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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1866-1886, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982829

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive conditions that affect the neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) and result in their damage and death. Neurodevelopmental disorders include intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and stem from the disruption of essential neurodevelopmental processes. The treatment of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental conditions, together affecting ∼120 million people worldwide, is challenged by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier that prevent the crossing of drugs from the systemic circulation into the CNS. The nose-to-brain pathway that bypasses the BBB and increases the brain bioavailability of intranasally administered drugs is promising to improve the treatment of CNS conditions. This pathway is more efficient for nanoparticles than for solutions, hence, the research on intranasal nano-drug delivery systems has grown exponentially over the last decade. Polymeric nanoparticles have become key players in the field owing to the high design and synthetic flexibility. This review describes the challenges faced for the treatment of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental conditions, the molecular and cellular features of the nasal mucosa and the contribution of intranasal nano-drug delivery to overcome them. Then, a comprehensive overview of polymeric nanocarriers investigated to increase drug bioavailability in the brain is introduced.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1348-1357, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982809

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) has drawn much attention in the medical field. Through various treatment approaches including protein replacement therapies, gene editing, and cell engineering, mRNA is becoming a potential therapeutic strategy for cancers. However, delivery of mRNA into targeted organs and cells can be challenging due to the unstable nature of its naked form and the low cellular uptake. Therefore, in addition to mRNA modification, efforts have been devoted to developing nanoparticles for mRNA delivery. In this review, we introduce four categories of nanoparticle platform systems: lipid, polymer, lipid-polymer hybrid, and protein/peptide-mediated nanoparticles, together with their roles in facilitating mRNA-based cancer immunotherapies. We also highlight promising treatment regimens and their clinical translation.

3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19457, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383969

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diethylcarbamazine-loaded nanoparticles were previously evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, little is known regarding their physicochemical properties. Thus, the purpose of this study was to physiochemically characterize diethylcarbamazine-loaded poly(caprolactone) nanoparticles and evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity. All formulations were prepared using the double-emulsion method. The average particle size was in the ranged between 298 and 364 nm and the polydispersity indexes were below 0.3. The zeta potential values were marginally negative, which may be related to drug loading, as higher loading led to an increase in the modulus of the zeta potential values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis did not reveal any chemical interactions between the chemicals used and the absence of drug in crystalline form on the nanoparticle surfaces. The in vitro drug release study revealed a concentration-dependent release from the nanoparticles into the medium. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated the biocompatibility of the blank and loaded nanoparticles. Hence, all formulations presented good physicochemical and safety properties, corroborating the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, previously reported by our group.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Diethylcarbamazine/agonists , Drug Liberation , Methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Chemical Compounds , Nanoparticles/analysis
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 65-76, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102867

ABSTRACT

Due to the biological activities of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, its incorporation in methacrylate polymeric (Eudragit E100) nanoparticles (NP), physical characterization, and antimicrobial essays were evaluated. The clove bears great potential for applications in dentistry. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and oil loaded NP using the nanoprecipitation method. Particle size and polydispersity index were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, and physical morphology by electron microscopy. Loading capacity and in vitro eugenol release were evaluated by gas mass chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of oil loaded-NP was calculated against Streptococcus mutans. Different chemical ingredients were characterized, and eugenol was the principal compound with 51.55%. Polymer content was directly related to NP homogenous size, which was around 150 nm with spherical morphology. A 73.2% loading capacity of eugenol was obtained. Oil loaded NP presented a fickian-type release mechanism of eugenol. Antimicrobial activity to 300 µg/mL was obtained after 24 h.


Debido a las actividades biológicas del aceite esencial de Syzygium aromaticum, se evaluó su incorporación en nanopartículas (NP) de metacrilato polimérico (Eudragit E100), su caracterización y ensayos antimicrobianos. El clavo tiene un gran potencial para aplicaciones en odontología. El aceite se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y las NP cargado de aceite utilizando el método de nanoprecipitación. El tamaño de partícula y el índice de polidispersidad se determinaron mediante espectroscopia de correlación fotónica y su morfología por microscopía electrónica. La capacidad de carga y la liberación de eugenol in vitro se evaluaron mediante cromatografía de gases en masa, y la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó contra Streptococcus mutans. Se caracterizaron diferentes ingredientes químicos, siendo el eugenol el principal compuesto con 51.55%. El contenido de polímero se relacionó directamente con el tamaño homogéneo de NP, que fue de alrededor de 150 nm con morfología esférica. Se obtuvo un 73,2% de capacidad de carga de eugenol. El aceite cargado en NP presentó un mecanismo de liberación de eugenol de tipo fickiano. La actividad antimicrobiana a 300 µg/mL se obtuvo después de 24 h.


