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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388708

ABSTRACT

Resumen El parto prematuro es la principal causa de morbimortalidad neonatal en Chile. Los prematuros tardíos, definidos como nacimientos entre 34 semanas con 0 días (34+0) y 36 semanas con 6 días (36+6) de gestación, representan el 70-80% de los prematuros y se asocian a baja morbilidad y excepcional mortalidad si se comparan con partos bajo 34 semanas, pero significativamente mayor al compararlos con partos de término. Los prematuros tardíos son el resultado de diversas condiciones obstétricas, tales como síndromes hipertensivos del embarazo, rotura prematura de membranas, colestasia intrahepática del embarazo y comorbilidad médica. El propósito de esta revisión es actualizar la información asociada a los prematuros tardíos y dar una visión de las tendencias en el uso de corticoides y el manejo expectante de la rotura prematura de membranas con el objetivo de disminuir las complicaciones en este grupo de prematuros.


Abstract Preterm delivery is the most important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in Chile. Late preterm, defined as deliveries between 34 +0 and 36+6-weeks accounts for 70-80% of preterm and is associated with non-severe morbidity and extremely low mortality when compared with deliveries below 34 weeks but significantly high when compared with full term babies. Late preterm deliveries are a result of several obstetric conditions, such a hypertensive disorder, premature rupture of membranes, intrahepatic cholestasis, and maternal medical comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to update the information associated with the risks of late preterm and to guide in the new trends in the application of steroid and expectant management for premature rupture of membranes in order to reduce the frequency of late preterm.

2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388685

ABSTRACT

Resumen El parto prematuro es la principal causa de morbilidad y de mortalidad perinatal, y hasta un tercio de los casos presentan rotura prematura de membranas. La infección intrauterina que asciende desde la vagina es su principal causa en un hospital público de Chile. Esta revisión narrativa mediante búsqueda en PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scielo, Science Direct y Wiley Online Library incluye estudios publicados sobre los diferentes factores infecciosos que intervienen en el resultado adverso perinatal y la eficacia de los antibióticos en la rotura prematura de membranas de pretérmino. Además, contiene recomendaciones de sociedades científicas sobre el uso de antibióticos en estos casos. Los ensayos concluyen que los antimicrobianos prolongan el embarazo, disminuyen la corioamnionitis clínica y reducen variadas morbilidades neonatales, pero no reducen la mortalidad perinatal ni las secuelas tardías en la infancia. Los resultados adversos obstétricos, especialmente los neonatales, y las secuelas dependen de la existencia de invasión microbiana de la cavidad amniótica o de infección cérvico-vaginal, de la virulencia de los microorganismos aislados, del compromiso inflamatorio/infeccioso de la placenta (corioamnionitis histológica, funisitis) y de la respuesta inflamatoria fetal. Para mejorar los resultados adversos obstétricos neonatales en la rotura prematura de membranas de pretérmino, los esquemas de antibióticos deben ser eficaces, cubriendo el amplio espectro microbiológico existente y actuando sobre los factores infecciosos implicados en la gravedad de la infección. Además, deben administrarse de manera intensiva y prolongada hasta el parto.


Abstract Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and up to a third of them have premature rupture of membranes. Intrauterine infection that rises from the vagina is its main cause in a public hospital in Chile. This narrative review by searching PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scielo, Science Direct and Wiley Online Library includes published studies of the different infectious factors involved in perinatal adverse outcome and of the efficacy of antibiotics in preterm premature rupture of membranes. It also contains recommendations from scientific societies on the use of antibiotics in these cases. These trials conclude that antimicrobials prolong pregnancy, decrease clinical chorioamnionitis, and reduce various neonatal morbidities, but do not reduce perinatal mortality or infant sequelae. Obstetric and especially neonatal adverse outcomes in these patients depend on the existence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and/or cervicovaginal infection, of the virulence of the isolated microorganisms, of inflammatory/infectious involvement of the placenta (histological chorioamnionitis, funisitis) and fetal inflammatory response. To improve adverse neonatal obstetric outcomes in preterm premature rupture of membranes, antibiotic regimens must be effective, covering the wide existing microbiological spectrum and acting on infectious factors responsible for the severity of the infection. In addition, they must be administered aggressively and for a long time until delivery.

