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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258084, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360229

ABSTRACT

Food loss due to contamination caused by fungi has much impact on agriculture and leads to significant economic losses. Synthetic and natural fungicides have been used for avoiding losses of several food products due to fungal contamination. As a result, species of the genus Capsicum have been used for preserving food because of their chemical compounds with antifungal activity. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying some phenolic compounds found in both ethyl acetate extract (EAE) and methanolic extract (ME) from habanero pepper (C. chinense) ripe fruit by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and at evaluating their antifungal activities against fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Extracts resulted from a sequential process of maceration. Antifungal activity was evaluated by the disk diffusion method (DDM) at the following doses of both diluted extracts: 25 µL, 50 µL, 100 µL and 200 µL. The chemical analysis showed that there were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, kaempferol-3-O-robinobiosideo and naringenin in both extracts. EAE showed high inhibition of mycelial growth at both doses 100µL and 200µL against the three fungi while methanolic exhibited weak activity even at the highest dose under investigation. However, further in-depth studies are needed to reinforce their uses and practical applications to the agricultural field.


As perdas de alimentos por contaminação causada por fungos são de grande impacto negativo para a agricultura, gerando altos prejuízos econômicos. Para evitar as perdas de diversos produtos alimentícios pela contaminação fúngica são utilizados fungicidas sintéticos e naturais. As espécies do gênero Capsicum são usadas há muitos anos para auxiliar na conservação de alimentos por possuírem substâncias químicas com ação antifúngica entre outras. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar alguns compostos fenólicos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada à espectrometria de massas sequencial (LC-ESI-MS/MS) presentes nos extratos acetato de etila (EAE) e metanólico (ME) dos frutos maduros da pimenta biquinho (C. chinense) e avaliar atividade antifúngica de EAE e ME contra os fungos Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizopus stolonifer e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Os extratos foram obtidos de forma sequencial, utilizando o procedimento de maceração. A atividade antifúngica foi avaliada seguindo a metodologia de difusão em disco, nas doses de 25 µL, 50 µL, 100 µL e 200 µL de cada extrato diluído. A análise química evidenciou a presença de ácido protocatequico, ácido gentisico, ácido vanílico, kaempferol-3-O-robinobiosídeo e naringenina em ambos os extratos. EAE revelou maior poder de inibição do crescimento micelial nas doses de 100µL e 200µL contra os três fungos testados, enquanto ME exibiu fraca atividade inclusive na maior dose investigada. Entretanto, estudos mais aprofundados ainda são necessários para consolidar seu uso e aplicação prática na área agronômica.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Panax , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254479, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355910

ABSTRACT

Abstract Earias vittellaFabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is deliberated to be one of the most destructive pests of cotton and okra vegetation in the world including Asia. The pest has established resistance to various synthetic insecticides. The use of bio-pesticide is one of the unconventional approaches to develop a vigorous ecosystem without harming non- target pests and beneficial natural insect fauna. In the present study, the toxicity levels of Citrullus colocynthis seed extract have been evaluated against the populations of E. vittellaunder standardized laboratory conditions. The toxic effects of C. colocynthis on development periods, protein contents and esterase activity of the life stages of E. vittella were also evaluated. The toxicity levels of methanol, ethanol, hexane, water and profenofos were evaluated on the 1st instar larvae of E. vittella. LC30 and LC80 concentrations exhibited the effectiveness of methanol-based C. colocynthis seed extract against 1st instar larvae of E. vitella. The enhanced larval and pupal periods were revealed in treated samples during the comparison with untreated samples. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate in the LC30 and LC80 concentrations exposed larvae remained less than the control treatment. Fecundity, the esterase activity and protein contents were declined in LC30 and LC80 treated samples as compared to the control. The present findings suggest that C. colosynthis extracts based botanical insecticides are beneficial, ecosystem sustainable and can be integrated with insect management programs from environment safety perspective.


