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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923368


Objective @# To investigate the efficacy of a holistic approach for postoperative pain management in children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia in day-surgery operating room. @*Methods@#A total of 120 children, aged 3-7 years, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ, with ≥ 10 treated teeth, receiving comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia from January 2020 to August 2020 were enrolled in this trial and randomly allocated into the holistic approach group (group H, n=60) and including preemptive analgesia, instructions to parents for pain management and web-based assessment system (assessment pain by scanning the quick response code 4, 6, and 24 hours postoperatively) and the control group (group C, n=60) only scanning the quick response code. Pain, face, legs, activity, cry and consolability (FLACC) scale was used to assess the level of pain 2 h postoperatively and the parents postoperative pain measure (PPPM) was used to assess the level of pain 4, 6, and 24 h postoperatively in two groups.@* Results@# The FLACC scores of group H 2 h postoperatively were significantly lower than group C (P <0.05). The incidences of significant pain (PPPM scores ≥ 6) 4, 6 and 24 h postoperatively in group H were lower than group C (P <0.05). Altogether, 91.7% of parents in group H and 71.6% in group C assessed the level of pain of children over time. The compliance rate of parents in group H was significantly higher than group C (P <0.05).@*Conclusion @# The holistic approach had a positive effect on reducing postoperative pain for children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia in the day-surgery operating room.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718450


OBJECTIVE: To compare the analgesic effects and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of fentanyl intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (ivPCA) with nefopam, a centrally acting analgesic agent with demonstrated opioid sparing activity, as compared to ketorolac in a tertiary teaching hospital. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of electronic medical records was conducted on patient records including either nefopam or ketorolac with opioid ivPCA for post-operative pain management in general surgery department from January to December 2014. The status of pain control and ADRs were collected. RESULTS: Out of 6,330 general surgery cases, nefopam was given in 153 prescriptions (6.9%) and ketorolac in 81 prescriptions (3.6%). The level of pain control was not different between two groups (70.9% vs. 75.3%; p = 0.51), but ADRs were more frequently reported in nefopam group (9.8% vs. 2.5%; p < 0.05). New ADRs of hot flushes (n = 1) and paresthesia in hands (n = 1) were reported in nefopam group and they were unlisted in the approved package insert. No serious ADRs were reported in both groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings presented that nefopam showed a similar analgesic effect and higher ADR rates compared to ketorolac as an adjuvant to fentanyl iv PCA for postoperative pain management in general surgery patients in South Korea.

Humans , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Analgesics, Opioid , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Electronic Health Records , Fentanyl , Hand , Hospitals, Teaching , Ketorolac , Korea , Nefopam , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative , Paresthesia , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Prescriptions , Product Labeling , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715031


OBJECTIVE: There have been many cases of spontaneous adverse drug reactions to fentanyl at a regional pharmacovigilance center in the hospital. To assess the factors causing the adverse drug reactions reported in patients receiving fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) monotherapy or in combination with fentanyl transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) for acute post-operative pain management. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with all patients prescribed fentanyl PCA for pain management after orthopedic surgery at a single university hospital from June 2012 to May 2013. We analysed the factors causing adverse drug reactions reported by a spontaneous reporting system in patients receiving fentanyl PCA monotherapy and those receiving fentanyl TTS in combination with fentanyl PCA. RESULTS: Based on the spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting, the risk ratio for the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction in the fentanyl TTS combination therapy group was 3.04 (95 % CI: 2.4-4.00, P < 0.0001), which was approximately 3-fold higher than that reported for fentanyl PCA monotherapy. Only 60 % of the adverse drug reactions were reported. CONCLUSION: It is inappropriate to add fentanyl TTS to fentanyl PCA to manage post-operative acute pain. There is a need to improve adverse drug reaction reporting. We expect that regular analysis of adverse drug reactions reported at regional pharmacovigilance centre would aid in appropriate drug utilization by patients.

Humans , Acute Pain , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Cohort Studies , Drug Utilization , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fentanyl , Incidence , Odds Ratio , Orthopedics , Pain Management , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Pharmacovigilance , Retrospective Studies
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 34(1): 254-264, ene.-mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841451


ResumenEl dolor es una experiencia universal pero única para cada individuo. El proceso patológico que culmina en una intervención quirúrgica es una de las principales fuentes de dolor, muchas veces abordado y manejado de manera subóptima o en entornos que carecen de la organización adecuada. La utilización de la historia clínica y examen físico para la identificación de factores de riesgo conocidos para dolor postoperatorio agudo y crónico son fundamentales al elaborar un plan de manejo del dolor efectivo. Según las recomendaciones, se obtiene una mejor respuesta con el uso de terapia multimodal farmacológica y no farmacológica que involucra celecoxib preoperatorio, anestesia regional periférica o neuraxial, manejo de dolor postoperatorio con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES), acetaminofén, gabapentina o pregabalina; implementación de terapia cognitiva y de comportamiento. Monitoreo y valoración periódica del paciente para evaluar su respuesta a analgésicos y efectos adversos asociado a coordinación y planeamiento eficaz de protocolos y guías en cada centro de salud, se han visto de utilidad al valorar a un grupo tan heterogéneo e impredecible.