Subject(s)
Polymers/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Syzygium/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Eugenol/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Administration, Oral , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Delivery Systems , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 28(4): 495-502, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958895

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to prepare hydrogel containing Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae, volatile oil encapsulated in poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles and to evaluate its in vitro anti-herpetic activity. Polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by solvent emulsification-diffusion method and incorporated in carbomer hydrogels. In vitro release profiles for the nanogel, loaded nanoparticles and hydrogel containing free oil were evaluated by dialysis. Inhibitory activities against Herpes simplex for the formulations were investigated in Vero cells. Hydrogel was developed using nanoparticles with mean diameter of 217.1 nm and negative Zeta potential (−20.5 mV). Volatile oil release profile showed a biphasic pattern with an initial faster release and subsequent sustained phase in all formulations. Nanogel strongly inhibited virus in a non-cytotoxic concentration, 42.16 times lower than free oil, 8.76 and 2.23 times than loaded nanoparticles and hydrogel containing free oil, respectively. These results highlight the potential of nanogel to protect oil against volatilization, control release and improve its anti-herpetic activity.

6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17515, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001569

ABSTRACT

Present work is aimed to develop a simple, sensitive, robust and reliable HPLC method for routine quality control of epirubicin (EPI) in bulk drug, marketed injections and polymeric nanoparticles. Separation was carried out by C18 column. Isocratic elution was carried out using mobile phase A: 0.16% o-phosphoric acid solution, B: acetonitrile and methanol mixture (80:20, v/v) in the ratio of 60:40 (A: B) while the flow rate was maintained at 1mL/min. Analyses were performed at 233.5 nm using PDA detector. Excellent linear relationship was observed between peak-area versus drug concentration in the range of 1.0-100.0 µg/mL (r2, 0.999). Developed method was found to be sensitive (Limits of detection and quantification were found to be ~8 ng/mL and ~25 ng/mL, respectively), precise (RSD <1.0%, for repeatability and <2.0% for intermediate precision, within acceptable ranges of precision), accurate (recovery in different dosage form, 94.65 -100.26%, within acceptable range, 80-120%), specific and robust (% RSD <2, for system suitability parameters). Stress-induced degradation studies demonstrated that method can suitability be applied in the presence of degradants. Developed method has been successfully applied for the determination of entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro release profile, in vitro permeation studies as well as stability assessment of polymeric nanoparticles


Subject(s)
Quality Control , Epirubicin/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Nanoparticles/analysis
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(2): e15185, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839471

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lenalidomide (LND) is an anti-cancer drug and an effective derivative of thalidomide used for multiple myeloma therapy. Because of its poor solubility in water, LND is known to cause low oral bioavailability (below 33%), and as a direct consequence of this, the dosing frequency is extended thus increasing risk of toxicity. To improve its bioavailability and sustained release, the present study aims to formulate polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for LND using [Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)] (PLGA) as a polymer. The polymeric NPs were evaluated for particle size, SEM, XRD, drug content, entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro release studies and in vivo bioavailability studies in rats. The formulated NPs possessed a size of 179±0.9 nm and a zeta potential of -24.4 ± 0.2 mV. The drug loading and EE of the optimized formulation was 32 ± 0.37 % and 78 ± 0.92% respectively. After oral administration of LND PLGA-NPs, the relative bioavailability was enhanced about 3.67-fold compared to LND. This study demonstrates the novel drug delivery for LND with PLGA-NPs as effective drug delivery system for sustained delivery of LND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/statistics & numerical data , Nanoparticles/statistics & numerical data , Multiple Myeloma/prevention & control , Polymers/analysis , Solubility/drug effects
8.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis ; (6): 388-393, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-664751

