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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2994-3000, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906780

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To compare the methods for the con tent determination of polysaccharide and reducing sugar in Polygonatum cyrtonema, and to optimize the wine-steaming technology of P. cyrtonema . METHODS : The contents of polysaccharide in P. cyrtonema were determined by anthrone-sulfuric acid method and phenol-sulfuric acid method. The contents of reducing sugar in P. cyrtonema were determined by anthrone-sulfuric acid method , phenol-sulfuric acid method and 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS)method,respectively. Taking appearance and property scores of processed products ,the contents of polysaccharide,reducing sugar and total sugar as indicators ,the amount of alcohol added ,steaming time and moistening time as factors,the wine-steaming technology of P. cyrtonema was optimized by Latin square design. The contents of polysaccharide , reducing sugar and total sugar were compared before and after steaming. RESULTS :The linear ranges of polysaccharide and reducing sugar obtained by anthrone-sulfuric acid method were both 0.006 6-0.033 mg/mL(R2=0.999 9). RSDs of precision , stability(90 min)and reproducibility tests were all lower than 3% and 2%,respectively. Average recoveries were 99.75%(RSD= 0.48%,n=6)and 103.40%(RSD=1.25%,n=6),respectively. The linear ranges of polysaccharide and reducing sugar obtained by phenol-sulfuric acid method were both 0.002 5-0.025 mg/mL(R2=0.999 2). RSDs of precision ,stability (90 min) and reproducibility tests were all lower than 5% and 6%,respectively. Average recoveries were 112.80%(RSD=2.36%,n=6)and 99.20%(RSD=3.47%,n=6). The linear range of reducing sugar obtained by DNS method was 0.01-0.18 mg/mL(R2=0.999 9). RSDs of precision ,stability(90 min)and reproducibility tests were all lower than 2%. Average recoveries was 96.95%(RSD= 1.19%,n=6). The optimal wine-steaming technology of P. cyrtonema included the amount of alcohol added of 20%,moistening time of 2 h and steaming time of 7 h. RSDs of average contents of polysaccharide ,reducing sugar and total sugar in wine-steamed products were all lower than 3% in 3 times of validation tests (n=3). The average contents of polysaccharide ,reducing sugar and total sugar in 4 batches of P. cyrtonema were 16.3%,11.2% and 27.4%;those of 4 batches of wine-steamed products were 3.4%, 61.0% and 64.4%,respectively. CONCLUSIONS :The anthrone- ) sulfuric acid method is the best for the determination of poly- saccharide in P. cyrtonema ;DNS method is the best for the pandongmei1228@126.com determination of reducing sugar in P. cyrtonema. The content ofpolysaccharide in wine-steamed products is decreased signifi- cantly,while the contents of reducing sugar and total sugar are increased significantly.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905840

ABSTRACT

Objective:To quickly analyze and identify the components in raw and wine-processed products of <italic>Polygonatum cyrtonema</italic> (PC) dried rhizomes by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), and then find out the differential components before and after processing. Method:The ACQUITY UPLC BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) was used with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile as the mobile phase for gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. Electrospray ionization was selected for collection and detection in positive and negative ion modes, and the data were analyzed by PeakView 1.2.0.3. According to the retention time, accurate relative molecular weight and fragmentation ion information provided by MS, and combined with the reference substance and literature, the components were identified. After normalized treatment, the MS data of each sample were analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and then the differential components before and after processing were screened according to the principle that variable importance in the projection (VIP) value was >1. Result:A total of 38 components were identified from raw and wine-processed products of PC dried rhizomes, including 15 steroidal saponins, 6 alkaloids, 3 flavonoids, 2 amino acids, 2 organic acids and 10 others. The results of PCA and OPLS-DA showed that there were significant differences in the contents of components in PC dried rhizomes before and after processing, and 16 differential components such as kingianoside Z, disporopsin and linoleic acid were screened. Conclusion:UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique can accurately and comprehensively identify the components in PC dried rhizomes, these components are mainly steroidal saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. It takes a great difference in the contents of components before and after processing, and transformation of the same category components is the main reason for the differences of raw and wine-processed products, which will provide reference for the researches on material basis and processing chemistry of PC dried rhizomes.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921745