Resumo Earias vittella Fabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) é considerada uma das pragas mais destrutivas de algodão e quiabo no mundo, incluindo a Ásia. Essa praga estabeleceu resistência a vários inseticidas sintéticos. O uso de biopesticidas é uma das abordagens não convencionais para desenvolver um ecossistema saudável sem prejudicar as pragas não alvo e a fauna natural benéfica de insetos. No presente estudo, os níveis de toxicidade do extrato de semente de Citrullus colocynthis foram avaliados nas populações de E. vittella em condições de laboratório padronizadas. Os efeitos tóxicos de C. colocynthis nos períodos de desenvolvimento, conteúdo de proteína e atividade esterase das fases de vida de E. vittella também foram avaliados. Os níveis de toxicidade de metanol, etanol, hexano, água e profenofós foram avaliados em larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. As concentrações de LC30 e LC80 apresentaram eficácia do extrato de sementes de C. colocynthis à base de metanol contra larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. Os períodos larval e pupal aumentados foram revelados nas amostras tratadas durante a comparação com as amostras não tratadas. A taxa intrínseca de aumento e a taxa reprodutiva líquida nas concentrações de larvas expostas LC30 e LC80 permaneceram menores do que o tratamento controle. A fecundidade, a atividade da esterase e o conteúdo de proteína diminuíram nas amostras tratadas com LC30 e LC80 em comparação com o controle. As presentes descobertas sugerem que os extratos de C. colocynthis à base de inseticidas botânicos são benéficos, sustentáveis ​​para o ecossistema e podem ser integrados com programas de manejo de insetos do ponto de vista da segurança ambiental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Citrullus colocynthis , Insecticides , Moths , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ecosystem , Larva
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1753-1767, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927816

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have reported that the resistance of biofilm bacteria to antibiotics can be up to 10-1 000 fold higher than that of planktonic bacteria. Bacterial biofilms are reported to be responsible for more than 80% of human microbial infection, posing great challenges to the healthcare sector. Many studies have reported that plant extracts and their active ingredients can inhibit the formation and development of bacterial biofilms, including reducing biofilm biomass and the number of viable bacteria in biofilms, as well as eradicating mature biofilms. This review summarized the plant extracts and their active ingredients that are inhibitory to bacterial biofilms, and analyzed the underpinning mechanisms. This review may serve as a reference for the development of plant drugs to prevent and treat biofilm infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Biofilms , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Quorum Sensing
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e254291, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355847

ABSTRACT

Abstract Medicinal plants have long been prescribed in Thailand for centuries. Different constituents of extracts have been used for treating of various infectious diseases. However, there is even less information available regarding the use in fungal skin infection. In order to assess traditional Thai claims about the therapeutic potential, this study is focused on exploring the anti-dermatophyte property of the plants that are currently used as traditional medicines. The potential of four different plant species were selected for investigate in vitro anti-dermatophyte activity. Ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata (L.), Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.), Eclipta prostrate (Linn.), and Acorus calamus (L.). were analysed for their total phenolic content as well as total flavonoid content and were then subjected to test of their anti-dermatophyte properties using agar well diffusion method. Qualitative flavonoids and phenolics analysis of the extracts showed their biologically active constituents. Among the species examined, the result indicated that most of the extracts demonstrated anti-dermatophyte activity. In particular, A. calamus showed the highest efficacy against test organisms. The experiment confirmed the chemical constituents and efficacy of some selected plants and provides a scientific confirmation of the use of Thai plants in traditional medicine for fungal skin infections.


Resumo As plantas medicinais são prescritas há muito tempo na Tailândia, há séculos. Diferentes constituintes de extratos têm sido usados para o tratamento de várias doenças infecciosas. No entanto, existem ainda menos informações disponíveis sobre o uso em infecções fúngicas da pele. A fim de avaliar as alegações tradicionais tailandesas sobre o potencial terapêutico, este estudo está focado em explorar a propriedade antidermatófita das plantas que são usadas atualmente como medicamentos tradicionais. O potencial de quatro espécies de plantas diferentes foi selecionado para investigar a atividade antidermatófita in vitro. Extratos etanólicos de Chromolaena odorata (L.), Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.), Eclipta prostrate (Linn.) e Acorus calamus (L.) foram analisados quanto ao seu conteúdo fenólico total, bem como ao conteúdo de flavonoides totais. E então submetidos ao teste de suas propriedades antidermatófitas usando o método de difusão em ágar bem. A análise qualitativa de flavonoides e fenólicos dos extratos mostrou seus constituintes biologicamente ativos. Entre as espécies examinadas, o resultado indicou que a maioria dos extratos demonstrou atividade antidermatófita. Em particular, A. calamus mostrou a maior eficácia contra organismos de teste. O experimento confirmou os constituintes químicos e a eficácia de algumas plantas selecionadas e fornece uma confirmação científica do uso de plantas tailandesas na medicina tradicional para infecções fúngicas da pele.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Phenols/analysis , Thailand , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Medicine, Traditional
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210219, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253954

