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Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310099, abr. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537971


El feocromocitoma y el paraganglioma son tumores neuroendocrinos secretores de catecolaminas. Los feocromocitomas se originan en la médula suprarrenal, mientras que los paragangliomas son extraadrenales. Se describe una serie de casos de niños con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de feocromocitoma o paraganglioma que consultaron en un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad de Argentina. Se incluyeron 21 pacientes, 14 varones, con una mediana de edad de 11,4 años; 8 casos con feocromocitoma y 13 casos con paraganglioma. Se presentaron con hipertensión arterial 14/21. La mayoría de los paragangliomas tuvieron localización paraaórtica (9/13). Debido a que representan una causa potencialmente curable de hipertensión arterial, la sospecha clínica es muy importante. El diagnóstico temprano y la instauración de un tratamiento antihipertensivo adecuado, que permita afrontar la cirugía con normotensión arterial, aseguran la curación en la mayoría de los casos si la resección tumoral es completa.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors producing catecholamines. Pheochromocytomas occur in the adrenal medulla, while paragangliomas are those that occur outside the adrenal gland. Here we describe a case series of children with a pathological diagnosis of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma who consulted at a tertiary care children's hospital in Argentina. A total of 21 patients (14 males) were included; their median age was 11.4 years; 8 children had pheochromocytoma and 13, paraganglioma. Arterial hypertension was observed in 14/21. Most paragangliomas were para-aortic (9/13). Since they are a potentially curable cause of hypertension, clinical suspicion is very important. An early diagnosis and the initiation of an adequate antihypertensive treatment, which allows the patient to undergo surgery with normal blood pressure, ensure a cure in most cases if tumor resection is complete.

Humans , Child , Paraganglioma/complications , Paraganglioma/diagnosis , Pheochromocytoma/complications , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Argentina , Hospitals
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(3): 307-319, may-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440249


ABSTRACT Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare, metastatic, and potentially fatal neuroendocrine tumors, often neglected because they present symptoms similar to other prevailing clinical conditions such panic syndrome, thyrotoxicosis, anxiety, hypoglycemia, etc., delaying diagnosis and treatment. The rate of diagnosis of PPGL has been increasing with the improvement in the measurement of catecholamine metabolites and the expanding availability of imaging procedures. Its essential genetic nature has been extensively investigated, comprising more than 20 genes currently related to PPGL and more new genes will probably be revealed. This overview will shed some light on the clinical, laboratory, topographical, genetic diagnosis, and management of PPGL.

Radiol. bras ; 56(2): 59-66, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440840


