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Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(4): 688-695, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385145


ABSTRACT Purpose Patients often take 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, 5-ARIs can decrease prostate specific antigen (PSA) by approximately half and therefore may lead to false negative PSA tests. We investigated false-screening rates in men on 5-ARIs undergoing PSA testing and whether ordering physicians noticed false negative findings. Materials and Methods A single institution, retrospective study was conducted on patients with a PSA value documented between 2014 and 2017. Patient demographics, PSA results, 5-ARI usage, and providing clinician characteristics were collected. Published normal PSA values were used to determine PSA test positivity; values for those on 5-ARIs were doubled. Results A total of 29,131 men were included. 1,654 (5.7%) were prescribed 5-ARIs at least 12 months prior to PSA evaluation. 118 men (7.1%) had a value that would be positive if corrected for 5-ARI usage, 33 (27.9%) of which had no indication that the provider had noted this. There was no effect on rates of false negative values if the PSA was ordered by a different provider than the one who prescribed the 5-ARI (p = 0.837). However, if the provider who ordered the PSA test was an urologist, the likelihood that a false negative value would be identified was lower (p=0.001). Conclusions More than a quarter of men with false negative tests were missed. This occurred more often when the ordering provider was not an urologist. An educational opportunity exists to improve the quality of PSA testing by preventing false negative tests.

Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1370822


O antígeno prostático específico (PSA) é o marcador mais importante para a detecção e monitoramento do câncer de próstata. Objetivo: O estudo objetivou analisar os dados laboratoriais e epidemiológicos do antígeno prostático específico de pacientes atendidos no Laboratório Clínico do Hospital do Policial Militar de Goiânia-GO (LC/HPM), considerando as medidas preventivas em relação ao câncer de próstata. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo baseado na análise de 1.249 prontuários de usuários do LC/HPM. O levantamento de dados laboratoriais e epidemiológicos, como idade, resultados do PSA total e PSA livre foi realizado por meio de um formulário padronizado pelos pesquisadores. Foram analisados 1.249 exames de PSA L/T, dos quais 58 (4,6%) apresentaram PSA total com resultados entre 4,0 e 10,0 ng/mL e 16 (1,3%) apresentaram concomitantemente valores de PSA total entre 4,0 e 10,0 ng/mL e relação PSA L/T < 25%. Os pacientes apresentaram faixa etária entre 34 e 93 anos, sendo a média 60 anos. Tornou-se evidente que tanto no ano de 2018 quanto em 2019, realizou-se um número maior de exames de PSA L/T, em comparação ao ano de 2020. O estudo revelou que 16 (1,3%) pacientes apresentaram risco aumentado para o desenvolvimento de neoplasia prostática, sendo observada uma diminuição do número de indivíduos que procuraram o LC/HPM para realização de exames de PSA livre e total no ano de 2020, quando comparado aos anos de 2019 e 2018, possivelmente em razão da pandemia de Covid-19, uma tendência global

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important marker for the detection and monitoring of prostate cancer. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological and laboratory data of prostate-specific antigen of patients treated at the Clinical Laboratory of the Military Police Hospital at Goiânia-GO (CL/MPH), considering preventive measures in relation to prostate cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study with analysis of 1,249 medical records of CL/MPH users. The collection of epidemiological and laboratory data, such as age, total PSA and free PSA results, was performed using a form standardized by the researchers. We analyzed 1,249 PSA T/F tests, and of these, of which 58 (4.6%) total PSA sink with results between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL and 16 (1.3%) were concomitantly presenting total PSA values between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL and PSA T/F < 25%. The patients were aged between 34 and 93 years, with a mean age of 59 years. It became evident that both in 2018 and in 2019, there were a greater number of PSA T/F exams, compared to 2020. This study revealed that 16 (1.3%) patients were at increased risk for the development of prostate cancer, with a decrease in the number of individuals who sought the CL/MPH for free and total PSA tests in 2020, compared to 2019 and 2018, possibly due to Covid-19 pandemic, a global trend

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Biomarkers, Tumor , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Environmental Monitoring , Hospitals, Military
Med. lab ; 26(1): 91-98, 2022. ilus, Grafs, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370967