3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(11): 717-725, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144178

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the type of management (active versus expectant) for preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) between 34 and 36 + 6 weeks of gestation and the associated adverse perinatal outcomes in 2 tertiary hospitals in the southeast of Brazil. Methods: In the present retrospective cohort study, data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients admitted to two tertiary centers with different protocols for PPROM management. The participants were divided into two groups based on PPROM management: group I (active) and group II (expectant). For statistical analysis, the Student t-test, the chi-squared test, and binary logistic regression were used. Results: Of the 118 participants included, 78 underwent active (group I) and 40 expectant management (group II). Compared with group II, group I had significantly lower mean amniotic fluid index (5.5 versus 11.3 cm, p = 0.002), polymerase chain reaction at admission (1.5 versus 5.2 mg/dl, p = 0.002), time of prophylactic antibiotics (5.4 versus 18.4 hours, p < 0.001), latency time (20.9 versus 33.6 hours, p = 0.001), and gestational age at delivery (36.5 versus 37.2 weeks, p = 0.025). There were no significant associations between the groups and the presence of adverse perinatal outcomes. Gestational age at diagnosis was the only significant predictor of adverse composite outcome (x2 [1] = 3.1, p = 0.0001, R2 Nagelkerke = 0.138). Conclusion: There was no association between active versus expectant management in pregnant women with PPROM between 34 and 36 + 6 weeks of gestation and adverse perinatal outcomes.


Resumo Objetivo: Comparar o tipo de manejo (ativo versus expectante) para ruptura prematura de membranas (PPROM, na sigla em inglês) entre 34 e 36 semanas e 6 dias de gestação e os resultados perinatais adversos relacionados, em 2 hospitais terciários do sudeste brasileiro. Métodos: No presente estudo de coorte retrospectivo, os dados foram obtidos através da revisão dos prontuários de gestantes internadas em dois centros terciários com protocolos diferentes para o seguimento da PPROM. As gestantes foram divididas em dois grupos com base no manejo da PPROM: grupo I (ativo) e grupo II (expectante). Para análise estatística, foram utilizados o teste t de Student, qui-quadrado e regressão logística binária. Resultados: Das 118 gestantes incluídas, 78 foram submetidas a tratamento ativo (grupo I) e 40 a seguimento expectante (grupo II). Comparado ao grupo II, o grupo I apresentou índice de líquido amniótico médio significativamente menor (5,5 versus 11,3 cm, p = 0,002), reação em cadeia da polimerase na admissão (1,5 versus 5,2 mg/dl, p = 0,002), tempo de antibióticos profiláticos (5,4 versus 18,4 horas, p < 0,001), tempo de latência (20,9 versus 33,6 horas, p = 0,001) e idade gestacional no parto (36,5 versus 37,2 semanas, p = 0,025). Não houve associações significativas entre os grupos e a presença de resultados perinatais adversos. A idade gestacional no diagnóstico foi o único preditor significativo de desfecho composto adverso (x2 [1] = 3,1, p = 0,0001, R2 Nagelkerke = 0,138). Conclusão: Não houve associação entre manejo ativo e expectante em gestantes com PPROM entre 34 e 36 semanas e 6 dias de gestação e resultados perinatais adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/therapy , Watchful Waiting , Brazil , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Delivery, Obstetric , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215305

ABSTRACT

Preterm premature rupture of membranes is one of the important causes of premature birth that can result in high perinatal morbidity and mortality along with maternal morbidity. The definition of premature rupture of membranes is rupture of membranes before labour and before 37 weeks of gestation is referred as Preterm PROM. If the membrane rupture is after 37 weeks of gestation, it is Term PROM. The incidence of PPROM ranges from 3 - 10 % of all deliveries and it contributes to 30 - 40 % of all preterm births. METHODSA prospective observational study of clinical analysis of the PPROM in 100 cases of 28 - 37 weeks of gestation which were delivered by caesarean section was conducted from 2018 October to 2019 September in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Chalmeda Anand Rao Institute of Medical Sciences, Bommakal, Karimnagar. RESULTSPrevalence of PPROM in the study is 7.8 %. Intra amniotic infection was seen in 32 %. The mean latency period from rupture of membranes to delivery is 3.78 + 2.74 days. 25 % neonates were delivered by caesarean section. There was a total of 12 % perinatal deaths, still births - 4 %, 10 % - early neonatal deaths. CONCLUSIONSIn the current study, the prevalence of PPROM was 7.8 %. Careful antenatal monitoring, detection and prompt treatment of infection is necessary. Strict septic precautions, appropriate therapy, regular antenatal follow up are important factors in the prevention of PPROM. Close antenatal monitoring, identification of risk factors like cervicovaginal infection and their management play an important role in the prevention of PPROM.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207962

ABSTRACT

Background: Evaluation of urea and creatinine levels in vaginal wash fluid for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes.Methods: The study was conducted on150 pregnant patients, 50 in each group. Confirmed PROM and unconfirmed PROM. Per speculum examination was done to look for pooling, pH tested using the Pehanon paper and vaginal wash fluid was collected. Vaginal wash fluid urea and creatinine levels were tested by a kit based on spectrophotometry.Results: The mean urea levels were 26.35 mg/dl in the study Group 1 and 3.12 mg/dl in the control group. ROC curve was plotted and the cut off value of vaginal wash fluid urea was found to be 8.55 mg/dl. The vaginal wash fluid urea levels of >8.55 mg/dl detected PROM with a sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value of 100%. The mean creatinine levels were 0.62 mg/dl in study Group 1 and 0.20 mg/dl in the control group. ROC curve was plotted and the cut off value of vaginal wash fluid creatinine was found to be 0.405 mg/dl. Vaginal wash fluid creatinine levels detected PROM with a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 100%. The negative predictive value and positive predictive values were 80.4% and 100%.Conclusions: Urea can be used as a definite marker of PROM and creatinine can be used as a supportive marker.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207867

