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1.
Rev. inf. cient ; 103: e4466, 2024. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1560099

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Plasmodium falciparum es el causante de más del 90 porciento de los casos de malaria en el mundo. Objetivo: Describir aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de pacientes con malaria grave, atendidos en el Hospital Municipal de Cuimba, provincia de Zaire, República de Angola. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal y retrospectivo, durante el periodo comprendido entre enero-junio de 2023, en pacientes con diagnóstico de malaria grave. El universo fue conformado por 452 pacientes positivos de malaria, la muestra quedó conformada por 97 pacientes que desarrollaron malaria grave. Se estudiaron variables asociadas como: anemia severa, convulsiones, hiperparasitemia, entre otras. Resultados: La media de edad fue de 14,8 años, el 43,3 porciento menor de cinco años, con predominio del sexo masculino (53,9 porciento). El Plasmodium falciparum estuvo presente en 59 casos (60,8 porciento), con elevadas tasas de parasitemia. Las manifestaciones de disfunción cerebral en asociación con la anemia severa resultaron estar en el cuadro clínico del 31 porciento de los pacientes. El 40,2 porciento de los enfermos no presentó complicaciones en su estadía hospitalaria. El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (18,6 porciento) fue la complicación más frecuente que sobrellevó al fallecimiento del 12,4 porciento de los pacientes. El artesunato fue usado en 77,3 porciento de los pacientes. Conclusiones: El paludismo representa un problema de salud en el Hospital Municipal de Cuimba, con mayor frecuencia en los menores de cinco años. Prevalece la infección por Plasmodium falciparum en pacientes con anemia severa.(AU)


Introduction: Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90 percent of malaria worldwide. Objective: Characterization of Clinical-epidemiological aspects of severe malaria in patients treated at the Municipal Hospital of Cuimba, Zaire, Angola. Method: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted, during the period January - June 2023, in patients reported with severe malaria. The study involved a total of 452 patients with positive malaria but only 97 of them, who presented a complication of severe malaria, were selected as sample. The variables used were as follow: severe anemia, convulsions, hyperparasitemia, among others. Results: Male sex was predominant, with an average age of 14.8 percent and 43.3 percent of patients under five years of age. Plasmodium falciparum was found in 59 patients (60.8 percent) with a high parasitaemia prevalence. Manifestations of cerebral dysfunction in association with severe anemia were found in the clinical picture of 31 percent of patients. The 40.2 percent of patients had no complications in admission period. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome was the most frequent complication (18.6 percent), and it was the leading cause of death in 12.4 percent of patients. Artesunate was used in 77.3 percent of patients. Conclusions: Malaria is a health problem in Municipal Hospital of Cuimba, with a higher incidence in children under five years of age; Plasmodium falciparum infection prevailed in patients with severe anemia.(AU)


Introdução: O Plasmodium falciparum é responsável por mais de 90 porcento da malária em todo o mundo. Objetivo: Caracterização dos aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos da malária grave em pacientes atendidos no Hospital Municipal de Cuimba, Zaire, Angola. Método: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo, transversal e retrospetivo, durante o período de janeiro a junho de 2023, em doentes notificados com malária grave. O estudo envolveu um total de 452 doentes com malária positiva, mas apenas 97 deles, que apresentavam uma complicação de malária grave, foram seleccionados como amostra. As variáveis utilizadas foram as seguintes: anemia grave, convulsões, hiperparasitemia, entre outras. Resultados: O sexo masculino foi predominante, com uma idade média de 14,8 anos e 43,3 porcento dos doentes com menos de cinco anos de idade. O Plasmodium falciparum foi encontrado em 59 doentes (60,8 porcento) com uma elevada prevalência de parasitemia. Manifestações de disfunção cerebral em associação com anemia grave foram encontradas no quadro clínico de 31 porcento dos doentes. Os 40,2 porcento dos doentes não tiveram complicações no período de admissão. A Síndrome de Angústia Respiratória Aguda foi a complicação mais frequente (18,6 porcento) e foi a principal causa de morte em 12,4 porcento dos doentes. O artesunato foi utilizado em 77,3 porcento dos doentes. Conclusões: A malária é um problema de saúde em Hospital Municipal de Cuimba, com uma maior incidência em crianças com menos de cinco anos de idade; a infeção por Plasmodium falciparum prevaleceu em pacientes com anemia grave.(AU)

2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 57: e00405, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559182

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Malaria is a major global public health issue with varying epidemiologies across countries. In Colombia, it is a priority endemic-epidemic event included in the national public health policy. However, evidence demonstrating nationwide variations in the disease behavior is limited. This study aimed to analyze changes in the levels and distribution of endemic-epidemic malaria transmission in the eco-epidemiological regions of Colombia from 1978 to 1999 and 2000 to 2021. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive time-series study using official secondary data on malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in Colombia from 1978 to 2021. Temporal-spatial and population variables were analyzed, and the absolute and relative frequency measures of general and regional morbidity and mortality were estimated. Results: We observed an 18% reduction in malaria endemic cases between the two study periods. The frequency and severity of the epidemic transmission of malaria varied less and were comparable across both periods. A shift was observed in the frequency of parasitic infections, with a tendency to match and increase infections by Plasmodium falciparum. The risk of malaria transmission varied significantly among the eco-epidemiological regions during both study periods. This study demonstrated a sustained decrease of 78% in malarial mortality. Conclusions: Although the endemic components of malaria decreased slightly between the two study periods, the epidemic pattern persisted. There were significant variations in the risk of transmission across the different eco-epidemiological regions. These findings underscore the importance of targeted public health interventions in reducing malarial morbidity and mortality rates in Colombia.

