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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Subject(s)
Salix , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methanol , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(1): 1-11, 2022-01-09. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363751

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the infection with the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has affected the life and health of more than 222 million people. In the absence of any specific pharmacological treatment, the need to find new therapeutic alternatives is clear. Medicinal plants are widely used worldwide to treat different conditions, including COVID-19; however, in most cases, there are no specific studies to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Objective: This article evaluates the antiviral effect of six plant extracts used by indigenous and afro Colombian people against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Methods: The antiviral effect of six extracts prepared from plants used in Colombian traditional medicine was evaluated against SARS-CoV-2 through a pre-post treatment strategy on the Vero E6 cell line. Once cytotoxicity was established through an MTT assay, the antiviral effect of the extracts was calculated based on the reduction in the viral titer determined by plaque assay. Results:Gliricidia sepium inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in a 75.6%, 56.8%, 62.5% and 40.0% at 10 mg/mL, 8 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, and 2 mg/mL, respectively, while Piper tuberculatumtreatment reduced viral titer in 33.3% at 6 mg/mL after 48h. Conclusion:G. sepium and P. tuberculatum extracts exhibit antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro


Introducción: La enfermedad infecciosa causada por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) generada por la infección con el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 ha afectado la vida y la salud de mas de 222 millones de personas. En ausencia de algún tratamiento farmacológico específico, la necesidad de encontrar nuevas alternativas terapéuticas es clara. Las plantas medicinales son utilizadas en todo el mundo para tratar diferentes condiciones, incluyendo el COVID-19; sin embargo, en la mayoría de los casos no existen estudios específicos que evalúen la eficacia de estos tratamientos. Objetivo: En este artículo, evaluamos el efecto antiviral de seis extractos de plantas usadas por pueblos indígenas y afrocolombianos contra el SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.Metodología: El efecto antiviral de seis extractos preparados a partir de plantas usadas en medicina tradicional colombiana fue evaluado contra SARS-CoV-2 por medio de una estrategia de pre-post tratamiento en células Vero E6. Una vez se estableció la citotoxicidad por un ensayo de MTT, el efecto antiviral de estos extractos fue calculado basado en la reducción del título viral determinado por ensayo de plaqueo. Resultados:G. sepium inhibió SARS-CoV-2 en un 75.6%, 56.8%, 62.5% y 40.0% a 10 mg/mL, 8 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, and 2 mg/mL, respectivamente. Mientras el extracto de Piper tuberculatum redujo el título viral en un 33.3% a 6 mg/mL luego de 48h de tratamiento


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , Ethnobotany
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 53-58, Mar. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum (also called wolfberry), a famous Chinese traditional medicine and food ingredient, is well recognized for its significant role in preventing obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its preventive effects on fat accumulation are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to determine the effects and mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. MTT was used to detect the proliferation of 3T3-Ll preadipocytes. Oil red O staining and colorimetric analysis were used to detect cytosolic lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology was used to detect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c (PPARc), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein a (C/EBPa), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression. RESULTS: The concentration of LBP from 25 to 200 lg/mL showed a tendency to inhibit the growth of preadipocytes at 24 h, and it inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In the preadipocytes treated with 200 lg/mL LBP, there were reduced lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and its effect was opposite to that of rosiglitazone (ROS), which significantly reduced the PPARc, C/EBPa, aP2, FAS, and LPL mRNA expression of adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: LBP exerts inhibitive effects on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the cytoplasm accumulation of lipid droplets during induced differentiation of preadipocytes toward mature cells. Above phenomenon might link to lowered expression of PPARc, C/EBPa, aP2, FAS, and LPL after LBP treatment. Thus, LBP could serve as a potential plant extract to treat human obesity or improve farm animal carcass quality via adjusting lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides , Plant Extracts , Adipocytes , Lycium/chemistry , Cell Differentiation , 3T3-L1 Cells , Cell Proliferation , Adipogenesis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 763-768, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The haemostatic efficacy of different extract types of Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L. (Lamiaceae) and Verbascum fruticulosum Post. (Scrophulariaceae) was evaluated in this study via the Prothrombin time (PT) and Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) analysis. Aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts of the examined plant species leaves were prepared to a final concentration 50 mg/mL. In vitro PT and aPTT assays were conducted on normal platelet poor plasma blood samples by a digital coagulation analyzer. The obtained results revealed anticoagulation activity of all investigated plant species with observed variations among them. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of T. spicata as well as the aqueous extract of S. thymbra prolonged PT values significantly (p < 0.05). While, all V. fruticulosum extract types have had no significant effect on the PT values. The recorded aPTT data showed that all aqueous extracts have had a significant effect on the blood haemostasis as they increased aPTT values in all plant species under study. Out of which, both the ethanol and methanol extracts of T. spicata and methanol extract of S. thymbra showed similar effect. Of great concern, it was clearly noticed that the aqueous and ethanol extract of T. spicata and the aqueous extract of S. thymbra possess the strongest anticoagulation effect as they increased both PT and aPTT values significantly relative to the control (p < 0.05). The variable anticoagulation bioactivity among the studied plant species could be referred to the various solvents degrees of solubility of different phyto-constituents. Thus, the efficacy of the plant species extracts evaluation as anticoagulants or coagulants were related to the plant species and to the solvent of extraction.