ABSTRACT

Background: Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) remains a subject of great clinical relevance. The present study was conducted to study maternal morbidity and its relationship with PROM-delivery interval in patients with term PROM as compared to patients without PROM.Methods: A prospective case control study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Kasturba Hospital, New Delhi. 100 pregnant patients presenting to the labor room with features of PROM at term (POG>37 weeks) were taken as cases and 100 term pregnant women (age and parity matched) with intact membranes were taken as controls and compared in terms of maternal outcome.Results: This study reported maternal morbidity rate of 21% in term PROM cases which was significantly higher than in control group (5%). The major cause was febrile morbidity which occurred in 16% of cases indicating ascending infection. Other complications were abdominal and episiotomy wound infection (4%), chorioamnionitis (2%), postpartum hemorrhage (2%) and puerperal sepsis (1%). There was an increased rate of operative delivery in the case group (33%) as compared to 18% in patients without PROM. Duration of PROM-delivery interval had a significant direct proportional impact on the maternal morbidity. The duration of combined hospital stay of mother and neonate was also increased.Conclusions: Patients with term PROM have significant maternal morbidity which was mainly due to infection. The duration of the hospital stay was also significantly increased.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212122

ABSTRACT

Background: Retinopathy of prematurity is a multifactorial vasoproliferative retinal disease that increases in incidence with decreasing gestational age and is one of the leading causes of preventable childhood blindness in India. Advances in neonatology have led to dramatic increase in survival of preterm neonates and in turn, to the risk of developing ROP. Since most of the risk factors associated with ROP mentioned above arise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) itself and most of them are avoidable, cautious monitoring of the risk factors, early screening, follow up and surgical intervention have been shown to reduce the incidence and improve the outcome of ROP.Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted for a period of 2 years. A total of 151 infants admitted in NICU /SNCU who satisfied the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Initial and follow up screening was conducted in three phases the results were documented in proforma after ethical clearance.Results: Comparison of risk factors between eyes with and without ROP was done using Chi-square test. A p-value of<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Incidence of ROP in centre is found to be 33.8%. Among maternal risk factors, multiple gestation and PROM/PPROM is found to be significant in the development of ROP from this study. However, mode of delivery and gestational hypertension, were found to be not significant in ROP. Among neonatal risk factors, low birth weight, lower gestational age, prolonged oxygen exposure, blood transfusion, mechanical ventilation, sepsis, phototherapy was found to be significant in this study.Conclusions: ROP, being an emerging cause for potentially blinding visual disability, needs to be diagnosed early. Due to the advancements in neonatology and better survival of preterm babies, timely screening, regular follow up, early detection and intervention is mandatory. A multidisciplinary approach is required in diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Proper counselling and motivation for parents of preterm and low birth weight babies for regular follow up is also essential.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207497

ABSTRACT

Background: Premature rupture of membranes (RPM) is defined by rupture of the amnion and chorion before entering labor within 24 hours leading to vaginal discharge of amniotic fluid without uterine contractions. Objective of this study was to improving the management of premature Ruptures of the membranes received in the service.Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical prospective study lasting six months from January 1 to June 30 2016.Results: During the study period, we collected 108 cases of RPM out of 1543 deliveries, representing a hospital frequency of 7%. RPM had more frequently concerned pregnant women aged 25-29 (37.04%), housewife (37.03%), primiparous (45.37%) and referral (52.78%). 95.37% were single pregnancies with cephalic presentation (80%) received between 37-42 weeks (84.26%). Management mainly consisted of antibiotic prophylaxis (100%), fetal pulmonary maturation and childbirth. The vagina was the main mode of delivery (62.04%). The maternal prognosis was dominated by chorioamnionitis (12.96%). The fetal one was made up of respiratory distress (40.71%) and prematurity (12.39%).Conclusions: RPM is frequent at the Matam municipal medical center. It is essential for its prevention to ensure health education of the population in general and genital hygiene in particular, to make a coherent prenatal follow-up while putting a particular accent on the detection and the treatment of genital infections.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207405

ABSTRACT

Background: This study was carried out at a tertiary health centre with the aim of studying the effect of short interpregnancy interval on fetomaternal outcome. The maternal complications and fetal complications of short interpregnancy interval were analysed in comparison to normal interpregnancy interval.Methods: This is a case control study. 125 women with short interpregnancy interval seeking healthcare at tertiary health care centre were matched with 125 women with normal interpregnancy interval on the basis of demographic characteristics like age, height, weight and socio-economic status. These were included in the case control study.Results: Short interpregnancy interval is associated with increased risk of anemia, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), scar dehiscence and low birth weight whereas normal interpregnancy interval is associated with increased risk of PIH as compared to short interpregnancy interval.Conclusions: Short interpregnancy interval is associated with increased risk of anemia, PROM, scar dehiscence and low birth weight whereas normal interpregnancy interval is associated with increased risk of PIH.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207136