ABSTRACT

The medicinal and edible Polygonatum cyrtonema is one of the original species of Polygonati Rhizoma. In this study,HPLC fingerprints for 25 batches of P. cyrtonema from 6 provinces were established. A total of 14 common peaks were identified and the similarities of the fingerprints were in the range of 0. 939-0. 999. In additon, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLSDA) demonstrated that the samples had low discriminability except for JX-1 and most components of them had no significant correlation with environmental factors such as longitude, latitude, and altitude. Thus, chemical composition specificity of P. cyrtonema in natural distribution areas had no obvious regularity and their variation might be induced by the local environment. This conclusion explained the lack of records about Dao-di area of Polygonati Rhizoma. However, JX-1 boasted significantly higher content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) and 4',5,7-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethylhomoisoflavone( HIF), thick and long inflorescence and rhizome, and extremely high yield. Therefore, excellent variety of P. cyrtonema might have great potential to improve the quality and yield of Polygonati Rhizoma. Moreover, three components of HMF, polygonalline A(PA), and HIF were identified in the fingerprint. Among them, HMF has the activities of blood rheology improvement, antioxidation, and anti-myocardial ischemia and PA is an indolizine alkaloid with potential anti-inflammatory activity. HIF, the characteristic homoisoflavone in Polygonatum, has the pharmacological activities of regulating blood glucose and anti-tumor. A quantitative analysis method can provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of the quality evaluation of Polygonati Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Polygonatum , Rhizome
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888048

ABSTRACT

The flower of Polygonatum cyrtonema has good edible and medicinal values. In this study, four samples of P. cyrtonema flowers from different regions were selected as test materials. The contents, composition and antioxidant activities of lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components were determined under different light and temperature conditions, which help to reveal the discoloration reason and the composition variation patterns during storage. The results showed that light and temperature had different effects on the lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components in the dried flowers during storage. After storage for 4 weeks, the contents of total chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenols and saponins in the samples exposed to light respectively decreased by 62.62%, 66.4%, 68.7% and 43.4% compared with those in the dark. The decreases in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, lutein, β-carotene and zeaxanthin were 64.64%, 56.74%, 59.2%, 77.7% and 45.4%, respectively. The contents of pigments and components in the samples stored at-20 ℃ were significantly higher than those at room temperature and 4 ℃, indicating that low temperature was conductive to the stability of lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components. The samples stored at low temperature and in the dark had the strongest free radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that P. cyrtonema dried flowers should be stored in low temperature environment without light, which can slow down the degradation of internal components. The study provides a theoretical basis for the production, processing and storage of P. cyrtonema flowers.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Carotenoids , Chlorophyll A , Flowers , Polygonatum
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879007

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to investigate the reproductive biology characteristics of Polygonatum cyrtonema, especially including phenology, flower bud differentiation, flowering timing, floral traits, pollen vigor and stigma receptivity. The results showed that P. cyrtonema forms inflorescence before the leaves spread. In the wild, P. cyrtonema is mainly pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, with a seed setting rate of 65.12%. The seed setting rate of indoor single plant isolation or self-pollination enclosed by parchment paper bag is 0, indicating that it is self-incompatible. In Lin'an city, seedlings begin to emerge from mid-March to early April(the temperature is higher than 7.5 ℃), buds begin to emerge from the end of March to mid-April, and then undergo the full bloom stage from mid-to-late April, and the final flowering stage from the end of April to mid-May. The whole flowering period lasts 36 to 45 days. There are obvious differences in the phenology of different provenances. The flowers come into bloom from the base to the top along the aboveground main axis, which usually contain 4-22 inflorescences with(2-) 4-10(-21) flowers per inflorescence. The flowering pe-riod for a single plant is 26-38 days. The single flower lasts about 20-25 days from budding to opening and withers 2 days after pollination, and then the ovary will gradually expand. If unpollinated, it will continue to bloom for 3-5 days and then wither. Flower development period is significantly related to pollen vigor and stigma remittance. The pollen viability is the highest when the flower is fully opened with anthers gathering on the stigma, and the receptivity is the strongest when the stigma protrudes out of the perianth and secretes mucus. The fruits and seeds ripen in October, and proper shading can ensure the smooth development and maturity of the seeds. This study provides a basis for the hybrid breeding and seed production of P. cyrtonema.