Resumo A eficácia hemostática de diferentes tipos de extrato de Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L. (Lamiaceae) e Verbascum fruticulosum Post. (Scrophulariaceae) foi avaliada neste estudo pelo tempo de protrombina (TP) e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa). Os extratos aquosos, metanólicos e etanólicos das folhas das espécies de plantas examinadas foram preparados para uma concentração final de 50 mg/mL. Os ensaios de TP e TTPa in vitro foram realizados em amostras normais de sangue, pobre em plaquetas, por um analisador de coagulação digital. Os resultados obtidos revelaram atividade anticoagulante de todas as espécies de plantas investigadas, com variações observadas dentre elas. Os extratos aquosos e etanólicos de T. spicata e o extrato aquoso de S. thymbra prolongaram significativamente os valores de TP (p <0,05). Entretanto, todos os tipos de extratos de V. fruticulosum não tiveram efeito significativo sobre os valores de TP. Os dados registrados do TTPa mostraram que todos os extratos aquosos tiveram um efeito significativo na hemostase do sangue, pois aumentaram os valores de TTPa em todas as espécies de plantas em estudo. Dos quais, ambos os extratos etanólicos e metanólicos de T. spicata e o extrato metanólico de S. thymbra mostraram efeito semelhante. De grande preocupação, notou-se claramente que os extratos aquoso e etanólico de T. spicata e o extrato aquoso de S. thymbra apresentam efeito anticoagulante mais forte, aumentando os valores de TP e TTPa significativamente em relação ao controle (p <0,05). A variável bioatividade anticoagulante dentre as espécies vegetais estudadas pôde ser referida aos vários graus de solventes de solubilidade de diferentes fitoconstituintes. Assim, a eficácia da avaliação de extratos de espécies vegetais como anticoagulantes ou coagulantes foi relacionada às espécies vegetais e ao solvente de extração.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Hemostatics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Ethanol , Methanol , Hemostasis
5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215117

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology has introduced nanoparticulate form of selenium for a wide variety of applications. Nanoparticles can be used in medicine due to their increased interaction with microbes and also because it has fewer side effects than the drugs. Selenium nanoparticles have unique biomedical applications ranging from antioxidant activity to anticancer activity. It is distinct with its high biological activity and low toxicity and cytotoxic property. Capparis decidua also called as karira belonging to Capparaceae family is a xerophytic small branched shrub found in Africa, Middle East and South Asia. Its fruit is used for preparing curry and pickles in the western parts of India. In our study, the selenium nanoparticles were extracted from its fruit. Candida albicans is pathogenic yeast in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the urogenital tract affecting the immunocompromised patients and causes various types of infections. It has gained resistance to present antifungals and new formulations are needed to be discovered. MethodsPlant extract was prepared from Capparis decidua fruit powder and filtered using Whatman No. 1 filter paper. It was kept in magnetic stirrer for nanoparticle synthesis. Colour change was observed which indicates the synthesis of nanoparticles. UV visible spectroscopy was taken in proper intervals. The nanoparticles synthesized were purified by centrifugation technique and checked for its antifungal activity. Antifungal activity of the prepared nanoparticles against Candida albicans was determined by using agar well diffusion assay method or agar disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition formed around the disc indicates the sensitivity of the fungi to the plant extract. The inhibition zone diameter was measured using a ruler and compared with the inhibition zone formed by the positive control drug which was done in parallel. ResultsAntifungal activity was showed by an inhibition zone which was characterized by a clear zone around the wells. The diameter of the inhibition zone formed for 50 mL of the plant extract was 20.33 mm ± 0.47, for 100 mL of the plant extract was 28.33 mm ± 0.47, for 150 mL of the plant extract was 30.33 mm ± 0.47 and for the positive control drug was 34.33 mm ± 0.47. ConclusionsThe diameter of the inhibition zones was compared with the positive control drug. Selenium nanoparticles extracted from Capparis decidua fruit showed high activity against Candida albicans. Further in vivo research can be done for the same and it may represent an alternative for treating fungal infections.