Abstract:Pain is a universal experience but unique for every individual. The pathological processes that end in a surgical intervention are some of the main pain sources, often approached and managed suboptimally or without proper organization. The use of clinical history and physical examination to identify known risk factors to postoperative acute and chronic pain are fundamental to elaborate an effective pain management plan. According to recommendations, the outcome improves with pharmacological and non-pharmacological multimodal analgesia, including celecoxib before surgery, peripheral regional anesthesia or neuraxial techniques, management of postoperative pain with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, gabapentin or pregabalin; implementation of cognitive - behavioral therapy. Monitoring and periodic assessments associated with coordination and planning of protocols and guidelines in every clinical center, have been useful to evaluate a heterogeneous and unpredictable group, in order to establish the patients' response to analgesics and their adverse effects.

Humans , Pain, Postoperative , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Pain Measurement , Acute Pain , Pain Management
China Pharmacy ; (12): 5007-5011, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-664442


OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for postoperative rational selection of analgesia drugs and the optimization of an-algesia plan. METHODS:From the aspect of clinical pharmacists,postoperative pain therapy drugs involved in 6th-22nd chapter of Guidelines for Postoperative Pain Management (called Guideline for short) in the United States. RESULTS:The contents of the Guideline involving postoperative pain therapy drugs included the selection of perioperative therapy drugs and route of administra-tion,multimodal analgesic delivery regimen,individualized drug treatment program,medication monitoring,medication education and postoperative pain management program,etc. The preoperative application of opioids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was not recommended in the Guideline due to not benefit from it;for patients who can be given drugs orally,oral administration should be preferred if opioids were administered,and intramuscular injection should be avoided. The multimodal analgesic treat-ment plan combined with non-drug intervention were recommend for postoperative pain. The individualized treatment plan should be chosen according to the patient's specific condition. Clinical pharmacists should pay attention to the degree of sedation respira-tion and the occurrence of ADR in the patients after surgery,and explained the postoperative pain management process,methods of reducing analgesic drugs after discharge to the patiens and their families. CONCLUSIONS:The Guideline about analgesic regimens requirements for perioperative patients provides a reference for clinicians to choose the appropriate individual analgesic regimen.

Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(5): 350-356, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723205


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve blocks performed with the ultrasound guided and the anatomical landmark techniques for postoperative pain management in cases of adult inguinal herniorrhaphy. Methods: 40 patients, ASA I-II status were randomized into two groups equally: in Group AN (anatomical landmark technique) and in Group ultrasound (ultrasound guided technique), iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve block was performed with 20 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine prior to surgery with the specified techniques. Pain score in postoperative assessment, first mobilization time, duration of hospital stay, score of postoperative analgesia satisfaction, opioid induced side effects and complications related to block were assessed for 24 h postoperatively. Results: VAS scores at rest in the recovery room and all the clinical follow-up points were found significantly less in Group ultrasound (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001). VAS scores at movement in the recovery room and all the clinical follow-up points were found significantly less in Group ultrasound (p < 0.001 in all time points). While duration of hospital stay and the first mobilization time were being found significantly shorter, analgesia satisfaction scores were found significantly higher in ultrasound Group (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion: According to our study, US guided iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve block in adult inguinal herniorrhaphies provides a more effective analgesia and higher satisfaction of analgesia than iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve block with the anatomical landmark technique. Moreover, it may be suggested that the observation of anatomical structures with the US may increase the success of the block, and minimize the block-related complications. .

Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia de bloqueios dos nervos ílio-hipogástrico/ilioinguinal feitos com a técnica guiada por ultrassom e a de marcos anatômicos para o manejo da dor no pós-operatório em casos de herniorrafia inguinal em adultos. Métodos: Foram randomicamente divididos 40 pacientes, estado físico ASA I-II, em dois grupos iguais: nos grupos AN (técnica de marcos anatômicos) e US (técnica guiada por ultrassom), o bloqueio dos nervos ílio-hipogástrico/ilioinguinal foi feito com 20 mL de levobupivacaína a 0,5% antes da cirurgia com as técnicas especificadas. Escore de dor na avaliação pós-operatória, tempo de primeira mobilização, tempo de internação hospitalar, escore de satisfação com a analgesia no pós-operatório, efeitos colaterais induzidos por opiáceos e complicações relacionadas ao bloqueio foram avaliados durante 24 horas de pós-operatório. Resultados: Escores EVAem repouso na sala de recuperação e todos os valores clínicos durante o acompanhamento foram significativamente menores no grupo ultrassom (p < 0,01 ou p < 0,001). Escores EVA em movimento na sala de recuperação e todos os valores clínicos durante o acompanhamento foram significativamente menores no grupo ultrassom (p < 0,001 em todos os tempos avaliados). Enquanto os tempos de internação e da primeira mobilização foram significativa-mente menores, os índices de satisfação com a analgesia foram significativamente maiores no grupo ultrasom (p<0,05, p< 0,001, p< 0,001, respectivamente). Conclusão: De acordo com o nosso estudo, o bloqueio dos nervos ílio-hipogástrico/ilioinguinal guiado por US em herniorrafias inguinais em adultos proporciona uma analgesia mais eficaz e maior satisfação com a analgesia ...

Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la eficacia de bloqueos de los nervios ileohipogástrico/ilioinguinal realizados con la técnica guiada por ultrasonido y la de marca anatómicas para el manejo del dolor en el postoperatorio en casos de herniorrafia inguinal en adultos. Métodos: 40 pacientes, estado físico ASA I-II, fueron aleatoriamente divididos en 2 grupos iguales: grupos con técnica de marcas anatómicas) y grupo con técnica guiada por ultrasonido. El bloqueo de los nervios iliohipogástrico/ilioinguinal fue realizado con 20 mL de levobupivacaína al 0,5% antes de la cirugía con las técnicas especificadas. La puntuación de dolor en la evaluación postoperatoria, tiempo de primera movilización, tiempo de ingreso hospitalario, puntuación de satisfacción con la analgesia en el postoperatorio, efectos colaterales inducidos por opiáceos y complicaciones relacionadas con el bloqueo fueron evaluados durante 24 h de postoperatorio. Resultados: Las puntuaciones EVA en reposo en la sala de recuperación y todos los valores clínicos durante el seguimiento fueron significativamente menores en el grupo con técnica guiada por ultrasonido (p < 0,01 o p < 0,001). Las puntuaciones EVA en movimiento en la sala de recuperación y todos los valores clínicos durante el seguimiento fueron significativamente menores en el grupo con técnica guiada por ultrasonido (p < 0,001 en todos los tiempos calculados). Mientras que los tiempos de ingreso y de la primera movilización fueron significativamente menores, los índices de satisfacción con la analgesia fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo ultrasonido (p < 0,05; p < 0,001; p < 0,001 respectivamente). Conclusión: De acuerdo con nuestro estudio, el bloqueo de los nervios iliohipogástrico/ilioinguinal guiado por ultrasonido en herniorrafias ...

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Ultrasonics/instrumentation , Levobupivacaine/administration & dosage , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Nerve Block/instrumentation , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies
The Journal of Practical Medicine ; (24): 3321-3323, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-458061


Objective To compare the analgesia effect and the safety of Flurbiprofen Axetil (FA) and Parecoxib Sodium (PS) after posterior lumbar fusion surgery. Methods 90 patients undergoing internal fixation of lumbar spine randomly assigned to 3 groups:those in Group A(n = 30) received 100 mg of FA; those in Group B (n=30) received 40 mg of PS and those in Group C received saline.The VAS scores of 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h after operation and the dose of tramadol hydrochloride (TH) used and the side effect was recorded respectively. Results Group A and B had significantly better analgesic effect than Group C(P<0.05). Group A and B had lower average dose of TH than Group C (P<0.05). The VAS scores in Group A was lower than that in Group B in 2 h after the surgery. The VAS scores after the surgery showed no significant difference between Group A and B in 6 , 12, 24 h after the surgery. The VAS scores in Group A was higer than that in Group B in 48,72 h after the surgery. Conclusion Both PS and FA can alleviate postoperative pain and have fewer adverse reactions.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-385402


Objective To find out the nurse's cognitive level of the postoperative pain management and its relevant elements,and influence of intervention measures on their postoperative pain management,so that can provide a theoretic basis for a more effective postoperative pain management.Methods The grounded theory research method taken from qualitative research Was mainly used,and triangulation was applied in collecting the information,such as observational method,interviewing method among nurses and collecting questionnaire among nurses and patients.In addition,the information was analyzed by using the constant tomparative method,generalized the relative elements influencing the postoperative pain managemen,summarized the intervention measure.In the end.analyzed comparatively the change of the nurses'knowledge and behavior of the postoperative pain management before and after intervention.Results Surgical nurses'knowledge and behavior of the postoperative pain management was improved in various degrees.The difference of the data has statistical significance.Satisfaction degree of patients improved and the theoretical model included conceptual structure,contributory factors and results.Conclusions The advance of the surgical nurse's self-awareness can improve the level of the postoperative pain management.