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Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 729-732, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955776


Objective:To learn about the epidemic law of animal plague in natural plague focus of Himalayan Marmot in Yumen City of Gansu Province, to explore the epidemiological characteristics of plague in the area and to provide scientific basis for formulating prevention and control strategies of the plague. Methods:The animal plague surveillance data of natural plague focus of Himalayan Marmot in Yumen City, Gansu Province from 2014 to 2021 were collected, main host density, rate of infected with fleas, flea index, small rodent species, bacteriology, serology were studied. Excel 2007 software was used to analyze the plague epidemic situation in the focus. Results:From 2014 to 2021, the total average density was 0.06 per hm 2 of the marmots. A total of 19 300 traps were placed, and 209 rats were caught, with an average catch rate of 1.08%. Among them, Dipus sagitta (59.81%, 125/209) and Mongolian Five-toed Jerboa(31.10%, 65/209) were dominant small rodent species. Totally 877 marmots were checked, 184 with flea. The rate of infected with fleas of marmots was 20.98%, with a flea index of 1.00, Callopsylla dolabris (52.69%, 461/875) and Oropsylla silantiewi (47.20%, 413/875) were dominant species in vector. The rate of infected with fleas of burrow was 7.72% (173/2 241), with a flea index of 0.20. A total of 39 strains of Yersinia pestis were isolated from infected animals. Among them, 35 strains from the marmots, and 4 strains from vectors. Totally 913 serum samples were checked from marmots and shepherd dog, the positive serum was 34. Among them, the positive rate of shepherd dog was 13.98% (33/236). Conclusions:The plague epidemic situation in natural plague focus of Himalayan Marmot in Yumen City of Gansu Province is still serious. The monitoring of plague should be strengthened, and the comprehensive measures for prevention and control of the plague should be carried out to prevent a outbreak of the plague in human being.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 703-708, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955772


Objective:To investigate the genotypes of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) of Yersinia pestis ( Y. pestis) and it's regional distribution in the plague natural foci of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Methods:In this study, 1 004 strains of Y. pestis isolated from different hosts and vectors in different regions from 1954 to 2011 were selected as experimental objects, which preserved in Qinghai Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control, and DNA of Y. pestis was extracted by traditional phenol-chloroform method. Three CRISPR loci (YPa, YPb and YPc) were amplified by PCR and sequenced, respectively, and the CRISPR sequences were compared with the CRISPRDictionary database recently reported in the literature to identify CRISPR spacer. For the spacer discovered for the first time at each CRISPR locus, Blast sequence alignment was performed in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database to speculate the source of gene sequence. Genotyping of Y. pestis from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was performed based on the polymorphism of CRISPR spacer array. Results:A total of 53 spacers were found in 1 004 strains of Y. pestis, of which 6 spacers were newly discovered, namely a105, a106, a107, b51, b52 and c14. The 1 004 strains of Y. pestis were divided into 10 groups with 44 different CRISPR genotypes, and 15 new genotypes were found. The dominant genotypes of Y. pestis were G26-a1', G7, G22, G24-a1', G22-a1', G9 and G26-a1'a60 in Himalayan Marmot plague natural foci, and G37-a6' in Qinghai Microtinae plague natural foci. Conclusion:The CRISPR genotypes of Y. pestis in the plague natural foci of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are high diverse and have significant regional distribution characteristics.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 695-702, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955771