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a natural hormone and with the advancement of age its production declines and thereby may result in some neurological disorders.Exogenous administration of melatonin has been suggested as a neuroprotective agent. Due to its low oral bioavailability, the loading of melatonin in polymeric nanoparticles could be an important tool to effectively use exogenous melatonin. The quantification of the incorporated drug within polymeric nanoparticles is an important step in nanoparticles characterization.An analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detector(HPLC-PDA)was developed and validated for melatonin determination in poly(lactic acid)nanoparticles obtained by a single emulsion-solvent evaporation technique.The melatonin in vitro release profile also was determined by the HPLC method.Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:water(65:35,v/v)pumped at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min,in the isocratic mode and PDA detector was set at 220 nm.The method was validated in terms of the selectivity,linearity,precision, accuracy,robustness,limits of detection and quantification.Analytical curve was linear over the concentration range of 10–100 μg/mL, and limits of detection and quantification were 25.9 ng/mL and 78.7 ng/mL, respectively. The mean recovery for melatonin was 100.47% (RSD = 1.25%, n = 9). In the intra- and inter-assay,the coefficient of variation was less than 2%.Robustness was proved performing changes in mobile phase, column temperature and flow rate.The method was suitable for the determination of melatonin encapsulation efficiency in poly(lactic acid)nanoparticles and for the evaluation of melatonin in vitro release profile.

9.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1563-1568, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772355

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the fields of biomaterials and nanotechnology have allowed the development of advanced nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Despite a vast number of nanostructures such as liposomes, solid­lipid nanocapsules, polymeric and hybrid lipid­polymer nanoparticles have been studied as carriers for drug delivery for different pathologies with remarkable promising results; the use of polymeric nanoparticles in dermocosmetic still has not been widely explored. The evolution of cosmetic into the care skin and dermatology represents novel technological challenges. Also, the increasing knowledge about normal skin physiology and advances in nanotechnology provide an attractive environment for the creation of innovative dermocosmetic formulations. In this work, we discuss the state of the art of polymeric nanoparticles formulated for dermocosmetics, its mechanisms of action, and diffusion into the skin.


Los recientes avances en el campo de los biomateriales y la nanotecnología han permitido el desarrollo de nanopartículas avanzadas para aplicaciones biomédicas. A pesar de que un gran número de nanoestructuras tales como liposomas, nanocápsulas lípido-sólidas, nanopartículas poliméricas y lípido-polímero híbridas han sido estudiadas como vehículos para la administración de fármacos en diferentes patologías con notables resultados prometedores, el uso de nanopartículas poliméricas en dermocosmética todavía no ha sido ampliamente explorado. La evolución de la cosmética en el cuidado de la piel y la dermatología nos enfrentan a nuevos retos tecnológicos. Además, el aumento de los conocimientos sobre la fisiología de la piel normal y los avances en la nanotecnología proporcionan un entorno atractivo para la creación de formulaciones dermocosméticas innovadoras. En este trabajo se discute el estado del arte de las nanopartículas poliméricas desarrolladas para dermocosmética, sus mecanismos de acción y la difusión en la piel.


Subject(s)
Cosmetics/pharmacokinetics , Dermatology/trends , Nanotechnology/trends , Polymers/pharmacokinetics , Skin/drug effects , Cosmetic Techniques/trends , Drug Delivery Systems , Skin/anatomy & histology , Technology, Pharmaceutical
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; ago. 2015. 149 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834116

ABSTRACT

A zidovudina (AZT) ainda é o fármaco mais empregado no tratamento da AIDS, isoladamente ou em associação a outros antirretrovirais, porém é um fármaco administrado em altas doses e que apresenta efeitos adversos que comprometem a adesão do paciente ao tratamento. Assim, um novo sistema de liberação de zidovudina composto por nanopartículas de poli (n-butil-cianoacrilato) (PBCA) revestidas por ácido hialurônico (AH) foi desenvolvido e caracterizado com o objetivo de prolongar a liberação do fármaco e diminuir sua toxicidade. As nanopartículas têm sido amplamente estudadas como veículo para fármacos por permanecer na circulação por um tempo maior e, portanto, liberar o fármaco de forma prolongada. Para polimerização e, portanto, obtenção das nanopartículas, n-butil-cianoacrilato e Dextran® foram adicionados a HCl 0,1 M (pH 2,5), sob agitação a 800 rpm, por 1 h. O AZT foi adicionado e o processo foi neutralizado com adição de NaOH 0,1M após mais 3 h de agitação. Após filtração as partículas foram revestidas pela adição de uma dispersão aquosa de ácido hialurônico (AH) a baixa rotação. O diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio das nanopartículas não revestidas foi de 152,3 nm, com um índice de polidispersividade médio igual a 0,055. O potencial zeta médio dessas partículas foi -0,678 mV. O diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio das nanopartículas revestidas com AH obtido foi de 196,9 nm, com um índice de polidispersividade médio igual a 0,440. O potencial zeta médio dessas partículas foi de -25,6 mV. Os valores resultantes dessas análises são indicativos da estabilidade das nanopartículas obtidas e da boa reatividade dos monômeros dos cianoacrilatos. Ainda, pelos resultados é possível confirmar a ocorrência do revestimento. Assim, a eficiência do processo de revestimento das nanopartículas pode ser comprovada por meio dos resultados das análises de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC) e pelos resultados das análises de espectroscopia de absorção na região do infravermelho. Para quantificar o fármaco associado às nanopartículas, um método empregando espectrofotometria derivada (ED1) no UV aplicando a técnica do ponto de anulação foi desenvolvido e validado. Tal método possibilitou a eliminação da interferência dos excipientes, o que permitiu a quantificação do AZT na suspensão de nanopartículas com precisão e exatidão adequadas. A porcentagem de fármaco associado às nanoestruturas obtidas pelo método foi de 64%, considerado satisfatório. As nanopartículas foram incorporadas a uma formulação base de gel de Carbopol® 940 que, apresentou estabilidade após ser submetida a diferentes condições de armazenamento, com incidência de luz e variação da temperatura