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study evaluated the chemical composition of Lippia thymoides (Lt) essential oil and its antimicrobial activity against fungal strains of Candida albicans (Ca) and Gram-negative bacteria Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Methods: Lt essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation apparatus with a modified Clevenger extension. The chemical analysis was analyzed by gas phase chromatography and mass spectrometry on Shimadzu QP 2010 plus. Sample sensitivity evaluation was performed by ABHb-inoculum and culture plates were developed with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, also Fn and Pi samples analysis were in anaerobic environment and Ca sample analysis was performed in aerobic environment. The minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) was determinated by microdilution in eppendorfs tubes. Results: The chemical analysis showed that Thymol (59,91%) is the main compound found in Lt essential oil, also other antifungal and antimicrobial agents were present γ-terpinene (8.16%), p-cymene (7.29%) and ß-caryophyllene (4.49%), Thymol is a central ingredient of many medicinal plants and has a potent fungicidal, bactericidal and antioxidant activity, it has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activity against Periodontal Disease (PD) cause can reduces prostanoids, interleukins, leukotrienes levels in periodontium. CIM result Pi was 6.5 µg/mL, Fn was 1.5 µg/mL and Ca was 0.19 µg/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of L. thymoides, through the compound Thymol, has been shown promising potential against gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria and fungi whose therapeutic arsenal is still very restricted


Subject(s)
Periodontitis , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts , Lippia , Microbiota , Antifungal Agents
7.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e607, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347484

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Streptococcus mutans participa en el origen y progreso de la caries dental, una de las enfermedades más prevalentes a nivel mundial. Su control requiere métodos seguros y accesibles para la población. Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh (Myrtaceae) (camu camu) es un árbol nativo de la amazonía peruana. La capacidad antimicrobiana de los componentes de su fruto ya se ha comprobado. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto hidroetanólico de M. dubia contra S. mutans ATCC 35658. Métodos: Investigación experimental con posprueba y grupos controles. El extracto de la pulpa del fruto de M. dubia se obtuvo mediante maceración hidroetanólica. Las concentraciones evaluadas fueron 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL y 75 mg/mL. La capacidad antibacteriana se determinó mediante el método de difusión en disco. Gluconato de clorhexidina 0,12 por ciento fue el control positivo y el dimetilsulfóxido al 1 por ciento el control negativo. Resultados: La actividad antibacteriana se incrementó de manera directamente proporcional a la concentración del extracto. La concentración de 75 mg/mL mostró una media de inhibición de 18,2 ± 0,774 mm, seguido de la concentración de 50 mg/mL con una media de inhibición de 14,6 ± 1,055 mm y la concentración de 25 mg/mL con un halo de inhibición promedio de 10,1± 0,833 mm. La zona de inhibición del control positivo fue de 16,5 ± 0,516 mm. Existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre la concentración de 75 mg/mL y el control positivo (p< 0,05). Conclusiones: El extracto hidroetanólico de M. dubia muestra actividad antibacteriana in vitro de tipo bactericida sobre S. mutans ATCC 35668(AU)


Introduction: Streptococcus mutans is involved in the genesis and progress of dental caries, one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide, whose control requires safe methods accessible to the population. Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh (Myrtaceae) (camu camu) is a tree native to the Peruvian Amazon. The antimicrobial capacity of the components of its fruit has already been verified. Objective: Evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of M. dubia hydroethanolic extract against S. mutans ATCC 35658. Methods: An experimental study was conducted with post-test analysis and control groups. The extract from the pulp of the fruit of M. dubia was obtained by hydroethanolic maceration. The concentrations evaluated were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 75 mg/mL. Antibacterial capacity was determined by the disc diffusion method. The positive control was 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate, whereas the negative control was 1 percent dimethyl sulfoxide. Results: The antibacterial activity increased directly proportional to the concentration of the extract. The concentration of 75 mg/mL showed a mean inhibition of 18.2 ± 0.774 mm, followed by the concentration of 50 mg/mL with a mean inhibition of 14.6 ± 1.055 mm and the concentration of 25 mg/mL with an average inhibition halo of 10.1 ± 0.833 mm. The zone of inhibition of the positive control was 16.5 ± 0.516 mm. There is a statistically significant difference between the concentration of 75 mg / mL and the positive control (p< 0.05). Conclusions: The M. dubia hydroethanolic extract displays in vitro antibacterial bactericidal activity against S. mutans ATCC 35668(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Streptococcus mutans , Myrtaceae , Dental Caries , Herpes Zoster , Anti-Bacterial Agents , In Vitro Techniques
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 13-20, July. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In fish farming, the plant extracts containing antioxidant compounds have been added to the diet for enhancing pathogen resistance. In vitro studies evaluating the antioxidant effect of herbal extracts on fish cell models have focused on ROS production and the respiratory burst mechanism. However, the effects on enzymatic antioxidant defense on salmon leukocytes have not been evaluated. This study aims to evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant defense and ROS-induced cell damage in Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cell line exposed to polyphenol-enriched extract from Sambucus nigra flowers. RESULTS: Firstly, the Total Reactive Antioxidant Power (TRAP) assay of elderflower polyphenol (EP) was evaluated, showing 459 and 489 times more active than gallic acid and butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT), respectively. The toxic effect of EP on salmon cells was not significant at concentrations below 120 mg/ mL and no hemolysis activity was observed between 20 and 400 mg/mL. The treatment of SHK-1 cell line with EP decreased both the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation induced by H2O2, which could be associated with decreasing oxidative stress in the SHK-1 cells since the GSH/GSSG ratio increased when only EP was added. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that plant extracts enriched with polyphenols could improve the enzymatic antioxidant defense of salmon leukocytes and protect the cells against ROS-induced cell damage


