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1.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13(n.esp1): 1-10, set. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1396811

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar fatores que influenciam no cuidado às crianças com agravos respiratórios na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos: Revisão integrativa realizada mediante pesquisa à Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE e IBECS, utilizando-se os descritores Infecções Respiratórias, Pneumonia, Asma, Atenção Primária à Saúde e Enfermagem, no período de 2014 a 2018. Foram identificadas 165 publicações, sendo selecionados 34 artigos na língua portuguesa. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: Os resultados foram agrupados nas categorias: determinantes de saúde, resolutividade da atenção primária à saúde e prática de enfermagem. Constatou-se que as condições de nascimento, socioeconômicas e ambientais são os principais aspectos que determinam a manifestação ou complicação dos agravos respiratórios em crianças. Desse modo, também influenciam nas taxas de Internações por Condições Sensíveis à Atenção Primária. Para a redução dessas taxas evidencia-se a necessidade de ampliar a resolutividade da atenção primária à saúde por meio de ações de enfermagem. Conclusão: As ações de enfermagem para o manejo do cuidado dessas crianças na Atenção Primária à Saúde permitem reduzir o número de crianças com necessidade de atendimento de urgência/emergência ou hospitalização, promovendo o controle dos quadros respiratórios agudos e crônicos na atenção básica. (AU)


Objective: Identify factors that influence the care of children with respiratory diseases in Primary Health Care. Methods: Integrative review carried out through research to the Virtual Health Library, in the LILACS, MEDLINE and IBECS databases, using the descriptors Respiratory Infections, Pneumonia, Asthma, Primary Health Care and Nursing, from 2014 to 2018. 165 publications were identified, with 34 articles selected in Portuguese. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: The results were grouped into the categories: health determinants, resolvability of Primary Health Care and nursing practice. It was found that birth, socioeconomic and environmental conditions are the main aspects that determine the manifestation or complication of respiratory disorders in children. Thus, they also influence the rates of Hospitalizations for Conditions Sensitive to Primary Care. To reduce these rates, the need to expand the resolution of Primary Health Care through nursing actions is evident. Conclusion: It is concluded that the nursing actions for managing the care of these children in Primary Health Care allow reducing the number of children in need of urgent / emergency care or hospitalization, promoting the control of acute and chronic respiratory conditions in care basic. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar los factores que influyen en la atención de los niños con enfermedades respiratorias en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Metodos: Revisión integradora realizada por la investigación en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, en las bases de datos LILACS, MEDLINE e IBECS, utilizando descriptores Infecciones Respiratorias, Neumonía, Asma, Atención Primaria de Salud y Enfermería, de 2014 a 2018. Se identificaron 165 publicaciones, con 34 artículos seleccionados en portugués. Los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Los resultados se agruparon en las categorías: determinantes de salud, resolubilidad de la Atención Primaria de Salud y práctica de enfermería. Las condiciones de nacimiento, socioeconómicas y ambientales que determinan la manifestación o complicación de los trastornos respiratorios en los niños. Por lo tanto, también influyen en las tasas de Hospitalizaciones por Afecciones Sensibles a la Atención Primaria. Para reducir estas tasas, es evidente la necesidad de ampliar la resolución de la Atención Primaria de Salud por acciones de enfermería. Conclusión: Se concluye que las acciones de enfermería para el manejo de la atención de estos niños en Atención Primaria de Salud permiten reducir el número de niños que necesitan atención de urgência/emergencia o hospitalización, promoviendo el control de las afecciones respiratorias agudas y crónicas en la atención básica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Pneumonia , Primary Health Care , Asthma , Nursing
2.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 546-556, July-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385269

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ischemic strokes secondary to occlusion of large vessels have been described in patients with COVID-19. Also, venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism have been related to the disease. Vascular occlusion may be associated with a prothrombotic state due to COVID-19-related coagulopathy and endotheliopathy. Intracranial hemorrhagic lesions can additionally be seen in these patients. The causative mechanism of hemorrhage could be associated with anticoagulant therapy or factors such as coagulopathy and endotheliopathy. We report on cases of ischemic, thrombotic, and hemorrhagic complications in six patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed typical SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia findings in all the cases, which were all confirmed by either serology or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thromboembolism/complications , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Ischemic Stroke , Hemorrhage
3.
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 100-106, julio-diciembre 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392112

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: el virus SARS-COV-2 llegó a Medellín el 9 de marzo del 2020, afectando hasta el 8 de octubre 2021 a 397.395 personas en esta ciudad. Este estudio busca describir el comportamiento clínico de los pacientes hospitalizados en la Clínica SOMA en el periodo entre julio 1 de 2020 y enero 31 de 2021, así como identificar variables clínicas y paraclínicas asociadas a su ingreso a UCI y la mortalidad. Metodología: cohorte retrospectiva con datos de historias clínicas de adultos admitidos en la Clínica SOMA por Covid-19 entre julio 1 de 2020 y enero 31 de 2021. Resultados: se identificaron 849 individuos adultos con Covid-19, de los cuales 326 fueron hospitalizados (38.4%), la mortalidad fue del 13%. Los factores más asociados a severidad fueron la disnea, hipertensión arterial, enfermedad cardiovascular, dímero D elevado, deshidrogenasa láctica, linfopenia y una mayor edad. Conclusiones: nuestro estudio evidenció un comportamiento similar al descrito en otros estudios en el mundo frente a variables al ingreso por Covid-19, que se asocian con peores desenlaces clínicos.


Objective: SARS COV-2 virus arrived in Medellin on March 9, 2020, affecting 397 395 people in Medellin by Oct 8, 2021. This study aims to describe the clinical behavior of patients hospitalized in SOMA Clinic between July 1st, 2020, and January 31st, 2021, and to identify clinical and paraclinical variables associated with ICU entry and mortality. Methodology: retrospective cohort with data from medical records of all patients over 18 years of age admitted to the SOMA Clinic for Covid-19 between July 1st, 2020, and January 31st, 2021. Results: 849 patients with Covid-19 consulted the emergency room of the SOMA Clinic, out of which 326 were hospitalized (38.4%) with a mortality of 13%. Dyspnea, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, elevated D-dimer values, lactic dehydrogenase, and lymphopenia and older age were associated with severity. Conclusions: like other studies worldwide, we evidenced clinical and paraclinical parameters at entry that are associated with worst clinical outcomes in a SARS-COV-2 infection.