Zidovudine (AZT) is still the most widely used drug in the treatment of AIDS, alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs, however it is indicated in high doses and has adverse effects that compromise patient compliance to treatment. Thus, a new zidovudine delivery system made of poly (n-butyl-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) was developed and characterized in order to extend the drug release and reduce its toxicity. The nanoparticles have been widely studied as drug carriers once they remain in circulation for a longer period and, consequently, release the drug gradually. For the polymerization, and, therefore synthesis of nanoparticles, n-butyl-cyanoacrylate and Dextran® were added to 0.1 M HCl (pH 2.5) and stirred at 800 rpm for 1 hour. AZT was added and the reaction was neutralized by the addition of 0.1 M NaOH after 3 more hours of agitation. After filtration the particles were coated by addition of an aqueous dispersion of hyaluronic acid (HA) at low revs. The mean hydrodynamic diameter of non-coated nanoparticles was 152.3 nm with an average polydispersity index of 0.055. The average zeta potential of these particles was -0.678 mV. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the coated nanoparticles was 196.9 nm, presenting an average polydispersity index of 0.440. The average zeta potential of these particles was -25.6 mV. The resulting values of these tests are indicative not only of the stability of the obtained nanoparticles but also the good reactivity of the monomers of cyanoacrylates. Moreover, the results can confirm the occurrence of coating. Thus, the efficiency of the coating process of the nanoparticles can be demonstrated by the results of the analysis of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the results of the absorption spectroscopy in the infrared region. In order to quantify the drug associated with the nanoparticles, a method employing derivative spectrophotometry (ED1) UV applying the zero-crossing technique was developed and validated. This method allowed the elimination of interference of excipientes, allowing the quantification of AZT nanoparticles in suspension with adequate accuracy and precision. The percentage of the drug associated with the obtained nanostructures by the method was 64%. The nanoparticles were incorporated into a Carbopol® 940 gel formulation, which was stable after being subjected to different storage conditions, with incidence of light and temperature variation


Subject(s)
Zidovudine/analysis , Cyanoacrylates , Nanoparticles , Hyaluronic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Technology, Pharmaceutical , /classification
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159164

ABSTRACT

Objective: The development of new delivery systems for the controlled release of drugs is one of the most innovative fields of research in pharmaceutical sciences. Nanoparticles specially designed to release the drug in the vicinity of target sites. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the Lansoprazole nanoparticles to improve the therapeutic efficacy of Lansoprazole by loading in nanoparticle drug delivery system. Materials and Methods: Lansoprazole loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNP1 to CNP10) were prepared by ionotropic gelation method. The formulated nanoparticles were evaluated for external morphological characters, determination of particle size analysis, zeta potential, drug content, entrapment efficiency and in-vitro release studies. Results: The drug content for the Lansoprazole loaded chitosan nanoparticles varied from 69.5±7.2% to 87.9±1.2%. The entrapment efficiencies were found to be minimum and maximum of 39.3±2.6% and 85.6±1.2%, the optimum entrapment efficiency was found to be 85.3±0.8%, particle size varied from 360±12nm to 814±62nm, zeta potential values were in positive and increased from 11.2±1.2mV to 18.7±0.4mV. In-vitro release of drug follows zero order and showed sustained release behavior for a period of 24 hr. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the successful preparation of sustained release polymeric nanoparticles of Lansoprazole.