Abstract Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of histogram analysis on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) for differentiating between adrenal adenomas and pheochromocytomas (PCCs). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with proven PCCs who had undergone CT examinations between January 2009 and July 2019 at one of two institutions. For each PCC, we selected one or two adenomas diagnosed within two weeks of the date of diagnosis of the PCC. For each lesion, two readers scored the size, determined the mean attenuation, and generated a voxel histogram. The 10th percentile (P10) was obtained from the conventional histogram analysis, as well as being calculated with the following formula: P10 = mean attenuation - (1.282 × standard deviation). The mean attenuation threshold, histogram analysis (observed) P10, and calculated P10 (calcP10) were compared in terms of their diagnostic accuracy. Results: We included 52 adenomas and 29 PCCs. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the mean attenuation threshold were 75.0%, 100.0%, and 82.5%, respectively, for reader 1, whereas they were 71.5%, 100.0%, and 81.5%, respectively, for reader 2. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the observed P10 and calcP10 were equal for both readers: 90.4%, 96.5%, and 92.6%, respectively, for reader 1; and 92.3%, 93.1%, and 92.6%, respectively, for reader 2. The increase in sensitivity was significant for both readers (p = 0.009 and p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusion: For differentiating between adenomas and PCCs, the histogram analysis (observed P10 and calcP10) appears to outperform the mean attenuation threshold as a diagnostic criterion.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica da análise por histograma na tomografia computadorizada (TC) sem contraste para a diferenciação entre adenomas adrenais e feocromocitomas (FCCs). Materiais e Métodos: Identificamos, retrospectivamente, pacientes com diagnóstico de FCC confirmado que foram submetidos a exames de TC entre janeiro de 2009 e julho de 2019 em duas instituições distintas. Para cada FCC, selecionamos um ou dois adenomas diagnosticados em até duas semanas da data do diagnóstico do FCC. Para cada lesão, dois leitores pontuaram o tamanho, determinaram a atenuação média e geraram um histograma com os voxels das imagens. O percentil 10 (P10) foi obtido a partir da análise convencional do histograma, além de ser calculado com a seguinte fórmula: P10 = atenuação média - (1,282 × desvio-padrão). O limiar de atenuação média, o P10 da análise por histograma (P10 observado) e o P10 calculado (P10calc) foram comparados em termos de acurácia diagnóstica. Resultados: Foram incluídos 52 adenomas e 29 FCCs. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do limiar de atenuação média foram de 75,0%, 100,0% e 82,5% para o leitor 1, respectivamente, e de 71,5%, 100,0% e 81,5% para o leitor 2, respectivamente. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do P10 observado e do P10calc foram idênticas para os dois leitores: 90,4%, 96,5% e 92,6%, respectivamente, para o leitor 1; e 92,3%, 93,1% e 92,6%, respectivamente, para o leitor 2. O aumento da sensibilidade foi significativo para ambos os leitores (p = 0,009 e p = 0,005, respectivamente). Conclusão: Para a diferenciação entre adenomas e FCCs, a análise por histograma (P10 observado ou P10calc) parece superar o limiar de atenuação média como critério diagnóstico.

Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 254-260, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006125


Pheochromocytoma and paranganglioma (PPGL) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. In recent years, the continuous development of multimodal imaging, pathonomics, genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, metabolism and proteomics have provided us with ideas to better understand the complex transfer mechanism of PPGL. This paper will review the precise typing system of PPGL, current research advances in the diagnosis and clinical prognosis.

Journal of Modern Urology ; (12): 785-790, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005994


【Objective】 To effectively differentiate adrenal adenoma (AA) and small diameter pheochromocytoma (PCC) by establishing a clinical-radiomic nomogram model before surgery. 【Methods】 A total of 132 pathologically confirmed patients (45 PCC cases, 87 AA cases) were enrolled. After the features of enhanced CT were assessed, the radiomic features and related clinical indicators were extracted. Based on multiple Logistic regression, a clinical-radiomic nomogram with radiomic features and independent clinical predictors was developed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used for internal evaluation to compare the diagnostic effectiveness of the three models. The clinical effectiveness of the nomogram was verified with decision curve analysis (DCA). 【Results】 One of the 108 candidate features was used to construct the radiological feature score. Individualized clinical-radiomic nomogram included independent clinical factors (24 h urinary vanmandelic acid/renin/angiotensin I) and original first-order median radiological feature scores. Internal evaluation of the prediction model showed that the AUC was 0.945 (95%CI:0.906-0.984), superior to the single clinical model or radiological model in precise differentiation. DCA showed that the nomogram had the best clinical use. 【Conclusion】 The clinical-radiomic nomogram model can effectively differentiate adrenal adenoma from small diameter pheochromocytoma, which can improve the preoperative differential diagnosis and preparation.

Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 64-65, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993976


Familial pheochromocytoma belongs to autosomal dominant inheritance, and has complex and variable clinical manifestations. A child with bilateral PHEO was admitted to our hospital. His grandmother, father and brother were all diagnosed with PHEO, and his aunt was diagnosed with paraganglioma. The child underwent laparoscopic left partial adrenalectomy and open surgery for the contralateral tumor, and was in good postoperative condition. The blood pressure returned to normal and there was no local recurrence and metastasis during the follow-up of 8 months after the second operation.

Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ; (6): 543-548, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993633


Objective:To fulfill the automatic radiolabeling of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) trancer 18F-meta-fluorobenzylguanidine (mFBG), and explore the 18F-mFBG PET/CT imaging effect of pheochromocytoma. Methods:On the basis of the chemical structure of mFBG, a spirocyclic iodonium ylide was used as the precursor to undergo a 3-step reaction sequence (radiofluorination, deprotection and neutralization) on AllinOne synthesis module. Purification by high performance liquid chromatography and formulation were conducted to generate 18F-mFBG. The corresponding quality control tests of 18F-mFBG product was performed. Afterwards, a postoperative patient with pheochromocytoma underwent 18F-mFBG PET/CT imaging. Results:The radiosynthesis was accomplished within 70 min, and 18F-mFBG was obtained in (17.8±2.4)% non-decay-corrected radiochemical yield ( n=5), with radiochemical purity >97% and molar activity >59.2 GBq/μmol. Sterility test, bacterial endotoxins test, abnormal toxicity test and the acetonitrile residue all met the requirements of Pharmacopoeia of the People′ s Republic of China (2020 Volume Ⅳ). The 18F-mFBG PET/CT imaging disclosed high uptake in pheochromocytoma and clear localization of lesions. Conclusions:The automatic radiolabeling of the NET targeted tracer 18F-mFBG is successfully realized by commercially available synthesis module, and the production quality meets all requirements for clinical translation. 18F-mFBG has a potential to image neuroendocrine lesions in clinical setting.

Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 695-698, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520360


Abstract Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a complex genetic disorder affecting multiple organ systems. Cardiovascular manifestations include hypertension, often associated with concomitant pheochromocytoma. We present a hypertensive crisis during induction of anesthesia in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1, scheduled for abdominal myomectomy, which revealed an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma. The case highlights the importance of assessing all patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 for pheochromocytoma, because if it is left undiagnosed, it can be disastrous in the setting of anesthesia and surgery.

Salud UNINORTE ; 38(3)Sep.-Dec. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536821


La enfermedad de Von Hippel-Lindau es un síndrome neoplásico, autosómico dominante, caracterizado por una mutación germinal del gen VHL que codifica para la proteína VHL en el cromosoma 3. Esta mutación predispone al desarrollo de tumores benignos y malignos que afectan diferentes órganos, a causa de una ausencia de la inhibición de la vía de la tumo-rigénesis mediada por el factor inducible por hipoxia. La prevalencia de esta enfermedad es de 2 a 3 por 100 000 personas y las neoplasias se localizan con mayor frecuencia en retina, sistema nervioso central, cabeza y cuello, páncreas, riñón, glándula suprarrenal y órgano reproductor. Se clasifica en 2 tipos dependiendo de la presencia o ausencia de feocromocitoma. El feocromocitoma y las neoplasias pancreáticas constituyen las manifestaciones endocrinas más frecuentes. El feocromocitoma se presenta entre el 10-30% de los casos. Puede cursar desde una entidad asintomática hasta una sintomatología variable que incluye la triada clásica de cefalea, palpitaciones y diaforesis. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante pruebas bioquímicas o sus metabolitos que confirman niveles elevados de catecolaminas, y estudios imagenológicos. Las lesiones pancreáticas son con frecuencia asintomáticas y se detectan de forma incidental en estudios de imagen realizados en los pacientes con VHL. Aunque las características clínicas y bioquímicas de estas neoplasias no son patognomóni-cas, pueden ser útiles para sugerir la enfermedad VHL como la etiología subyacente.