Objective:To analyze the epidemic situation of plague among animals in the foci of Meriones unguiculatus in Inner Mongolia Plateau, and to find out key influencing factors affecting the epidemic of the plague, and to provide theoretical basis for the prediction, early warning and risk assessment of the plague. Methods:The monitoring data including gerbils density, gerbils body flea index, plague epidemic intensity, etc., as well as environmental data including temperature, precipitation and El Ni?o activity (Southern Oscillation Index, SOI) from 19 banners (counties, cities and districts) in Ulanqab Plateau area, the foci of Meriones unguiculatus in Inner Mongolia Plateau were selected. The methods of correlation analysis, structural equation model and rank correlation were used to analyze the epidemic and key influencing factors of plague among animals in the foci. Results:The plague epidemic cycle in the foci of Meriones unguiculatus in Inner Mongolia Plateau was 5 to 10 years. The correlation analysis results showed that all the factors had influence on each other. Structural equation model screened out that the main influencing factors of plague epidemic were SOI, gerbils density and temperature. SOI had a negative effect on plague epidemic intensity (-0.022) and temperature (-0.029), while gerbils density had a positive effect on plague epidemic intensity (0.014), and temperature had a negative effect on plague epidemic intensity (-0.065). In rank correlation, when the gerbils density was at a high value, the probability of high plague epidemic intensity in that year was 4/9; when SOI was at a low value, the probability was 5/9; when the temperature was at a low value, the probability was 5/9. When the plague epidemic intensity was at a high value in that year, the probability of the plague epidemic intensity being high in the following year was 5/8; when the gerbils density was at a high value in that year, the probability was 4/9; when SOI was at a low value in that year, the probability was 4/9. Conclusion:Climate and biological factors can affect prevalence of plague, and countermeasures should be taken in advance to prevent plague outbreaks when El Ni?o phenomenon, low temperature, high density of gerbils, and high previous-year prevalence of plague appear.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 425-430, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931564


Inflammatory response is an important immune mechanism of the body, formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 1 is a pattern recognition receptor expressed in immune cells, and its binding with ligands is the basis for immune cells to realize various physiological functions in infectious inflammation. FPR1 plays an important role in inflammatory response, and changes in amino acids caused by its gene polymorphism affect a variety of diseases. Plague is an inflammatory disease caused by Yersinia pestis. Yersinia pestis, its pathogen, has a strong ability of immune escape and attacks on host immune cells. In this paper, FPR structural characteristics, expression and distribution, FPR1 gene polymorphism, ligand and its relationship with plague are reviewed, with a view to further understanding the role of FPR1 in the occurrence and development of plague.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 402-406, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931560


Plague natural foci in Gansu Province are large in area and widely distributed, and the epidemic status is different in each focus. Some plague natural foci have been resting for many years and are under stable control. In other plague natural foci, the epidemic of plague among animals is relatively active, and dozens of strains of Yersinia pestis can be isolated every year. The plague among animals spreads to the humans from time to time, and the cases of human plague are more severe, short in course of disease, and high in mortality. In recent years, with the sharp increase of migrant workers engaged in grazing and engineering construction in plague natural foci, opportunities to actively contact infected animals such as marmots, hares and sheepdogs have increased, resulting in an increase of human plague cases. In addition, the behaviors of illegal hunting, trafficking and sale of marmots cannot be stopped, resulting in human plague throughout the year. Therefore, the party committees and governments at all levels and the health administrative departments in Gansu Province have formulated the plague prevention and control measures suitable for this region according to the epidemic characteristics of plague among animals and humans. In this paper, the characteristics of plague epidemic situation at present and the prevention and control measures adopted in Gansu Province are discussed, in order to provide scientific basis and guidance for optimizing plague prevention and control measures in the future.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931493


Objective:To investigate the epidemic characteristics and current situation of animal plague in Zhejiang Province, in order to provide data support for prevention and control of the plague in the whole province.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out to collect surveillance data of animal plague in Zhejiang Province from 2006 to 2020 from the "Pubonic Plague Control Management Information System". Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the density of domestic and wild rodents, the distribution of rodent species and flea species, and the serological and pathogenic test results of host animals.Results:From 2006 to 2020, the annual average density of domestic rodent in Zhejiang Province was 3.99%, which was lower than that in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2019 and 2020. The annual average density of wild rodents was 4.52%, which was lower than that in 2013, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. From 2006 to 2020, a total of 173 432 rodents were captured, belonging to 3 orders, 5 families, 12 genera and 17 species; in the composition of rodent species, Rattus norvegicus was the most, accounting for 32.15% (55 765/173 432). A total of 107 736 rodents were examined, the number of flea-infected rodent was 3 885, and the flea-infested rate was 3.61%; the total number of flea collected was 9 039 and the total flea index was 0.083 9. A total of 172 235 serological samples were tested at various monitoring sites in Zhejiang Province, and 10 positive samples were detected, there were 7 copies of Apodemus agrarianus, 2 copies of Smelly Shrew and 1 copy of Rattus norvegicus, with titers ranging from 1 ∶ 40 - 1 ∶ 320; a total of 163 618 copies of rodent liver and spleen organs were cultured, and no Yersinia pestis was isolated. Conclusions:Positive host animals have been detected in Zhejiang Province for many years. It is necessary to further standardize plague surveillance and make emergency preparations to prevent relapse and import of the epidemics.

Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 10(2): 253-257, abr.-jun.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253872


A história da humanidade narra sucessivas pestes que assolaram diferentes espaços geográficos, semeando sempre a morte entre as populações, dizimando milhares de pessoas. Sabemo-lo graças aos escritos de figuras históricas que relataram estes longos períodos de infecção, contágio e morte pelo menos desde o século V a.C., em que terá eclodido a primeira peste no continente europeu, conhecida como Peste de Atenas. Ao longo dos séculos que se seguiram, há relatos de reaparecimentos da peste, que proliferaram nas grandes cidades de então. Mais recentemente, o século XX, embora caracterizado pelo desenvolvimento de uma panóplia de medicamentos cada vez mais eficazes, não deixa de ser palco do surgimento de novas epidemias. O presente século XXI, é já indelevelmente marcado pela pandemia da COVID-19. Não obstante os destacados progressos das biotecnologias, as constantes mutações do vírus SARS-CoV-2 e inevitáveis incertezas advenientes colocam-nos numa posição análoga à dos nossos antepassados ignorantes relativamente às pestes que os assolavam.

The history of humanity narrates successive plagues that have struck different geographical areas, always sowing death among the populations, decimating thousands of people. We know this thanks to the writings of historical figures who have reported these long periods of infection, contagion and death since at least the 5th century b.C., when the first plague on the European continent, known as the Athens Plague, broke out.Over the centuries that followed, there are reports of plague reappearances, striking the great cities of that time. More recently, the 20th century, although characterized by the development of a panoply of increasingly effective drugs, is still the stage for the emergence of new epidemics. The present 21st century is already indelibly marked by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the remarkable advances in biotechnology, the constant mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and inevitable uncertainties arising from it puts us in a position analogous to that of our ignorant ancestors regarding plagues that plagued them.

La historia de la humanidad narra sucesivas plagas que han azotado diferentes áreas geográficas, siempre sembrando la muerte entre las poblaciones, diezmando a miles de personas. Lo sabemos gracias a los escritos de personajes históricos que han informado de estos largos períodos de infección, contagio y muerte desde al menos el siglo V a.C., cuando estalló la primera plaga en el continente europeo, conocida como la Peste de Atenas.A lo largo de los siglos que siguieron, hubo informes de reapariciones de la plaga, golpeando las grandes ciudades de esa época. Más recientemente, el siglo XX, aunque se caracterizó por el desarrollo de una panoplia de medicamentos cada vez más eficaces, sigue siendo el escenario para la aparición de nuevas epidemias. El presente siglo XXI ya está marcado de forma indeleble por la pandemia de COVID-19. A pesar de los notables avances en biotecnología, las constantes mutaciones del virus SARS-CoV-2 y las inevitables incertidumbres que derivan de él, nos colocan en una situación análoga a la de nuestros antepasados ignorantes respecto a las plagas que los asolaron.

An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(2): 159-165, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281118


La sistematización de una historia de vida requiere una rigurosa selección de la información proveniente de diversas fuentes. Este breve estudio cualitativo utiliza el método biográfico y su objetivo es describir la figura de Bartolomé Coronel, considerado uno de los primeros médicos de niños y su aporte a la sociedad asuncena de principios del siglo XX, fallecido en plena pandemia de la peste Bubónica, en 1911. Se toman diversas fuentes desde la semblanza realizada por la insigne educadora Celsa Speratti de Garcete, cartas familiares, datos de su biografía aportados por un familiar cercano, discursos alusivos al sujeto de estudio y otros textos que permiten elaborar una mirada colectiva hacia el mismo. En conclusión, el contexto actual de Covid19 y el de la peste Bubónica presenta el mismo riesgo y escasas medidas de bioseguridad a pesar del avance de la ciencia y la medicina en nuestros días. La figura del Dr. Bartolomé Coronel presenta una riqueza de matices y merece ser rescatado con la memoria del olvido.