3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(3): 352-359, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533946

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La resistencia de Plasmodium falciparum a diferentes fármacos antipalúdicos es un obstáculo para eliminar la enfermedad. El genotipo resistente de P. falciparum a la artemisinina puede evaluarse examinando los polimorfismos en el dominio de la hélice del gen Pfk13. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda utilizar estas mutaciones como marcadores moleculares para detectar la resistencia a la artemisinina en países donde la malaria por P. falciparum es endémica. Objetivo. Identificar mutaciones relacionadas con la resistencia a artemisinina presentes en el dominio de la hélice del gen k13 de P. falciparum. Materiales y métodos. Mediante la detección pasiva de casos, se recolectaron 51 muestras positivas por microscopía para Plasmodium, provenientes de seis comunidades del distrito de Río Santiago en Condorcanqui, Amazonas. Se realizó la confirmación molecular de la especie mediante PCR en tiempo real y el dominio de la hélice del gen Pfk13 se amplificó y secuenció por electroforesis capilar. Las secuencias obtenidas se compararon con la cepa de referencia 3D7 de fenotipo silvestre. Resultados. Se confirmó un total de 51 muestras positivas para P. falciparum, provenientes de las comunidades de Ayambis, Chapiza, Palometa, Muchinguis, Alianza Progreso y Caterpiza. Después del alineamiento de las secuencias de ADN, se determinó que las muestras no presentaron mutaciones asociadas con resistencia en el gen K13. Discusión. Los resultados obtenidos son coherentes con estudios similares realizados en otros países de Sudamérica, incluyendo Perú. Estos datos proporcionan una línea base para la vigilancia molecular de resistencia a artemisinina en la región Amazonas y refuerzan la eficacia de la terapia combinada con artemisinina en esta área.


Introduction. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to different antimalarial drugs is an obstacle to disease elimination. The artemisinin-resistant genotype of P. falciparum can be assessed by examining polymorphisms in the helix domain of the Pfk13 gene. The World Health Organization recommends these mutations as molecular markers to detect artemisinin-resistant in countries where P. falciparum malaria is endemic. Objective. To identify artemisinin resistance-related mutations present in the helix domain of the P. falciparum k13 gene. Materials and methods. We collected a total of 51 samples through passive case detection, positive for Plasmodium by microscopy, from six communities in the district of Río Santiago in Condorcanqui, Amazonas. Molecular species confirmation was performed by real-time PCR and Pfk13 helix domain was amplified and sequenced by capillary electrophoresis. The obtained sequences were compared with the wild type 3D7 reference strain. Results. A total of 51 positive samples were confirmed for P. falciparum from the communities of Ayambis, Chapiza, Palometa, Muchinguis, Alianza Progreso and Caterpiza. DNA sequences alignment showed the absence of resistance-associated mutations in the k13 gene of the collected samples. Discussion. The obtained results are consistent with similar studies conducted in other South American countries, including Perú, so these data provide a baseline for artemisinin- resistance molecular surveillance in the Amazon region and reinforce the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy in this area.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance , Malaria , Peru , Plasmodium falciparum , Amazonian Ecosystem
4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217974

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria is a major health issue in tropical and subtropical areas. Out of all subtypes, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) is the most dangerous form accounting for high mortality and morbidity. It is transmitted by infected female anopheles mosquitoes and infected blood transfusions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to establish correct diagnosis by direct microscopy, Immunochromatographic test (ICT), and molecular studies. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the PG Department of Microbiology, SCB Medical College, Cuttack. Thick blood smears were drawn and then stained with Leishman’s stain to visualize falciparum rings. DNA was extracted from infected blood samples by phenol chloroform method with some modification as described by Sambrook and Russel for molecular analysis. Results: In the present study, 150 cases of malaria were analyzed. The male: female ratio was 1.7:1 and age ranged from 0 to 56 years. The Plasmodium vivax positivity was compared with thin smear to 21 (84%) in ICT, 100% both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) assays followed by the Pf positivity as 76 (92.7%) in ICT, 82 (100%) both PCR and LAMP assays, respectively. The results obtained were statistically significant with P < 0.001. The PCR and LAMP showed 100% response to specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusion: The present study established the role of molecular tests such as PCR and LAMP are highly specific for diagnosis of Plasmodium species whereas they are more or less similar in sensitivity as compared to other diagnostic methods such as ICT and microscopy.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223572