Von Hippel-Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant neoplastic syndrome characterized by a germline mutation of the VHL gene encoding the VHL protein on chromosome 3. This mutation predisposes to the development of benign and malignant tumors that affect different organs, due to an absence of inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated tumorigenesis pathway. The prevalence of this disease is 2 to 3 per 100,000 people, and neoplasms are most frequently located in the retina, central nervous system, head and neck, pancreas, kidney, adrenal gland, and the organ. It is classified into 2 types depending on the presence or absence of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma and pancreatic neoplasms are the most frequent endocrine manifestations. Pheochromocytoma occurs in 1030% of cases. It can range from an asymptomatic entity to a variable symptomatology that includes the classic triad of headache, palpitations and diaphoresis. The diagnosis is made through biochemical tests that confirm high levels of catecholamines and imaging studies. Pancreatic lesions are frequently asymptomatic and are detected incidentally in imaging studies performed in VHL patients. Although the clinical and biochemical characteristics of these malignancies are not pathognomonic, they may be useful in suggesting VHL disease as the underlying etiology.

Radiol. bras ; 55(5): 317-323, Sept.-Oct. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406523


Abstract Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a monogenic autosomal dominant disorder with germline mutations of the VHL anti-oncogene on the short arm of chromosome 3 (3p25-26). It affects 1:36,000-50,000 individuals, with a penetrance greater than 90% at 65 years of age. Although of variable onset and presentation, with pleiotropism even among members of the same family who share a specific mutation, VHL disease usually manifests initially in young adults. It predisposes to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and visceral organs. The clinical diagnosis of VHL disease can be made in the following circumstances: a) in patients with a family history of the disease and at least one of the tumors characteristic of it (e.g., retinal or CNS hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and endolymphatic sac tumors); b) in patients with two or more CNS hemangioblastomas; c) or in patients with a retinal or CNS hemangioblastoma plus at least one visceral tumor characteristic of the disease, excluding renal and epididymal cysts. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with VHL disease. This pictorial essay presents characteristic images of abdominal manifestations of VHL disease-related tumors that all radiologists should be aware of.

Resumo A doença de von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) é uma desordem autossômica dominante monogênica com mutações na linha germinativa do antioncogene VHL, no braço curto do cromossomo três (3p25-26). Afeta 1:36.000-50.000 indivíduos, com penetrância superior a 90% aos 65 anos de idade. Embora tenha início e apresentação variáveis, com pleiotropismo mesmo entre membros da mesma família que partilham uma mutação específica, usualmente manifesta-se de início em adultos jovens e predispõe ao desenvolvimento de tumores benignos e malignos no sistema nervoso central (SNC) e órgãos viscerais. Clinicamente, o diagnóstico pode ser realizado em uma das seguintes circunstâncias: a) em pacientes com história familiar de doença de VHL e pelo menos um dos tumores característicos relacionados à síndrome (como hemangioblastomas retinianos ou do SNC, carcinoma de células renais de células claras, tumores neuroendócrinos pancreáticos e tumores do saco endolinfático); b) dois ou mais hemangioblastomas do SNC; c) um hemangioblastoma retiniano ou do SNC mais pelo menos um tumor característico visceral relacionado à síndrome, excluindo-se cistos renais e epididimários. Nesse contexto, a imagem ocupa importante papel no diagnóstico e acompanhamento desses pacientes. Este ensaio iconográfico apresenta imagens características de manifestações abdominais de tumores relacionados à doença de VHL que todos os radiologistas devem conhecer.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410066


RESUMEN El feocromocitoma es un tumor cromafín ubicado generalmente en la glándula suprarrenal, originado en células del neuroectodermo y productor de catecolaminas. Se presenta caso clínico de varón de 56 años con antecedente de hipertensión arterial que consultó por síntomas de un síndrome coronario agudo. La cinecoronariografía descarta cardiopatía isquémica ateroesclerótica y se llegó al diagnóstico de feocromocitoma a partir de los estudios de imágenes y la anatomía patológica. El tumor fue extirpado con cirugía abierta. En la hipertensión arterial de difícil manejo y en patologías cardiacas de presentaciones atípicas, el feocromocitoma debe ser tenido en cuenta como diagnóstico diferencial.