Objetivo: o vírus SARS-COV-2 chegou a Medellín em 9 de março de 2020, afetando 397.395 pessoas nesta cidade até 8 de outubro de 2021. Este estudo busca descrever o comportamento clínico dos pacientes internados na Clínica SOMA no período entre 1º de julho de 2020 e 31 de janeiro de 2021, bem como identificar variáveis clínicas e paraclínicas associadas à sua admissão na UTI e mortalidade. Metodologia: coorte retrospectiva com dados de prontuários de adultos internados na Clínica SOMA por Covid-19 entre 1º de julho de 2020 e 31 de janeiro de 2021.Resultados: foram identificados 849 indivíduos adultos com Covid-19, dos quais 326 foram hospitalizados (38,4%), a mortalidade foi de 13%. Os fatores mais associados à gravidade foram dispneia, hipertensão arterial, doença cardiovascular, D-dímero elevado, desidrogenase lática, linfopenia e idade avançada. Conclusões: nosso estudo mostrou um comportamento semelhante ao descrito em outros estudos no mundo frente às variáveis na admissão por Covid-19, que estão associadas a piores desfechos clínicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Viruses , Mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infections , Intensive Care Units , Lymphopenia
4.
MedUNAB ; 25(2): 227-236, 2022/08/01.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395961

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La neumonía nosocomial o neumonía adquirida en el hospital, es una causa importante de infección intrahospitalaria que conlleva una alta morbimortalidad. Ocurre a una tasa de 5 a 10 por cada 1,000 ingresos hospitalarios y se considera la causa más común de infección intrahospitalaria en Europa y Estados Unidos. Más del 90% de los episodios de neumonía que se desarrollan en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) ocurren en pacientes ventilados. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir la prevalencia y los factores asociados como estancia hospitalaria en UCI, enfermedades concomitantes y situaciones en pacientes mayores de 18 años con neumonía nosocomial con estancia en unidad de cuidados intensivos en una clínica de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Cali, en el periodo enero 2015 y enero 2016. Metodología. Estudio observacional de corte transversal con componente analítico. Se revisaron 353 historias clínicas enfocadas en los factores asociados de neumonía nosocomial en la UCI, con una estancia mayor o igual a 48 horas. El análisis estadístico se realizó con Epi Info versión 7. Resultados. La edad promedio de los casos estudiados fue de 55.17 años. La prevalencia estimada para neumonía nosocomial fue de 26%, con un promedio de estancia en UCI de 9.94 días, una desviación estándar de 8.30 días y días de ventilación mecánica invasiva de 4.27, con una desviación estándar de 7.38 días, en la cual el 26.35% (IC 95%: 22.0-31.1) adquirió neumonía nosocomial en UCI, el 43.06%: (IC 95%: 38.0-48.2) fueron mujeres, requiriendo de ventilación mecánica invasiva el 37.68% (IC 95%: 32.7-42.8). Como antecedentes patológicos de importancia se observó una asociación entre las variables con respecto a la neumonía nosocomial evidenciándose una relación significativa con diabetes mellitus (OR: 25.6; IC: 95% 13.4-48.7), enfermedad renal crónica (OR: 8.4; IC 95%: 4.49-16.0), enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (OR: 22.2; IC 95% 11.7-42.1), antecedente patológico de sinusitis (OR: 30.9; IC 95%: 7-46.2), utilización de sonda nasogástrica (OR: 13; IC 95%: 5-32) y, finalmente, al correlacionar la mortalidad con este tipo de infección pulmonar (OR: 26.1; IC 95%: 13 -49.1), evidenciando una relación entre las variables. Discusión. Los hallazgos muestran alta frecuencia de esta patología, lo que conlleva múltiples implicaciones en los pacientes como estancia prolongada y mortalidad, las cuales son condiciones que han sido identificadas por diferentes autores. Conclusiones. La neumonía nosocomial es un proceso infeccioso frecuente en la UCI, que tiene una alta morbimortalidad, relacionándose con los días de estancia y ventilación mecánica invasiva.


Introduction. Nosocomial pneumonia, or hospital-acquired pneumonia, is a significant cause of in-hospital infection that leads to high morbimortality. It occurs at a rate of 5 to 10 for every 1,000 hospital admissions and is considered the most common cause of in-hospital infection in Europe and the United States. Over 90% of episodes of pneumonia developed in intensive care units (ICUs) occur in ventilated patients. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence and associated factors, such as hospitalization in the ICU, concomitant illnesses, and situations in patients older than 18 years of age with nosocomial pneumonia and hospital stay in an intensive care unit in a third-level clinic in the city of Cali, during the period between January 2015 and January 2016. Methodology. A cross-sectional, observational study with an analytical component. 353 medical records were reviewed, focusing on the factors associated with nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU, with hospital stay greater than or equal to 48 hours. The statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info version 7. Results. The average age of the studied cases was 55.17 years. The estimated prevalence for nosocomial pneumonia was 26%, with an average ICU hospital stay of 9.94 days and standard deviation of 8.30 days, and 4.27 days of invasive mechanical ventilation, with a standard deviation of 7.38 days, in which 26.35% (CI 95%: 22.0-31.1) acquired nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU. 43.06%: (CI 95%: 38.0-48.2) were women, of which 37.68% required invasive mechanical ventilation (CI 95%: 32.7-42.8). As an important pathological background, an association was observed between the variables with respect to nosocomial pneumonia, showing a significant relationship with diabetes mellitus (OR: 25.6; CI: 95% 13.4-48.7), chronic kidney disease (OR: 8.4; CI 95%: 4.49-16.0), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR: 22.2; CI 95% 11.7-42.1), pathological backgrounds of sinusitis (OR: 30.9; CI 95%: 7-46.2), the use of nasogastric tube (OR: 13; CI 95%: 5-32) and, finally, correlating mortality with this type of pulmonary infection (OR: 26.1; CI 95%: 13-49.1), showing a relationship between the variables. Discussion. The findings show a high frequency of this pathology, which leads to multiple implications in patients, such as prolonged hospital stay and mortality, which are conditions that have been identified by different authors. Conclusions. Nosocomial pneumonia is a frequent infectious process in the ICU, which has a high morbimortality and is related to hospital stay and invasive mechanical ventilation.