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf) poses a serious threat to the control and elimination of malaria. The objective of this study was to detect the molecular biomarkers of antimalarial drug resistance in Pf in patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in Assam. Methods: Malaria was first detected in fever cases using microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and then confirmed using PCR. Pf chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), Pf multidrug resistance-1 (Pfmdr-1), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms linked to delayed parasite clearance after treatment with artemisinin MAL 10-688956 and MAL 13-1718319 and Kelch-13 propeller (PfK-13) genes were evaluated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: Sixty nine cases of malaria were found among 300 cases of fever. Of these, 54 were positive for Pf, 47 of which were confirmed by PCR. Pfcrt-K76T mutation was seen in 96.6 per cent and Pfmdr1-N86Y mutation in 84.2 per cent of cases. Mutation was not detected in MAL10 and MAL13 genes. Sequence analysis of Kelch-13 gene showed the presence of a novel mutation at amino acid position 675. Statistically, no significant association was found between the molecular biomarkers and demographic profile, clinical presentation and outcome of the cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Molecular surveillance is essential to assess the therapeutic efficacy of the drugs against circulating Pf isolates in Assam which are found to be highly resistant to CQ. The role of the new mutation found in the Kelch-13 gene in the development of artemisinin resistance in Assam needs to be thoroughly monitored in future research.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223526

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: India targets malaria elimination by 2030 in a phased manner, so malaria’s assured diagnosis is crucial. Introduction of rapid diagnostic kits in India in 2010 has revolutionized malaria surveillance. The storage temperature of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), kit components and handling in transportations impact the results of RDTs. Therefore, quality assurance (QA) is required before it reaches end-users. The Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR-NIMR) has a World Health Organization (WHO) recognized lot-testing laboratory facility to assure the quality of RDTs. Methods: The ICMR-NIMR receives RDTs from different manufacturing companies as well as various agencies such as National and State Programmes and Central Medical Services Society. The WHO standard protocol is followed to conduct all the tests, including long-term and post-dispatch testing. Results: A total of 323 lots tested during January 2014-March 2021 were received from different agencies. Amongst them, 299 lots passed the quality of test and 24 failed. In long-term testing, 179 lots were tested and only nine failed. A total of 7741 RDTs were received from end-users for post-dispatch testing of which 7540 qualified the QA test with a score of 97.4 per cent. Interpretation & conclusions: RDTs received for quality testing showed compliance with QA evaluation of malaria RDTs based on the protocol recommended by the WHO. However, continuous monitoring of the quality of RDTs is required under QA programme. Quality-assured RDTs have a major role, especially in areas where low parasitaemia of parasites persists.

7.
Pacific Journal of Medical Sciences ; : 3-15, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973549

ABSTRACT

@#Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by protozoan Plasmodium species. Plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest species. Reducing and eliminating malaria burden are linked to most of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), central to SDG3 targeting the end of malaria by 2030. This study was aimed at assessing the Management of malaria and prevalence of P. falciparum kelch-13 among febrile patients in selected Government Hospitals in Nigeria. Malaria patients (399) attending outpatient clinics of the Hospitals between August, 2019 and January, 2021, were enlisted in the study, following ethical approval and informed consents. Blood (5mL) was collected from patients for microscopic and molecular investigation of malaria parasite. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, BLAST, and alignment were performed. Plasmodium resistance to Artemether/lumefantrine was determined by PCR amplification of extracted DNA using Kelch-13 gene primer. Data obtained were subjected to One-way Analysis of Variance and Linear Regression. The VapA gene primer amplified 55 (68.75%) out of the 80 DNA extracts tested. Twenty-five strains of P. falciparum belonging to 3 clades phylogenetically were identified and they showed evolutionary relationships with others. Plasmodium falciparum resistant Kelch-13 gene was detected in 70% of the isolates. This study observed a high prevalence of resistant gene to ACT drugs in the study area. Monitoring the effectiveness of ACTs must be done routinely to ensure timely changes in National treatment policies.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247422, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285631

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Chloroquine (CQ) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data on the prevalence of CQ-resistant mutant haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes from malaria-endemic war effected Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. falciparum CQ-resistance in this area. Clinical isolates were collected between May 2017 and May 2018 from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies of Federally Administrated Trial Area. Subsequently, Giemsa-stained blood smears were examined to detect Plasmodium falciparum. Extraction of malarial DNA was done from microscopy positive P. falciparum samples, and P. falciparum infections were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes). All PCR confirmed P. falciparum samples were sequenced by pyrosequencing to find out mutation in Pfcrt gene at codon K76T and in pfmdr1 at codons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D, and D1246Y. Out of 121 microscopies positive P. falciparum cases, 109 samples were positive for P. falciparum by nested PCR. Pfcrt K76T mutation was found in 96% of isolates, Pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was observed in 20%, and 11% harboured Y184F mutation. All samples were wild type for Pfmdr1 codon N1042D and D1246Y. In the FATA, Pakistan, the frequency of resistant allele 76T remained high despite the removal of CQ. However, current findings of the study suggest complete fixation of P. falciparum CQ-resistant genotype in the study area.


