaluators and the level of agreement was excellent. Results: there are a variety of therapeutic options that, in general, improve the symptoms associated with BPD but not with SUD. Conclusion: more research is needed to evaluate the usefulness of psychological therapies in these patients.


Resumen Introducción: Las personas con trastorno límite de la personalidad (TLP) y trastorno por uso y abuso de sustancias (TUS) muestran una gran afectación emocional y peores resultados en el tratamiento psicológico. Objetivo: El objetivo fue examinar los tratamientos psicológicos útiles para las personas con TLP y TUS. Método: Se consultaron las bases de datos Cochrane Library, ISOC, Psychodoc, ProQuest Central, Pubmed, Web of Science y Scopus mediante una revisión bibliográfica sistemática siguiendo las normas PRISMA. Se obtuvieron 185 artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 12 teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión. El proceso fue realizado por dos evaluadoras independientes y el nivel de acuerdo fue excelente. Resultados: existe una variedad de opciones terapéuticas que, en general, mejoran los síntomas asociados al TLP pero no al TUS. Conclusión: se necesita más investigación para evaluar la utilidad de las terapias psicológicas en estos pacientes.

19.
Psocial (Ciudad AutoÌün. B. Aires) ; 8(1): 7-7, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406448

ABSTRACT

Resumen El trabajo busca validar un modelo teórico predictivo que analiza los efectos directos e indirectos de los factores de personalidad (según el modelo de los Cinco Grandes Factores) sobre la participación política (PP), incorporando variables de la hipótesis de la mediación: valores políticos, auto posicionamiento ideológico, eficacia política interna e interés por la política. Se aplicó un cuestionario a N=555 estudiantes universitarios de Córdoba, Argentina, y se realizaron correlaciones bivariadas y un análisis de caminos con las variables en estudio. El trabajo confirma la relación directa de Extraversión y el auto posicionamiento ideológico con la PP, aunque evidencia que los factores de personalidad presentan sobre todo efectos indirectos en la PP, mediados en primer lugar por valores políticos, luego interés por la política, y finalmente la eficacia política interna.


Abstract The paper's main goal is to validate a predictive theoretical model that analyzes the direct and indirect effects of personality factors (according to the Big Five Factors model) on political participation (PP), incorporating variables from the mediation hypothesis: political values, ideological self-placement, internal political efficacy and interest in politics. A questionnaire was applied to N=555 college students from Córdoba, Argentina, and bivariate correlations and path analysis were performed with the variables under study. The study confirms the direct relationship of Extraversion and ideological self-positioning with PP, although it shows that personality factors have mostly indirect effects on PP, mediated first by political values, then interest in politics, and finally the internal political efficacy.

20.
Psico USF ; 27(1): 73-85, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376037

ABSTRACT

The goals of this paper are the cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties evaluation of the Brazilian version of the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ), a scale that measures the tendency of a person to pursue self-demanding standards and the subjective consequences provided by achieving them or not. The original instrument was translated to Portuguese and back-translated to English. The preliminary version was judged by one of the authors of the instrument and by Brazilian specialists, producing content validity indicators. The final version was applied to a sample of 250 Brazilian undergraduate students, aged from 18 to 60 years old (M=24.9, SD=8.63), mostly female (76%). In the Exploratory Factor Analysis, data have revealed a bidimensional structure, and the other psychometric properties, such as internal consistency and validity regarding other variables, have shown adequate to the instrument. Additional analyses of unidimensional congruence reinforced the multidimensionality of the measure (AU).


Os objetivos deste artigo são a adaptação transcultural e a avaliação das propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ), escala que avalia a tendência de a pessoa perseguir elevados padrões de exigência autoimpostos e as consequências subjetivas decorrentes de alcançá-los ou não. O instrumento original foi traduzido para o português e retrotraduzido para o inglês. A versão preliminar foi julgada por um dos autores do instrumento e por especialistas brasileiros, gerando indicadores de validade de conteúdo. A versão final foi aplicada em uma amostra de 250 estudantes universitários brasileiros, com idades entre 18 e 60 anos (M = 24,9, DP = 8,63), majoritariamente do sexo feminino (76%). Na análise fatorial exploratória, os dados revelaram uma estrutura bidimensional, e as demais propriedades psicométricas, como consistência interna e validade em relação a outras variáveis, mostraram-se adequadas para o instrumento. Análises adicionais de congruência unidimensional reforçaram a multidimensionalidade da medida (AU).


Los objetivos de este artículo son la adaptación transcultural y la evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas de la versión brasileña del Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ), una escala que evalúa la tendencia de la persona a perseguir altos niveles de exigencia autoimpuestos y las consecuencias subjetivas resultantes de alcanzarlos o no. El instrumento original fue traducido al portugués y retrotraducido al inglés. La versión preliminar fue juzgada por uno de los autores del instrumento y por expertos brasileños, generando indicadores de validez de contenido. La versión final se aplicó a una muestra de 250 estudiantes universitarios brasileños, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y los 60 años (M=24,9, DS=8,63), en su mayoría mujeres (76%). En el análisis factorial exploratorio, los datos revelaron una estructura bidimensional, y las demás propiedades psicométricas, como la consistencia interna y la validez en relación con otras variables, resultaron adecuadas para el instrumento. Análisis adicionales de congruencia unidimensional reforzaron la multidimensionalidad de la medida (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Personality , Psychometrics , Perfectionism , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical
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