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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 61-66, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362698

ABSTRACT

Los inhibidores de la bomba de protones (IBP) se encuentran entre los medicamentos más utilizados en el mundo por su bajo costo, extensa prescripción y efectividad. Sin embargo, su uso a largo plazo no es inocuo y aún hay vacíos en el conocimiento del empleo adecuado de estos medicamentos. Por lo tanto, en esta revisión se expone, además de sus propiedades generales, sus verdaderas indicaciones, el uso recomendado a largo plazo y las estrategias para lograr la deprescripción, con el fin de evitar el uso indiscriminado.


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely used drugs in the world, due to their low cost, extensive prescription and effectiveness. However, its long-term use is not safe and there are still certain gaps in the knowledge of the proper use of these drugs. Therefore, this review aims to expose their general properties as well as their true indications, the appropriate long-term use and strategies to achieve adequate deprescription of these drugs, seeking to avoid indiscriminate use.


Os inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBP) se encontram entre os medicamentos mais utilizados no mundo pelo seu baixo custo, extensa prescrição e efetividade. Embora, seu uso a longo prazo não é inócuo e ainda há vazios no conhecimento do uso adequado destes medicamentos. Por tanto, nesta revisão se expõe, além das suas propriedades gerais, suas verdadeiras indicações, o uso recomendado ao longo prazo e as estratégias para conseguir a deprescrição, com o fim de evitar o uso indiscriminado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Effectiveness , Prescriptions , Deprescriptions
2.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(1): 15-20, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360183

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare plasma concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD) following oral administration of two formulations of the drug (powder and dissolved in oil), and to evaluate the effects of these distinct formulations on responses to emotional stimuli in healthy human volunteers. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, 45 healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups of 15 subjects that received either 150 mg of CBD powder; 150 mg of CBD dissolved in corn oil; or placebo. Blood samples were collected at different times after administration, and a facial emotion recognition task was completed after 150 min. Results: There were no significant differences across groups in the subjective and physiological measures, nor in the facial emotion recognition task. However, groups that received the drug showed statistically significant differences in baseline measures of plasma CBD, with a significantly greater difference in favor of the oil formulation. Conclusion: When administered as a single 150-mg dose, neither formulation of oral CBD altered responses to emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. The oil-based CBD formulation resulted in more rapid achievement of peak plasma level, with an approximate fourfold increase in oral bioavailability.

3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 635-640, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920737

ABSTRACT

Caspofungin is the firs t echinocandin antifungal drug approved for serious fungal infections caused by Candida or Aspergillus. Currently ,caspofungin has been recommended as the first-line treatment for invasive Candida and the second-line treatment for invasive Aspergillus,for its safety and tolerability. However ,there are still probability of pharmacokinetic variability and the risk of low exposure in different populations. Herein the population pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics studies of caspofungin in children and adults were reviewed. The results indicate that the body surface area was the main factor affecting the distribution and clearance of caspofungin in pediatric patients. In adults ,the two-compartment model fits the caspofungin behavior best in vivo with the primary covariates of body weight and albumin level. The efficacy of caspofungin might be related to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics parameters ,such as the ratio of area under blood concentration time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC),the ratio of peak concentration to minimum effective concentration (cmax/MEC).

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920650

ABSTRACT

@#In this study, the formulation and preparation process of curcumin nanocrystalline injection were optimized to improve curcumin dissolution rate and bioavailability in vivo.Media grinding method was used to prepare curcumin nanocrystals, and the particle size was used as the evaluation index.The Box-Behnken experimental design was used to optimize its formulation and preparation process, and to characterize its physical and chemical properties.In addition, the dissolution of nanocrystal with different particle sizes was investigated by the paddle method, and the pharmacokinetics in rats were studied.The experimental results showed that the optimal formula and process were obtained through Box-Behnken experimental design, and that uniform curcumin nanocrystals with an average particle size of 223.1 nm were obtained.The results of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the crystal form was stable during the preparation of nanocrystals. In vitro dissolution experiments with different particle sizes showed that the dissolution rate and the degree of dissolution would increase if the particle size was smaller.Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that cmax and AUC0-∞ of curcumin nanocrystal injection were 4.9 and 4.1 times that of curcumin raw materials, respectively.In summary, the curcumin nanocrystal injection developed in this research have a stable preparation process and can significantly improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of the drug, which provides some ideas for the research on curcumin preparation.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 159-168, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913182