ABSTRACT Pheochromocytoma is a chromaffin tumor generally located in the adrenal gland, originated in neuroectoderm cells and a catecholamine-producing tumor. We present a clinical case of a 56-year-old man with a history of arterial hypertension who consulted for symptoms of an acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography ruled out atherosclerotic ischemic heart disease and the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was reached based on imaging studies and pathology. The tumor was removed with open surgery. In arterial hypertension that is difficult to manage and in cardiac pathologies with atypical presentations, pheochromocytoma must be taken into account as a differential diagnosis.

Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 50(3): e501, July-Sept. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388937


Abstract Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors capable of synthetizing, storing and releasing catecholaminergic hormones that may lead to lifethreatening hemodynamic instability. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the risks and perioperative complexity of the patients undergoing pheochromocytoma-associated adrenalectomy. This article discusses the use of adenosine for the management of hypertensive crisis during this intervention, as well as the need to individualize the suitable timing for surgery after recent COVID-19 infection. This article discusses the case of a patient with a finding of right adrenal incidentaloma; further studies determined a metanephrines secreting pheochromocytoma. Following hospital admission for preoperative optimization, the eve of the procedure the patient developed an acute myocardial infarction and subsequently SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infection. Intraoperatively, hypertensive peaks were managed with continuous adenosine perfusion. The patient was discharged after 48 hours. Preoperative optimization positively influences the intraoperative management of patients with pheochromocytoma. The intraoperative use of adenosine allows for adequate and safe control of hypertensive crises. Each situation must be individualized in patients pending surgery, with a recent COVID-19 infection.

Resumen Los feocromocitomas son tumores neuroendocrinos capaces de sintetizar, almacenar y liberar hormonas catecolaminérgicas que pueden provocar inestabilidad hemodinámica con compromiso vital. La pandemia por COVID-19 ha aumentado los riesgos y la complejidad perioperatoria de los pacientes sometidos a adrenalectomía por feocromocitoma. Describimos el uso de adenosina para manejar las crisis hipertensivas durante esta intervención, así como establecer la necesidad de individualizar el momento quirúrgico idóneo tras infección reciente por COVID-19. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con hallazgo de incidentaloma suprarrenal derecho cuya ampliación de estudio se orientó como feocromocitoma secretor de metanefrinas. Tras ingreso hospitalario para optimización preoperatoria, el día previo al procedimiento presentó un infarto agudo de miocardio y posteriormente una infección sintomática por SARS-CoV-2. Intraoperatoriamente se manejaron los picos hipertensivos con perfusión continua de adenosina. Tras 48 horas recibió el alta hospitalaria. La optimización preoperatoria influye positivamente en el manejo intraoperatorio de los pacientes con feocromocitoma. El uso intraoperatorio de adenosina permite un adecuado y seguro control de las crisis hipertensivas. En pacientes pendientes de cirugía con infección reciente por COVID-19 se requiere individualizar cada situación.

Pancreas Divisum
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(8): 1115-1118, ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431865


Up to 40% of Pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes are associated with germline mutations. Therefore, they are considered familial and heritable. We report a 65 year old woman with hypertension, bilateral adrenal nodules found in the CT scan and elevated urinary metanephrines. Her genetic testing showed a c.117_120delGTCT TMEM127 gene mutation. She was subjected to a laparoscopic bilateral adrenal excision. After five years of follow up, no recurrence of the disease has been recorded.