Resumo A resistência do Plasmodium falciparum à cloroquina (CQ) é uma causa significativa de mortalidade e morbidade em todo o mundo. Há uma escassez de dados documentados sobre a prevalência de haplótipos mutantes CQ-resistentes dos genes Pfcrt e Pfmdr1 da guerra endêmica da malária em áreas tribais administradas pelo governo federal do Paquistão. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de resistência a CQ de P. falciparum nesta área. Isolados clínicos foram coletados entre maio de 2017 e maio de 2018 nas agências do Waziristão do Norte e do Waziristão do Sul da Área de Ensaio Administrada Federalmente. Posteriormente, esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa foram examinados para detectar Plasmodium falciparum. A extração do DNA da malária foi feita a partir de amostras de P. falciparum positivas para microscopia, e as infecções por P. falciparum foram confirmadas por nested PCR (visando genes de ácido ribonucleico ribossômico de subunidade pequena de Plasmodium (ssrRNA)). Todas as amostras de P. falciparum confirmadas por PCR foram sequenciadas por pirosequenciamento para descobrir a mutação no gene Pfcrt no códon K76T e em pfmdr1 nos códons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D e D1246Y. De 121 microscopias de casos positivos de P. falciparum, 109 amostras foram positivas para P. falciparum por nested PCR. A mutação Pfcrt K76T foi encontrada em 96% dos isolados, a mutação Pfmdr1 N86Y foi observada em 20% e 11% abrigou a mutação Y184F. Todas as amostras eram do tipo selvagem para o códon N1042D e D1246Y de Pfmdr1. No FATA, Paquistão, a frequência do alelo resistente 76T permaneceu alta apesar da remoção de CQ. No entanto, as descobertas atuais do estudo sugerem a fixação completa do genótipo resistente a CQ de P. falciparum na área de estudo.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Pakistan , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Alleles
9.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 351-355, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006869

ABSTRACT

@#Malaria, caused by the unicellular Apicomplexan protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, is an infectious disease transmitted via female Anopheles mosquitoes. The sexual stage (gametocytes) of malaria parasites is the key to the transmission of parasites from vertebrate hosts to mosquitoes, representing critical bottleneck of the parasite life cycle. This study has established a systematic computational pipeline to achieve the genome-wide in silico analysis and find 708 novels potentially indispensable genes for gametocyte development, consisting of 644 protein coding genes, 56 ncRNA genes and 8 pseudogenes, with a total of 191 genes in the transmembrane, 29 protein coding genes to be exported proteins, and 58 genes in apicoplast regions. Furthermore, Gene Ontology analysis showed that the largest cluster was cellular processes with nucleus and cytosol highest, followed by molecular function with binding and oxidoreductase activities abundant. Meanwhile, when a text searched, using PlasmoDB, there were 300 genes with annotations of “putative”, and 196 genes with annotations of “unknown function”. These data would be helpful to provide potential targets for effective malaria transmission-blocking strategies.

10.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 998-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016568

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To investigate the prevalence of C580Y mutation of kelch13 gene in the imported P. falciparum cases in Wuhan City, China, and to provide a reference basis for the prevention and treatment of imported falciparum malaria. Methods From 2009 to 2015, blood samples were collected from returnees who infected with P. falciparum in endemic areas of Africa and Southeast Asia in Wuhan City. The P. falciparum DNA was extracted from the blood samples, and kelch13 gene was amplified by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and the distribution of C580Y mutation was analyzed. Results C580Y mutation was detected in 16 of the 208 cases tested by LAMP. No mutations were detected in 69 cases of imported falciparum malaria from Africa during 2009-2012, while 13 cases of the C580Y mutation were detected in 114 cases from 2013 to 2015, with a mutation rate of 11.4%. The mutation rate in South Africa, West Africa, and Central Africa was 12.5%, 9.6%, and 19.0%, respectively, with no mutations detected in cases from North Africa and East Africa. Among the 25 cases of falciparum malaria from Southeast Asia between 2009 and 2013, three cases were positive for the C580Y mutation, all from Myanmar, with a mutation rate of 14.3% (3/21) in Myanmar and 12.0% (3/25) in Southeast Asia. There was no significant difference in the mutation rate between Africa and Southeast Asia after 2013 (P>0.05). Conclusions Our findings highlight the varying degrees of C580Y mutations of kelch13 gene in imported P. falciparum cases in Wuhan and suggest the need for enhanced monitoring and evaluation of related resistance genes.