ABSTRACT

Background: Pre-labor rupture of membranes is defined as amniotic membrane rupture before the onset of labor contractions, and if it happens before 37 weeks, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Several organisms commonly present in the vaginal tract are E.coli, Group-B streptococci, staphylococcus aureus, chlamydia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Enterococcus faecalis which secrete proteases that degrade collagen thereby weakening  the fetal membranes leading to PPROM. Appropriate antibiotic therapy has a significant role in the prevention and treatment of maternal and neonatal complications.Methods: This was a prospective observational study done in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Narayana medical college, Nellore. Selectively 100 patients with complaint of PPROM admitted to labor room were included in the study. Diagnosis of membrane rupture was established by speculum examination, and high vaginal swabs are taken and sent to laboratory for identifying bacteria using gram staining and cultured in aerobic and anaerobic methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the organisms was performed by disk diffusion method by Kirby and Bauer.Results: Out of 100, high vaginal swabs had growth in 82 patients, and 18 were sterile. The repeatedly isolated organism in patients with PPROM is E.coli amounting 32%, followed by candidal species 20%. Staphylococci are scoring 11% and enterococci 8%. However, organisms like gardenella vaginalis and Group B streptococcus are least common with a score of 6% and 5% respectively. In this study, E.coli is highly sensitive to tigecycline, colistin 100% each and highly resistant to gentamycin and amikacin.Conclusions: In this study, E.coli is related to the maximum number of cases with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Appropriate use of antibiotics significantly lowers maternal morbidity and neonatal mortality.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-744361

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the epidemiological analysis of complications in premature infants.Methods From January 2017 to March 2018,1800 premature babies in Ningbo Women and Children Hospital were selected in the study.The clinical data of pregnant women,premature infants and premature complications,and so on were investigated,and summarized epidemiology of premature infant complications.Results The probability of premature birth was 9.09%.The differences between different gestational age(x2 =2 481.34) and different body weight (x2 =3 088.21) were statistically significant (all P < 0.05).Premature rupture of membranes occurred as the main one of the common factors lead to premature birth,the fetal distress was also more common factors,so in different gestational age,the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).However,compared with other factors,the difference of premature infants at different gestational weeks was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion Epidemiological study of preterm infants,can promote their perinatal management level and quality,and then pointed to strengthen perinatal health education and health care,for the effective prevention and treatment of common diseases of perinatal,key management and monitoring work earnestly strengthen the high-risk pregnancy,attaches great importance to the establishment of collaborative relationship between made in pediatric claims intrauterine transhipment,making pregnant women can be produced in the hospital for treatment for premature babies,and reduce the mortality and morbidity rates of premature and low birth weight,can reduce the risk of intellectual disability,eventually making the birth population overall quality improved.

12.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 12(1): 53-63, Jun.- 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-980680

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional, de tipo descriptivo y corte transversal con enfoque mixto; cuyo objetivo de determinar los factores de riesgo de ruptura prematura de membra-nas en las pacientes ingresadas con ese diagnóstico en el Hospital Provincial General Docen-te Riobamba durante el período noviembre 2017-febrero 2018. Se trabajó con la totalidad de la población, la que estuvo integrada por 17 embarazadas en el contexto de investigación. Se aplicó una guía de entrevista estructurada la misma que fue sometida a valoración por espe-cialistas integrado por siete docentes vinculadas a las tutorías de prácticas preprofesionales en el área del Proceso de Atención de Enfermería en Salud Sexual y Reproductiva de la Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo; el 85,71 % de las consultadas consideraron el instru-mento como muy adecuado. El 52,94 % de las mujeres estudiadas fue mayor de 26 años, tenía estado civil casadas y nivel de instrucción de secundaria. El factor clínico más relevante fue infecciones de vías urinarias y cérvico-vaginales durante el embarazo; sin embargo, entre los obstétricos fueron los controles obstétricos escasos y el oligoamnios. Los datos arrojaron la ausencia de aquellos relativos a ser víctima de violencia familiar, consumo de sustancias tóxicas, auto medicación, relaciones sexuales durante los últimos 15 días del embarazo, tacto vaginal y/o amniocentesis en las horas previas a la presentación de la entidad en cuestión, embarazo múltiple, antecedentes personales de RPM, incompetencia del cérvix y polihi-dramnios.