ABSTRACT

The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was first found to be a membrane protein that maternal antibodies transmitted to fetuses and newborns, and also expressed in multiple organs and tissues for whole life in adults. It plays a significant role to central regulate the lifespan of immunoglobulin G and serum albumin, as well as its involvement in innate and adaptive immune responses. In modern biopharmaceuticals, FcRn is a great potential drug delivery target and a highlighted subject for current research. This paper briefly describes the basic biological properties and action mechanism of FcRn, as well as the commonly used drug carrier design strategies of FcRn, especially the functional applications of prolonging half-life, targeted drug delivery, transmembrane and antigen presentation and so on. We propose that these distribution in different tissues and the diverse biological activities may have significant implications of targeting FcRn for novel drug delivery systems and immunotherapy.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 480-483, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922908

ABSTRACT

Recombinant humanized anti-ricin monoclonal antibody (MIL50) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody targeting ricin. In this study, an ELISA method was used to establish a method for the determination of MIL50 in macaque serum, and a cross design method was used. Twelve rhesus monkeys were intravenously injected 1 mg·kg-1 test preparation (MIL50 freeze-died powder injection) and reference preparation (MIL50 liquid preparation) to determine the plasma concentration of MIL50 at different time points, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of MIL50 liquid preparation and freeze-died powder injection in rhesus monkeys. Animal welfare and experimental procedures follow the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Use of Laboratory Animals and the regulations derived by the Animal Care and Welfare Committee of the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Sciences (IACUC-DWZX-2020-503). The results showed that there was no significant difference between Cmax and AUC0-5d in the two groups. The liquid preparation was the reference preparation, with Cmax ratio of 101.6% and AUC0-5d ratio of 101.9%, the 90% confidence interval of Cmax was 79.42%-129.92%, and the 90% confidence interval of AUC0-5d was 85.72%-121.18%. These results suggested that different dosage forms of MIL50 had certain differences in the changes of blood drug concentration in rhesus monkeys.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 446-452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922907

ABSTRACT

As one of the "Three Drugs Three Prescriptions" anti-COVID-19 traditional Chinese medicine, Jinhua Qinggan granules (JHQG) has been proved to have clear clinical effects. With complex medicinal flavors and ingredients, there is no systematic research report on chemical composition in vivo or in vitro. An ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method was developed in this study to identify the components of the anti-COVID-19 traditional Chinese medicine JHQG granules. Analyze the collected rat plasma samples after administration and explore the exposed components in rats within 8 hours after intragastric administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic analysis was then performed on this basis. Through UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis and verification by standard products, a total of 77 chemical components in JHQG formula have been identified, among which 22 compounds were highly exposed in vivo, mainly derived from three medicinal materials of honeysuckle, scutellaria and forsythia. Through the assessment of the blood drug concentration by the compartment model, 6 PK parameters of 4 high-exposure chemical components have been obtained, clarifying the metabolic characteristics of the main exposed components in JHQG briefly. The method is simple, efficient, sensitive and accurate and provides research basis to the clarification of the pharmacodynamics material basis and mechanism of JHQG, which has certain reference significance for the basics and applications research of the traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions in fighting the SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 615-626, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922898

ABSTRACT

The rational medication in pregnant women is a clinical issue that clinicians and pharmacists must take seriously. Most tissues and organs undergo anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy that affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs in vivo, which ultimately lead to changes in bioavailability. In order to achieve an effective therapeutic concentration, dose adjustment might be required during this period. In the past ten years, the application of modeling and simulation methods in the field of drug development and clinical therapy has continued to expand, for instance, using population pharmacokinetic (PPK) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to adjust dosage regimen in special populations. Rigorously designed and validated models will effectively make up for the deficiencies of clinical trials, provide valuable references for the design of clinical research, and even replace part of them. This article will introduce the physiological changes that affect the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug during pregnancy and review the progress in the application of PBPK modeling in pharmacokinetic studies in pregnant women.