11.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 557-564, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011413

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of artemisinin resistance-related Pfubp1 and Pfap2mu genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, so as to to provide baseline data for the formulation of malaria control strategies in Bioko Island. Methods A total of 184 clinical blood samples were collected from patients with P. falciparum malaria in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea from 2018 to 2020, and genomic DNA was extracted. The Pfubp1 and Pfap2mu gene SNPs of P. falciparum were determined using a nested PCR assay and Sanger sequencing, and the gene sequences were aligned. Results There were 159 wild-type P. falciparum isolates (88.83%) from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, and 6 SNPs were identified in 20 Pfubp1-mutant P. falciparum isolates (11.17%), in which 4 non-synonymous mutations were detected, including E1516G, K1520E, D1525E, E1528D. There was only one Pfubp1gene mutation site in 19 Pfubp1-mutant P. falciparum isolates (95.00%), in which non-synonymous mutations accounted for 68.42% (13/19). D1525E and E1528D were identified as major known epidemic mutation sites in the Pfubp1 gene associated with resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). At amino acid position 1525, there were 178 wild-type P. falciparum isolates (99.44%) and 1 mutant isolate (0.56%), with such a mutation site identified in blood samples in 2018, and at amino acid position 1528, there were 167 wild-type P. falciparum isolates (93.30%) and 12 mutant isolates (6.70%). The proportions of wild-type P. falciparum isolates were 95.72% (134/140), 79.25% (126/159) and 95.83% (161/168) in the target amplification fragments of the three regions in the Pfap2mu gene (Pfap2mu-inner1, Pfap2mu-inner2, Pfap2mu-inner3), respectively. There were 16 different SNPs identified in all successfully sequenced P. falciparum isolates, in which 7 non-synonymous mutations were detected, including S160N, K199T, A475V, S508G, I511M, L595F, and Y603H. There were 7 out of 43 Pfap2mu-mutant P. falciparum isolates (16.28%) that harbored only one gene mutation site, in which non-synonymous mutations accounted for 28.57% (2/7). For the known delayed clearance locus S160N associated with ACTs, there were 143 wild-type (89.94%) and 16 Pfap2mu-mutant P. falciparum isolates (10.06%). Conclusions Both Pfubp1 and Pfap2mu gene mutations were detected in P. falciparum isolates from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea from 2018 to 2020, with a low prevalence rate of Pfubp1 gene mutation and a high prevalence rate of Pfap2mu gene mutation. In addition, new mutation sites were identified in the Pfubp1 (E1504E and K1520E) and Pfap2mu genes (A475V and S508G).

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468871

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Chloroquine (CQ) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data on the prevalence of CQ-resistant mutant haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes from malaria-endemic war effected Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. falciparum CQ-resistance in this area. Clinical isolates were collected between May 2017 and May 2018 from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies of Federally Administrated Trial Area. Subsequently, Giemsa-stained blood smears were examined to detect Plasmodium falciparum. Extraction of malarial DNA was done from microscopy positive P. falciparum samples, and P. falciparum infections were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes). All PCR confirmed P. falciparum samples were sequenced by pyrosequencing to find out mutation in Pfcrt gene at codon K76T and in pfmdr1 at codons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D, and D1246Y. Out of 121 microscopies positive P. falciparum cases, 109 samples were positive for P. falciparum by nested PCR. Pfcrt K76T mutation was found in 96% of isolates, Pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was observed in 20%, and 11% harboured Y184F mutation. All samples were wild type for Pfmdr1 codon N1042D and D1246Y. In the FATA, Pakistan, the frequency of resistant allele 76T remained high despite the removal of CQ. However, current findings of the study suggest complete fixation of P. falciparum CQ‑resistant genotype in the study area.


A resistência do Plasmodium falciparum à cloroquina (CQ) é uma causa significativa de mortalidade e morbidade em todo o mundo. Há uma escassez de dados documentados sobre a prevalência de haplótipos mutantes CQ-resistentes dos genes Pfcrt e Pfmdr1 da guerra endêmica da malária em áreas tribais administradas pelo governo federal do Paquistão. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de resistência a CQ de P. falciparum nesta área. Isolados clínicos foram coletados entre maio de 2017 e maio de 2018 nas agências do Waziristão do Norte e do Waziristão do Sul da Área de Ensaio Administrada Federalmente. Posteriormente, esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa foram examinados para detectar Plasmodium falciparum. A extração do DNA da malária foi feita a partir de amostras de P. falciparum positivas para microscopia, e as infecções por P. falciparum foram confirmadas por nested PCR (visando genes de ácido ribonucleico ribossômico de subunidade pequena de Plasmodium (ssrRNA)). Todas as amostras de P. falciparum confirmadas por PCR foram sequenciadas por pirosequenciamento para descobrir a mutação no gene Pfcrt no códon K76T e em pfmdr1 nos códons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D e D1246Y. De 121 microscopias de casos positivos de P. falciparum, 109 amostras foram positivas para P. falciparum por nested PCR. A mutação Pfcrt K76T foi encontrada em 96% dos isolados, a mutação Pfmdr1 N86Y foi observada em 20% e 11% abrigou a mutação Y184F. Todas as amostras eram do tipo selvagem para o códon N1042D e D1246Y de Pfmdr1. No FATA, Paquistão, a frequência do alelo resistente 76T permaneceu alta apesar da remoção de CQ. No entanto, as descobertas atuais do estudo sugerem a fixação completa do genótipo resistente a CQ de P. falciparum na área de estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chloroquine , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469087