6.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 44013; 11(3): 322-328
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214041

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDental caries is a biofilm-related infectious disease with a multifactorial etiology, over five billion inhabitants have affected worldwide due to this disease.ObjectiveAntimicrobial efficacy of a mixed herbal powder extract (MHPE) against cariogenic microorganisms was investigated.Materials and methodsMIC, MBC, kinetics of killing, biofilm disruption and anticaries effect of MHPE were determined. For biofilm disruption, biofilms of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces viscosus and Candida albicans were treated with MHPE for 30 min and attached cells were quantified after staining. For live/dead staining biofilm assay, S. mutans biofilm treated with MHPE for 1min, 5min and 1 h was examined with confocal laser scanning system after live/dead staining. Efficacy was experimented by structural quality using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Anticaries effect was determined by formation of caries-like lesion in continuous flow biofilm model.ResultsMHPE exhibited inhibition zones ranging from 12.5 to 24.0 mm. The highest inhibition zone was recorded at concentration of 50 μg/ml. MIC for S. mutans was between 12.23 and 36.7 μg/ml, while the MBC values ranged from 36.7 to 110.65 μg/ml. Inhibitory concentration of MHPE was three fold higher than CHLX. Significant reduction of cell count (49–95%) was observed with increasing time and higher concentration. Percentage biofilm reduction compare with negative control was 96.9% (A. viscosus), 94% (C. albicans), 99.8% (L. casei) and 91.7% (S. mutans). For MHPE-treated biofilm, live/dead staining demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) higher in deceased red fluorescence areas in all kinetics points from 53.6% (1min) to 85% (1h). SEM confirmed the damage in the outer layers of S. mutans. MHPE has components with effective antibacterial activity against caries-inducing microorganisms.ConclusionThe anti-adherence and anti-biofilm effect as well as the faster killing activity suggests that MHPE formula has effective antibacterial activity and could be a useful source of anti-cariogenic agents in near future.

7.
Acta biol. colomb ; 25(1): 22-28, Jan.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054654

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Ecuador es uno de los países más ricos en biodiversidad y endemismo del mundo, y cerca de 3200 especies de plantas tienen usos medicinales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química y el efecto antimicrobiano del aceite esencial de Lasiocephalus ovatus Schltdl. (Asteraceae) colectada en la provincia de Chimborazo, Ecuador. Las partes aéreas de L. ovatus fueron sometidas a hidrodestilación para obtener el aceite esencial, el cual fue analizado mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La actividad fue evaluada frente a cinco bacterias y una levadura usando la técnica de microdilución en caldo en microplacas de 96 pozos. El rendimiento del aceite fue de 0,05 % y 27 compuestos fueron identificados, representando 95,45 % de la composición total con un elevado contenido de monoterpenos oxigenados (52,17 %). Los compuestos mayoritarios fueron alcanfor (40,48 %) y 1,2,5,5-tetrametil-1,3-ciclopentadieno (11,90 %), seguido por p-menta-1,5-dien-8-ol (5,23 %) y 1,6-dimetilhepta-1,3,5-trieno (4,69 %). Las bacterias más sensibles a la acción del aceite fueron Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 y Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 con concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias de 200-400 µg/mL y bactericidas de 800 µg/mL. La inhibición antimicrobiana frente a las bacterias Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 y la levadura Candida albicans ATCC 10231 fue baja, con un rango de concentración mínima inhibitoria de 800 a 6400 µg/ mL. Este reporte representa un primer análisis de la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite de L. ovatus, por lo tanto, una contribución importante al estudio del género Lasiocephalus.