12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163560

ABSTRACT

Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the potential of novel nanoparticles (NPs) intended for topical administration of the hydrophilic antioxidant Glutathione and the lipophilic Idebenone. Glutathione was introduced into the NPs using two approaches: i) covalently bonded to Chitosan; ii) physically complexed with Idebenone and Sulfobutylether--cyclodextrin. Methodology: NPs were formulated using the ionic gelation technique, by dissolving the polysaccharide-forming matrix (Chitosan, Glycol chitosan, Glutathionyl Chitosan) in water or in slightly acidic solution. Idebenone was physically entrapped whereas glutathione was either physically entrapped or covalently bonded to chitosan. Physicochemical characterization of the resulting NPs included size, zeta potential measurements, antioxidant association efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and stability studies. Antioxidants in vitro release from the most stable NPs was assessed with Franz diffusion cells, and the in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical test. NP cytotoxicity was assessed on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line. Results: The NPs showed smaller particle size in acidic solution than in aqueous medium, whereas zeta potential values were always positive, irrespective of the medium. Stability studies led to the choice of the aqueous formulation where Glutathione was covalently bonded to Chitosan for this study. DSC highlighted amorphization of Idebenone in these NPs. In vitro release studies showed that only Idebenone was released from the NPs. The antioxidant activity test revealed a strong effect (close to 100%) of Idebenone loaded into NPs while its aqueous solution showed no activity. No cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes was observed for the investigated NPs. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Idebenone can be loaded into a hydrophilic delivery system without organic solvents, often used for its solubilization, possessing high antioxidant activity. Therefore, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the design of formulations for topical treatments with antioxidants.

13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167968

ABSTRACT

In this study, analytical hierarchy process was used to select an optimal method for the preparation of dual loaded flavono polymeric nanoparticles. Analytical hierarchy process involves structuring multiple choice criteria into a hierarchy, assessing the relative importance of criteria, comparing alternatives for each criterion and determining an overall ranking of the alternatives. Hierarchy model was developed with the goal in the first level, 10 criteria in the second level and methods for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles in the third level. To assess the relative importance of criteria, all criteria were compared with each other using Saaty’s scale. To compare the methods, all the methods for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles were compared with each other for each criterion using Saaty’s scale, which leads to the formation of pair-wise comparison matrixes and consistency ratio was calculated for the each pair-wise comparison matrix. The study result showed that the consistency ratio of each pair-wise comparison matrix were well within acceptable limits. Of 10 criteria, reproducible results received the maximum overall priority weight followed by desirable size. Of 10 methods, nanoprecipitation method received the maximum overall priority weight followed by supercritical fluid technology. Analytical hierarchy process has identified reproducible results as criteria preference and nanoprecipitation as an optimal method for the preparation of dual loaded flavono polymeric nanoparticles. The study concludes that the analytical hierarchy process has played a vital role in selecting an optimal method for the preparation of dual loaded flavono polymeric nanoparticles.

14.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 50(4): 869-876, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741337

ABSTRACT

The objective of the research was to formulate and evaluate selegiline hydrochloride loaded chitosan nanoparticles for the Parkinson's therapy in order to improve its therapeutic effect and reducing dosing frequency. Taguchi method of design of experiments (L9 orthogonal array) was used to get optimized formulation. The selegiline hydrochloride loaded chitosan nanoparticles (SHPs) were prepared by ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions (TPP) and tween 80 as surfactant. The SHPs had a mean size of (303.39 ± 2.01) nm, a zeta potential of +32.50mV, and entrapment efficiency of SHPs was 86.200 ± 1.38%. The in vitro drug release of SHPs was evaluated in phosphate buffer saline (pH 5.5) using goat nasal mucosa and found to be 82.529% ± 1.308 up to 28 h. Release kinetics studies showed that the release of drug from nanoparticles was anomalous (non-fickian) diffusion indicating the drug release is controlled by more than one process i.e. superposition of both phenomenon, the diffusion controlled as well as swelling controlled release. SHPs showed good stability results as found during stability studies at different temperatures as mentioned in ICH guidelines. The results revealed that selegiline hydrochloride loaded chitosan nanoparticles are most suitable mode of delivery of drug for promising therapeutic action.