9.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1284, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357315

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (por la COVID-19) es en la actualidad la primera causa de muerte en el Perú, por lo que se requiere de fármacos eficaces y seguros para mitigar la enfermedad. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en SciELO y PubMed/ Medline; se seleccionaron 37 de 58 artículos sobre el tema. Objetivos: Revisar e integrar la información sobre las interacciones farmacocinéticas de la azitromicina que se prescriben en el tratamiento ambulatorio de la COVID-19 en el Perú, y evaluar su implicación clínica. Desarrollo: La azitromicina es usada en la COVID-19, por su actividad antiinflamatoria, al inhibir a las interleucinas (IL1, 6, 8 y TNF-α), y a las moléculas de adhesión intracelular 1 (ICAM1); y por inducir la producción de interferón tipo I (IFN-α, IFN-β) y III (IFN-λ) en células de pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Los estudios de tres brazos, aleatorizado y abierto, indican que la azitromicina no genera cambios en los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la ivermectina, sildenafilo, rupatadina y desloratadina; los estudios de un solo centro, abierto, sin ayuno y de dos períodos, evidencian que la azitromicina influye en los parámetros farmacocinéticos de venetoclax y de los psicotrópicos. Conclusiones: Basado en la evidencia de los estudios clínicos revisados e integrados, se concluye que estas son limitadas y de poca relevancia clínica, sin embargo, se propone usar el antibiótico bajo el criterio científico del médico, para evitar las interacciones farmacocinéticas y las reacciones adversas de los fármacos(AU)


Introduction: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (due to COVID-19) is currently the leading cause of death in Peru, so effective and safe drugs are required to mitigate the disease. A bibliographic search was carried out in SciELO and PubMed/Medline; 37 of 58 articles on the topic were selected. Objectives: Review and integrate the information on the pharmacokinetic interactions of azithromycin that are prescribed in the outpatient treatment of COVID-19 in Peru, and evaluate their clinical implication. Development: Azithromycin is used in COVID-19, due to its anti-inflammatory activity, by inhibiting interleukins (IL1, 6, 8 and TNF-α), and intracellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM1); and by inducing the production of type I interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β) and III (IFN-λ) in cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The three-arm, randomized and open-label studies indicate that azithromycin does not cause changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin, sildenafil, rupatadine, and desloratadine; single-center, open-label, non-fasting, and two-period studies show that azithromycin influences the pharmacokinetic parameters of venetoclax and psychotropics. Conclusions: Based on the evidence from the reviewed and integrated clinical studies, it is concluded that these are limited and of little clinical relevance, however, it is proposed to use the antibiotic under the scientific criteria of the doctor, to avoid pharmacokinetic interactions and adverse reactions of drugs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cause of Death
10.
Radiol. bras ; 54(4): 232-237, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287747

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine whether technetium-99m-labeled tropane derivative single-photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT) provides results comparable to those of the less widely available, less accessible tool fluorine-18-labeled fluorodopa positron-emission tomography (18F-FDOPA PET) in the setting of a movement disorders clinic. Materials and Methods: In this prospective pilot study, eight subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were randomly selected from among patients under treatment at a movement disorders clinic and submitted to 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT and 18F-FDOPA PET. The results were read by two experienced observers, and a semiquantitative analysis was performed. Results: The visual and semiquantitative analyses were concordant for all studies, showing that radiotracer uptake in the contralateral striatum on the most affected side was lower when 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT was employed. The semiquantitative analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between 18F-FDOPA PET and 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT (r = 0.73; p < 0.01). Conclusion: It appears that 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT is a valid option for the study of dopaminergic function in a clinical setting.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar se a 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT fornece resultados comparáveis aos da 18F-FDOPA PET, ferramenta menos acessível e menos amplamente disponível, no contexto de uma clínica de distúrbios do movimento. Materiais e Métodos: Neste estudo prospectivo, oito indivíduos com diagnóstico clínico de doença de Parkinson foram selecionados aleatoriamente entre pacientes em tratamento em uma clínica de distúrbios do movimento e submetidos a 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT e 18F-FDOPA PET. Os resultados foram lidos por dois observadores experientes e uma análise semiquantitativa foi realizada. Resultados: As análises visual e semiquantitativa foram concordantes para todos os estudos, mostrando que a captação do radiotraçador no estriado contralateral do lado mais afetado foi menor quando a 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT foi empregada. A análise semiquantitativa demonstrou uma correlação significativa entre 18F-FDOPA PET e 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT (r = 0,73; p < 0,01). Conclusão: A 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT parece ser uma opção válida para o estudo da função dopaminérgica em um ambiente clínico.