Life story systematization requires a rigorous selection of information from various sources. This brief qualitative study uses the biographical method and its objective is to describe the figure of Bartolomé Coronel. Considered one of the first children doctors and his contribution to Asuncion society at the beginning of the 20th century, who died in the Bubonic plague pandemic, in 1911. Various sources are taken: from the profile made by the distinguished educator Celsa Speratti de Garcete, family letters, details of her biography provided by a familiar, speeches allusive to the subject of study and other texts that allow a collective view of him. In conclusion, the current context of Covid19 and the Bubonic plague in the past present the same risk and scarce biosecurity measures taked despite the advancement of science and medicine in our days. The figure of Dr. Bartolomé Coronel presents a wealth of nuances and deserves to be rescued with the memory of oblivion.

Plague , Containment of Biohazards , Fixation, Ocular , Methods
Bol. Hosp. Viña del Mar ; 77(1-2): 36-44, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398360


En revistas precedentes explicamos algunos antecedentes de la influencia que la peste tuvo en algunas manifestaciones culturales y artísticas, dejando testimonios que permiten conocer y obtener deducciones del comportamiento humano, que pueden resultar significativas en el proceso actual de pandemia, inédito para nuestras generaciones. Este artículo, entonces, corresponde al final que nos ubica desde la Revolución Industrial a nuestro tiempo.

In previous journals we explained some antecedents of the in fluence that the plague had on some cultural and artistic manifestations, leaving testimonies that allow us to know and obtain deductions from human behavior, which can be significant in the current pandemic process, unprecedented for our generations. This article, then, corresponds to the end that places us from the Industrial Revolution to our time.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 664-669, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909074


Objective:To understand the clinical manifestations and prognosis of severe bubonic plague, and to explore the treatment experience of severe bubonic plague.Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data and treatment of a case of severe bubonic plague admitted to Huade County on November 11, 2019.Results:The case of bubonic plague was a 55-year-old male, and outbreak after hunting the hare at the foci. The clinical manifestations included fever, fatigue, left armpit skin hard, swelling, heat and pain, distinctness of lymph node enlargement in later stage, hiccups and pleural effusion. Laboratory tests showed diffuse intravascular coagulation (DIC), sepsis and multiple organ dysfunctions. Bubonic plague was confirmed by positive culture of Yersinia pestis and positive phage lysis test on the 3rd day after admission. After platelet, plasma, fluid resuscitation and streptomycin combined with moxixacin, DIC and multiple organ functions were restored to normal and the hard swelling subsided. The course of treatment lasted for 19 days, the body temperature returned to normal and the patient recovered. Conclusions:This patient is a severe case of bubonic plague characterized with lymphangitis, skin sclerosis and abnormal coagulation. Timely identification, evaluation, early and combined treatment is the key to successful treatment.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 454-459, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909031


Objective:To analyze the pathogenic characteristics of Yersinia pestis in a plague natural foci in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Methods:In this study, 1 378 strains of Yersinia pestis isolated from different regions, hosts and vectors in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1954 to 2016 were taken as the research objects. Phenotypic characteristics, plasmid spectrum and genotype of the strains were studied by using conventional techniques and molecular biological techniques. The etiology and geographical distribution of the plague were studied. Results:There were 6 biochemical types of Yersinia pestis in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, namely Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Qilian Mountain, Gangdis Mountain, Kunlun Mountain A, Kunlun Mountain B and Chuanqing Plateau. This study found that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau type strain was not only distributed in north Tibet Plateau, but also distributed in south Tibet, and the distribution of Gangdis Mountain type strain extended to south Tibet. Four virulence factors (capsule antigen, yersinin, virulence antigen and pigmentation factor) were found in 79.97% (1 102/1 378) Yersinia pestis. The results also showed that there were 12 kinds of plasmids carried by Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which constituted 17 kinds of plasmid spectrum. There were 3 kinds of the largest plasmids with taxonomic properties, forming their respective relatively independent distribution areas. The study of different regions (DFR) type showed that 5, 8, 14, 19, 32 and 44 of 1 378 strains were the main genotypes, and the main genome types had obvious geographical distribution. Conclusions:All the tested strains have the characteristics of plague pathogen in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The polymorphism of the main hosts, vectors and the ecological landscape of plague geography in the plague foci in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau may lead to the diversity of biochemical characters, plasmid spectrum and geno types of Yersinia pestis.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906347