Introdução. A pneumonia nosocomial, ou pneumonia adquirida no hospital, é uma importante causa de infecção hospitalar com alta morbidade e mortalidade. Ocorre a uma taxa de 5 a 10 por 1,000 internações hospitalares e é considerada a causa mais comum de infecção hospitalar na Europa e nos Estados Unidos. Mais de 90% dos episódios de pneumonia que se desenvolvem em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs) ocorrem em pacientes ventilados. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a prevalência e fatores associados, como permanência hospitalar na UTI, doenças concomitantes e situações em pacientes maiores de 18 anos com pneumonia nosocomial internados em unidade de terapia intensiva de uma clínica de nível terciário da cidade de Cali, no período de janeiro de 2015 e janeiro de 2016. Metodologia. Estudo observacional transversal com componente analítico. Foram revisados 353 prontuários com foco em fatores associados de pneumonia nosocomial na UTI, com permanência maior ou igual a 48 horas. A análise estatística foi realizada com o Epi Info versão 7. Resultados. A média de idade dos casos estudados foi de 55.17 anos. A prevalência estimada para pneumonia nosocomial foi de 26%, com média de permanência na UTI de 9.94 dias, desvio padrão de 8.30 dias, e dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva de 4.27, com desvio padrão de 7.38 dias, em que 26.35% (IC 95%: 22.0-31.1) adquiriram pneumonia nosocomial na UTI; 43.06%: (IC 95%: 38.0-48.2) eram mulheres, necesitando de ventilação mecânica invasiva 37.68% (IC 95%: 32.7-42.8). Como antecedentes patológicos importantes, observou-se associação entre as variáveis referentes à pneumonia nosocomial, mostrando relação significativa com diabetes mellitus (OR: 25.6; IC: 95% 13.4-48.7), doença renal crônica (OR: 8.4; IC 95%: 4.49-16.0), doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (OR: 22.2; IC 95% 11.7-42.1), história patológica de sinusite (OR: 30.9; IC 95%: 7-46.2), uso de sonda nasogástrica (OR: 13; IC 95%: 5-32) e, por fim, correlação da mortalidade com este tipo de infecção pulmonar (OR: 26.1; IC 95%: 13-49.1), mostrando relação entre as variáveis. Discussão. Os resultados mostram uma alta frequência dessa patologia, que tem múltiplas implicações para os pacientes, como permanência prolongada e mortalidade, que são condições identificadas por diferentes autores. Conclusões. A pneumonia nosocomial é um processo infeccioso frequente na UTI, que apresenta alta morbimortalidade, relacionada aos dias de internação e ventilação mecânica invasiva.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Pneumonia , Respiration, Artificial , Cross Infection , Critical Care Outcomes , Intubation
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(7): 904-911, July 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394582

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Stroke-associated pneumonia is an infection that commonly occurs in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and causes serious burdens. In this study, we evaluated the validity of the Braden scale for predicting stroke-associated pneumonia after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: Patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were retrospectively included and divided into pneumonia and no pneumonia groups. The admission clinical characteristics and Braden scale scores at 24 h after admission were collected and compared between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the predictive validity of the Braden scale. Multivariable analysis was conducted to identify the independent risk factors associated with pneumonia after intracerebral hemorrhage. RESULTS: A total of 629 intracerebral hemorrhage patients were included, 150 (23.8%) of whom developed stroke-associated pneumonia. Significant differences were found in age and fasting blood glucose levels between the two groups. The mean score on the Braden scale in the pneumonia group was 14.1±2.4, which was significantly lower than that in the no pneumonia group (16.5±2.6), p<0.001. The area under the curve for the Braden scale for the prediction of pneumonia after intracerebral hemorrhage was 0.760 (95%CI 0.717-0.804). When the cutoff point was 15 points, the sensitivity was 74.3%, the specificity was 64.7%, the accuracy was 72.0%, and the Youden's index was 39.0%. Multivariable analysis showed that a lower Braden scale score (OR 0.696; 95%CI 0.631-0.768; p<0.001) was an independent risk factor associated with stroke-associated pneumonia after intracerebral hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: The Braden scale, with a cutoff point of 15 points, is moderately valid for predicting stroke-associated pneumonia after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(6): 833-837, June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387163

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Beta-lactams resistance is a major clinical problem in treating pneumonia. This study aimed to detect the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Al-Najaf City, Iraq. METHODS: A total of 511 sputum samples were obtained from all suspected patients with CAP in Al-Najaf City, Iraq, from March 2020 to September 2020. Sputum samples were subjected to microbiological tests. The disk diffusion method was used to test antibiotic sensitivity. Production of ESBLs was identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods. RESULTS: The total prevalence of K. pneumoniae was 31.9% (163/511). Using CHROM agar, 41 (25.2%) isolates were ESBL producers. The imipenem 0.0% (n=0/41) and norfloxacin 0.0% (n=0/41) were the most effective antibiotics. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction showed that 46.3% (n=19/41) of isolates harbored ESBL genes. Out of 19 ESBL producers, 47.4% and 15.8% harbored blaCTX-M and blaSHV, respectively. While blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes were detected in 7 (36.8%) isolates, simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: The imipenem and norfloxacin can be used in empirical treatment of K. pneumoniae isolates in Iraq. The emergence of K. pneumoniae strains harboring ESBL resistance genes necessitates the development of a regular surveillance program to prevent the spreading of these isolates more in Iraqi health care systems.

7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 378-383, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377384

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Effective triage and early detection are very important for controlling and treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, the relationships between hypoalbuminemia and other acute-phase reactants in such cases need to be evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the importance of albumin levels in cases of severe pneumonia due to COVID-19. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study conducted in Ankara City Hospital (a stage 3 hospital), Turkey. METHODS: Data from 122 patients diagnosed with pneumonia due to COVID-19 who were admitted to this hospital were analyzed statistically in comparison with date from 60 healthy controls. Three groups were established: healthy controls, intubated patients and non-intubated patients. Lung tomography scans from the patients were examined one-by-one. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results were recorded. RESULTS: Albumin levels were statistically significantly lower in the intubated and non-intubated groups than in the control group, in comparing the three groups (P < 0.01). The other acute-phase reactants, i.e. neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and C-reactive protein levels, were significantly higher in the intubated and non-intubated groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). Albumin levels were also significantly lower in the intubated group than in the non-intubated group (P = 0.02). No differences were detected with regard to other parameters (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoalbuminemia may constitute a biomarker indicating the severity of pneumonia due to COVID-19.