11.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-14, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363261

ABSTRACT

Background: Milk-derived biopeptides have reported in vitro dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition, suggesting a glycemic-regulatory effect in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Nonetheless, the therapeutic application of these nutraceuticals is limited by the scarcity of knowledge regarding their pharmacokinetic profile. Objective: This study aimed to characterize and assess the pharmacokinetics of milk-derived biopeptides. Through an in silico comparative analysis with gliptins, we expected to identify enhanced properties in food-hydrolysates and suitable DPP-IV inhibiting peptides as candidates for T2DM therapy. Methods: A comparison between gliptins and biopeptides was conducted based on in silico evaluation of drug-likeness, physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and synthetic accessibility. Suitable target proteins for gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides were determined as well. Data collection was performed on SwissADME, ADMETlab, DrugBank, SwissTargetPrediction, ChemDes, and BIOPEP-UWM platforms. Statistical analysis was carried out using a one-way ANOVA test. Results: Drug-likeness compliance showed no significant difference between gliptins and biopeptides (p>0.05) in three out of nine assessed rules, though gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides exhibited no significant difference with gliptins in five drug-likeness guidelines. The physicochemical evaluation revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between both groups, with peptides exhibiting enhanced solubility, flexibility, and polarity. Nine out of thirty-six assessed biopeptides reported being likely gastrointestinal-absorbable molecules, from which six displayed ≥30% predicted bioavailability, two reported CYP450 interactions, and all were determined to be blood confined. Biopeptides showed a slightly lower clearance than gliptins yet counteracted by a significantly lower half-life. Moreover, synthetic accessibility scores indicated higher synthetic ease for biopeptides. In addition, absorbable bioactive peptides reported a considerable binding affinity to DPP-IV and Calpain-I. Conclusions: Compared to gliptins, gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides exhibit superior physicochemical properties (higher solubility, flexibility, and polarity), lesser CYP450 interactions, higher synthetic ease, and some reported an important affinity for DPP-IV and Calpain-I. Only a small fraction of milk-derived biopeptides are suitable drug-like compounds and feasible candidates for T2DM therapy; yet, testing their therapeutic potency remains subject to further studies


Antecedentes: Los biopéptidos derivados de la leche han mostrado inhibir la dipeptidil-peptidasa IV (DPP-IV) en ensayos in vitro, lo que sugiere una regulación de la glicemia en la Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 (DM2). Sin embargo, su uso terapéutico está limitado por el escaso conocimiento de sus propiedades farmacológicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar y evaluar el perfil farmacocinético de los biopéptidos derivados de la leche. Por medio de un análisis comparativo in silico, se buscó identificar propiedades de carácter superior a las gliptinas en los biopéptidos inhibidores de DPP-IV, así como posibles candidatos a agentes terapéuticos en la DMT2. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo una comparación entre las Gliptinas y los biopéptidos basada en la evaluación in silicode las características "d r ug - li ke", propiedades fisicoquímicas, farmacocinética y accesibilidad sintética. Adicionalmente, se determinaron posibles proteínas diana para los biopéptidos de alta probabilidad de absorción gastrointestinal. Los datos se obtuvieron en SwissADME, ADMETlab, DrugBank, SwissTargetPrediction, ChemDes y BIOPEP-UWM. El análisis estadístico se basó en un análisis de varianza (one-way ANOVA test). Resultados: El cumplimiento de las reglas de "drug-likeness" no mostró diferencias significativas entre las gliptinas y los biopéptidos (p>0.05) en tres de las nueve normas evaluadas, empero, los biopéptidos absorbibles no mostraron diferencias significativas con las gliptinas en cinco de estas. La evaluación fisicoquímica reveló una diferencia significativa (p>0.05) entre ambos grupos y una mayor solubilidad, flexibilidad y polaridad para los biopéptidos. Nueve de los treinta y seis biopéptidos estudiados reportaron alta probabilidad de absorción gastrointestinal, de los cuales seis presentaron una biodisponibilidad predicha ≥30%, dos reportaron interacciones con el CYP450, y todos mostraron permanecer confinados en sangre. Los biopéptidos mostraron una tasa de aclaramiento inferior a las gliptinas, sin embargo, contrarrestado por una vida-media significativamente menor. Los valores de accesibilidad sintética indicaron una mayor facilidad de síntesis para los biopéptidos. Por último, los biopéptidos absorbibles mostraron una considerable afinidad por la DPP-IV y la Calpaína-I. Conclusiones: Frente a las gliptinas, los biopéptidos absorbibles presentan: propiedades fisicoquímicas superiores (mayor solubilidad, flexibilidad y polaridad), menores interacciones con el CYP450, mayor facilidad de síntesis y algunos una importante afinidad por la DPP-IV y la Calpaína-I. Una mínima fracción de biopéptidos derivados de la leche son candidatos viables para la terapia de DM2; sin embargo, la determinación de su efectividad terapéutica permanece sujeta a futuros estudios