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Chloroquine (CQ) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data on the prevalence of CQ-resistant mutant haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes from malaria-endemic war effected Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. falciparum CQ-resistance in this area. Clinical isolates were collected between May 2017 and May 2018 from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies of Federally Administrated Trial Area. Subsequently, Giemsa-stained blood smears were examined to detect Plasmodium falciparum. Extraction of malarial DNA was done from microscopy positive P. falciparum samples, and P. falciparum infections were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes). All PCR confirmed P. falciparum samples were sequenced by pyrosequencing to find out mutation in Pfcrt gene at codon K76T and in pfmdr1 at codons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D, and D1246Y. Out of 121 microscopies positive P. falciparum cases, 109 samples were positive for P. falciparum by nested PCR. Pfcrt K76T mutation was found in 96% of isolates, Pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was observed in 20%, and 11% harboured Y184F mutation. All samples were wild type for Pfmdr1 codon N1042D and D1246Y. In the FATA, Pakistan, the frequency of resistant allele 76T remained high despite the removal of CQ. However, current findings of the study suggest complete fixation of P. falciparum CQ-resistant genotype in the study area.


Resumo A resistência do Plasmodium falciparum à cloroquina (CQ) é uma causa significativa de mortalidade e morbidade em todo o mundo. Há uma escassez de dados documentados sobre a prevalência de haplótipos mutantes CQ-resistentes dos genes Pfcrt e Pfmdr1 da guerra endêmica da malária em áreas tribais administradas pelo governo federal do Paquistão. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de resistência a CQ de P. falciparum nesta área. Isolados clínicos foram coletados entre maio de 2017 e maio de 2018 nas agências do Waziristão do Norte e do Waziristão do Sul da Área de Ensaio Administrada Federalmente. Posteriormente, esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa foram examinados para detectar Plasmodium falciparum. A extração do DNA da malária foi feita a partir de amostras de P. falciparum positivas para microscopia, e as infecções por P. falciparum foram confirmadas por nested PCR (visando genes de ácido ribonucleico ribossômico de subunidade pequena de Plasmodium (ssrRNA)). Todas as amostras de P. falciparum confirmadas por PCR foram sequenciadas por pirosequenciamento para descobrir a mutação no gene Pfcrt no códon K76T e em pfmdr1 nos códons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D e D1246Y. De 121 microscopias de casos positivos de P. falciparum, 109 amostras foram positivas para P. falciparum por nested PCR. A mutação Pfcrt K76T foi encontrada em 96% dos isolados, a mutação Pfmdr1 N86Y foi observada em 20% e 11% abrigou a mutação Y184F. Todas as amostras eram do tipo selvagem para o códon N1042D e D1246Y de Pfmdr1. No FATA, Paquistão, a frequência do alelo resistente 76T permaneceu alta apesar da remoção de CQ. No entanto, as descobertas atuais do estudo sugerem a fixação completa do genótipo resistente a CQ de P. falciparum na área de estudo.

14.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422776

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The use of herbal tea with Artemisia annua by travelers and traditional communities in Africa has increased in recent years as a supposed form of malaria prophylaxis, although its use is not recommended due to lack of efficacy. The risk of severe malaria complications that can lead to death is real regarding said behavior, and awareness needs to be raised. We report a case of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria imported in the Amazon rainforest by a traveler returning from Cameroon who treated himself with Artemisia annua herbal tea.

15.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 186-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979614

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Transfection of Plasmodium falciparum is helpful to study the function of its genes, such as drug resistance. However, transgenic manipulation has been very challenging, mainly due to the high A/T base sequence structure (A+T content of about 82%) and low transfection efficiency of the Plasmodium genome. Electroporation-based transfection of Plasmodium falciparum has been successfully applied in the study of certain genes, and electroporation by preloading is currently the preferred method for introducing foreign DNA into Plasmodium falciparum. The site-directed editing of Plasmodium genes mostly adopts the method of two-plasmid transfection. It is generally believed that successful transfection of Plasmodium requires a large amount of high-purity plasmid DNA and an accurate transfection system. In addition to the evaluation of the current commonly used electrotransfection methods, this paper also introduces a new transfection method, namely lyse-reseal erythrocytes for transfection (LyRET). This paper also review the role of factors such as plasmid DNA concentration, the use of transfection reagents, the setting of transfection parameters, the addition of fresh red blood cells, and the markers of successful transfection in improving the success rate and efficiency of Plasmodium transfection, in the hope of providing a reference for study in this field.