8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 372-377, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377393

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Favipiravir is generally used in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in Turkey. OBJECTIVE: To determine the side effects of favipiravir and whether it is a good treatment option. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study conducted in Atatürk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. METHODS: 357 patients who completed favipiravir treatment at the recommended dose were included. 37 patients with drug side effects and 320 patients without drug side effects were examined in two groups. RESULTS: Side effects were observed in 37 (10.36%) out of 357 patients using favipiravir. The most common side effect was liver dysfunction, in 26 (7.28%) of the patients. The following other side effects were also observed: diarrhea (1.4%), nausea (0.84%), abdominal pain (0.28%) and thrombocytopenia (0.28%). One patient (0.28%) presented both increased transaminases and nausea. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was determined that favipiravir may constitute an alternative for treating COVID-19 pneumonia given that its side effects are generally well tolerated and not serious.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Pyrazines , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Amides , SARS-CoV-2 , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/drug therapy
9.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(2): e38204, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1389688

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: el inicio temprano de la antibioticoterapia adecuada en infecciones graves se asocia con reducción de la mortalidad. La identificación precoz del microorganismo es fundamental para realizar un tratamiento dirigido y disminuir la terapéutica inicial inapropiada. Objetivo: valorar la utilidad de una técnica de biología molecular por amplificación de ácidos nucleicos mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa en tiempo real para diagnóstico microbiológico temprano y adecuación de la antibioticoterapia en pacientes con neumonías graves. Metodología: estudio retrospectivo observacional llevado a cabo en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Maciel. Se analizaron muestras respiratorias de pacientes con diagnóstico o sospecha de neumonía. Se compararon los resultados microbiológicos obtenidos por técnicas convencionales y por biología molecular multiplex (panel neumonía). Resultados: se incluyeron 53 muestras obtenidas de 51 pacientes. El multiplex detectó al menos un microorganismo en 38 (71,7%) muestras frente a 30 (56.6%) desarrollos en cultivos tradicionales. La mayoría de las muestras se obtuvieron bajo antibioticoterapia previa (86.8%). El panel neumonía mostró un porcentaje de concordancia positiva combinado de 100% y un porcentaje de concordancia negativa del 94% para la identificación bacteriana en comparación con los métodos microbiológicos tradicionales. En 27 (51%) casos el resultado del panel de neumonía determinó un cambio en la conducta terapéutica. Conclusiones: la técnica de PCR permite la identificación temprana de microorganismos causantes de neumonía optimizando la terapéutica empírica inicial y racionalizando el uso de antimicrobianos. Un panel negativo aleja el planteo de infección respiratoria a gérmenes habituales y permite considerar diagnósticos diferenciales en cuanto a foco y/o etiología.


Summary: Introduction: the early initiation of the adequate antibiotic therapy in severe infections is associated to a reduction in mortality. Early identification of the microorganism is essential to define directed therapy and decrease the initial inadequate treatment. Objective: to assess usefulness of a molecular biology technique by nucleic acid amplification through a polymerase chain reaction in real time for an early microbiological diagnosis and correction of the antibiotic therapy in patients with severe pneumonias. Method: retrospective, observational study conducted in the intensive care unit of Maciel Hospital. The respiratory samples of patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia or suspicious to have pneumonia were analyzed. The microbiological results obtained were compared using conventional techniques and multiplex molecular biology (pneumonia panel). Results: 53 samples obtained from 51 patients were included in the study. Multiplex detected at least one microorganism in 38 (71.7%) samples compared to 30 (56.6%) in traditional cultures. Most samples were obtained under the previous antibiotic therapy (86.8%). The pneumonia panel showed a combined positive agreement percentage of 100% and a negative agreement of 94% for the identification of bacteria when compared to the traditional microbiological methods. In 27 cases (51%) the pneumonia panel results determined changing the therapeutic behavior. Conclusions: the PCR technique allows for the early identification of microorganisms causing pneumonia, thus optimizing initial empirical therapy and rationalizing the use of antibiotics. A negative panel reduces the suspicion of a respiratory infection caused by the usual germs and enables considering differential diagnosis in terms of etiology or cause.


Resumo: Introdução: o início precoce da antibioticoterapia adequada em infecções graves está associado à redução da mortalidade. A identificação precoce do microrganismo é essencial para realizar o tratamento dirigido e reduzir o uso inicial inadequado de antimicrobianos. Objetivo: avaliar a utilidade de uma técnica de biologia molecular para amplificação de ácidos nucleicos por reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real para diagnóstico microbiológico precoce e adequação da antibioticoterapia em pacientes com pneumonia grave. Metodologia: estudo observacional retrospectivo realizado na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Maciel. Amostras respiratórias de pacientes com diagnóstico ou suspeita de pneumonia foram analisadas. Os resultados microbiológicos obtidos por técnicas convencionais e por biologia molecular multiplex (painel de pneumonia) foram comparados. Resultados: foram incluídas 53 amostras obtidas de 51 pacientes. O multiplex detectou pelo menos um microrganismo em 38 (71,7%) amostras em comparação com 30 (56,6%) usando culturas tradicionais. A maioria das amostras foi obtida com antibioticoterapia prévia (86,8%). O painel de pneumonia mostrou uma concordância percentual positiva combinada de 100% e uma concordância percentual negativa de 94% para identificação bacteriana em comparação com métodos microbiológicos tradicionais. Em 27 (51%) casos, o resultado do painel de pneumonia determinou mudança no comportamento terapêutico. Conclusões: a técnica de PCR permite a identificação precoce de microrganismos causadores de pneumonia, otimizando a terapia empírica inicial e racionalizando o uso de antimicrobianos. Um painel negativo afasta a suspeita de infecção respiratória pelos germes usuais e permite considerar diagnósticos diferenciais em termos de foco e/ou etiologia.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Critical Care
10.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(2): 175-183, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1394961