El antígeno específico de próstata (PSA, del inglés, Prostate Specific Antigen) es una glicoproteína producida por la próstata, y es el marcador tumoral de mayor uso. Sin embargo, su baja especificidad para diferenciar entre cáncer de próstata y otras alteraciones no malignas, como la hipertrofia benigna de la próstata (HBP) y la prostatitis aguda, limitan su utilidad diagnóstica

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein produced by the prostate and is the most widely used tumor marker. However, its low specificity to differentiate between prostate cancer and other non-malignant conditions, such as benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and acute prostatitis, limits its diagnostic utility

Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatitis , Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins , Biomarkers, Tumor
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932896


Prostate cancer is one of the common diseases affecting men′s health. Early diagnosis and treatment can make a difference in greatly improving the prognosis of patients. At present, prostate specific antigen (PSA), the most widely used serum indicator in prostate cancer screening, plays an important role in improving the early diagnosis rate and reducing mortality, but the high sensitivity of PSA makes many non-prostate cancer patients receive unnecessary puncture biopsies or overtreatment. Compared with PSA, prostate health index (PHI) has higher diagnostic value. PHI can reduce unnecessary puncture biopsies, and evaluate the prognosis of patients after prostatectomy (RP), which can motivate patients to actively monitor and provide important information for clinicians to formulate the following treatment plan. This article reviews the diagnostic value of PHI in prostate cancer, the relationship with tumor volume, the combined diagnosis with other imaging tests, and the prognostic value for patients undergoing RP.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931677


Objective:To investigate the clinical value of peripheral blood circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.Methods:Sixty-four patients with prostate cancer who received treatment in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Hospital, China between June 2018 and May 2020 were included in the cancer group. An additional 35 patients with benign prostatic lesions who concurrently received treatment in the same hospital were included in the benign disease group. Twenty male patients with non-prostate disease were included in the control group. Cell enrichment, separation, staining and identification together with Gleason score and pathological stage were subjected to one-way analysis of variance.Results:The percentage of patients with CTC count ≥ 3 in the cancer, benign disease and control groups was 73.43% (47/64), 17.14% (6/35) and 10.00% (2/20), respectively. The level of prostate-specific antigen in patients with CTC was significantly higher than that in patients without CTC ( t = 2.89, P < 0.05). There was significant difference in CTC count between different Gleason score groups ( F = 3.25, P < 0.05) and between different pathological stage groups ( F = 3.42, P < 0.05). Conclusion:Peripheral blood CTC measurement can be used as an auxiliary method for the differentiation of benign and malignant prostate diseases. CTC count in patients with prostate cancer is correlated with prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score, and pathological stage. Therefore, peripheral blood CTC measurement plays an auxiliary role in predicting prognosis in patients with CTC. This study is innovative and scientific.

Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 195-200, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928548


The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical application of free/total prostate-specific antigen (F/T PSA) ratio, considering the new broad serum total PSA (T-PSA) "gray zone" of 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1 in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate diseases (BPD) in men over 50 years in Western China. A total of 1655 patients were included, 528 with PCa and 1127 with BPD. Serum T-PSA, free PSA (F-PSA), and F/T PSA ratio were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the efficiency of PSA and F/T PSA ratio. There were 47.4% of cancer patients with T-PSA of 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1. When T-PSA was 2.0-4.0 ng ml-1, 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1, and 10.0-25.0 ng ml-1, the area under the curve (AUC) of F/T PSA ratio was 0.749, 0.769, and 0.761, respectively. The best AUC of F/T PSA ratio was 0.811 when T-PSA was 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1, with a specificity of 0.732, a sensitivity of 0.788, and an optimal cutoff value of 15.5%. The AUC of F/T PSA ratio in different age groups (50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and ≥80 years) was 0.767, 0.806, 0.815, and 0.833, respectively, and the best sensitivity (0.857) and specificity (0.802) were observed in patients over 80 years. The T-PSA trend was in accordance with the Gleason score, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and American Joint Committee on Cancer prognosis group. Therefore, the F/T PSA ratio can facilitate the differential diagnosis of PCa and BPD in the broad T-PSA "gray zone". Serum T-PSA can be a Gleason score and prognostic indicator.