Objective:To construct the database of Tibetan medicine prescriptions for "Gnyan-rims" disease, and to explore the invisible medication law of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of "Gnyan-rims" disease, such as prescription compatibility and combination of drug properties. Method:The prescriptions for treating "Gnyan-rims" were retrieved from four Tibetan medical literatures such as <italic>The Four Medical Tantras</italic>,<italic> Kong-sprul-zin-tig,</italic> <italic>Phyag-rdor-gso-rig-phyogs-bsgrigs</italic> and <italic>Sman-sbyor-lag-len-phyogs-bsgrigs</italic>, and the database was constructed under Python code, and the Apriori algorithm and the vector structure model of taste property flavor transformation were used for analysis. Result:According to the characteristics of Tibetan medicine prescription data, with six fields of prescription name, formula, dosage, efficacy, source and original text as the core, a Tibetan medicine treatment "Gnyan-rims" prescription database with functions of cleaning, searching and exporting was established. A total of 7 602 prescriptions were included in the database, among which 598 prescriptions had therapeutic effects of "Gnyan" and "Rims". The results of compatibility analysis showed that Shexiang, Hezi, Honghua, Mukuer Moyao, Tiebangchui, Tianzhuhuang and Bangga were the most frequently used drugs, while the correlation degrees of Shexiang-Mukuer Moyao, Honghua-Tianzhuhuang, Shexiang-Hezi and Shexiang-Tiebangchui were the strongest, and all the drug composition of Wuwei Shexiang pills appeared in the top ten correlations. According to the property analysis of 40 prescriptions containing high-frequency drugs, 19 prescriptions were found to have excessive bitter taste, followed by 9 prescriptions such as Sanchen powders with excessive sweetish taste, and the ratios of sweetish and bitter tastes in six tastes were >35%. The total of sweetish and bitter prescriptions accounted for 70% of the total prescriptions. Among the three flavors, the bitter flavor was the most abundant. The cool effect, dull effect and heavy effect were prominent among the seventeen effects. Conclusion:The prescription database of Tibetan medicine for "Gnyan-rims" can promote the high-quality development of research on prevention and treatment of plague with ethnic medicine. Tibetan medicine treatment of "Gnyan-rims" focuses on the composition of Wuwei Shexiang pills, with the property combination of "cool-bitter and sweet-bitter flavor-cool, dull and heavy", which mainly treats diseases such as "heat sharp light-mkhris pa-heat". These studies can provide data basis and theoretical reference for the selection of Tibetan medicine prescription and its composition for treating plague.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 983-989, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931474


Objective:To investigate and determine the epidemic scope of plague natural foci in Yulong County of Yunnan Province, and to assess its epidemic risk, so as to providing basis for monitoring, prevention and control of plague.Methods:In 2017, 2 - 3 natural villages were selected from 8 villages and towns in Yulong County according to geographical landscape, altitude, population and area. During October and November, small mammal hosts and their parasitic fleas were captured by the night trap (cage) method, Yersinia pestis was isolated from host animal organs, and plague F1 antigen and antibody were detected by colloidal gold test. Plague specific antigen was detected by reverse indirect hemagglutination test (RIHA) in self-dead small mammals. Animal serum from dogs, cats and mice were collected for detection of plague F1 antibody by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). Results:A total of 1 019 host animals including self-dead small mammals were collected, belonging to 22 species, 12 genera, 6 families, 4 orders. Among them, 1 016 small mammals were captured by tools and 996 were outdoors, with the capture rate of 25.28% (996/3 940). The dominant species of small mammals outdoors were Apodemus chevrieri, Rattus (R.) rattus, Eothenomys miletus and Crocidura attenuate, which accounted for 30.32% (302/996), 22.09% (220/996), 17.37% (173/996) and 12.35% (123/996). The common species were Niviventer confucianus, R.nitidus and R.norvegicus, which accounted for 8.13% (81/996), 4.02% (40/996) and 1.81% (18/996). A total of 20 small mammals of 9 species were captured indoors in the residential area, and the capture rate was 1.11% (20/ 1 800). The dominant species were R.norvegicus, R.nitidus and Mus musculus, which accounted for 30.00% (6/20), 25.00% (5/20) and 10.00% (2/20). Eighteen small mammals of 8 species were infected with 67 parasitic fleas, belonging to 5 species, 5 genera, 3 families. The total flea infection rate was 1.77% (18/1 019) and the total flea index was 0.070. Among them, 49 parasitic fleas from 4 small mammals of 3 species were collected indoors. The flea infection rate was 19.05% (4/21) and the flea index was 2.333. Leptopsylla segnis had the highest flea infection rate of 9.52% (2/21) and flea index of 0.571. Ctenocephalides felis had the highest flea index of 1.571 and flea infection rate of 4.76% (1/21). They were the main flea species on the body surface of small mammals in residential areas. There were 14 small mammals infected with parasitic fleas outdoors, and 18 fleas in 5 species were collected with flea infection rate of 1.40% (14/998) and flea index of 0.018. Among them, Leptopsylla segnis had the highest flea infection rate was 0.50% (5/998) and the flea index was 0.005. The flea infection rate of Neopsylla specialis specialis was 0.40% (4/998), and the flea index was 0.004. Ctenophthalmus quadratus had the highest flea index of 0.007, and the flea infection rate ranked the third with 0.30% (3/998). The flea infection rate and flea index of Frontopsylla spadix spadix were the lowest, which were 0.20% (2/998) and 0.002, respectively. Ctenophthalmus quadratus, Leptopsylla segnis and Neopsylla specialis specialis were the dominant parasitic fleas on the surface of outdoor small mammals. A total of 419 indicator animal sera were collected, including 402 dog sera. One of them was positive by IHA, with a positive rate of 0.25% (1/402). Seventeen serum samples were collected from cats and mice, and IHA test results were negative. Yersinia pestis was isolated and cultured from the organs of small mammals and the detection of Yersinia pestis by colloidal gold test was negative. RIHA test of self-dead small mammals was negative. Conclusion:A plague indicator animal positive spot is newly found in the plague natural foci in Yulong County, and the plague epidemic monitoring, prevention and control in this region should be strengthened.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 979-982, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931473