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacokinetics , Peptides , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 150-155, Jan. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287779

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To review the main physiological and pharmacological changes related to prematurity, to promote the evidence-based clinical practice. METHODS: This is a narrative review whose research was carried out in the ScienceDirect and Medline databases via PubMed, searching for articles in any language from January 2000 to February 2020. RESULTS: Premature newborns are born before completing the maturation process that prepares them for extrauterine life, which occurs especially in the last weeks of pregnancy. Therefore, they have their own characteristics in development. Several physiological peculiarities stand out, such as disturbances in glucose regulation, adrenal function, thermoregulation, immunity, in addition to changes in liver, renal and respiratory functions. Pharmacological aspects were also highlighted, involving pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the recent advances in prematurity, it is still an area with many uncertainties, since several changes occur quickly and there are ethical issues that make studies difficult. Thus, it is clear that the therapeutic management of premature infants is still very much based on clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Premature Birth , Infant, Premature, Diseases , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921813

ABSTRACT

To reveal the rationality of compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma(SMRR) and Puerariae Lobatae Radix(PLR) from the perspective of pharmacokinetics, this study established a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of PLR flavonoids(3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, puerarin 6″-O-xyloside, 3'-methoxy puerarin, puerarin apioside) and salvianolic acids and tanshinones(salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone Ⅱ_A) in plasma of rats. Rats were given SMRR extract, PLR extract, and SMRR-PLR extract by gavage and then plasma was collected at different time. UPLC separation was performed under the following conditions: Eclipse C_(18) column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.8 μm), 0.1% formic acid in water(A)-0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile(B) as mobile phase for gradient elution. Conditions for MS are as below: multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), ESI~(+/-). Comprehensive validation of the UPLC-MS/MS method(specifically, from the aspects of calibration curve, precision, accuracy, repeatability, stability, matrix effect, extract recovery) was performed and the result demonstrated that it complied with quantitative analysis requirements for biological samples. Compared with SMRR extract alone or PLR extract alone, SMRR-PLR extract significantly increased the AUC and C_(max) of PLR flavonoids and tanshinones in rat plasma, suggesting that the combination of SMRR and PLR promoted the absorption of the above components. The underlying mechanism needs to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Plant Roots/chemistry , Pueraria/chemistry , Rats , Rhizome/chemistry , Salvia miltiorrhiza/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921785