Subject(s)
Salmon , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sambucus nigra/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Free Radical Scavengers , Reactive Oxygen Species , Aquaculture , Oxidative Stress , Salmo salar , Disease Resistance , Leukocytes , Antioxidants
9.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(36): 95-108, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356543

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La conjuntivitis bacteriana es una de las infecciones oculares con mayor tasa de consulta oftálmica, siendo el género Staphylococcus el agente etiológico que presenta mayor resistencia a los antibióticos. Objetivo. Determinar el potencial antimicrobiano de extractos de plantas medicinales y sus mezclas frente a bacterias asociadas con conjuntivitis. Métodos. A partir de plantas como Belladona, Caléndula, Albahaca, Achiote y Romerillo se prepararon los extractos etanólicos y se evaluó su potencial antibacteriano frente a S. aureus y S. epidermidis, mediante las técnicas de difusión en disco y dilución en tubo. El efecto de las mezclas se determinó para el extracto con mejor actividad y el antibiótico con mayor halo de inhibición a través de la técnica de tablero. Resultados. Se encontró que el extracto con mayor potencial para S. aureus fue el de achiote (hojas) con un halo de inhibición de 13 mm y CMIs de 15 mg/mL, mientras que para S. epidermidis fueron los de hojas y frutos de achiote con halos de 16,6 y 9,6 mm y CMIs de 15 y 30 mg/mL respectivamente. En relación con las combinaciones, el extracto de achiote y ciprofloxacina mostró un efecto de sinergia parcial para S. aureus con una CFI de 0,83 y un efecto aditivo para S. epidermidis con una CFI de 1,84. Conclusiones. Este trabajo se constituye en la base de futuras investigaciones orientadas hacia el desarrollo de bioproductos de uso ocular que puedan ser considerados como alternativa en el tratamiento de infecciones causadas por Staphylococcus.


Abstract Introduction. Bacterial conjunctivitis is one of the ocular infections with the highest rate of ophthalmic consultation, being the Staphylococcus genus the etiological agent that presents the greatest resistance to antibiotics. Objective. To determine the antimicrobial potential of medicinal plant extracts and their mixtures against bacteria associated with conjunctivitis. Methods. From plants such as Belladonna, Calendula, Basil, Achiote and Romerillo, ethanolic extracts were prepared and their antibacterial potential against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was evaluated by means of disk diffusion and tube dilution techniques. The effect of the mixtures was determined for the extract with the best activity and the antibiotic with the highest inhibition halo through the board technique. Results. It was found that the extract with the highest potential for S. aureus was that of annatto (leaves) with an inhibition halo of 13 mm and MICs of 15 mg / mL, while for S. epidermidis it was those of annatto leaves and fruits with halos of 16.6 and 9.6 mm and MICs of 15 and 30 mg / mL respectively. In relation to the combinations, the annatto extract and ciprofloxacin showed a partial synergistic effect for S. aureus with a CFI of 0.83 and an additive effect for S. epidermidis with a CFI of 1.84. Conclusions. This work constitutes the basis for future research aimed at the development of bioproducts for ocular use that can be considered as an alternative in the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus.

10.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 44(1): 29-33, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286595