O objetivo da pesquisa foi formular e avaliar nanopartículas de quitosana contendo cloridrato de selegilina para terapia do Parkinson, a fim de melhorar o seu efeito terapêutico e reduzir a frequência de dosagem. Método de Taguchi, de planejamento experimental, (L9 matriz ortogonal) foi usado para obter a formulação otimizada. As nanopartículas de quitosana contendo cloridrato de selegilina (PCHs) foram preparadas por gelificação iônica de quitosana com ânions tripolifosfato (TPP) e Tween 80 como tensoativo. As PCHs apresentaram tamanho médio de (303.39 ± 2,01) nm, potencial zeta de +32.50 mV e eficiência de encapsulação de 86.200±1,38%. A liberação do fármaco in vitro foi avaliada em solução salina de tampão fosfato (pH 5,5), usando a mucosa nasal de cabra e o resultado encontrado foi de 82.529% ± 1.308, acima de 28 h. Estudos de cinética de liberação mostraram que a liberação do fármaco das nanopartículas foi por difusão anômala (não fickiana), indicando que é controlada por mais de um processo, ou seja, a superposição dos fenômenos de difusão controlada e intumescimento. As PCHs mostraram resultados de boa estabilidade, encontrada durante os estudos de estabilidade em temperaturas diferentes, como mencionado em diretrizes do ICH. Os resultados revelaram que o sistema de nanopartículas de quitosana contendo cloridrato de selegilina é o mais adequado sistema de liberação de fármacos de ação terapêutica promissora.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease/therapy , Nanoparticles , Selegiline/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Chitosan/analysis , Drug Liberation
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 16(5): 8-8, Sept. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-690468

ABSTRACT

Background: The progress in material science and the recent advances in biodegradable/biocompatible polymers and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have led to develop innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for diseases based on multifunctional nanoparticles, which include contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging, agent for hyperthermia and nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery. The aim of this work is to synthesize and characterize superparamagnetic iron oxide (magnetite), and to encapsulate them into poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Results: The magnetite nanoparticles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and exhibited a size of 22.3 ± 8.8 nm measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Polymeric PHBV nanoparticles loaded with magnetite (MgNPs) were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and showed a size of 258.6 ± 35.7 nm and a negative zeta potential (-10.8 ± 3.5 mV). The TEM examination of MgNPs exhibited a spherical core-shell structure and the magnetic measurements showed in both, non-encapsulated magnetite and MgNPs, a superparamagnetic performance. Finally, the in vitro studies about the magnetic retention of MgNPs in a segment of small intestine of rats showed an active accumulation in the region of the magnetic field. Conclusions: The results obtained make the MgNPs suitable as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, also promoting hyperthermia and even as potential nanocarriers for site-specific transport and delivery of drugs.


Subject(s)
Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Drug Delivery Systems , Contrast Media , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanomedicine , Magnetite Nanoparticles/analysis , Magnetite Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles/chemistry , Hyperthermia, Induced
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153084

ABSTRACT

In this study, analytical hierarchy process was used to select an optimal method for the preparation of dual loaded flavono polymeric nanoparticles. Analytical hierarchy process involves structuring multiple choice criteria into a hierarchy, assessing the relative importance of criteria, comparing alternatives for each criterion and determining an overall ranking of the alternatives. Hierarchy model was developed with the goal in the first level, 10 criteria in the second level and methods for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles in the third level. To assess the relative importance of criteria, all criteria were compared with each other using Saaty’s scale. To compare the methods, all the methods for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles were compared with each other for each criterion using Saaty’s scale, which leads to the formation of pair-wise comparison matrixes and consistency ratio was calculated for the each pair-wise comparison matrix. The study result showed that the consistency ratio of each pair-wise comparison matrix were well within acceptable limits. Of 10 criteria, reproducible results received the maximum overall priority weight followed by desirable size. Of 10 methods, nanoprecipitation method received the maximum overall priority weight followed by supercritical fluid technology. Analytical hierarchy process has identified reproducible results as criteria preference and nanoprecipitation as an optimal method for the preparation of dual loaded flavono polymeric nanoparticles. The study concludes that the analytical hierarchy process has played a vital role in selecting an optimal method for the preparation of dual loaded flavono polymeric nanoparticles.