Subject(s)
Flowers , Plant Breeding , Pollination , Polygonatum , Reproduction
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878970

ABSTRACT

Polygonatum cyrtonema is a famous bulk medicinal material which is the medicinal and edible homologous. With the implementation of the traditional Chinese medicine industry to promote precise poverty alleviation, the planting area of P. cyrtonema in Jinzhai is becoming larger and larger in recent years. Jinzhai is located in the Dabie Mountainous area, which is the largest mountain area and county in Anhui Province. The cultivation of P. cyrtonema is scattered, and the traditional Chinese medicine resources investigation is not only inefficient and accurate. In this study,the "Resource 3"(ZY-3) remote sensing image was used as the best observation phase,and the method of support vector machine classification was used. The method of parallelepiped, minimum distance, mahalanob is distance, maximum likelihood classification and neural net were used to classify and recognize the P. cyrtonema in the whole region. In order to determine the accuracy and reliability of classification results, the accuracy of six supervised classification results was evaluated by confusion matrix method, and the advantages and disadvantages of six supervised classification methods for extracting P. cyrtonema field planting area were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the method of support vector machine classification was more appropriate than that using other classification methods. It provides a scientific basis for monitoring the planting area of P. cyrtonemain field.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polygonatum , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design , Support Vector Machine
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846706

ABSTRACT

Objective: EST-SSR loci were identified and analyzed based on the transcriptome sequencing data in Polygonatum cyrtonema, in order to develop SSR markers suitable for evaluation and application of germplasm resources on P. cyrtonema. Methods: SSR loci were identified and analyzed in all of 126 544 Unigenes by using MISA tool. SSR primers were designed by using Primer 3.0 software and 50 pairs of SSR primers were randomly selected for validation test. Results: A total of 12 317 SSR loci, including the types of 2-6 nucleotide repeats with occurring frequency of 1/5.91 kb, were identified from 9 982 Unigenes in P. cyrtonema transcriptome. The distribution frequency of SSRs was 9.73%. Dinucleotide repeat was the main type, accounting for as much as 53.14% of all SSRs, followed by trinucleotide repeat (33.31%). The validation test on 50 pairs of SSR primers showed that 29 of them (58%) generated fragments with expected molecular size from P. cyrtonema. The capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers showed that nine genotypes were identified at seven SSR loci in P. cyrtonema, which further demonstrated the validity of these SSR primers. Conclusion: There are numerous SSRs in P. cyrtonema transcriptome with high frequency, rich repeat types and relatively high polymorphic, which will provide abundant valuable candidate markers for genetic diversity analysis and genetic mapping construction in P. cyrtonema, also can be used as a technical tool for molecular identification among Polygonatum species and for molecular marker assistant breeding in superior cultivars of P. cyrtonema.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846433

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the genetic diversity and geographical distribution of Polygonatum cyrtonema resources. Methods: ISSR technique was applied to analyze 118 individuals from 20 P. cyrtonema provenances in six provinces, including Anhui, Jiangxi, Fujian, Hunan, Hubei, and Zhejiang. Results: The results showed that 130 clear bands were amplified by 16 primers with 123 polymorphic bands and the average percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) was 94.62%, PPL within provenances was 33.85%-60.00%. Nei's genetic diversity index (He) was 0.183 8, Shannon's information index (I) was 0.267 4 and gene differentiation index (Gst) was 0.529 3. There were abundant genetic diversities existing in wild resources of P. cyrtonema. The UPGMA clustering analysis revealed that individuals from the same provenance were almost clustered together firstly, explaining that the genetic differentiation among different provenances was higher than those within provenances. When genetic similarity (GS) was 0.61, 118 germplasms can be divided into four categories, including Wuyi Mountains, Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains, Dabie Mountains, Donggong, and Tianmu Mountains. Conclusion: P. cyrtonema has high genetic diversity, genetic variation was closely related to mountains, and the isolation of plains and water areas between mountains was one of the main causes of genetic differentiation among groups. This study had essentially theoretical value and practical significance for the protection of the germplasm resources and the breeding of the species.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846273