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: describir el resultado materno y perinatal de las gestantes con infección confirmada por COVID-19 en una institución hospitalaria en Comayagua, Honduras. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo tipo serie de casos. Se incluyeron gestantes sintomáticas que consultaron o fueron remitidas desde el 1 de marzo de 2020 hasta el 31 de marzo del 2021 a una institución pública de referencia, con diagnóstico confirmado por PCR de infección por COVID-19. Se midieron variables sociodemográficas, obstétricas, severidad de la infección, estancia hospitalaria, complicaciones maternas y perinatales. Se estimó la frecuencia de infección por COVID-19 y los resultados maternos y perinatales de estas gestaciones; se realizó análisis descriptivo. Resultados: en el periodo descrito consultaron 2.258 gestantes, de estas se incluyeron 23, quienes cumplieron con los criterios de selección, para una frecuencia de infección por COVID-19 del 1,01 %. La población de estudio se caracterizó por estar constituida por mujeres jóvenes y en unión libre. Trece pacientes recibieron manejo ambulatorio por cuadro clínico leve, diez requirieron hospitalización. Las embarazadas manejadas ambulatoriamente finalizaron la gestación vía cesárea (76,9 %) por estado fetal insatisfactorio, con edad gestacional mayor o igual a 37 semanas, y tres casos fueron pretérmino (36 semanas). De las gestantes hospitalizadas, una desarrolló aborto espontáneo, y nueve finalizaron la gestación por una indicación obstétrica. Se presentó un parto prematuro y se documentó una muerte materna (4 %) y neonatal. Conclusiones: el 1 % de las gestantes adquirieron la infección por COVID-19 en el Hospital Santa Teresa de Comayagua en el periodo de estudio. Se requieren más estudios que analicen el impacto materno perinatal de la infección por COVID-19 en la región centroamericana.


Objectives: To describe maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 infection in a hospital in Comayagua, Honduras. Material and methods: Descriptive case series study that included symptomatic pregnant women who came or were referred between March 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021 to a public referral institution, with PCR-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. Sociodemographic, obstetric considerations, infection severity, length of hospital stay, and maternal and perinatal complications were the measured variables. The frequency of COVID-19 infection and the maternal and perinatal outcomes of these gestations were estimated. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: A total of 2258 pregnant women were seen during the study period. Of them, 23 who met the selection criteria were included, for a frequency of COVID-19 infection of 1.01 %. The study population characteristically consisted of young women living in common-law marriage. Thirteen patients were managed as outpatients because of a mild clinical condition, and 10 were hospitalized. The pregnant women managed as outpatients were delivered by cesarean section (76.9 %) due to dissatisfactory fetal status at a gestational age of 37 weeks or more, with 3 pre-term delivery cases (36 weeks) documented. Of the hospitalized patients, one had a miscarriage and nine were delivered due to an obstetric indication. There was one case of premature birth, and one maternal (4 %) and one neonatal death were documented. Conclusions: During the study period, 1% of the pregnant women had COVID-19 infection at the Santa Teresa Hospital in Comayagua. Further studies analyzing the maternal and perinatal impact of COVID-19 infection in the Central American region are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Pneumonia , Coronavirus , Epidemics , COVID-19 , Case Reports , Perinatal Care , Pregnant Women
11.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 227-243, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392265

ABSTRACT

La neumonía es una infección respiratoria que afecta a los pulmones y puede llevar a la muerte. Los niños menores de 5 años pueden adquirir la enfermedad a través de bacterias, virus y hongos, lo cual puede generarse por ciertos factores ambientales no propicios. Objetivos: Validar el instrumento para medir los factores ambientales asociados a neumonía en niños menores de 5 años que acuden a consulta externa del hospital Martin Icaza del Cantón Babahoyo, julio - diciembre 2020; determinar la confiabilidad del instrumento para medir los factores ambientales asociados a neumonía en niños menores de 5 años. Materiales y métodos: Se utiliza un diseño no experimental, con enfoque mixto, método deductivo, de tipo transversal, de campo, prospectivo. Se aplicó un plan piloto con el fin de identificar la validez, coherencia y pertinencia del instrumento, y a su vez determinar la confiabilidad del mismo con base al criterio de expertos. El componente cuantitativo constó de un plan piloto a 16 padres, donde 8 niños padecían neumonía, mientras los 8 restantes no; en tanto que la entrevista se realizó a dos representantes de niños con neumonía. Resultados: La validación de los instrumentos vino dada por tres profesionales que fueron seleccionados por su experiencia y prestigio, estos calificaron la validez, pertinencia y coherencia donde se obtuvo la ponderación de muy confiable. Los resultados mostraron que la enfermedad se transmite por contacto con personas que padecen estas enfermedades (62.5%), los principales síntomas son la tos, fiebre y dolor de garganta (50.0%), las personas viven con 4 o 5 personas en la misma casa (56.3%) y poseen animales (75.0%). Se identificó efectos emocionales negativos, tales como desesperación, ansiedad, tristeza, depresión e impotencia. Conclusión: El instrumento analizado es válido, coherente y pertinente, siendo muy confiable para su aplicación(AU)


Pneumonia is a respiratory infection that affects the lungs and can lead to death. Children under 5 years of age can acquire the disease through bacteria, viruses and fungi, which can be generated by certain unfavorable environmental factors. Objectives: To validate the instrument to measure the environmental factors associated with pneumonia in children under 5 years of age who attend the outpatient clinic of the Martin Icaza hospital in Babahoyo Canton, July - December 2020; determine the reliability of the instrument to measure the environmental factors associated with pneumonia in children under 5 years of age. Materials and methods: A non-experimental design is used, with a mixed approach, deductive method, cross-sectional, field, prospective. A pilot plan was applied in order to identify the validity, coherence and relevance of the instrument, and in turn determine its reliability based on expert criteria. The quantitative component consisted of a pilot plan for 16 parents, where 8 children suffered from pneumonia, while the remaining 8 did not; while the interview was conducted with two representatives of children with pneumonia. Results: The validation of the instruments was given by three professionals who were selected for their experience and prestige, they qualified the validity, relevance and coherence where the weighting of very reliable was obtained. The results showed that the disease is transmitted by contact with people suffering from these diseases (62.5%), the main symptoms are cough, fever and sore throat (50.0%), people live with 4 or 5 people in the same house (56.3%) and own animals (75.0%). Negative emotional effects were identified, such as despair, anxiety, sadness, depression and helplessness. Conclusion: The analyzed instrument is valid, coherent and pertinent, being very reliable for its application(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child Health , Validation Study , Bacteria , Viruses , Environment , Fungi
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(2): 185-191, mayo 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375860