ABSTRACT

El incremento de cepas patógenas resistentes a fármacos convencionales ha limitado las opciones de tratamiento médico. Ante ello surge la necesidad de buscar alternativas terapéuticas. Muchas especies vegetales poseen enorme potencial antimicrobiano que puede ser de gran utilidad. Objetivo: determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro del extracto etanólico de Annona muricata L. sobre Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus B - hemolíticos y Escherichia coli. Métodos: se evaluaron 135 unidades experimentales conformadas por 3 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus B-hemolíticos y Escherichia coli, además de 5 concentraciones del extracto y 3 repeticiones del experimento. Para determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro se emplearon los métodos de disco difusión en agar y macrodilución en caldo. Se utilizó el extracto etanólico a concentraciones de 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg/ml y solución salina fisiológica estéril como control negativo. Resultados: el extracto inhibió el crecimiento in vitro de Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus B-hemolíticos. La mayor inhibición se observó a 1 000 mg/ml con halos inhibitorios de 14,6 mm y 12,33 mm de diámetro, respectivamente. Para Escherichia coli no se observó la formación de halos inhibitorios. Las cepas de Streptococcus B-hemolíticos y Staphylococcus aureus presentaron una concentración mínima inhibitoria de 250 y 500 mg/ml, respectivamente. Conclusión: el efecto antibacteriano in vitro fue directamente proporcional a cada concentración empleada sobre Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus B-hemolíticos. En el caso Escherichia coli no se observó inhibición de crecimiento.


The increase in pathogenic strains resistant to conventional drugs has limited medical treatment options. Given this, the need to seek therapeutic alternatives arises. Many plant species have enormous antimicrobial potential that can be very useful. Objective: to determine in vitro the antibacterial effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona muricata L. on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus B - hemolytic and Escherichia coli. Methods: 135 experimental units were evaluated, consisting of 3 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus B-hemolytic and Escherichia coli, in addition to 5 concentrations of the extract and 3 repetitions of the experiment. To determine the antibacterial effect in vitro, the agar diffusion disk and broth macrodilution methods were used. The ethanolic extract was used at concentrations of 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg / ml and sterile physiological saline solution as negative control. Results: the extract inhibited in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus B-hemolytic. The greatest inhibition was observed at 1000 mg / ml with inhibitory halos of 14.6 mm and 12.33 mm in diameter, respectively. For Escherichia coli the formation of inhibitory halos was not observed. The Streptococcus B-hemolytic and Staphylococcus aureus strains presented a minimum inhibitory concentration of 250 and 500 mg / ml, respectively. Conclusion: the in vitro antibacterial effect was directly proportional to each concentration used on the Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus B-hemolytic. In the case of Escherichia coli, no growth inhibition was observed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

ABSTRACT

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
12.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 446-452, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906557

ABSTRACT

@#Inundated with escalating dengue outbreaks, there is an urgent call to find alternate potential vector control methods as the currently employed method fails to curb the expanding of dengue virus transmission in Malaysia. Supported by this aim, we are interested in exploiting the potential of Ipomoea cairica leaves extract towards primary and secondary vectors of dengue fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. To assess the effectiveness of this plant extracts towards Aedes larvae, we carried out two complementary analyses. First, we observed the comparative effectiveness of larvicidal activity I. cairica extract against the laboratory and field strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Then, we determined the effective lethal dose of this plant extract against Aedes larvae using log-probit regression analysis of the SPSS 20.0 programme. Results from bioassay demonstrated that I. cairica leaves extract was highly effective to induce larvicidal mortality of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti within 24 and 48 hours post-treatment. Results from the factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) also indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal activity between species and strains used (P<0.05). It is interesting to notify that the sequence of effectiveness for the larvicidal activities of I. cairica acethonilic leaves extract is in the manner; Ae. albopictus field strain > Ae. aegypti laboratory strain > Ae. aegypti field strain > Ae. albopictus laboratory strain. The I. cairica leaves extract displayed high larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus as compared to Ae. aegypti. This is the first evaluation involving the comparison of I. cairica leaves extract effects for the laboratory strain and field strain of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti.

13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00922020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143892

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite their widespread usage, synthetic insecticides and larvicides are harmful for controlling disease-causing mosquitoes owing to the development of resistance. The leaves of Eugenia astringens, Myrrhinium atropurpureum, and Neomitranthes obscura were collected from Marambaia and Grumari restingas. The safety and larvicidal efficacy of their extracts were tested against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar. METHODS: The dry leaves were subjected to static maceration extraction using 90% methanol. A. aegypti and S. pertinax larvae were exposed to 7.5, 12.5, and 25.0 µL/mL of the extracts (n= 30). The larvicidal activity after 24 h and 48 h, and the mortality, were determined. The median lethal concentration (CL50) was estimated by a Finney's probit model. RESULTS: M. atropurpureum and E. astringens extracts exhibited the strongest larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. M. atropurpureum extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of over 50% and 100% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively (CL50 = 11.10 and 9.68 ppm, respectively). E. astringens extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of 50% and 63.33% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. High concentrations of N. obscura extracts induced a maximum mortality of 46.66% in A. aegypti larvae after 48 h (CL50= 25 ppm). The larvae of S. pertinax showed 100% mortality following exposure to all the plant extracts at all the tested concentrations after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of M. atropurpuerum exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. The larvae of S. pertinax were sensitive to all the extracts at all the tested concentrations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Simuliidae , Aedes , Culex , Myrtaceae , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Larva
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143399