16.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 106-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979597

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To analyze the laboratory indexes of patients infected with malaria patients and COVID-19, so as to provide reliable evidence for the diagnosis of mixed infection of both. Methods The routine clinical laboratory items such as routine blood, biochemistry and lymphocyte subsets were tested in three cases of COVID-19 complicated with falciparum malaria who admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University from July to December 2020 were tested. Laboratory data were stage-wise analyzed in conjunction with changes in the course of disease. Results Three patients confirmed COVID-19 infection recruited all had malaria infection history. Fever, headache, and other symptoms emerged on the 4rd to 11th day after admission. Malaria parasite was detected by malaria parasite antigen testing and blood smear testing, and all three patients had re-ignition of malaria after being confirmed COVID-19 infection. In the early stage of malaria relapse, lymphocytes decreased, CRP and SAA increased, and gradually returned to normal level after antimalarial treatment. Interestingly, we only found one patient at the initial stage of malaria detection showed PLT decreased, no other unnormal changes in other routine blood results (WBC, ESO) and liver function results (ALT, AST, GGT, TBIL, DBIL, CG) were found from the beginning to end course of the disease. Conclusion COVID-19 infection may promote the resurgence of malaria, so the relapse of malaria should be monitored especially for the patient with malaria infection history who begin to develop fever and other symptoms a few days after the diagnosis of COVID-19. The inflammatory indicators would be worth able as an auxiliary judgment basis for the effective treatment of the two combined infection.

17.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 38-43, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965526

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a fluorescent assay for rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum based on recombinaseaided amplification (RAA) and CRISPR-Cas12a system,and to preliminarily evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of this system.. Methods The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of P. falciparum was selected as the target sequence, and three pairs of RAA primers and CRISPR-derived RNA (crRNA) were designed and synthesized. The optimal combination of RAA primers and crRNA was screened and the reaction conditions of the system were optimized to create a fluorescent RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a system. The plasmid containing 18S rRNA gene of the P. falciparum strain 3D7 was generated, and diluted into concentrations of 1 000, 100, 10, 1 copy/μL for the fluorescent RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a assay, and its sensitivity was evaluated. The genomic DNA from P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovum, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus and Treponema pallidum was employed as templates for the fluorescent RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a assay, and its specificity was evaluated. Fifty malaria clinical samples were subjected to the fluorescent RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a assay and nested PCR assay, and the consistency between two assays was compared. In addition, P. falciparum strain 3D7 was cultured in vitro. Then, the culture was diluted into blood samples with parasite densities of 1 000, 500, 200, 50, 10 parasites/μL with healthy volunteers’ O-positive red blood cells for the RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a assay, and the detection efficiency was tested. Results The Pf-F3/Pf-R3/crRNA2 combination, 2.5 μL as the addition amount of B buffer, 40 min as the RAA reaction time, 37 °C as the reaction temperature of the CRISPR-Cas12a system were employed to establish the fluorescent RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a system. Such a system was effective to detect the plasmid containing 18S rRNA gene of the P. falciparum strain 3D7 at a concentration of 1 copy/μL, and presented fluorescent signals for detection of P. falciparum, but failed to detect P. ovum, P. malariae, P. vivax, T. pallidum, hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus. The fluorescent RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a system and nested PCR assay showed completely consistent results for detection of 50 malaria clinical samples (kappa = 1.0, P < 0.001). Following 6-day in vitro culture of the P. falciparum strain 3D7, 10 mL cultures were generated and the fluorescent RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a system showed the minimal detection limit of 50 parasites/μL. Conclusion The fluorescent RAA/CRISPR-Cas12a system is rapid, sensitive and specific for detection of P. falciparum, which shows promising value for rapid detection and risk monitoring of P. falciparum.

18.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(3)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1449988

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La malaria continúa siendo un importante problema de salud a nivel mundial, su diagnóstico temprano y tratamiento inmediato son fundamentales para prevenir las complicaciones y la muerte. Objetivo: Reportar el caso de un paciente cubano procedente de República de Guinea, que presentó malaria complicada por Plasmodium falciparum, el cual fue hospitalizado en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí (IPK). Caso clínico: Paciente masculino, cubano, de piel negra, 63 años de edad, profesión marinero mercante. Sin antecedentes patológicos personales. Llegó al IPK en camilla, con cierto deterioro de la conciencia, debilidad generalizada, dificultad respiratoria y compromiso del ritmo diurético. Ingresó en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos donde recibió tratamiento con los antipalúdicos artesunato y primaquina. La parasitemia fue descendiendo en el decursar de los días. El paciente sobrevivió y egresó satisfactoriamente a los 16 días posteriores a su ingreso. Fue debidamente notificado a las autoridades del Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba, lo que constituye un procedimiento obligatorio del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de Enfermedades Transmisibles en Cuba. Conclusión: La rapidez en el diagnóstico, así como el tratamiento integral, eficaz y oportuno, fue de importancia vital y condujo a un buen desenlace de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Malaria continues to be a major health problem worldwide, its early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical to prevent complications and death. Objective: To report the case of a Cuban patient from the Republic of Guinea, who presented with complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, who was hospitalized at the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kourí (IPK). Clinical case: Male patient, Cuban, black-skinned, 63 years old, occupation: merchant seaman. No personal pathological history. He arrived at the IPK on a stretcher, with some deterioration of consciousness, generalized weakness, respiratory distress and diuretic rhythm compromise. He was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit where he received treatment with the antimalarial drugs artesunate and primaquine. Parasitemia decreased over the days. The patient survived and was discharged satisfactorily 16 days after admission. This case was duly notified to the authorities of the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba, which is a mandatory procedure of the National Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases in Cuba. Conclusion: Prompt diagnosis, as well as a comprehensive, effective, and timely treatment was vital and led to a good disease outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans
19.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(4): 463-468, oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1424347