An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with a mixed approach was carried out. This research aimed to determine the risk factors for premature rupture of membranes in patients admitted with this diagnosis in the General Hospital of Riobamba during the period November 2017-February 2018. The entire population was integrated by 17 pregnant women in the research context. A structured interview guide was applied, which was assessed by seven specialists who worked at pre-professional practice tutoring in the area of the Nursing Care Process in Sexual and Reproductive Health of Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo; the instrument was considered as very adequate by 85.71% of interviewed ones. 52.94% of the women studied were over 26 years of age, married, and high school education level. The most relevant clinical factor was urinary tract and cervico-vaginal infections during pregnan-cy. However, the obstetric factors were the controls in this field and oligohydramnios. The data showed the absence of those ones related to being a victim of family violence, consump-tion of toxic substances, self-medication, sexual intercourse during the last 15 days of preg-nancy, vaginal touch and / or amniocentesis in the hours prior to the presentation of the entity in question , multiple pregnancy, personal history of RPM, incompetence of the cervix and polyhydramnios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Urinary Tract Infections , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital , Uterine Cervical Diseases , Risk Factors , Amniocentesis
13.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 51(1): 57-64, ene-abr. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-946443

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Fercuentemente no disponemos de una clara evidencia de la pérdida de líquido amniótico observado por examen con espéculo, por lo que el diagnóstico de rotura prematura de membranas puede ser con frecuencia incierto, por lo que se necesitan pruebas de diagnóstico apropiadas y complementarias para la toma de decisiones. Objetivo: conocer la precisión diagnóstica de la proteína-1 de unión al factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina (IGFBP-1) en la rotura prematura de membranas al compararla con la medición del bolsilla mayor por ecografía y el Test de de Ferning. Material y métodos: 102 gestantes de 24 a 37 semanas con signos y/o síntomas de rotura de membranas fueron elegibles, fueron evaluadas con las pruebas IGFBP-1, ecografía y Test de Ferning. Resultados: Para el IGFBP-1 se obtuvo 95% de sensibilidad (S), 95% de especificidad (E), 95% de valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y 96% de valor predictivo negativo (VPN). Par el Test de Fernig se obtuvieron valores de 85%, 25%, 25% y 83% respectivamente. En tanto que para la ecografía los hallazgos fueron de 81%, 29%, 56% y 58% respectivamente. Conclusión: el ensayo IGFBP-1 fue el método más preciso para diagnosticar la ruptura prematura de membranas con la mayor sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y valor predictivo negativo.


Introduction: We do not have clear evidence of the loss of amniotic fluid observed by speculum examination, so the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes can often be uncertain and appropriate and complementary diagnostic tests are needed for decision making. Objective: to know the diagnostic accuracy of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in the premature rupture of membranes when compared with the measurement of the greater pocket by ultrasound and the Ferning test. Material and methods: 102 pregnant women from 24 to 37 weeks with signs and / or symptoms of rupture of membranes were eligible, which were evaluated with the IGFBP-1, ultrasound and Ferning Test. Results: For IGFBP-1 95% sensitivity (S), 95% specificity (E), 95% positive predictive value (PPV) and 96% negative predictive value (NPV) were obtained. For the Ferning Test values of 85%, 25%, 25% and 83% respectively were obtained. While for ultrasound the findings were 81%, 29%, 56% and 58% respectively. Conclusion: the IGFBP-1 assay was the most accurate method to diagnose the premature rupture of membranes with the highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value.

14.
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 86(5): 319-334, feb. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-984439