Objective:To analyze the monitoring results of plague foci in Guizhou Province, to master the epidemic dynamics of the plague and to formulate the prevention and control measures.Methods:The plague monitoring data from 2018 to 2020 in Guizhou Province were collected from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System Plague Prevention and Control Information Management System to analyze the plague epidemic situation. The murine animals capture methods used were cage clip method, 5 m cage clip method and day-by-day rodent capture method. Bacterial culture and hemagglutination were used in laboratory.Results:A total of 2 273 murine animals were captured indoors with cage clip method, and the Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species, accounting for 47.29% (1 075/2 273), Rattus flavipectus and Mus musculus were common species, accounting for 43.55% (990/2 273) and 5.10% (116/2 273). A total of 1 460 murine animals were captured outdoors with 5 m cage clip method, and the Rattus rattus sladoni was the dominant species, accounting for 35.48% (518/1 460), Rattus flavipectus and Eothenomys miletus were common species, accounting for 16.03% (234/1 460) and 8.70% (127/1 460). A total of 5 742 murine animals (including 3 733 animals captured with cage clip method and 5 m cage clip method, 2 009 animals captured with day-by-day rodent capture method) were examined and 1 176 with flea, the flea infestation rate of murine animals was 20.48%, Xenopsylla cheopi was the dominant flea species [56.63% (3 020/5 333)] and the index was 0.53. Laboratory test results were all negative. Conclusions:The plague foci of Guizhou Province is at a quiescent stage, but the reignition cannot be ruled out. The monitoring of plague should be strengthened, the quality of the monitoring should be improved, and health education and publicity should be carried out to prevent the occurrence of human plague outbreaks.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 947-952, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931467