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the differences in pharmacokinetics and intestinal absorption of six alkaloids in Sanmiao Pills and Simiao Pills in rats and explored the different efficacies of the two formulae. After oral administration of Sanmiao Pills and Simiao Pills in rats, blood samples were collected at different time points. Samples were prepared for the determination of six alkaloids in plasma by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatography was performed on an ACE Excel 3 C_(18 )column with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase for gradient elution. Analytes were detected in the positive ion mode. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Intestinal absorption of alkaloids was investigated by single-pass intestinal perfusion and absorption parameters of ingredients were calculated. The results showed that the UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of concentrations of six alkaloids in plasma was developed and validated by methodological investigations, such as specificity, calibration curves, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, and stability. The results of the pharmacokinetic assay revealed that C_(max) and AUC values of phellodendrine, berberine, magnoflorine, berberrubine, and jatrorrhizine in Simiao Pills were significantly increased, and CL/F values were reduced as compared with those in Sanmiao Pills, which indicated the increase in plasma concentrations of alkaloids. The intestinal absorption parameters K_(a )and P_(eff) values of phellodendrine, berberine, and jatrorrhizine in Simiao Pills were higher than those in Sanmiao Pills. The intestinal absorption and plasma concentrations of alkaloids in Simiao Pills were significantly higher than those in Sanmiao Pills, suggesting that the composition of Simiao Pills was more conducive to the alkaloids into the blood to resist inflammation and lower uric acid.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Intestinal Absorption , Rats , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921718

ABSTRACT

An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine complanatoside A and complanatoside B in rat plasma with rutin as the internal standard and applied to examine the effect of salt-processing on pharmacokinetics of these two flavonoid glycosides. The pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using DAS 3.2.6 and subjected to independent sample t-test with SPSS 23.0. No significant difference in T_(max) of complanatoside B was observed between the raw and processed groups; however, in the processed group, C_(max) and AUC_(0-12 h) of complanatoside B increased obviously(P<0.05), while MRT_(0-12 h) decreased from(3.34±0.44) h to(1.81±0.36) h(P<0.05). C_(max) [(14.72±11.13) μg·L~(-1)] and MRT_(0-24) [(3.93±0.26) h] of complanatoside A in the raw group were statistically different from those [(35.64±21.99) μg·L~(-1),(1.43±0.24) h] in the processed group(P<0.05). As a result, salt-processing can facilitate the in vivo adsorption and accelerate the excretion of complanatoside A and complanatoside B.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astragalus Plant , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Glycosides , Rats , Semen , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921684

ABSTRACT

Due to the limited resource of bear bile powder, the major raw material of Tanreqing Capsules(TRQ), cultured bear bile powder is used as a replacement to develop the Tanreqing Capsules Substitute(TRQS). An LC-MS/MS method was established in this study for simultaneous quantitation of 8 compounds from TRQS in rat plasma: tauroursodeoxycholic acid(TUDCA), taurocheno-deoxycholic acid(TCDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA), ferulic acid, wogonoside, baicalin, and forsythoside A. Thereby, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of TRQ and TRQS were evaluated. Concentration of endogenous compounds TUDCA, TCDCA, UDCA, and CDCA was determined with the stable isotope surrogate analytes: D4-TUDCA, D4-TCDCA, D4-UDCA, and D4-CDCA. Plasma samples were extracted by acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation. The LC conditions are as follows: Waters BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase of 10 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate aqueous solution(containing 0.01% formic acid) and acetonitrile-methanol mixture(1∶5). MS conditions are as below: multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), ESI~(+/-). Concentration of UDCA, CDCA, TUDCA, and TCDCA was corrected with a response factor, which is the ratio between the responses recorded for the surrogate and the authentic analyte at the equal concentration. Each of the plasma components showed good linearity(r > 0.995 1). Accuracy and precision met the criteria(inter-day RSD<7.0%, RE 89.98%-112.0%; intra-day RSD<12%, RE 90.41%-111.2%). The recovery was 64.83%-119.9% and matrix effect was 87.15%-113.8%. The validated method was applied for pharmacokinetic study of TRQS and TRQ(po, 0.94 g·kg~(-1)). There was no significant difference in C_(max) and AUC_(0-24 h) of baicalin, UDCA, TUDCA, and TCDCA between the two groups, indicating similar pharmacokinetic behaviors between TRQS and TRQ in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsules , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921628