ABSTRACT

Resumen OBJETIVO Ofrecer al clínico la evidencia científica más reciente en lo relativo a algunos aspectos de la atención de pacientes con ruptura prematura pretérmino de membranas que han generado debate, controversia y, en algunos momentos, opiniones divergentes que condicionan la toma de decisiones basadas en criterios con un débil rigor científico que se reflejan en morbilidad perinatal significativa. MÉTODO Búsqueda en PubMed, The Cochrane Library, OVID, Science Direct, Practice Guidelines Internacional Networks de artículos publicados en inglés entre los años 2014 a 2016 con las siguientes palabras clave (Mesh): Preterm premature rupture of membranes; diagnostic tests in premature rupture of preterm membranes; pulmonary maturity scheme; antibiotic therapy in premature rupture of preterm membranes; pulmonary maturity tests; fetal inflammatory response syndrome; fetal well-being tests; chorioamnionitis. Criterios de inclusión: revisiones sistemáticas, metanálisis y ensayos clínicos controlados con metodología de medicina basada en evidencias, con consistencia y claridad en las recomendaciones seleccionadas. RESULTADOS Se seleccionaron 70 artículos, entre estos 5 guías internacionales de práctica clínica y 45 artículos. Al final se excluyeron 20 artículos porque el diseño era de casos y controles, ensayos clínicos no controlados y sus recomendaciones no eran concluyentes porque su nivel de evidencia era bajo. CONCLUSIONES El uso racional de los diversos instrumentos de diagnóstico permite ser más eficaces y eficientes en la utilización de los recursos, y la identificación de fetos que podrían beneficiarse de una conducta expectante versus resolutiva y, viceversa. La comprensión y aplicación de lo aquí expuesto puede contribuir a disminuir la incidencia de desenlaces neonatales adversos asociados con procesos infecciosos directamente relacionados con la morbilidad y secuelas neurológicas a corto y mediano plazo. Se planteó el tratamiento de la ruptura prematura pretérmino de membranas en algoritmos aplicables en la práctica clínica.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide the clinician the most recent scientific evidence regarding some aspects of the management of patients with preterm premature rupture ofmembranes. Those aspects have generated debate, controversy and sometimes divergent opinions leading to medical decisions based on weak criteria and as consequence significant perinatal morbidity. METHOD We searched databases in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, OVID, Science Direct, Practice Guidelines International Networks from 2014 to 2016 with the following keywords: preterm premature rupture of membranes, diagnostic tests for preterm premature rupture of membranes, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes, fetal pulmonary maturity tests, fetal inflammatory response syndrome, fetal well-being tests, chorioamnionitis. RESULTS We extracted 70 studies, information was collected with emphasis on several controversial themes. Inclusion criteria were systematic reviews, meta-analysis and clinical controlled trials from 2014 to 2016, languages spanish or english, articles with evidence-based medicine methodology with strong recommendations. The final selection includes 5 international clinical practice guidelines and. 45 articles from 2014-2016. Articles which methodology consisted in case-control design, uncontrolled or unrandomized clinical trials or with level of evidence D were excluded. CONCLUSIONS The appropriate use of diagnostic tools will allow us to become more efficient in the use of resources, also allowing the identification of fetuses that would benefit from an expectant versus resolute management and vice versa. The review aims, among other things, to reduce the incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with infectious processes, which are directly related to morbidity and neurological sequelae in short and mid-term. The management of PPROM is proposed in algorithms applicable in clinical practice.

15.
The Journal of Practical Medicine ; (24): 2046-2048, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-697886

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the influencing factors of preterm premature rupture of membranes and maternal outcomes. Methods 326 cases with PPRM singleton were selected as the study group in our hospital,and 300 singleton cases with preterm premature rupture of membranes as the control group. Retrospective investigation of the pregnant women and neonatal was performed. Results By single factor analysis,there was no significant difference between the two groups of gestational hypertension,gestational diabetes,uterine dysplasia, uterine scar incidence(P > 0.05);The incidence of reproductive tract infection and fetal abnormalities in study group was higher than that in the control group(P<0.05). The single factor analysis in multivariate logistic regres-sion with statistical difference analysis of reproductive tract infection and abnormal fetal position for preterm prema-ture rupture of the placenta affect independent risk factors. The incidence of neonatal asphyxia and neonatal pneu-monia in the study group was higher than that in control group,and the neonatal weight was lower than the control group,Apgar score was lower than that in the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion the reproductive tract infec-tion and abnormal fetal position of preterm premature rupture of the placenta membranes affect the independent risk factors for preterm premature rupture of membranes ,adverse neonatal outcomes,neonatal asphyxia and the incidence of pneumonia,and light weight need further research.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-696699

ABSTRACT

Objective..To analyze the bacterial distribution and drug resistance of fetal membrane sample from women suffered premature rupture of membranes(PROM),so as to provide evidence for rational use of antibiotics.Methods:A total of 1041 fetal membrane samples in women with premature rupture of membranes were cultured and drug susceptibility tests were done.Among those samples,258 of them came from women who had used antibiotics during prenatal period,while the others came from women who unused.Results:Among the 1041 fetal membrane samples,369 (35.4%) were infected.The infection of Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 66.7%,whereas gram positive bacteria accounted for 33.1%.The expectant time prolonged,and the positive rate of infection from women with PROM did not increase(P >0.05),whereas the positive rate of infection among PPROM increased(P<0.05).There were 35 strains of bacteria identified in non-antibiotics group during prenatal period,while 17 strains of bacteria were identified in the antibiotics group.The main strain was Escherichia coli which accounted for 59.7%.Escherichia coli were resistant to piperacillin,ampicillin and tetracycline.For the mentioned drugs,the resistance rates were all above 45.0%.The resistance rate of Escherichia coli in antibiotics group was higher than that in the non-antibiotics group(P <0.05).The resistance rate of Gram positive bacteria to Nitrofurantoin,Teicoplanin,Vancomycin and Linezolid was 0.Conclusions:Escherichia coli is the main pathogenic bacteria isolated from fetal membrane samples of women with premature rupture of membranes.It is important to use antibiotics rationally according to the feature of pathogenic bacteria.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-186887