17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2013. 191 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837060

ABSTRACT

A via oral é considerada preferencial para a administração de fármacos, sobretudo no tratamento de doenças crônicas. Entretanto, princípios ativos administrados por essa via podem apresentar biodisponibilidade variável e/ou limitada. Diversos tipos de sistemas de liberação vêm sendo desenvolvidos com o objetivo de melhorar esse parâmetro, dentre os quais se destacam as nanopartículas de poli (alquil-cianoacrilato) (PACA). Pelo exposto, no presente trabalho foram desenvolvidas nanopartículas de poli(n-butilcianoacrilato) (PBCA) contendo aciclovir (ACV), revestidas por N,N,N-trimetilquitosana (TMQ), um promissor promotor de absorção. A TMQ foi sintetizada com elevado rendimento e grau de quaternização de aproximadamente 73%. As nanopartículas de PBCA foram obtidas com rendimento adequado e apresentaram características físico-químicas semelhantes às descritas na literatura. Após o revestimento, foi observado um aumento no diâmetro médio, bem com uma inversão nos valores de potencial zeta. Essas observações podem indicar a ocorrência do revestimento. A partir das análises de DSC, pôde-se comprovar a eficiência do revestimento das nanopartículas pelo derivado sintetizado, já que o comportamento das nanopartículas de PBCA-TMQ foi diferente daquele obtido para a mistura física entre os constituintes da formulação. Nessa mesma perspectiva, análises de FTIR foram conduzidas e a ocorrência do revestimento foi corroborada. Além disso, as análises morfológicas por Microscopia de Força Atômica (AFM) revelaram que as nanopartículas revestidas apresentam baixa tendência à agregação, o que pode ser um indicativo de estabilidade para a formulação desenvolvida. Em relação aos ensaios de citotoxicidade, foi evidenciado que as nanopartículas de PBCA não apresentaram toxicidade significativa frente às células Caco-2, ao passo que a formulação revestida mostrou um efeito tóxico dose-dependente influenciado pelo grau de quaternização. Além disso, as nanopartículas desenvolvidas foram capazes de diminuir, reversivelmente, a Resistência Elétrica Transepitelial (RET) da monocamada de células. A fim de quantificar o fármaco associado às nanopartículas, foi desenvolvido e validado método analítico por espectrofotometria derivada com detecção no UV. Tal método mostrou-se capaz de eliminar a interferência dos excipientes, permitindo a quantificação do ACV na formulação de nanopartículas com precisão e exatidão adequadas. Assim, a porcentagem de fármaco associado às nanoestruturas pode ser calculada, obtendo-se um valor satisfatório. De maneira semelhante, foi desenvolvido e validado método por CLAE para a quantificação do fármaco nos ensaios de permeação. A metodologia proposta mostrou-se adequada considerando-se as recomendações da RE 899/03. Por meio dos ensaios de permeabilidade em células Caco-2, foi constatado que a formulação desenvolvida aumentou em 3 vezes o valor de Permeabilidade aparente (Papp) do fármaco em estudo. Além disso, as nanopartículas revestidas foram capazes de propiciar a liberação controlada do ACV nos ensaios de liberação in vitro utilizando meios com diferentes valores de pH (1,2; 6,8 e 7,4)


The oral route is considered for the administration of drugs, especially in the treatment of chronic diseases. However, drugs administered by this route may have variable and/or limited bioavailability. Various types of delivery systems have been developed with the goal of improving this parameter, among which stand out the nanoparticles of poly (alkylcyanoacrylate) (PACA).Such nanomaterials have been coated to improve stability in the gastrointestinal tract, promote greater solubility or enhance permeation. Therefore, in this work were developed nanoparticles of poly (n-butilcianoacrilato) (PBCA) containing acyclovir (ACV), coated with N,N,N-trimethylchitosan (TMC), a promising absorption promoter. The TMC was synthesized with high-yield and approximately 73% of quaternization. The PBCA nanoparticles presented physico-chemical characteristics similar to those described in the literature. After the coating, it was observed an increase in the average diameter, and a inversion on the values of zeta potential. These observations may indicate the occurrence of coating. DSC analysis could proved the efficiency of the coating of nanoparticles, since the behavior of nanoparticles of PBCA-TMC was different from those obtained for the physical mixture between the constituents of the formulation. In this same perspective, FTIR analyses were conducted and the occurrence of coating was corroborated. In addition, morphological analyses by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed that nanoparticles coated presented low tendency to aggregate, which can be an indication of stability for the formulation developed. In relation to cytotoxicity assays, it was evidenced that the PBCA nanoparticles showed no significant toxicity against the Caco-2 cells, whereas the coated formulation showed a dose-dependent toxic effect influenced by the degree of quaternization. In addition, the nanoparticles developed were able to decrease, reversibly, Transepitelial Electric Resistance (TEER) of the monolayer. In order to quantify the drug associated with nanoparticles, was developed and validated analytical method by derivative spectrophotometry with UV detection. This method was able to eliminate the interference of excipients, allowing the quantification of ACV in the formulation of nanoparticles with appropriate precision and accuracy. Thus, the percentage of drug associated with nanostructures can be calculated, obtaining a satisfactory value. Similarly, has been developed and validated HPLC method for the quantification of drug permeation tests. The proposed methodology was appropriate considering the recommendations of the RE 899/03. Through the permeability assays in Caco-2 cells, it has been found that the formulation developed increased by 3 times the value os Apparent Permeability (Papp) of ACV. In addition, the nanoparticles were able to provide controlled release of ACV in vitro using media with different pH values (1.2; 6.8 and 7.4)