ABSTRACT Ecuador is one of the richest countries in biodiversity and endemism in the world, and nearly 3200 plant species have medicinal uses. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the chemical composition and the antimicrobial effect of essential oil of Lasiocephalus ovatus Schltdl. (Asteraceae) collected at Chimborazo Province, Ecuador. The aerial parts of L. ovatus were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oil, which was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The activity was evaluated against five bacteria and one yeast using the broth microdilution technique in 96-well microplates. The oil yield was of 0.05 %, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 95.45 % of the total composition with a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (52.17%). The main compounds were camphor (40.48 %) and 1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene (11.90 %) followed by p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol (5.23 %) and 1,6-dimethylhepta-1,3,5-triene (4.69 %). The antimicrobial effect of the essential oil was major against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 200-400 µg/mL and bactericidal of 800 µg/mL. Antimicrobial inhibition against the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 and the yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was low, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 800 to 6400 µg/mL. This report represents a first study of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the oil of L. ovatus, therefore, an important contribution to the study of the genus Lasiocephalus.

8.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 50(11): e20190718, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133227

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate two feed additives, one based on encapsulated sodium butyrate (Adimix® Precision) (AD) and the other, a phytogenic (Apex® 5) (AX), associated or not with an antimicrobial growth promoter (tylosin) during the growth and finishing phases on performance, carcass characteristics and health conditions. A total of 300 barrows and females were distributed in six treatments in a randomized block design with ten replicates. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC), positive control (PC) (tylosin), AD (encapsulated sodium butyrate), AX (phytogenic), PC+AD (tylosin+encapsulated sodium butyrate), and PC+AX (tylosin+phytogenic). The performance (live weight, daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion) and carcass data (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin depth, lean meat on the carcass) were submitted to ANOVA plus Tukey's test, and the health conditions (occurrence of diseases, culling, and spontaneous deaths) were analyzed by χ2. Animals of the AD group had the highest average daily gain (ADG) over the evaluation period and the highest live weight at 120, 140, and 164 days of age, in addition to the highest carcass weight compared to NC and PC groups. The AX treatment increased the ADG in growth phase II and the live weight at 120 and 140 days of age in relation to the NC. The PC+AX group had a higher final live weight compared to the NC and PC groups and higher carcass weight in relation to the NC group. There was no difference among treatments for backfat thickness, percentage of lean meat in the carcass, or occurrence of diseases and deaths. The inclusion of encapsulated sodium butyrate (AD treatment) was effective in increasing ADG, final live weight, and carcass weight compared to supplementation with tylosin (PC treatment), as was the inclusion of a phytogenic (AX treatment) on FC compared to the PC.


RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar dois aditivos alimentares, um a base de butirato de sódio encapsulado (Adimix® Precision) (AD) e outro a base de um fitogênico (Apex® 5) (AX), associados ou não a um antibiótico promotor de crescimento (tilosina), durante as fases de crescimento e terminação, sobre o desempenho, características da carcaça e status de saúde. Foram utilizados 300 suínos machos castrados e fêmeas distribuídos em seis tratamentos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com dez repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em um controle negativo (CN), controle positivo (CP) (tilosina), AD (butirato de sódio encapsulado), AX (fitogênico), CP+AD (tilosina+butirato de sódio encapsulado) e CP+AX (tilosina+fitogênico). Os dados de desempenho (peso vivo, consumo diário de ração, ganho de peso médio diário e conversão alimentar) e de carcaça (peso de carcaça, espessura de toucinho, profundidade do lombo e carne magra na carcaça) foram submetidos à ANOVA seguido por teste de Tukey, e os dados de condição de saúde (ocorrência de doenças, animais eutanasiados e mortos espontaneamente) foram analisados pelo teste de χ2. Os animais do grupo AD apresentaram maior ganho de peso diário (GPD) durante o período de avaliação e maior peso vivo aos 120, 140 e 164 dias de idade, além de maior peso de carcaça em comparação aos grupos CN e CP. O tratamento AX aumentou o GPD na fase crescimento II e o peso vivo aos 120 e 140 dias de idade em relação ao CN. O grupo CP+AX apresentou maior peso final em relação aos grupos CN e CP e maior peso de carcaça em relação ao CN. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para espessura de toucinho, porcentagem de carne magra na carcaça e ocorrência de doenças e óbitos. A inclusão de butirato de sódio encapsulado (tratamento AD) foi efetiva no aumento de GPD, peso final e peso de carcaça em comparação à suplementação com tilosina (tratamento CP), assim como a inclusão fitogênico (tratamento AX) melhorou a conversão alimentar em comparação ao grupo CP.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-189692