ABSTRACT

Background: Before onset of labour if premature rupture of membranes occurs, then it is called premature rupture of membranes. This study was conducted to evaluate the maternal and perinatal outcomes in term PROM cases. Materials and methods: This was a prospective study which was conducted during May 2015 to June 2016, on 75 cases of rupture of membranes spontaneously after 37 completed weeks who were admitted in department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad. Results: History of term PROM was seen in 15% of the patients, History of abortion was seen in 12% of the patients and history of preterm PROM was observed in 7% of patients. When risk factors and PROM were compared, anaemia was 20%, UTI was 10%, lower genital infections were 8%, cervical stich was 2%, mal-presentations were 4%, hydramnias were 4% and there were no risk factors in 27% of the patients. Favourable bishop score was observed 30 patients undergoing vaginal delivery, 10 in LSCS, and unfavourable bishop score was observed in 20 patients undergoing vaginal delivery, 9 in LSCS. Number of cases in maternal morbidity was highest in > 24 hours i.e. 26.7%, perinatal morbidity cases were highest in 12-24 hours i.e. 30% and mortality among perinatal cases were 5% in 12-24 hours and >24 hours of PROM. Conclusion: This study concluded that premature rupture of membranes incidence was higher in women of unbooked cases and in those with previous history of abortions and premature rupture of membranes. The concomitant increase in incidence of maternal morbidity and perinatal morbidity and mortality with an increase in the duration of labour and delivery and thus rate of caesarean delivery was increased.

18.
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 86(2): 151-157, feb. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-975416

ABSTRACT

Resumen ANTECEDENTES La incidencia de acretismo placentario se ha elevado en países industrializados debido al incremento en la tasa de cesáreas. La ruptura prematura de membranas pretérmino se asocia con complicaciones en 3% de todos los embarazos. En la actualidad no existen publicaciones que documenten la atención médica de ambas alteraciones en conjunto. CASO CLÍNICO Paciente de 31 años, en curso del segundo embarazo (30.2 semanas de gestación), que acudió al servicio médico por salida de líquido transvaginal. Se confirmó la ruptura prematura de membranas pretérmino por cristalografía y determinación de microglobulina alfa 1 placentaria por tira reactiva Amnisure®. La valoración de los médicos del servicio de Medicina Materno-Fetal fue: placenta previa total, con lagunas placentarias y flujo turbulento, grosor miometrial menor de 1 mm y pérdida de la interfase deciduomiometrial. Después de comprobar el bienestar fetal se inició el tratamiento conservador de la ruptura prematura de membranas pretérmino. Se decidió finalizar el embarazo a las 31 semanas, debido a que se confirmó el inicio del trabajo de parto y actividad uterina normal; se efectuó cesárea-histerectomía sin complicaciones maternas. CONCLUSIÓN La placenta previa total con datos de acretismo, concomitante con ruptura prematura de membranas pretérmino, es una complicación poco común. Estas pacientes deben recibir tratamiento conservador y adecuada vigilancia materno-fetal. A pesar de los buenos resultados obtenidos en este caso, se requiere mayor evidencia para indicar el tratamiento conservador en estas pacientes.


Abstract BACKGROUND The incidence of placental accreta has increased in industrialized countries, due to the increase in the rate of cesarean sections. On the other hand, the premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), complicate approximately 3% of all pregnancies and is associated mainly with neonatal complications related to prematurity. At present, there is no documented evidence in the medical literature of the approach of both pathologies together. CLINICAL CASE 31-year-old woman at 30.2 weeks' gestation in her second pregnancy is admitted to the hospital with vaginal discharge. PROM is confirmed by fern-type crystallization and quantification of placental alpha macroglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) microglobulin by Amnisure® test strip. Medical assessment is performed by the maternal-fetal specialists, finding complete placenta praevia with the presence of vascular lacunae with turbulent lacunar flow, myometrium thickness < 1mm and loss of the clear space. Fetal well-being is confirmed and conservative management of PPROM is initiated. Obstetric delivery is conducted at 31 weeks of gestation with Caesarean section - Hysterectomy without complications. CONCLUSIONS The premature rupture of membranes in presence of placenta accreta is a rare complication. In this patients, conservative management is a suitable alternative, with an appropriate maternal and fetal surveillance. More evidence is required to indicate the conservative treatment in these patients.