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial effect and the solubility of experimental root canal filling pastes containing the phytoconstituents terpineol and cinnamaldehyde. Material and Methods: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each phytoconstituent was determined against Enterococcus faecalis. Five groups of antibiotic pastes based on zinc oxide were obtained by mixing: only terpineol, only cinnamaldehyde, terpineol and cinnamaldehyde combined, chlorhexidine (antibiotic control), and CTZ paste (control paste). Antibacterial activity was analyzed through direct contact test within 24 and 72 hours. Solubility was evaluated by spectrophotometry within 48 and 144 hours. Antibacterial activity data were analyzed descriptively, and solubility data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results: The MIC obtained for terpineol and cinnamaldehyde were, respectively, 2000 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL. After 24h, only the terpineol paste did not inhibit E. faecalis growth. After 72h, all groups inhibited E. faecalis growth. After 48h, the highest solubility was verified in the terpineol paste (p<0.05), and no differences were detected among other groups (p>0.05). After and 144h, highest solubility was observed in the terpineol paste (p<0.05), followed by the CTZ paste (p<0.05). No differences were detected for cinnamaldehyde, terpineol+cinnamaldehyde and chlorhexidine pastes (p>0.05). Conclusion: Pastes containing cinnamaldehyde or terpineol+cinnamaldehyde showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis similar to CTZ paste, with lower solubility.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Tooth, Deciduous , Plant Extracts , Enterococcus faecalis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Solubility , Spectrophotometry , Brazil/epidemiology , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
15.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(3): 228-234, 20200930. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255088

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Devido à atual resistência bacteriana aos antimicrobianos e à necessidade de buscar novas substâncias com essa atividade, principalmente em produtos naturais, esse trabalho objetivou avaliar e comparar o potencial antibacteriano de extratos de folhas da planta Eugenia brasiliensis, ainda pouco estudada, obtidas por coletas sazonais. Métodos: As coletas foram realizadas trimestralmente no Jardim Botânico do RJ (JBRJ) e os extratos etanólicos preparados com o pó das folhas secas. Foram utilizadas cepas de referência ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) Gram positivas de Staphylococcus aureus: 25.923 (Beta Lactamase -) e 29.213 (Beta Lactamase +), e duas Gram negativas, Escherichia coli (28.922) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.853). A técnica de escolha foi a microdiluição em placa de 96 poços, pois permite avaliar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e posteriormente a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM). Resultados: A melhor atividade antibacteriana (1 mg/mL) foi identificada nos extratos obtidos nos meses mais quentes (menores CIM para bactérias Gram positivas). A CBM foi compatível com a CIM na maioria das estações/cepas bacterianas, indicando possível atividade bactericida dos extratos. Conclusão: A pesquisa demonstrou uma atividade antibacteriana promissora para Gram positivos e existência de variação sazonal, sugerindo um bom potencial para o uso de E. brasiliensis como antimicrobiano. Os resultados também indicam que, no futuro, outros estudos devem ser realizados, como a prospecção química destes extratos.


Objective: Due to the current bacterial resistance to antimicrobials and the need to search for new substances with this activity, mainly in natural products, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the antibacterial potential of Eugenia brasiliensis leaf extracts, still little studied, obtained by seasonal collections. Methods: Leaf collections were made quarterly at the Jardim Botânico do RJ (JBRJ) and ethanol extracts prepared with dry leaf powder. Reference strains ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) Gram positive from Staphylococcus aureus were used: 25923 (Beta Lactamase -) and 29213 (Beta Lactamase +), and two Gram negative strains, Escherichia coli (28.922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.853). The technique of choice was microdilution in a 96-well plate, as it allows the assessment of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and subsequently the minimum bactericidal concentration (CBM). Results: The best antibacterial activity (1 mg/mL) was identified in the extracts obtained in the warmer months (lower MICs for Gram positive bacteria). CBM was compatible with MIC in most seasons/ bacterial strains, indicating possible bactericidal activity of the extracts. Conclusion: The research demonstrated a promising antibacterial activity for Gram positive and seasonal variation, suggesting a good potential for the use of E.brasiliensis as an antimicrobial. The results also indicate that in the future, other studies should be carried out, such as the chemical prospecting of these extracts.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents
16.
Kasmera ; 48(2): e48230835, jul-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145315