ABSTRACT

The research was undertaken to investigate the comparative phytochemical and in-vitro antibacterial activity of the single and combined strengths of the leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Linn and Gongronema latifolium Benth. on some enteric bacterial isolates. The sensitivity test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were carried out using a modified agar-well diffusion method. The enteric bacterial isolates tested included Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella Typhi and Enterobacter aerogenes. Standard methods were applied to obtain the ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. The ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum and G. latifolium produced highly significant inhibitory activity against all the enteric bacterial isolates tested. Comparatively, the ethanol plant extracts were more potent than the commercially available drug, Ciprofloxacin and the aqueous plant extracts. The isolates were sensitive at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.25 mg/ml for the ethanol extract but varied from 2.5 mg/ml - 5.0mg/ml in the aqueous extract. It was also observed that the synergistic antibacterial effect of the medicinal plant extracts was greater than the singular antibacterial effect of the individual plant extracts in both the ethanol and aqueous extracts. The potency of the individual extracts and the combined effect may be due to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins and saponins in the leaves of the plants. This study partly validates the use of the plant extracts in the treatment of disease caused by the enteric bacterial isolates by multiple traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria, however, strict adherence to dosage is recommended. The leaf extract is a potential source of the new drug if the components are purified and enhanced for treating infections caused by these enteric pathogens.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-200230

ABSTRACT

Background: This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the antimicrobial effect of Onion bulbs (Allium cepa) and cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) against some common bacteria causing Urinary tract infection.Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the plant extract in different concentrations was observed. Commonly isolated bacteria from the urine samples of suspected and untreated patients which were found to be E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Results: The comparison between zones of inhibition showed a statistically significant data of both Allium cpea and Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The antimicrobial activity of cinnamon extract showed the maximum effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae, zone of inhibition 25.50 mm±3.72 with 2±l of extract and E. coli with zone of inhibition 11.72mm±1.86. The onion (Allium cepa) extract exhibited some antimicrobial effect, it was most effective against E. coli, though the effect was minimal.Conclusions: From the current study we conclude that the extract of onion and cinnamon bark are promising but were not as effective as the conventional antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin but can be a good alternative in selected group of patient.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209803

ABSTRACT

Cancer has been considered one of these major community healthiness problems. Althaea ludwigii L.(family: Malvaceae)is an indigenous plant, widely distributed in Iraq. The objective of this study is to explore the antiproliferative action ofA. ludwigii L. against breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) and rate embryonic fibroblasts(REF) normal cell line and to identify the bioactive constituent. The aerial parts of A. ludwigii L. were grinded intofine powder then extracted with 85% methanol. Methanol extract was further partitioned with ethyl acetate. Ethylacetate fraction was chosen to test against MCF-7 by (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 (MTT assay) the bioactiveconstituents were investigated by high performance thin layer chromatography high-performance thin-layerchromatography (HPTLC). The data showed that ethyl acetate fraction has significant antiproliferative activity againstMCF-7 (IC50 = 35.5 µg/ml) and REF (IC50 = 1762.9 µg/ml), HPTLC showed the existence of rutin in ethyl acetatefraction. The antiproliferative activity may relate to the existence of rutin which had been approved as potent anticancer.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210091

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of Boswellia dalzielii(Frankincense) stem bark extract on some bacterial and fungal organisms was evaluated for its in-vitro antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarium, Aspergillus fumigatusand Candida albicans. The research work was carried out in Biochemistry andMicrobiology Laboratories of Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. Well diffusion method was carried out on nutrient agar. MIC, MBC and MFC of the test organisms were carried outon nutrient broth. The phytochemistry revealed the presence of saponin, tannin, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides,steroids, terpens and phenol in ethanol extracts while resin, alkaloid and glycosides were absent in hot water extracts. Alkaloid was also absent in ethanolic extract. The aqueous extractof the plant exhibited neither antibacterial nor antifungal effects against all test organisms usedin the study while the ethanolic extract of the plant showed both antibacterialand antifungal effectson the study organisms. The results of this study alsoshowed that the ethanolic extract of Boswellia dalzieliistem bark has activity against allbacteria species used in the study (broad spectrum activity). For gram-negative and positivebacteria, Salmonella gallinariumand Staphylococcus aureuswere the most sensitive whileEscherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogeneswere the least respectively. Candida albicanswas more sensitive than Aspergillus fumigatus. It was concluded that the test organisms weresusceptible to ethanol extracts of the plant and may be good source of antibiotics