19.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 43(1): 20-24, 2018. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La rotura prematura ovular (RPO) antes de la viabilidad fetal consiste en una complicación obstétrica de baja incidencia, pero de alta morbimortalidad perinatal asociada. Estudios sugieren que el volumen de líquido amniótico (LA) es un factor importante a considerar. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar si en RPO ≤24 semanas, un bolsillo vertical máximo (BVM) <2cm al diagnóstico es un factor de riesgo para aparición de morbimortalidad fetal y neonatal. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte longitudinal retrospectivo de 94 pacientes con RPO ≤24 semanas ingresadas a un hospital terciario para manejo expectante entre los años 2005 y 2014. Embarazo gemelar o malformaciones congénitas fueron criterios de exclusión. Se obtuvieron y compararon 2 grupos según BVM al ingreso (BVM ≥ 2 cm y BVM < a 2 cms) y se comparó la edad gestacional (EG) al momento de la RPO y al parto, la latencia desde la RPO al parto, la presencia de corioamnionitis clínica, el número de óbitos fetales, muerte neonatal precoz (primeros 7 días de vida), tardía (entre los 7 y 28 días) y sobrevida global. Resultados: El 58 por ciento de las pacientes presentó un BVM <2 cm al ingreso, el cual se asoció a menor latencia al parto (p:0,01), menor EG al parto (p:0,02), más óbito fetal (p:0,04), mayor muerte neonatal precoz y tardía (p:0,02 y 0,01 respectivamente) además de menor sobrevida global (p:0,01). Conclusiones: La medición de BVM <2 cm al ingreso en pacientes con RPO ≤24 semanas, es un factor de mal pronóstico y debe ser considerado en el manejo clínico de estas pacientes.(AU)


Introduction: Previable premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) is a low-incidence obstetric complication associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest that the volume of amniotic fluid (AL) is an important factor to consider. The aim of this study is to evaluate if in RPO ≤24 weeks, a maximum vertical pocket (MVP) <2 cm to the diagnostic is a risk factor for fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality according to amniotic fluid (AL) Maximum Vertical Pocket (MVP) ≥ or

Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Morbidity , Perinatal Care
20.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 49(1): 45-55, ene.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897089

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La ruptura prematura de membranas pretérmino (PPROM) es una patología obstétrica que genera un alto riesgo de morbilidad fetal. Pese a esto, actualmente prevalece la incertidumbre ante el manejo adecuado para ésta entidad. Objetivo: Comparar los desenlaces materno-fetales de la inducción del parto (IL) y manejo expectante (EM) Metodología: Revisión sistemática y metanálisis Fuentes de datos: Se buscó en las bases de datos MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCIELO y Google Académico. Criterios de elección, pacientes e intervenciones: Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados controlados y estudios de cohortes que compararan el EM e IL en pacientes con PPROM entre la semana 24 a 36 6/7, y que adicionalmente tuvieran en cuenta como desenlaces analizados: sepsis neonatal (NS), síndrome de distrés respiratorio (SDR), muerte neonatal y corioamionitis. Recolección de datos y análisis: La extracción y registro de datos se ejecutó por dos revisores de forma independiente. La evaluación de calidad se realizó con CONSORT y STROBE, según corresponda. Metanálisis: Para cada desenlance, se realizó la estimación del Riesgo Relativo (RR) consolidado, usando modelos de efectos aleatorios. Resultados: Un total de 3378 mujeres con PPROM fueron incluidas en los 9 estudios (8 ensayos clínicos). En el meta-análisis no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la ocurrencia de SDR (RR= 1,08; IC 95%: 0,89-1,31), ni de sepsis neonatal (RR= 0,92; IC 95%: 0,61-1,39), en los tratados con IL comparados con el EM. Tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas en la ocurrencia de muertes neonatales (RR= 1,34; IC 95%: 0,93-1,93) ni corioamnionitis (RR= 0,88; IC 95%: 0,58-1,35). Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que no existe evidencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la ocurrencia de los principales desenlaces cuando se compara EM con IL. Más estudios y con mayores tamaños de muestras son necesarios.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), is an obstetric pathology that causes a high-risk of morbidities and higher rate of hospital readmission in the first month of life. However, the management of this patology is still uncertain. Objetive: To compare maternal-fetal outcomes of induction of labor (IL) and expectant management (EM) in order to determine the actions to follow. Methodology: Systematic review and meta-analysis Data collection: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCIELO and Google Scholar. Selection Criteria, patients and interventions: Controlled randomized clinical trial and cohort studies were included. These studies compared the EM and IL in patients with PPROM within 24 to 36 6/7 weeks and take into account outcomes such as neonatal sepsis (NS), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), neonatal death or chorioamnionitis. Analysis and data collection: Two authors independently executed the extraction and recording of data. Quality assessment was performed with the CONSORT or STROBE score, accordingly. Meta-analysis: For each outcome, a pooled Relative Risk was estimated using random effects models. Results 3378 women with PPROM were included in 9 studies (8 clinical trials). In the meta-analysis, we did not find a statistically significant differences in the occurrence of RDS (RR =1.08; 95% CI: 0.89-1.31 or NS (RR= 0.92; IC 95%: 0.61-1.39), in the IL group in comparison with EM. We did not find either differences in the occurrence of neonatal deaths (RR= 1.34; IC 95%: 0.93-1.93) or chorioamnionitis ( RR= 0.88; IC 95%: 0.58-1.35). Conclusions: The results suggest that there is no evidence of statistically significant differences in the occurrence of major outcomes when comparing MS with IL. Further studies and larger sample sizes will be necesary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Chorioamnionitis , Watchful Waiting , Labor, Induced
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