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this work, phylogenetic analysis was used to compare the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences of Polygonatum cyrtonema samples from different geographical sources, so as to explore the genetic diversity and genetic relationship of these resources. Methods: PCR method was used to amplify the regions of ITS and psbA-trnH, and the sequences of ITS2 and psbA-trnH were obtained after the amplified fragment sequences were blasted in NCBI database. The neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees and Kimura two-parameter (K2-P) model was used to calculate the genetic distance of different samples. Mega and DNAman softwares were applied for mutiple alignment of ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences of 25 samples of P. cyrtonema. Results: The lengths of ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences of Anhui Qingyang and Fujian Taining samples of P. cyrtonema were 224 bp and 620 bp, respectively. The lengths of ITS2 and psbA-trnH of the remaining 24 samples were 225 bp and 621 bp, respectively. ITS2 and psbA-trnH had seven and four mutation points, respectively. These 25 samples were clustered into two groups based on ITS2 sequences. Five samples in Hunan and Guizhou were clustered into one group, while the other 20 samples were clustered into another group. The genetic distance showed that the samples from Huaxi and Jianhe in Guizhou Province and Jianyang in Fujian Province had the largest genetic distance. Phylogenetic tree constructed by psbA-trnH sequences were unable to distinguish 25 samples from different geographical sources. Conclusion: Phylogenetic and mutation analysis will provide the theoretic foundation to utilize the resources of P. cyrtonema, investigate their evolution, and evaluate their genuineness. The results of mutation point will also be used in the identification of related P. cyrtonema resources.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846094

ABSTRACT

The nine times steaming and nine times shining processing method of Polygonatum cyrtonema was originated in ancient China and developed in modern times. The historical evolution of its processing technology includes raw-used, single-steamed, re-steamed, nine times steaming and nine times shining. It can eliminate toxicity, enhance curative effect, change meridians, facilitate storage and eliminate bacteria and so on. After nine times steaming and nine times shining, the chemical composition and drug efficacy of P. cyrtonema changed significantly, and it is widely used in medicine, health care products, common food, cosmetics and other fields. The historical evolution, processing mechanism, composition change, and clinical application of P. cyrtonema are reviewed in this paper, which provide a scientific basis for optimizing the nine times steaming and nine times shining technology of P. cyrtonema, lay the foundation for establishing the quality control standard control system, and provide a reference for the study of observing the ancient processing.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845997

ABSTRACT

Objective: To find a solution to the problems in the growth of tissue cultured seedlings of Polygonatum cyrtonema, such as low seedling survival rate, poor growth, and leaf disease. Method: In this study, tissue cultured seedlings of P. cyrtonema were used as testing plants. Two types of commercially-available cultivation medium commonly used in Fujian Province, as well as six types of cultivation medium mixed using peat soil, pearlite, roseite, sand, fungi residues and plant ash were used as the raw materials; Among them, a customized nutrient solution was added into the T5 and T7 cultivation media. Besides measuring the physicochemical properties of the cultivation media mentioned above, the study focused on the evaluation of their influence on the rate of grown-up seedlings, biological characteristics, growth biomass, strength index and incidence of leaf disease of P. cyrtonema. It also attempted to find the correlation between the physicochemical properties of the cultivation media and the biological characteristics, growth biomass, as well as the strength index of tissue cultured seedlings of P. cyrtonema. Results: The difference in the cultivation media had a great influence on the tissue cultured seedlings of P. cyrtonema in the rate of grown-up seedlings, biological characteristics, growth biomass, strength index and incidence of leaf disease. The difference in bulk density of the cultivation media had a notable negative correlation with the plant height of the tissue cultured seedlings of P. cyrtonema. The difference in the organic content of the cultivation media had a notable positive correlation with the fresh weight and dry weight of the tissue cultured seedlings of P. cyrtonema. Treated with the T5 cultivation medium we prepared, the tissue cultured seedlings of P. cyrtonema were in better growing condition in the rate of grown-up seedlings, morphological index, growth bomass, strength index, and no disease was found on the leaf. Conclusion: The prepared T5 was worth being widely used as the cultivation medium for growth of tissue cultured seedlings of P. cyrtonema.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828075