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780927

ABSTRACT

Aims@#The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of plant extracts against Curvularia sp., a causative agent of leaf blotch in local purple sweet potato crops. @*Methodology and results@#The plants were selected on the basis of commonly used traditional remedies. Various dilutions, 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8 and 1/10 of black pepper, garden croton, garlic, tobacco and turmeric extracts were used for screening. The lesion characteristics on purple sweet potato leaves were collected from plots in MARDI Bachok. The “poisoning agar technique method” was used to get the antifungal activity. The results of antifungal activities were reported in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth of the test fungus. Out of five types of plant extracts used, only garlic and tobacco showed significantly high antifungal activity against the test pathogen based on poisoned food technique. Garlic extract showed complete inhibition (100%) at 1/2 dilution and more than 94% growth inhibition at concentrations as low as 1/10 dilution after seven days of incubation. However, black pepper and turmeric extracts showed moderate inhibition (20-70%) whereas, no inhibition was recorded in 1/8 and 1/10 dilution of garden croton extract. @*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#Our findings suggested that garlic extract is the most potential antifungal agent against Curvularia sp. and can be used as bio-fungicide thus would reduce the dependency on synthetic fungicides by farmers.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 984-990, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780167

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized clinically as irreversible cognitive dysfunction. Although a significant progress has been made in the study of AD pathogenesis, the effective measures to block AD progress have not been satisfactory. Abnormal autophagy is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of AD, and regulation of autophagy may become a new strategy for AD treatment. Some medicines, which regulate autophagy by mTOR-dependent and independent (Bcl-2/Beclin-1, GSK-3β, and p-AKT) pathways, have shown excellent effects in alleviating AD symptoms. In addition, certain compounds extracted from plants have also been reported to regulate autophagy and prevent AD progression through multiple pathways and multiple targets. This article reviews the recent advances in the regulation of autophagy and AD treatment. It provides a new theoretical basis for clinical treatment of AD.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851248

ABSTRACT

In recent years, plant extracts have been widely developed and used, but the pollution of heavy metals has threatened the safe application of plant extracts. Therefore, effective removal of heavy metal pollution in plant extracts has become an urgent problem to be solved and a research hotspot at home and abroad. At present, the widely used heavy metals removal technologies include flocculent precipitation, adsorption, molecular sieve and so on. Other new technologies and materials are also being applied to the removal of heavy metals from plant extracts, such as microbiological methods, nanotechnology, ion/molecular imprinting techniques, biomimetic materials, etc. This paper reviews the related literature about the principle and application of removal of heavy metals in plant extracts in recent years, summarizes the characteristics of each method, and prospects the development trends and prospects for the future.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-199812

ABSTRACT

Background: Gastric ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder with global consequence, which is aggravated by an imbalance between the aggressive factors and factors that maintain the mucosal integrity. The role of Piliostigma thonningii leaf extract on hematological indices of indomethacin-induced gastric mucosa lesions in Wistar rats was examined.Methods: Thirty-six male rats were divided into six groups of 6 rats each. Group I, the normal control, II gastric ulcerated + cimetidine (standard control), III extract only (100mg/kg bwt), while IV, gastric ulcerated control, V gastric ulcerated + extract (100mg/kg bwt) and VI gastric ulcerated + extract (200mg/kg bwt). After 12 days of administration, gastric ulcer was then induced by oral administration of 40mg/kg bwt indomethacin to rats in groups II, IV, V and VI. The rats were sacrificed 12 hours after indomethacin treatment and blood collected for hematological assay.Results: The RBC count and Hb pattern were similar. There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in RBC and Hb of the ulcer control group which was normalized on administration of 200mg/kg bwt of P. thonningii extract. The MCV of the ulcer lesion was significantly (P<0.05) reversed to normal by the extract.Conclusions: The P. thonningii leaf extract showed promising result by normalizing decreased levels in RBC and Hb caused by ulcer. Except for platelet counts, the WBC count and differential WBC counts were quite positive. It was able to reverse macrocytosis caused by ulcer lesions to normal, hence exhibiting a hemato-protective nature.