Objective:To investigate the contents of soil metal elements in the plague high incidence area and resting area in the plague natural foci of Qingnan region in Qinghai Province, and to compare and analyze the differences of the contents of soil metal elements between the two areas.Methods:A total of 69 soil samples were collected from 11 sites in the plague high incidence area (Yushu Prefecture) and resting area (Guoluo Prefecture) in Qingnan region, including 39 samples from high incidence area and 30 samples from resting area. The contents of 12 soil metal elements, such as iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn), were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and SPSS 20.0 software was used for Spearman correlation and other statistical analysis.Results:The contents of Fe and Ca in the soil of the plague natural foci of Qingnan region were relatively high. The contents of 12 soil metal elements in the high incidence area were significantly higher than those in the resting area ( P < 0.01 or < 0.05). There were statistical significant differences in the contents of Mg, Ca, Ba, Mn, Pb and Zn in the soil among the sample plots of the plague high incidence area ( P < 0.01 or < 0.05). There were statistical significant differences in the contents of Fe, Mg, Ca, Rb and Ti in the soil among the sample plots of the plague resting area ( P < 0.05 or < 0.01). Except for Mg and Ca, Fe was positively correlated with other metal elements in the high incidence area and resting area ( P < 0.01 or < 0.05), and Fe was strongly positively correlated with Rb, Ti and V ( r = 0.780 - 0.838). Mg was only positively correlated with Ca in the high incidence area and resting area ( P < 0.01). Ca was negatively correlated with Mn, Pb, Rb, Ti, V and Zn in the high incidence area, and with Rb and Zn in the resting area ( P < 0.01 or < 0.05). The rest of the metal elements were mostly positively correlated in the high incidence area and resting area. Conclusions:The contents of Fe and Ca are rich in the plague natural foci of Qingnan region in Qinghai Province. There are correlations among most soil metal elements in the high incidence area and resting area. The correlation between the contents of soil metal elements in the plague natural foci and the epidemic of plague is worth further exploring.

Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(5): e3687, sept.-oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149960


Introducción: Las epidemias han puesto en riesgo a nuestra especie desde la antigüedad al presente y seguramente continuarán desafiándonos en el futuro. Por ello resulta razonable hurgar en la historia de estas amenazas para encontrar las claves de su origen y desarrollo. Objetivo: Encontrar en las grandes epidemias del pasado las claves que ayuden a interpretarlas. Material y Métodos: Histórico-lógico con aplicación de criterios de pandemia a eventos documentados. Desarrollo: Se analizaron 10 pandemias bien documentadas siguiendo la secuencia histórica comenzando por la Peste de Atenas (430 aC) y terminando con la COVID 19. En siete de ellas se precisaron la enfermedad y el germen. En las tres restantes no hay certeza absoluta del germen. Entre los factores que facilitaron el contagio se encontraron: desastres, cambios de clima, guerras, vías comerciales, hacinamiento, hambruna y falta de higiene. Se hallaron antecedentes de las medidas de aislamiento, cuarentena e higiene cuyo no cumplimento tuvo experiencias fatales en el pasado. Todas las epidemias influyeron en cambios de la sociedad postepidemia. Conclusiones: El enfrentamiento racional a las epidemias conlleva a la integración de los conocimientos de la enfermedad y el contagio con otros factores. Es de utilidad el estudio del pasado para obtener antecedentes y experiencias de las medidas más eficaces y para evitar errores que se han reiterado(AU)

Introduction: Epidemics have placed our species at risk from ancient times to the present and will surely continue to challenge us in the future. Therefore, it is reasonable to look through the history of these threats to find the keys to their origin and development. Objective: To find the keys that help to interpret the major epidemics of the past. Method: Logical-historical method applying criteria related to pandemic to documented events. Development: A total of 10 well-documented pandemics were analyzed following the historical sequence, starting with the plague of Athens (430 BC) and ending with COVID-19. The disease and the germ were specified in seven of them. In the remaining three, there is no absolute certainty of the germ. The factors that facilitated the contagion included: disasters, climate changes, wars, trade routes, overcrowding, famine and lack of hygiene. Antecedents of isolation, quarantine and hygiene measures were found, whose non-compliance had fatal experiences in the past. All epidemics influenced on changes in post-epidemic society. Conclusions: Rational confrontation with epidemics encompasses the integration of knowledge of the disease and contagion with other factors. The study of the past is useful to obtain information about antecedents and experiences of the most effective measures and to avoid mistakes that have been repeated(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Plague , Quarantine/methods , Epidemics , Pandemics , History , Hygiene , Famine
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 450-455, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138569


Resumen El Imperio Romano sufrió entre el siglo II y III dos grandes pestes, la Peste Antonina, de la cual existe bibliografía, y la Peste de Cipriano, que es menos conocida. Como una visión de conjunto, ambas pandemias se asemejan a la crisis que en el 2020 el coronavirus está generando en muchos aspectos de la vida humana. Este artículo se centra en el impacto que la peste de Cipriano tuvo en el contexto de la crisis del siglo III; su mortalidad se estima entre 10-20% de la población en los lugares afectados y finalmente sus efectos generaron varias de las condiciones necesarias para la transición del mundo antiguo al medieval. Se trata de comprender cómo el ciclo de pestes que va desde el siglo II al siglo III cambió la fisonomía del mundo romano y que lecciones nos entrega la historia 1700 años después.