ABSTRACT

Steroidal saponins, which are the characteristic and main active constituents of Polygonatum, exhibit a broad range of pharmacological functions, such as regulating blood sugar, preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and anti-tumor. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing(RNA-Seq) analysis for the flowers, leaves, roots, and rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema using the BGISEQ-500 platform to understand the biosynthesis pathway of steroidal saponins and study their key enzyme genes. The assembly of transcripts for four tissues generated 129 989 unigenes, of which 88 958 were mapped to several public databases for functional annotation, 22 813 unigenes were assigned to 53 subcategories and 64 877 unigenes were annotated to 136 pathways in KEGG database. Furthermore, 502 unigenes involved in the biosynthesis pathway of steroidal saponins were identified, of which 97 unigenes encoding 12 key enzymes. Cycloartenol synthase, the first key enzyme in the pathway of phytosterol biosynthesis, showed conserved catalytic domain and substrate binding domain based on sequence analysis and homology modeling. Differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were identified in rhizomes as compared to other tissues(flowers, leaves or roots).The 2 437 unigenes annotated by KEGG showed rhizome-specific expression, of which 35 unigenes involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins. Our results greatly extend the public transcriptome dataset of Polygonatum and provide valuable information for the identification of candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins and other important secondary metabolites.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Gene Expression Profiling , Polygonatum , Saponins , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828014

ABSTRACT

Using the 260 geographical distribution records of Polygonatum cyrtonema in China, combined with 53 environmental factors, the maximum entropy modeling(MaxEnt) was used to study the ecological factors affecting the suitability distribution of P. cyrtonema. The ArcGIS software was used to predict the potential distribution of the population of P. cyrtonema. The dominant factors were chosen by using the Jackknife test and the Receiver Operating Characteristic(ROC) curve was used to evaluate the simulation. The results showed that high value of area under curve(AUC) denoted good results, which significantly differed from random predictions. Based on the evaluation criterion, the accuracies of the predictions of P. cyrtonema potential distribution in the current periods were excellent. The main environmental factors affecting the suitable growth of P. cyrtonema were the monthly precipitation, the wettest monthly precipitation, the annual average temperature range and the precipitation of November, March, February, April, May and October. There are 9 environmental factors in soil type. The potential fitness of P. cyrtonema in China is high, mainly concentra-ted in Hunan, western Hubei, Guangdong, northeastern Guangxi, southeastern Guizhou, Jiangxi, southwestern Anhui, Fujian, Zhejiang, Shaanxi, southwestern Henan and Chongqing. The growth distribution of the potential distribution area of P. cyrtonema was divided, and the zoning map of the growth suitability of P. cyrtonema was formed. Through the comparative analysis of the potential distribution range based on MaxEnt and the distribution range of literature records, the understanding of the distribution range of P. cyrtonema was expanded.