ABSTRACT

Resumen La ecografía pulmonar (EP) ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para detectar el grado de compromiso pulmonar en neumonía y síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo. El presente estudio evalúa la asociación entre la puntuación de EP de 12 regiones y el ingreso de terapia intermedia a terapia intensiva en pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19. Se incluyó un total de 115 pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía confirmada por radiografía de tórax, por SARS-CoV-2, se realizó una EP junto con la evaluación de laboratorio que incluyó la medición de marcadores inflamatorios (linfocitos, proteína C reactiva, Dímero D, procalcitonina, ferritina, lactato deshidrogenasa y pro péptido natriurético de tipo B). Se utilizó una puntuación ecográfica pul monar que caracteriza el grado de afección pulmonar como leve, moderado y grave, y se comparó el resultado con los marcadores inflamatorios de laboratorio. En el análisis univariado se observó una asociación entre la puntuación de la EP, los niveles elevados de procalcitonina y péptido natriurético cerebral y el ingreso a terapia intensiva. En el análisis multivariado solo la puntuación de EP fue un predictor independiente de requerimiento de terapia intensiva.


Abstract Lung ultrasound (LUS) has shown to be a useful tool to detect the degree of pulmonary involvement in patients with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present study evaluates the association of the 12-region lung ultrasound score and the requirements of intensive care unit, in patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to intermediate care in a specialized hospital; 115 patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia confirmed by chest radiography secondary to SARS-CoV-2 were included, LUS was performed together with the laboratory evaluation that included the measurement of inflammatory biomarkers (lymphocytes, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, procalcitonin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and pro B-type natriuretic peptide). Lung ultrasound score was used, characterizing the degree of lung involvement as mild, moderate, and severe, and the results were compared with inflammatory biomarkers. In the univariate analysis, an association was observed between the lung ultrasound score, elevated levels of procalcitonin and brain natriuretic peptide, and the admission to intensive care. In the multivariate analysis, only the lung ultrasound score was an independent predictor of need for intensive therapy.

13.
Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 49(1)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386693

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La neumonía asociada al ventilador (NAV) es la segunda infección más común adquirida en los hospitales, después de la infección del torrente sanguíneo, y está asociada a una alta mortalidad e involucra, un alto impacto en la carga económica de la atención médica de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar factores de riesgo para NAV en niños críticamente enfermos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles realizado en el Hospital Universitario de Pediatría "Dr. Agustín Zubillaga" (Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela), entre 2017 y 2019. Regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Un total de 172 niños ventilados mecánicamente fueron incluidos en el análisis. Mediante un modelo de regresión logística binaria se identificaron como predictores independientes para el desarrollo de NAV: Sobrecarga hídrica (OR=5,537; IC95%: 1,903 - 16,113; p = 0,002), supresor de acidez gástrica (OR=5,360; IC95%: 1,584 - 18,136; p = 0,007), nutrición enteral (OR=2,354; IC95%: 1,079 - 5,136; p = 0,032), reintubación (OR=4,423; IC95%: 1,821 - 10,743; p = 0,001) y recibir más de dos transfusiones de glóbulos rojos (OR=2,267; IC95%: 1,002 - 5,127; p = 0,049). Además, los casos con NAV presentaron más días en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) (7,5 ± 3,5 vs. 10,8 ± 4,6 días; p < 0,0001), mayor tiempo de duración total de ventilación mecánica (4,4 ± 2,3 vs. 7,3 ± 3,8; p < 0,0001) y mayor mortalidad en UCI (10,9% vs. 34,9%; p < 0,0001). Conclusión: La sobrecarga hídrica, el uso de supresores de acidez gástrica, la nutrición enteral, la reintubación y recibir más de dos transfusiones de glóbulos rojos son factores de riesgo para desarrollar NAV.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the second most common infection acquired in hospitals, after bloodstream infection, and is associated with high mortality and involves a high impact on the economic burden of medical care. of these patients. Objective: To identify risk factors for VAP in critically-ill children. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study carried out at the "Dr. Agustín Zubillaga" University Hospital (Barquisimeto, Lara State, Venezuela), between 2017 and 2019. We used binary logistic regression. Results: A total of 172 mechanically ventilated children were included in the analysis. Using a binary logistic regression model, the following were identified as independent predictors for the development of VAP: Fluid overload (OR=5.537; 95% CI: 1.903 - 16.113; p = 0.002), gastric acidity suppression (OR=5.360; 95% CI: 1.584 - 18.136; p = 0.007), enteral nutrition (OR=2.354; 95% CI: 1.079 - 5.136; p = 0.032), reintubation (OR=4.423; 95% CI: 1.821 - 10.743; p = 0.001) and receiving more than two transfusions of red blood cells (OR=2.267; 95% CI: 1.002 - 5.127; p = 0.049). In addition, the cases with VAP presented longer length-of-stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.8 ± 4.6 days; p < 0.0001), a longer total duration of mechanical ventilation (4.4 ± 2.3 vs. 7.3 ± 3.8; p < 0.0001) and higher mortality in the ICU (10.9% vs. 34.9%; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Fluid overload, the use of gastric acidity suppressants, enteral nutrition, reintubation and receiving more than two red blood cell transfusions are risk factors for developing VAP.

14.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 86(1): 58-63, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376430

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neumonía en organización es un tipo de enfermedad pulmonar intersticial difusa que puede ser idiopática (criptogénica) o secundaria a numerosas etiologías, y se asocia con hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio inespecíficos. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento exigen un equipo interdisciplinario, en el que las imágenes desempeñan un papel indispensable. Se presenta una serie de nueve casos, haciendo énfasis en las características clínicas y profundizando en los diversos patrones imagenológicos identificados. También se aporta una revisión de las variantes recientemente descritas.


Abstract Organizing pneumonia is a type of diffuse interstitial lung disease that can be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or secondary to numerous etiologies, and is an entity associated with nonspecific clinical and laboratory findings. Its diagnosis and treatment require an interdisciplinary team in which images play an indispensable role. The presentation of a series of nine cases is made, emphasizing the clinical characteristics and delving into the various identified imaging patterns. A review of the recently described variants is also provided.