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades infecciosas se encuentran entre las primeras causas de muerte a nivel mundial y la situación se agravada por la aparición progresiva de resistencia a las terapias farmacológicas convencionales. La Persea americana (aguacate), posee sustancias activas que regulan la proliferación de algunos microorganismos patógenos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana y concentración mínima inhibitoria de extractos de Persea americana variedad Choquette sobre el crecimiento de S. aureus ATCC 29213 y E. coli ATCC 25922. La presente fue una investigación de tipo experimental en la que se utilizaron extractos de la cáscara, pulpa y semilla a partir de solventes orgánicos. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibidora (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) de cada extracto utilizando placas de agar Mueller Hinton las cuales fueron inoculadas con la suspensión bacteriana ajustada. La CMI y CMB para la E. coli. Tratada con la cáscara (solvente hexano y el cloroformo) fue de (1/2)1000 mg/ml; la CMI y CMB para el S. aureus (con los solventes cloroformo y acetato de etilo) fue de (1/2)1000 mg/ml, el extracto de la pulpa no presentó actividad antimicrobiana para ambos microorganismos. Los resultados reflejan actividad antimicrobiana en cascara y semilla, por lo que se propone desarrollar nuevas investigaciones orientadas hacia la caracterización de estos compuestos con miras al desarrollo de fármacos antimicrobianos


Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide and the situation is aggravated by the progressive emergence of resistance to conventional drug therapies. The Persea americana (avocado), has active substances that regulate the proliferation of some pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts of Persea americana variety Choquette on the growth of S. aureus ATCC 29213 and E. coli ATCC 25922. The present was an experimental investigation using extracts of the shell, pulp and seed from organic solvents. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MIB) concentration of each extract was determined using Mueller Hinton agar plates which were inoculated with the adjusted bacterial suspension. The MIC and CMB for E. coli. Treated with the shell (hexane solvent and chloroform) was (1/2)1000 mg/ml; the MIC and CMB for S. aureus (with the solvents chloroform and ethyl acetate) was (1/2)1000 mg/ml, the pulp extract did not present antimicrobial activity for both microorganisms. The results reflect antimicrobial activity in shell and seed, so it is proposed to develop further research aimed at the characterization of these compounds for the development of antimicrobial drugs

17.
Rev. méd. hered ; 31(3): 169-174, jul-sep 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150061

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los líquenes son asociaciones simbióticas mutualistas que se dan entre un hongo y organismos fotoautótrofos tales como algas o cianobacterias. Presentan altas concentraciones de sustancias liquénicas, las cuales son químicamente complejas y han presentado una marcada actividad antifúngica y antibacteriana. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antifúngica y antibacteriana (in vitro) del extracto etanólico de Usnea laevis frente a Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Material y métodos: Las sustancias liquénicas presentes en Usnea laevis fueron extraídas mediante el método de Soxhlet y fueron analizadas químicamente por cromatografía acoplado a espectrometría de masas. Para la evaluación de la actividad antifúngica y antibacteriana se utilizó la técnica de Kirby-Bauer. Resultados: Dentro de la composición química del extracto liquénico se tuvo ácido úsnico, eugenol, ergosterol entre otros. Para una concentración de 27 mg/ml del extracto etanólico de Usnea laevis, Staphylococcus aureus fue encontrado sensible siendo esta concentración la que mejores resultados de inhibición arrojó; mientras que la concentración de 11 mg/ml no fue efectiva frente a las cepas evaluadas. Conclusiones: El extracto etanólico de Usnea laevis posee propiedades antifúngicas y antibacterianas frente a Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Staphylococcus aureus.


Summary Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and seaweed or cyanobacteria. Objective: to evaluate the in-vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of Usnea laevis against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: lichened substances present in Usnea laevis were extracted using the Soxhlet methods and were analyzed by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to evaluate both the antibacterial and antifungal activity. Results: Usnic acid, eugenol, and ergosterol were the compounds found. S. aureus was sensitive at a concentration of 27 mg/ml of the enolic extract, the 11 mg/ml concentration was not effective. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of Usnea laevis has antibacterial and antifungal properties against the pathogens tested.