Humans , Female , Aged , Pheochromocytoma/surgery , Pheochromocytoma/genetics , Pheochromocytoma/diagnostic imaging , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/genetics , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Germ-Line Mutation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 511-517, junio 14, 2022. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378848


Introducción. El feocromocitoma es una neoplasia endocrina productora de catecolaminas, poco común, que generalmente se origina en la medula suprarrenal, y rara vez en el tejido cromafín extraadrenal, dándosele el nombre de paraganglioma. Existe una gran variedad de signos y síntomas secundarios a la secreción excesiva de catecolaminas por lo que su diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos son fundamentales para evitar complicaciones potencialmente fatales. Caso clínico. Paciente femenina de 54 años, con dolor abdominal intermitente y con aumento progresivo, localizado en el cuadrante superior derecho. Por estudios imagenológicos se diagnosticó una gran masa suprarrenal derecha, con pruebas de laboratorio que encontraron niveles de metanefrinas y catecolaminas en orina normales. Discusión. Debido al tamaño del tumor y al íntimo contacto con las estructuras adyacentes, se realizó la resección por vía abierta, sin complicaciones y con una buena evolución postoperatoria. El informe anatomopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico de feocromocitoma suprarrenal derecho. Conclusión. Aunque poco frecuente, el feocromocitoma es una patología que se debe sospechar ante la presencia de masas suprarrenales y alteraciones relacionadas con la secreción elevada de catecolaminas. Se debe practicar el tratamiento quirúrgico de forma oportuna.

Introduction. Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-producing endocrine neoplasm that generally originates in the adrenal medulla, and rarely in extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue, giving it the name of paraganglioma. There is a wide variety of signs and symptoms secondary to excessive secretion of catecholamines, so its timely diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid potentially fatal complications. Clinical case. A 54-year-old female patient with intermittent abdominal pain and progressive increase, located in the right upper quadrant. By imaging studies, a large right adrenal mass was diagnosed, with laboratory tests that found normal levels of metanephrines and catecholamines in urine. Discussion. Due to the size of the tumor and the intimate contact with the adjacent structures, the resection was performed by open approach, without complications and with a good postoperative evolution. The pathology report confirmed the diagnosis of right adrenal pheochromocytoma. Conclusion. Although rare, pheochromocytoma is a pathology that should be suspected in the presence of adrenal masses and changes related to elevated catecholamine secretion. Surgical treatment should be performed in a timely manner.

Humans , Pheochromocytoma , Adrenalectomy , Catecholamines , Adrenal Medulla
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222053


Catecholamine-secreting tumors occur with equal frequency in men and women, primarily in the fourth and fifth decades. The associated hypertension may be sustained or paroxysmal, and patients who are diagnosed in the presymptomatic stage may have normal blood pressure. These tumors can be lethal unless they are diagnosed early and treated appropriately. Numerous disorders can mimic pheochromocytoma, leading to diagnostic dilemma. Described here is a case which was misdiagnosed for 5 years as anxiety, panic attacks, cervical spondylosis, vasomotor symptoms of menopause, arrhythmia and even acute coronary syndrome. Therefore, enhanced adrenal awareness is the need of the hour, to catch this “great masquerade”.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 215-221, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376880


Resumen En la población hipertensa se detecta una causa subyacente en 5% a 10%. Identificar etiología y establecer un tratamiento específico reduce el riesgo de daño de órgano blanco y, en algunos casos, puede curar la enfermedad primaria y la hipertensión. Dada su baja prevalencia, no se recomienda realizar una búsqueda exhaustiva de causas secundarias en todos los pacientes hipertensos. En este artículo se analiza cuándo y cómo debe estudiarse una hipertensión secundaria.

Abstract In the hypertensive population, between 5-10%, an underlying cause is detected. Identifying the etiology and giving specific treatment reduces the risk of hypertension-mediated organ damage and, in some cases, can cure the disease and high blood pressure. Due to its low prevalence, an exhaustive search for secondary causes is not recommended in all patients with hypertension. This article will discuss when and how to study secondary hypertension.

Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ; (6): 623-627, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957187


Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors leading to serious complications in the cardiovascular system. As somatostatin receptor (SSTR) is highly expressed in PPGL, SSTR-targeting imaging, particularly PET/CT based on 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analog represented by 68Ga-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid- D-Phe1-Tyr3-Thr8-octreotide (DOTATATE), becomes an important tool for location and assessment of systemic metastases. Treatments for metastatic PPGL are limited. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177Lu-DOTATATE provides a new therapeutic option for patients with inoperable PPGL and demonstrates satisfying efficacy. This article summarizes the advances of SSTR-targeting imaging and PRRT in the diagnosis and treatment of PPGL.

Chinese Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; (6): 756-759, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989882


Paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma (PPGL) is an uncommon neuroendocrine tumor with variable metastatic potential which is related to multiple factors, and has a clear genetic background. Metastatic PPGL requires systemic intervention after failure of surgical treatment, but the overall efficacy is poor. In this review, the related literatures were reviewed to describe PPGL from the histological origin and name evolution, genetic background and metastasis risk, metastasis risk prediction and prognosis assessment, challenges in the clinical staging and progress in the systemic treatment.

Chinese Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; (6): 685-688, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989867


Objective:To investigate the etiologies and clinical characteristics of bilateral adrenal lesions.Methods:The clinical data of 143 patients with bilateral adrenal lesions hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from Jan. 2013 to Mar. 2018 were collected and analyzed.Results:140 patients were retained for final analysis. 79 were men, and 61 were women. The age was (51.53±13.93) years. Regarding the etiologies, there were primary aldosteronism ( n=44, 31.43%) , Cushing’s syndrome ( n=27, 19.29%) , non-functional lesions ( n=23, 16.43%) , adrenal tuberculosis ( n=17, 12.14%) , pheochromocytoma ( n=11, 7.86%) , congenital adrenal hyperplasia ( n=5, 3.57%) , adrenal metastases ( n=5, 3.57%) , and adrenal lymphoma ( n=4, 2.86) . These patients were classified into the following groups according to the mass size: ≤2 cm, 2-4 cm and ≥4 cm. The highest proportion of primary aldosteronism (62.79%) , Cushing’s syndrome (46.15%) and pheochromocytoma (31.25%) was observed in the ≤2 cm, 2-4 cm and ≥4 cm groups, respectively. The mass sizes of primary aldosteronism, Cushing’s syndrome and pheochromocytoma were compared, with pheochromocytoma the largest, followed by Cushing’s syndrome, non-functional lesion, and primary aldosteronism. Conclusions:For patients with bilateral adrenal lesions in our hospital, primary aldosteronism and Cushing’s syndrome are more common than non-functional lesion. Mass size is of great value in the diagnosis of endocrinological etiology, as well as distinguishing malignant tumors from the benign ones. The imaging phenotype is helpful to determine tumor types.

Chinese Journal of Ultrasonography ; (12): 129-134, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932384


Objective:To investigate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of nonmetastatic pheochromocytoma.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on 7 patients with nonmetastatic pheochromocytoma admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2018 to June 2020, all of whom underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. The changes of postoperative blood pressure, improvement of symptoms, intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed.Plasma free methoxypinephrine (MN) and normetanephrine (NMN) levels were recorded before and 2 weeks after operation. The reduction rate of ablation lesion volume at 1, 3 and 6 months after operation was calculated.Results:Postoperative blood pressure of all 7 patients was reduced to the normal range within 3 days, and symptoms such as headache were significantly relieved immediately after operation.No serious complications occurred during or after operation. Plasma free MN and NMN levels decreased to normal levels 2 weeks after operation. The mean reduction rates of the ablation lesions at 1, 3 and 6 months after operation were (46.61±13.42)%, (67.21±10.54)% and (85.73±4.15)%, respectively. Postoperative follow-up of 12-30 months showed that the blood pressure, plasma free MN and NMN levels of the patients were all in the normal range, and no symptoms such as headache and palpitation occurred again. All the tumors were completely ablated, and no recurrence was observed.Conclusions:Ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of nonmetastatic pheochromocytoma is minimally invasive, safe and effective, and can retain adrenal cortex function, which is worthy of clinical promotion.