ABSTRACT

La malaria en Colombia tiene un comportamiento heterogéneo y variable, entre las regiones. Para establecer su comportamiento epidemiológico en la región del Caribe colombiano entre 1960 y 2019 se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo a partir de registros del Ministerio de Salud y otras fuentes secundarias. Se definieron variables epidemiológicas y se elaboraron medidas de frecuencia y tendencia central. Se registraron 155 096 casos. Las décadas con mayor número de casos fueron 1990-1999 (20,5%) y 1980-1989 (18,9%). El promedio de casos por década fue de 25 849,3. Los índices parasitarios más elevados se registraron en 1970 (3,3 por 1000 habitantes) y 1981 (3,9 por 1000 habitantes). La especie Plasmodium vivax fue la más frecuente y la mayoría de la carga por grupos de edad se registró en menores de 29 años, entre 2010-2019. La malaria presentó un patrón endemo-epidémico de baja y muy baja intensidad de transmisión, con una tendencia al descenso.


Malaria has a heterogeneous and variable behavior among Colombian regions. In order to establish its epidemiological behavior in the Colombian Caribbean region between 1960 and 2019, we carried out an observational, descriptive and retrospective study based on records from the Ministry of Health and other secondary sources. We defined epidemiological variables and used measures of frequency and central tendency. A total of 155,096 cases were registered. The decades with the highest number of cases were 1990-1999 (20.5%) and 1980-1989 (18.9%). The average number of cases per decade was 25,849.3. The highest parasite rates were recorded in 1970 (3.3 per 1000 population) and 1981 (3.9 per 1000 population). Plasmodium vivax was the most frequent species and most of the burden by age group was found in people under 29 years of age, between 2010-2019. Malaria showed an endemic-epidemic pattern of low and very low transmission intensity, with a decreasing trend.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium vivax , Public Health , Vector Borne Diseases , Malaria , Plasmodium falciparum , Epidemiologic Factors , Disease Outbreaks , Caribbean Region
20.
An. Fac. Med. (Peru) ; 83(4)oct. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420047

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La eliminación de la malaria es la solución definitiva para evitar que la creciente resistencia a los medicamentos e insecticidas amenace los avances alcanzados en la lucha contra la malaria desde comienzos del siglo XXI. Objetivo: Analizar las características espacio temporales de la trasmisión de la malaria en Loreto. Método: Se realizó un estudio de tipo series de tiempo y se analizó la incidencia semanal de malaria en Loreto en los últimos 20 años (2000-2019) utilizando los datos del Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica del Ministerio de Salud. Con esta información se modeló la incidencia semanal de malaria reportada por las unidades de vigilancia epidemiológica de Loreto y se determinaron sus características espacio temporales a nivel macro y microregional. Adicionalmente se caracterizaron las zonas "calientes" así como su estabilidad en el tiempo. Resultados: Durante los últimos 20 años observamos que Loreto tuvo un patrón de trasmisión estacional de la malaria, de intensidad moderada y zonas de trasmisión difusa, Adicionalmente, se observó que las tres redes de salud más "calientes" consistentemente fueron Maynas Ciudad, Loreto y Datem del Marañón, y que cada de estas redes exhibieron diferentes zonas calientes micro regionales de alta estabilidad temporal durante los altibajos estacionales de la malaria. Conclusiones: Loreto es una región receptiva para malaria cuya trasmisión se caracteriza por un patrón estacional, de intensidad moderada, con zonas de trasmisión difusa y presencia de focos activos de elevada trasmisión (zonas calientes macro y micro regionales) de alta estabilidad temporal.


Introduction: The elimination of malaria is the definitive solution to prevent the growing resistance to drugs and insecticides from threatening the progress made since the beginning of the 21st century. Objective: To analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics of malaria transmission in the Loreto region. Methods: We carried out a time series study, and the weekly incidence of malaria in Loreto in the last 20 years (2000-2019) was analyzed using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance System of the Ministry of Health. With this information, we modeled the weekly incidence of malaria across the Loreto surveillance reporting units and determine its spatio-temporal characteristics at the macro and micro-regional levels. Additionally, we characterized the "hot zones" and their stability over time. Results: During the last 20 years, we observed that Loreto has a seasonal malaria transmission, of moderate intensity, with different areas of diffuse transmission, Additionally, we observed that the three "hottest" health networks were, consistently, Maynas Ciudad, Loreto, and Datem del Marañón, with each of them also exhibiting different microregional hot zones of high temporal stability during its seasonal ups and downs. Conclusions: Loreto is a receptive region for malaria whose transmission is characterized by a seasonal pattern, of moderate intensity, with areas of diffuse transmission and the presence of active foci of high transmission (macro and micro-regional hot zones) with high temporal stability.

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