Subject(s)
Permeability , Cyanoacrylates , Nanoparticles , Administration, Oral , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Electric Impedance , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-691537

ABSTRACT

A indústria cosmética tem investido em tecnologias inovadoras na busca de maior eficácia de seus produtos. A Nanotecnologia tem sido utilizada com o propósito de desenvolver formulações de menor risco de irritação cutânea e que promovam a liberação modificada do componente ativo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo geral desenvolvimento, caracterização e avaliação de nanopartículas de ácido ursólico incorporadas em formulação cosmética. Nesta pesquisa, para determinar a eficiência de encapsulação do AU (ácido ursólico) livre e nas nanopartículas poliméricas, foi validada uma metodologia que empregou a CLAE (Cromatografia em fase Líquida de Alta Eficiência) e os resultados obtidos indicaram boa reprodutibilidade do método e concordância entre os resultados obtidos, sendo a metodologia empregada na avaliação do AU livre e nanoparticulado. As nanopartículas contendo AU apresentaram características de potencial estabilidade química, obtendo eficiência de encapsulação de 80% de AU para as nanopartículas poliméricas e 100% para os carreadores lipídicos nanoestruturados. A caracterização físico-química das nanopartículas poliméricas contendo AU foi realizada determinando-se diâmetro da partícula (353,4 ± 1,4 nm), índice de polidispersividade (0,106 ± 0,008) e potencial zeta (-35,6 ± 1,2 mV). Os resultados obtidos para os carreadores lipídicos nanoestruturados contendo AU nas formulações foram: tamanho de partícula entre 125,3±40,4 e 237,4±62,7 nm, índice de polidispersividade entre 0,01 e 0,38 e potencial zeta entre -20,5±9,2 e -50,7±9,5 mV. Os resultados obtidos indicaram estabilidade das nanopartículas desenvolvidas. O resultado relativo ao planejamento fatorial para otimização dos agentes tensoativos revelou modelo matemático de segunda ordem para a previsão de valores de potencial zeta em função das concentrações de SDS. Dessa forma, foi possível a preparação de carreador lipídico nanoestruturado contendo reduzida concentração de SDS e valor de potencial zeta menor...


The cosmetic industry has invested in innovative technologies in search of greater effectiveness of their products. Nanotechnology has been used with this propose to reduce the risk of skin irritation by promoting the modified release of the active component. This study had as main objective development, characterization and evaluation of ursolic acid nanoparticles incorporated in cosmetic formulation. In this research, to determine the entrapment efficiency of UA (ursolic acid) free and in polymeric nanoparticles, a methodology was validated using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) and the results indicated good reproducibility of the method and agreement between the results, the methodology employed could be assessed in the evaluation of free and UA nanoparticles. Nanoparticles containing UA showed characteristics of potential chemical stability obtaining entrapment efficiency of 80% for UA polymer nanoparticles and 100% for the nanostructured lipid carriers. The physicochemical characterization of polymeric nanoparticles containing UA was accomplished by determining the particle diameter (353.4 ± 1.4 nm), polydispersity index (0.106 ± 0.008) and zeta potential (-35.6 ± 1.2mV). The results obtained for the nanostructured lipid carriers containing UA formulations were: particle size between 125.3±40.4 and 237.4±62.7 nm, polydispersity index between 0.01 and 0.38, and zeta potential between -20.5±9.2 and -50.7±9.5 mV. The results indicated stability of the developed nanoparticles. The result for the factorial design for optimization of surfactant revealed a quadratic effect of the independent variable sodium dodecyl sulfate in zeta potential. Thus, it was possible to prepare nanostructured lipid carrier containing reduced concentrations of SDS and zeta potential value of less than -40 mV. By means of the techniques of TG/DTG and DSC, was observed that the UA remained stable. Cosmetic formulations containing free ursolic acid (AUL) and incorporated...


Subject(s)
Skin Absorption , Cosmetic Stability , Nanoparticles/analysis , Nanoparticles/statistics & numerical data , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Thermodynamics
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