Subject(s)
China , Ecology , Entropy , Polygonatum , Research Design , Soil
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878858

ABSTRACT

In order to analyze the expression of genes involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis pathway in Polygonatum cyrtonema tubers, it is very important to select internal reference genes that are stably expressed at different development stages and in response to abiotic stress. According to the previously established P. cyrtonema transcriptome database and reported internal reference genes in plant, this study systematically analyzed eight candidate internal reference genes including histone H2 A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, ACTIN, β-tubulin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-E2-10, elongation factor 1-alpha isoform, 18 S rRNA and α-tubulin 4 for expression stability in P. cyrtonema tubers at different development stages and in response to methyl jasmonate(MeJA) stress by using Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR(qPCR). Based on the statistical analysis of qPCR results by using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares, the expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-E2-10 and elongation factor 1-alpha isoform are the most stable in P. cyrtonema tubes at different development stages and in response to MeJA stress. The two internal reference genes were further validated by analyzing the expression of 4 genes involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis pathways. In conclusion, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-E2-10 and elongation factor 1-alpha isoform can be used as the most appropriate internal reference genes for qPCR analysis in P. cyrtonema. This study also provide a foundation for future investigate the molecular mechanism of steroidal saponin biosynthesis pathways in P. cyrtonema.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Polygonatum , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stress, Physiological , Transcriptome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850695

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the secondary metabolites of Aspergillus ochraceus, an endophytic fungus isolated from Polygonatum Cyrtonema. Methods: Compounds were isolated and purified from the EtOAc extract by using chromatography technology and their structures were established on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Results: A total of 15 compounds were obtained and their structures were elucidated as 6,7-dihydroindolizin-8(5H)-one (1), polygonatine A (2), 8-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3-indolizinyl methyl acetate (3), 8-hydroxyketone (4), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Ile) (5), alternariol (6), seco- patulolide C (7), n-butyl-β-D-fructopyranoside (8), Nb-acetyltryptamine (9), N-trans-cinnamoyltyramine (10), 5-hydroxy- methylfurfural (11), 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-3-(4’-hydroxybenzyl) chroman-4-one (12), 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8- methoxy-3- (4’-hydroxybenzyl) chroman-4-one (13), 25R-3-β-hydroxyspirost-5-en-12-one (14), and 25S-3-β-hydroxyspirost-5-en-12-one (15). Conclusion: All chemical constituents are isolated from A. ochraceus for the first time.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777443

ABSTRACT

To reveal the variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extractives of rhizomes Polygonatum cyrtonema from different producing areas,growing years,and harvesting seasons,25 wild samples from the main producing areas( provenances) of China and 6 artificial cultivated samples were collected and detected. The 6-year-old rhizomes of the artificial cultivation were gathered from Qingyuan,Zhejiang every 2 months during 2016 to 2017. Anthrone-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method were used to determine the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extractives respectively. The results showed that provenances,age sections and harvesting seasons affected the quality of Polygonati Rhizoma significantly. The content of polysaccharides from different provenances varied from 6. 96% to 20. 09%,and the content of extractives varied from 32. 08% to 78. 99%. The polysaccharides and extractives' content were the highest at 2-year-age sections,active constituents accumulation peaked in the third year,then decreased significantly with age increasing. The contents of polysaccharides and extractives accumulated were highest when aerial parts,up to 15. 39% and 78. 99% respectively. In summary,the activity and consistency fluctuated with producing areas. while such phenomenon indicated a huge potential of breeding. Additionally,the results showed that collecting Polygonati Rhizoma in February or August as herbal textual recorded were unreasonable,neither in spring or autumn according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition). Because these collecting periods didn't have the highest contents of polysaccharides and extractives. Therefore,based on phenological options,the rhizomes of P. cyrtonema should be harvested when the aboveground parts had just withered.


Subject(s)
China , Ethanol , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Polygonatum , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Seasons , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773132