15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 210-213, abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388343

ABSTRACT

Resumen Rothia mucilaginosa es una bacteria propia de la microbiota del tracto respiratorio superior, que se asocia en forma infrecuente a infecciones en pacientes inmunocomprometidos y con enfermedades pulmonares crónicas, principalmente neumonía y bacteriemia. Su tratamiento generalmente, se basa en el uso de antibacterianos β lactámicos. Se describe el caso de un paciente sometido a un trasplante renal con uso de fármacos inmunosupresores, que cursó con una infección diseminada por Cryptococcus neoformans. Tras el inicio de la terapia antifúngica, presentó un cuadro febril, con aparición de nuevos infiltrados radiológicos e insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, demostrándose en el estudio con lavado broncoalveolar, un cultivo positivo para R. mucilaginosa, descartándose otras etiologías. Evolucionó en forma favorable tras el uso de meropenem, con buena respuesta clínica y resolución de los infiltrados radiológicos.


Abstract Rothia mucilaginosa is a bacterium derived from the upper respiratory tract microbiota, which is rarely associated with infections in immunocompromised patients suffering chronic lung diseases, mainly pneumonia and bacteremia. Its treatment is generally based on the use of β-lactams. The case study of a kidney transplant patient using immunosuppressive drugs, who developed a disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection, is described. After starting antifungal therapy, he presented with fever, appearance of new radiological infiltrates and acute respiratory failure, demonstrating a positive culture for R. mucilaginosa in a study with bronchoalveolar lavage, ruling out other etiologies. He evolved favorably after the use of meropenem, with good clinical response and resolution of radiological infiltrates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Micrococcaceae , Immunocompromised Host
16.
Radiol. bras ; 55(2): 84-89, mar.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365293

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os padrões tomográficos relacionados aos agentes etiológicos da pneumonia em pacientes durante o primeiro ano após transplante renal. Materiais e Métodos: Foram analisados dados de prontuários de 956 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal, no período de 2013 a 2018, em um centro transplantador renal do nordeste do Brasil. Nos pacientes que desenvolveram pneumonia, os agentes etiológicos foram classificados em bactérias piogênicas, micobactérias, fungos, vírus e pneumonia polimicrobiana, enquanto os padrões tomográficos foram classificados em consolidação, broncopneumonia, pneumonia intersticial e nódulos e massas. Para verificar associação estatística entre micro-organismos e padrões tomográficos, foi utilizado o teste exato de Fisher, com p < 0,001. Resultados: Foram encontrados 101 casos de pneumonia, dos quais 60 (59,4%) tiveram agente etiológico identificado, sendo as bactérias piogênicas as mais frequentes, detectadas em 22 (36,7%) dos casos. Entre os pacientes com agente causal identificado, o padrão tomográfico predominante foi o de nódulos e massas, identificado em 25 (41,7%) casos. Foi observada associação entre bactérias piogênicas e o padrão de consolidação, fungos com nódulos e massas, bem como entre agentes virais e padrão intersticial. Conclusão: Foi demonstrada associação estatística entre micro-organismos causadores de pneumonia e padrões tomográficos, informação que pode contribuir para o planejamento da terapia de pacientes transplantados renais.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the tomography patterns of pneumonia attributed to various etiological agents during the first year after kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of 956 patients who underwent kidney transplantation between 2013 and 2018 at a transplant center in northeastern Brazil. Among the kidney transplant recipients who developed pneumonia, the etiologic agents were categorized as pyogenic bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, viruses, or polymicrobial pneumonia. The tomography patterns were categorized as consolidation, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, or nodules/masses. To determine the statistical association between the causative microorganism and the tomography pattern, we used Fisher's exact test, for which the level of significance was set at p < 0.001. Results: Among 101 cases of pneumonia reported in kidney transplant recipients, the etiologic agent was identified in 60 (59.4%), the most common category being pyogenic bacteria, which were implicated in 22 cases (36.7%). Among the 60 patients in whom had the causal agent was identified, the pattern in which nodules and masses predominated was the most common, being identified in 25 cases (41.7%). We detected associations between pyogenic bacteria and consolidation, between fungi and nodules/masses, and between viruses and interstitial pneumonia. Conclusion: There were statistical associations between tomography patterns and the microorganisms that cause pneumonia. This knowledge could facilitate the treatment planning for kidney transplant patients.

17.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390290

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el índice neutrófilo-linfocito es la relación entre el número absoluto de neutrófilos y linfocitos. Su aumento predice la enfermedad grave por COVID-19, inclusive cuando la inflamación es subclínica. Objetivo: determinar la utilidad del índice neutrófilo linfocito como predictor de gravedad de la neumonía a SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, con un muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos de enero a julio de 2021 en pacientes con infección a SARS-CoV-2 del Hospital Nacional, Paraguay. Se consideraron casos a los pacientes con neumonía a SARS-COV-2 grave y controles a aquellos con formas leves y moderadas de neumonía. Resultados: se incluyeron 310 pacientes (155 casos y 155 controles). La franja etaria estuvo comprendida entre 19 a 90 años (media 53±15 años). La diferencia de índice neutrófilo-linfocito resultó 11,71 en casos vs 7,09 en controles (p 0,0001), teniendo 5,08 veces más probabilidades de desarrollar una neumonía grave los pacientes con índice neutrófilo-linfocito mayor a 3. Conclusión: el índice neutrófilo-linfocito predice el desarrollo de una neumonía grave a SARS-CoV-2.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The neutrophil-lymphocyte index is the relationship between the absolute number of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Its increase predicts severe COVID-19 disease, even when inflammation is subclinical. Objective: To determine the usefulness of the neutrophil lymphocyte index as a predictor of severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Materials and methods: A case-control study was carried out, with a non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases from January to July 2021 in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from the Hospital Nacional, Paraguay. Patients with severe SARS-COV-2 pneumonia and controls were those with mild and moderate forms of pneumonia. Results: Three hundred ten patients (155 cases and 155 controls) were included. The age group ranged from 19 to 90 years (mean 53 ± 15 years). The neutrophil-lymphocyte index difference was 11.71 in cases vs 7.09 in controls (p 0.0001), with patients with an neutrophil-lymphocyte index greater than 3 being 5.08 times more likely to develop severe pneumonia. Conclusion: neutrophil-lymphocyte index predicts the development of severe pneumonia to SARS-CoV-2.