18.
NOVA publ. cient ; 18(33): 53-71, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149449

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La biodiversidad colombiana y los saberes tradicionales permiten la exploración de plantas medicinales con potencial actividad antimicrobiana que podrían usarse para tratamiento de infecciones. Objetivos. Determinar la actividad antibacteriana de extractos etanólicos de Lantana camara L., Petiveria alliacea L. y Lippia dulcis T. sobre Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6380 y Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó la adquisición del material vegetal y caracterización botánica, se obtuvieron los extractos etanólicos por percolación y se realizó caracterización fitoquímica preliminar mediante cromatografía en capa delgada (CCD). Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana, mediante pruebas de difusión con disco y difusión en agar en concentraciones de 1mg/mL y 2mg/mL; para extractos activos se estableció la Concentración Inhibitoria mínima (CIM) y Concentración Mínima Bactericida (CMB). Para análisis estadístico se realizó prueba t de Student. Resultados y discusión. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 fue sensible con Lantana camara L. y Lippia dulcis T. siendo este último activo también sobre Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6380 con efecto inhibitorio superior al 50%. El extracto de Lippia dulcis T. presentó la mayor actividad inhibitoria sobre S. aureus (CMI: 1,95 mg/mL). Ningún extracto mostró actividad sobre Escherichia coli ni Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metabolitos secundarios, especialmente terpenoides y cumarinas fueron detectados en L. dulcis. Conclusiones. El estudio muestra que productos naturales derivados de plantas medicinales como los extractos etanólicos de Lantana camara y Lippia dulcis, presentan actividad antibacteriana sobre S. aureus y P. vulgaris y podrían ser alternativa promisoria para tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas.


Abstract Introduction. Colombian biodiversity and traditional knowledge allow the exploration of medicinal plants with potential antimicrobial activity, which could be used to treat infections. Objectives. To determine the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of Lantana camara L., Petiveria alliacea L. and Lippia dulcis T. on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6380 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Materials and methods. Performed the acquisition of plant material and botanical characterization, ethanolic extracts were obtained by percolation and preliminary phytochemical characterization was performed by thin layer chromatography (CCD). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion and agar diffusion tests at concentrations of 1mg/mL and 2mg/mL; for active extracts, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (CMB) were established. For statistical analysis, Student's t test was performed. Results and discussion. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was sensitive with Lantana camara L. and Lippia dulcis T. The latter being also active on Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6380 with inhibitory effect higher than 50%. The extract of Lippia dulcis T. had the highest inhibitory activity on S. aureus (MIC: 1.95 mg/mL). No extract showed activity on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Secondary metabolites, especially terpenoids and coumarins were detected in L. dulcis. Conclusions. The study shows that natural products derived from medicinal plants such as the ethanolic extracts of Lantana camara and Lippia dulcis have antibacterial activity on S. aureus and P. vulgaris and could be a promising alternative for the treatment of bacterial infections.

19.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [10], 01/01/2020.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147075

ABSTRACT

Herbal medicines have been studied as potential antimicrobial agents, emerging as treatments against oral diseases. The current study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract and fractions of Mikania laevigata SchultzBip. ex Baker (ML) and Varronia curassavicaJacq (VC) against oral pathogens associated with persistent dental root infections, under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations were determined for the ML and VC fractions/extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans using the microdilution method. The best results were chosen for subsequent biofilm assays. All tested ML and VC extracts/fractions demonstrated inhibitory activity against E. faecalis and A. israelii. The ML ethyl acetate fraction affected the growth of all microorganisms tested. C. albicans and P. aeruginosawere not affected by any VC extract/fractions. The ML ethyl acetate fraction eliminated E. faecalis, A.israelii, and P. aeruginosa biofilms after 24h. A similar result was observed for ML crude hydroethanolic extract and its hexane fraction for A. israelii. The VC hexane fraction was able to eliminate A. israelli biofilms. None of the tested extracts or fractions eliminated C. albicans biofilm. The Mikania laevigata ethyl acetate fraction is an efficient antimicrobial agent against oral pathogens and could be indicated for the treatment of persistent dental infections.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846735

ABSTRACT

The Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of epidemiologically relevant arboviruses in the public health context, such as the dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. Among the alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of these vectors, the use of natural plant products deserves attention. This review summarizes findings on the larvicidal potential of plant extracts on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, as well as the potential of isolated compounds from plants of the Annonaceae and Piperaceae families against these vectors. Descriptors related to larvicidal activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds in Aedes spp. in the Web of Science database were used, for plant extracts considering publications between 2000 and 2019. A total of 859 articles were analyzed for plant extracts and estimates of lethal concentration values (LC50 and LC90). In the end, 95 articles that presented the larvicidal potential of 150 plant species from 52 families were analyzed. The two families most studied for this activity were Fabaceae and Asterace Aedes. The plant families with the best LC50 values against mosquitoes were Piperaceae and Annonaceae. Larvicidal activity of 50 acetogenins has already been identified on Ae. aegypti, and 29 of them presented LC50 below 10 ug/mL, as well as the larvicidal activity of 8 compounds isolated from Piperaceae. Therefore, plants of these two families are promising for the development of commercial botanical larvicides in the form of extracts and isolated substances, as well as the production via organic synthesis of the most active compounds.

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