18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17267, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951925

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering the high prevalence of human cervical cancer and the adverse effects of the available treatments, it is important to develop studies involving plants. Eugenia uniflora L. is a Brazilian native plant widely used in folk medicine and some biological effects have already been described. In this study, we investigated the biologicals effects of the aqueous crude extract of E. uniflora leaves in relation to the viability of human cervical cancer cells (SiHa), non-tumorigenic cells HaCaT and human lymphocytes. Our results demonstrated that different concentrations of E. uniflora's extract significantly inhibited the viability of the Siha cell line at 24, 48 and 72 hours of treatment, but did not induce significant changes in the HaCat cell line and human lymphocytes. Tumor cells had adhesion capacity, migration processes, ability of colony forming and the potential to recover its viability after treatment. withdrawal, significantly reduced. The nuclear morphology revealed chromatin condensation, and the flow cytometry showed predominantly cell death by apoptosis in the treated tumor cells. Therefore, the E. uniflora's extract may contribute for future studies aiming at new therapeutic perspectives for human cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Eugenia/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845345

ABSTRACT

Echinococcosis(hydatid disease)is a global zoonotic parasitic disease. At present,surgery remains the preferred treatment for this disease,but there are problems such as incomplete treatment and secondary infection. Therefore,adjuvant therapy of drugs is also essential. Albendazole is considered to be one of the most effective drug,but it has many side effects. In contrast,botani- cals have fewer side effects,low cost,and high availability in the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Therefore,searching for herbs or plant extracts effectively treating echinococcosis has become an important topic. This paper summarizes the research progress in plant extracts and traditional Chinese materia medica in treatment of hydatid disease in vitro and in vivo,in order to provide reference for the treatment of echinococcosis by plant drugs.

20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(6): 1586-1591, nov./dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966519

ABSTRACT

This survey aimed to characterize a Urochloa humidicola methanol extract regarding the presence of secondary metabolites classes and to determine its bromatological composition. U. humidicola samples were dried under shade, milled on a 2-mm sieve by a Willey mill. The solution obtained was filtered using filter paper and concentrated in a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure; the concentrated residue was then placed in an open vessel to complete solvent removal using continuous air flow dryers. Phytochemical prospection tests and bromatological composition analyses were performed on the dry methanol extract, and the results were compared to in natura U. humidicola. The methanol extract had 10.2% CP and 35% EE and in natura U. humidicola had 5.17% CP and 1.57% EE, with a difference (P < 0.05) of 5% by Fisher's test. In natura U. humidicola had 75.59% NDF, 40.77% ADF, 38.82% HEM, 29.93% CEL, and 7.19% LIG. Methanol extraction by cold maceration reduced the LIG (0.17%) and CEL (0.21%) contents as only soluble constituents were extracted. A phytochemical assay was positive for the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, steroids, tripernoids, catechins, and saccharides and was negative for the presence of flavonoids and purines. The U. humidicola methanol extract possesses traits that allow its use as a phytogenic and natural additive.


Objetivou-se neste estudo caracterizar o extrato metanólico de Urochloa humidicola, quanto à presença de classes de metabólitos secundários presentes bem como determinar a sua composição bromatológica. Para isto, amostras da parte aérea de U. humidicola foram secas à sombra, moídas em moinho tipo Willey em partículas de 2 mm, submetidas à extração por maceração a frio com metanol, a solução obtida foi concentrada em rotaevaporador e posto para termina a secagem sob fluxo de ar contínuo. O extrato metanólico seco foi submetido aos testes de prospecção fitoquímica e análises de composição bromatológica comparado com a U. humidicola in natura. O extrato apresentou 10,2% de PB e 35% de EE e U. humidicola in natura apresentou 5,17 % de PB e 1,57% de EE, diferindo entre si (P<0,05) pelo teste de Fisher a 5% de significância. A U. humidicola in natura apresentou teores de FDN (75,59%), FDA (40,77%), hemicelulose (38,82%), celulose (29,93%) e lignina (7,19%). O método de extração por maceração a frio com metanol contribuiu para a diminuição dos teores de lignina (0,17%) e celulose (0,21%), por extrair somente os constituintes solúveis. O ensaio fitoquímico apresentou presença positiva para saponina, tanino, alcaloides, aminoácidos não proteicos, carboidratos, glicosídeos cardioativos, esteroides e tripernoides, catequinas e sacarídeos, e negativa para a presença de flavonoides e purinas. O extrato metanólico de Urochloa humidicola apresenta características que permitem seu uso como aditivo natural ou fitogênico.


Subject(s)
Ruminants , Crops, Agricultural , Brachiaria , Food Additives , Animal Husbandry
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