18.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 14(supl.1): 51-51, feb. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394711

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: Debido a la rápida expansión mundial del COVID-19, se crearon Unidades Febriles de Urgencia (UFU) para la atención ambulatoria y estratificación del riesgo clínico de los pacientes. La ecografía pulmonar ha cobrado un interés creciente como método sensible para la detección de neumonía. El objetivo fue desarrollar un score simple y sensible de riesgo clínico de neumonía durante la primera ola de COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal sobre una cohorte de adultos con diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 asistidos en la UFU de un hospital general de la ciudad de Buenos Aires entre mayo y agosto de 2020. Se efectuó el análisis bivariado y multivariado de variables sociodemográficas y clínicas para la construcción y validación interna de un score predictivo de neumonía. RESULTADOS: El análisis final incluyó a 936 pacientes; 17,6% presentaron ecografía compatible con neumonía. El score incluyó 5 variables estadísticamente significativas: edad ≥50 años (3 puntos), tos (2 puntos), ausencia de odinofagia (1 punto), disnea (2 puntos) y saturación de oxígeno ≤95% (3 puntos). Para un punto de corte ≥3 la sensibilidad fue 80,5% y el valor predictivo negativo 93,3%, con buen desempeño en cohorte de derivación y de validación (área bajo curva ROC 0,79 y 0,76, respectivamente). DISCUSIÓN: Este score podría ser una herramienta útil para estratificar el riesgo clínico de neumonía en el ámbito prehospitalario y evitar la realización de imágenes con <3 puntos.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Due to the rapid global expansion of COVID-19, Febrile Emergency Units (FEU) were created in the outpatient setting to stratify the clinical risk of patients. Pulmonary ultrasound has gained a growing interest as a sensitive method for the detection of pneumonia. This study aimed to at developing a simple and sensitive score to assess the risk of pneumonia during the first COVID-19 wave. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, who received care at the FEU of a general hospital in the city of Buenos Aires from May through August 2020. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of sociodemographic and clinical variables were performed to build and internally validate a pneumonia predictive score. RESULTS: The final analysis included 936 patients; 17.6% had ultrasound compatible with pneumonia. The score included 5 statistically significant variables: age ≥50 years (3 points), cough (2 points), absence of odynophagia (1 point), dyspnea (2 points) and oxygen saturation ≤95% (3 points). A cut-off point ≥3 showed a sensitivity of 80.5% and a negative predictive value of 93.3%, with good discriminatory capacity both in derivation and validation cohorts (area under ROC curve 0.79 and 0.76, respectively). DISCUSSION: This score could be a useful tool to stratify the clinical risk of pneumonia in the pre-hospital setting and avoid imaging studies with a score <3.

19.
Acta méd. peru ; 39(1): 79-83, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383390

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Raoultella Planticola es una bacteria que se ha descrito recientemente en la literatura como patógeno emergente de infecciones urinarias, abdominales y pulmonares. A continuación, se presenta el caso de un paciente de 63 años con antecedente de sobrepeso y dislipidemia hospitalizado en contexto de neumonía por SARS CoV2 quien presenta sobreinfección por R. Planticola y E. Aerogenes. Recibió manejo con Cefepime por 7 días con adecuada evolución clínica.


ABSTRACT Raoultella planticola is a bacterium that has been recently described in the literature as an emerging pathogen that causes urinary, abdominal, and lung infections. We present the case of a 63-year-old overweight and with dyslipidemia that was hospitalized because of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. He developed R. planticola and E. aerogenes superinfections. He was treated with cefepime for seven days, and he recovered uneventfully.

20.
Rev. flum. odontol ; 1(57): 135-146, jan.-abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391489

ABSTRACT

A instalação de ventilação mecânica permite a manutenção da vida no processo de recuperação de pacientes hospitalizados que necessitam de auxílio respiratório. No entanto, a presença do ventilador no meio bucal propicia o acúmulo de debris e a retenção de placa. A cavidade oral é um meio rico em microrganismos e, em casos de pacientes entubados, o biofilme bucal pode abrigar patógenos respiratórios que levam ao desenvolvimento da Pneumonia Associada a Ventiladores (PAV). Essa infecção é a mais comum das infecções secundárias desenvolvidas em pacientes entubados e aumenta as chances de morbidade e mortalidade, bem como prolonga a hospitalização e seus custos. O objetivo desta revisão da literatura foi avaliar o impacto da higiene bucal na prevenção de PAV em pacientes entubados. Utilizando os descritores "Oral care", "Intubated Patients" e "Cross Infection" na base de dados PubMed, foram encontrados 143 artigos. Destes, foram selecionados os estudos gratuitos publicados entre 2015 e 2020, que envolviam pesquisa em humanos adultos e jovens adultos. Foram descartados aqueles em que os pacientes em CTI e UTI não estavam entubados, restando 12 artigos para serem lidos integralmente. Segundo a literatura, a higienização da cavidade oral se mostra eficaz na redução de incidência da PAV, sendo o método mais utilizado a limpeza química com Clorexidina em concentrações variando de 0,12% a 2%, podendo ser complementada com a higienização mecânica. Assim, a implementação de um protocolo de higiene bucal para pacientes entubados é de fundamental importância para diminuir as chances de desenvolvimento de PAV.


The use of mechanical ventilation allows the maintenance of life in the recovery process of hospitalized patients who need respiratory assistance. However, the presence of the ventilator in the oral cavity environment promotes the accumulation of debris and plaque retention. The oral cavity is a medium rich in microorganisms and, in the context of intubated patients, the oral biofilm can harbor respiratory pathogens that may lead to the development of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP). This condition is one of the main secondary infections associated with the intubated patients, and its ocurrence increases the morbimortality, the lenght of hospitalization and its costs. The aim of this literature review is to assess the impact of oral hygiene on the prevention on VAP in intubated patients. Using the descriptors "Oral care", "Intubated Patients" and "Cross Infection" in the PubMed database, 143 articles were found. Of these, we selected free studies published between 2015 and 2020, which involved research in human adults and young adults. We descarted the ones in which the patients in the ITU or ICU were not intubated, leaving 12 articles to be read in full. According to the literature review, cleaning the oral cavity is effective in reducing the incidence of VAP, the most used method being chemical cleaning with chlorhexidine at concentrations ranging from 0.12% to 2%, which can be complemented with mechanical cleaning. Thus, the implementation of an oral hygiene protocol for intubated patients is fundamental to reduce the chances of developing VAP.


Subject(s)
Oral Hygiene , Respiration, Artificial , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control
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