ABSTRACT

In order to accelerate the breeding of the excellent seedlings of Polygonatum cyrtonema,tissue culture system of P. cyrtonema was established through the comprehensive regulation of key factors( leaf age,leaf location,basic media and plant growth regulators) and cytological basis of callus formation and differentiation was analyzed through paraffin section. The results showed that the 30-day-old leaf base explanton medium MS+6-BA 1. 50 mg·L~(-1)+2,4-D 0. 20 mg·L~(-1) had the highest induction rate( 80. 00%). The callus was initiated from cells on leaf base epidermis and near cortex,formed by the differentiation of middle vascular bundle cells. The optimal medium for adventitious bud differentiation was MS+ 6-BA 4. 00 mg·L~(-1)+ 2,4-D 0. 20 mg·L~(-1) with the differentiation rate of90. 33%,and the average number of buds was 5. 16. The adventitious buds had two origin types: exogenous and endogenous origin,formed by callus proximal cells and callus internal meristemoid. The adventitious bud proliferation medium was screened by orthogonal design,which determined the optimum combination was MS+ 6-BA 2. 00 mg·L~(-1)+NAA 0. 10 mg·L~(-1) and MS+ 6-BA 2. 00 mg·L~(-1)+NAA 0. 20 mg·L~(-1). The tubers with three leaves were cut and inoculated in the medium 1/2 MS+IBA 2. 00 mg·L~(-1),showing the highest rooting rate of 94. 00%. The rooting seedlings transplanted into the peat-vermiculite( 1 ∶ 1) matrix grew healthy and the survival rate was over 85. 00%. This research provided a novel solution for large-scale cultivation of P. cyrtonema seedling.


Subject(s)
Culture Media , Plant Growth Regulators , Plant Leaves , Cell Biology , Polygonatum , Regeneration , Seedlings , Tissue Culture Techniques
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771517

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of different shading conditions on the growth,physiological characteristics and biomass allocation of Polygonatum cyrtonema,which offered a theoretical basis for its cultivation.Different light environments(100%,80%,60% and 35% light transmittance) were simulated with shading treatments.Growth and photosynthetic indexes of P.cyrtonema were measured and the variances were analyzed.The results show that shading decreased superoxide anion radical(O-·2)production rate and hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2) accumulation,kept the activity of SOD,POD and CAT enzyme at a high level.Furthermore,The content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b,net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs),transpiration rate(Tr),maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ(Fv/Fm),photochemical quenching index(q P) and effective quantum yield of photosystem II(ΦPSⅡ) of P.cyrtonema were increased while the intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci),Foand NPQ were decreased by shading.Shading is beneficial to P.cyrtonema growth,can increase the total biomass P.cyrtonema.The allocation proportion of biomass on the aerial portion of P.cyrtonema increased but underground parts decreased with increasing shading conditions.In this study,P.cyrtonema can grow well in shading conditions,shading is beneficial to the formation of the yield and quality of the rhizomes of P.cyrtonema,especially in 65% light transmittance.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Chlorophyll , Chlorophyll A , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Plant Stomata , Plant Transpiration , Polygonatum , Physiology , Sunlight
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851746

ABSTRACT

This paper reviewed the ancient and modern literatures and made a textual research on the original plant and medicinal materials of Jiuhua Polygonatum Cyrtonema. Original plant of Jiuhua P. Cyrtonema is Polygonatum cyrtonema, and the leaf order type is interleaf type. The processing method of Jiuhua P. Cyrtonema as medicine is mainly nine steaming and nine sunning. In modern times, Jiuhua P. Cyrtonema is used from medicinal materials to edible food, which can be applied for the food development to lay the foundation for the modern production of Jiuhua P. Cyrtonema. However, the further research on genuineness of Jiuhua P. Cyrtonema is also needed to do. It can be determined that P. cyrtonema from the Hunan, Guizhou, Guangxi, and Jiuhua Mountain is better, so the further research need to be done to determine whether the modern Jiuhua P. Cyrtonema can be genuine medicinal materials.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851708

ABSTRACT

Polygonatum cyrtonema, which is growing in Jiuhua Mountain, is genuine medicinal materials. The main processing methods of it are cutting, single-steamed, re-steamed, nine times steamed and nine times shined, wine-steamed, wine-stewed, copying and so on. Its effective components are polysaccharides and steroidal saponins, and they also have pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidation, regulating immunity, lowering blood sugar, antitumor, antibiosis, and antiviral. The development history and modern research progress of processing technology of P. cyrtonema in Jiuhua Mountain were summarized, which provides reference and basis for its processing research and lays the foundation for its standard operation rules of GMP processing.

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