Abstract Between the 2nd and 3rd centuries the Roman Empire suffered two great plagues, the Antonine Plague, of which there is a bibliography, and the lesser known Plague of Cyprian. As an overview, both pandemics resemble the crisis that in 2020 the Coronavirus is generating in many aspects of human life. This article focuses on the impact that the Cyprian plague had in the context of the crisis of the third century, its mortality is estimated between 10-20% of the population in the affected places, finally its effects generated several of the necessary conditions for the transition from the ancient to the medieval world. It is about understanding how the cycle of plagues that went from the 2nd century to the 3rd century changed the appearance of the Roman world and what lessons history gives us 1700 years later.

Humans , Plague/history , Pandemics/history , Plague/epidemiology , Roman World , History, Ancient
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(supl.1): e1183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126787


Introducción: Se describen las principales pandemias en la historia de la humanidad desde a.n.e. hasta la más reciente causada por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Objetivo: Examinar las principales pandemias en la historia de la humanidad y su repercusión en la salud pública, ámbito social y perspectivas de la actual pandemia de la COVID-19 en el desarrollo de la sociedad. Métodos: Se revisaron las publicaciones sobre el tema en español e inglés en bases de datos de PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO y Latindex desde el 2000 hasta al 25 de mayo 2020. Resultados: Se describen los aspectos más sobresalientes de las epidemias causadas por viruela, peste bubónica, cólera, VIH/sida. gripes y la actual producida por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, atendiendo a su aparición, duración en años, fallecidos, localización mundial, países más afectados e impacto en la sociedad y ámbito sanitario. Se exponen las perspectivas sociales determinadas por la pandemia de la COVID-19. Conclusiones: Se examinan los rasgos sobresalientes, en especial las pérdidas de vidas humanas en las principales pandemias que han azotado a la humanidad, desde a.n.e. hasta la más reciente causada por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. La sociedad en su momento actual se enfrenta a incertidumbres y retos sociales, económicos, culturales, éticos, sanitarios y existenciales, provenientes de las implicaciones que está teniendo la pandemia de la COVID-19, lo que determinará consecuencias para la salud y la vida humana. Esta pandemia es mucho más que una crisis sanitaria(AU)

Introduction: This work describes the major pandemics in the history of mankind from B.C. until the most recent caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To examine the major pandemics in the history of mankind and their impact on public health, social scopes and prospects of the current pandemic of COVID-19 in the development of mankind. Methods: There were reviewed publications on the subject in Spanish and English in databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO and Latindex from 2000 to 25 May, 2020. Results: There is a description of the most important aspects of epidemics caused by smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, HIV/AIDS, influenzas and the current one produced by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, on the basis of their onsets, duration in years, amount of deceased, world location, most affected countries and impact on society and the health field. The social perspectives determined by the pandemic of COVID-19 are presented. Conclusions: There was an study on the outstanding features, especially the loss of human lives in the major pandemics that have plagued mankind, from B.C. until the most recent caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The global society at present time is facing uncertainties and challenges of social, economic, cultural, ethical, health and existential kind coming from the implications caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which will determine consequences for human health and life. This pandemic is much more than a health crisis(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Plague/epidemiology , Cholera/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53(supl.1): e20200313, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136916


Abstract The present work analyses some particular aspects of Oswaldo Cruz's unique biography, valuing his work, which was built along a successful physician and scientist professional trajectory and also as a courageous and fortunate formulator of public health policies and of fight strategies against the epidemics that seasonally affected the city of Rio de Janeiro at the beginning of the 20th century. The authors also dwell on his legacy as Head scientist and manager of the Institute that bears his name and became the template for experimental research and medicine in Brazil and the bedrock of the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, one of the most important Brazilian Institutions devoted to teaching, research, development and production in health. This heritage made possible to overcome the existing dissensions between doctors and scientists to build a sanitary movement committed to the major health problems in Brazil. Finally, the paper explores some features of the character and reports some of his moments during his passage, as a Full Academician, at the Brazilian Academia Nacional de Medicina.

History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Tropical Medicine/history , Public Health/history , Academies and Institutes/history , Brazil , Biomedical Research/history