ABSTRACT

The pharmacology of Chinese medicine is an academic discipline that studies the interaction between Chinese medicine and organism(including pathogens) by modern science and technology under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theories. However, the pharmacology of Chinese medicine is mainly guided by the theories, techniques, and methods of modern medicine in the development, and TCM theories have been ignored to a certain extent, which does not conform to the action characteristics of Chinese medicine in essence. Since systematic research ideas, strategies, methods, and technologies that conform to the characteristics of TCM have not been established, it is unable to reveal the scientific connotation of TCM in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Therefore, according to the trend of the modern development of TCM and the research status of pharmacology of Chinese medicine, this study put forward the concept of pharmacology of combination of disease and syndrome and expounded the relevant background, content, methods, and significance of this concept. It is expected to improve the standardization of pharmacology of combination of disease and syndrome, guide the safe medication, provide new references for the scientific development of pharmacology of Chinese medicine, and promote the development of the modernization of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Social Change , Syndrome
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911227

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the pharmacokinetics of sugammadex in reversal of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade in obese patients.Methods:Sixteen patients of both sexes, aged 18-65 yr, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical statusⅠ or Ⅱ, with body mass index of ≥25 kg/m 2, scheduled for elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery, were selected.The patients were divided into 2 groups ( n=8 each) according to the degree of obesity: group O (25 kg/m 2≤BMI<40 kg/m 2) and group M (BMI≥40 kg/m 2). In group O and group M, vecuronium was administered by closed-loop muscle relaxant injection system to maintain moderate neuromuscular blockade.The administration was stopped at the end of surgery, and sugammadex 2 mg/kg was injected according to corrected body weight (CBW) of patients when the muscle relaxation monitoring T 2 recovered naturally.The recovery time of neuromuscular blockade and the occurrence of residual neuromuscular blockade within 3 h after surgery were recorded.Arterial blood samples were collected at 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 and 480 min after administration of sugammadex.The concentration of sugammadex in plasma was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with PKSolver software. Results:No residual neuromuscular blockade occurred, and the pharmacokinetics of sugammadex in plasma were consistent with the linear non-compartmental model in the two groups.Compared with group O, apparent clearance was increased ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in other pharmacokinetic parameters, recovery time of neuromuscular blockade and concentrations of sugammadex in plasma at different time point ( P>0.05) in group M. Conclusion:The pharmacokinetics of sugammadex in reversal of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade in obese patients are consistent with the linear non-compartmental model, and the clearance of sugammadex is higher in morbidly obese patients.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908777

ABSTRACT

Cystine is the primary source material for the synthesis of glutathione.However,the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of cystine are largely unknown.A surrogate analyte D4-cystine was employed to generate calibration curves for the determination of levels of D4-cystine and endogenous cystine in mice by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS).Validation assessments proved the sensitivity,specificity and reproducibility of the method with a lower limit of quantification(LLOQ)of 5 ng/mL over 5-5000 ng/mL in plasma.The pharmacokinetics of D4-cystine were evaluated after administering injections and oral solutions,both of which minimally impacted endogenous cystine levels.The absolute bioavailability of cystine was 18.6%,15.1%and 25.6%at doses of 25,50 and 100 mg/kg,respectively.Intravenously injected D4-cystine resulted in dramatically high plasma levels with reduced levels in the brain and liver.Intragastrically administered D4-cystine resulted in high levels in the plasma and stomach with relatively low levels in the lung,kidney,heart and brain.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908763

ABSTRACT

Gumiganghwal-tang is a traditional herbal medicine widely used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic,and antipyretic effects.However,the safety and efficacy of its active ingredients based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) study have yet been investigated.We have established a sensitive and accurate UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method and conducted a PK study on 14 constituents of Gumiganghwal-tang through human plasma analysis.Analytical conditions were optimized according to the physicochemical prop-erties of the 14 compounds to facilitate efficient separation and eliminate overlap or interference be-tween peaks.KINETEX-C18 and lnertsil-C8 columns were used as UPLC stationary phases,and acetonitrile and aqueous formic acid were used as mobile phases.All the analytes were quantified with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode.The chromatograms of 14 bioactive compounds showed excellent elution and sensitivity,and each peak was selectively separated and quantified without interference with each other or impurities.The established analytical method was based on international guidelines and was successfully used to perform PK studies of 14 herbal ingredients in humans after oral administration with Gumiganghwal-tang tablets.The oral absorption of most active components of Gumiganghwal-tang was relatively rapid and remained considerably long in the body to be quantified in plasma up to 48 h after administration.

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