Area Under Curve , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6599, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375335


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the predictive value of positron emission computed tomography or magnetic resonance (PET-CT and PET-MRI) using gallium-68-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) in lymph node involvement in prostate cancer. Methods A retrospective study comprising 91 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2016 to 2020, who underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT or PET-MRI for staging before prostatectomy. The patients were divided into Group 1, with 65 patients with satisfactory pathological lymph node analysis, and Group 2, with 91 patients representing the sum of patients with pathological lymph node analysis and those with postoperative prostate-specific antigen within 60 days after surgery. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to assess accuracy of predictive capacity of imaging exams for lymph node involvement. Results Regarding local clinical staging, the groups showed similar results, and 50% were classified as staging T2a. The accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT for prostate cancer lymph node staging was 86.5% (95%CI 0.74-0.94; p=0.06), with a sensitivity of 58.3% and specificity of 95%. The accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET-MRI was 84.6% (95%CI 0.69-0.94; p=0.09), with a sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 100%. Considering both 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT and PET-MRI, the accuracy was 85.7% (95%CI 0.76-0.92; p=0.015), with sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 97%. Conclusion The imaging tests 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT and PET-MRI were highly accurate to detect preoperative lymph node involvement, and could be useful tools to indicate the need for extended lymph node dissection during radical prostatectomy.

Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 235-239, set 29, 2021. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354397


Introdução: no Brasil, o câncer de maior incidência nos homens é o câncer de próstata (CaP), com 6,9% de mortalidade. Atualmente, discute-se a aplicabilidade do antígeno prostático específico (PSA) em políticas de rastreamento para CaP e os riscos associados ao sobrediagnóstico. Objetivo: correlacionar a dosagem do PSA com fatores de risco, história clínica e a presença de neoplasia prostática. Metodologia: estudo descritivo transversal que analisou, comparativamente, dados clínico-epidemiológicos e níveis séricos de PSA de 200 pacientes. Valores de PSA foram estratificados em três categorias (<2,5, 2,5­10,0 e >10 ng/ml). Resultados: os fatores de risco analisados foram relacionados significativamente com o aumento do PSA e neoplasia prostática. A prevalência de CaP (11%) e hiperplasia prostática (61%) foi observada nos pacientes com maior dosagem de PSA, enquanto 1% dos pacientes apresentou CaP sem alteração do PSA e 4% tiveram CaP com 2,5­10,0 ng/ml de PSA. Maiores níveis séricos do biomarcador foram relacionados a diabetes (70%), hipertensão (77%), uso crônico de medicações (60%) e ausência de exames periódicos (58%). O grupo com PSA >10 ng/ml teve média de idade maior que o primeiro (p = 0,002) e o segundo grupos (p = 0,027). Conclusão: a prevalência de hiperplasia prostática benigna associada à alteração do PSA, e o elevado risco de exames falso-positivos evidenciam a preocupação com o sobrediagnóstico. No contexto dos dados clinico-epidemiológicos avaliados, a possibilidade de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos associados à dosagem do PSA deve ser considerada, ressaltando a importância de adoção de exames complementares para rastreio do CaP.

Introduction: in Brazil, the cancer with the highest incidence in men is prostate cancer (PCa), with 6.9% mortality. Currently, the applicability of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in screening policies for PCa and the risks associated with overdiagnosis are discussed. Objective: to correlate the PSA level with risk factors, clinical history and the presence of prostatic neoplasm. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study that analyzed, comparatively, clinical-epidemiological data and serum PSA levels of 200 patients. PSA values were stratified into three categories (<2.5, 2.5­10.0 and> 10 ng / ml). Results: the risk factors analyzed were significantly related to the increase in PSA and prostatic neoplasm. The prevalence of PCa (11%) and prostatic hyperplasia (61%) was observed in patients with higher levels of PSA, while 1% of patients had PCa without PSA changes and 4% had PCa with 2.5­10.0 ng/ml PSA. Increased serum levels of the biomarker were related to diabetes (70%), hypertension (77%), chronic use of medications (60%) and periodic exams (58%). The group with PSA> 10 ng/ml had a mean age greater than the first (p = 0.002) and the second group (p = 0.027). Conclusion: the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with PSA change and an increased risk of false-positive tests show a concern with overdiagnosis. In the context of clinical-epidemiological data, the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results associated with the PSA measurement have to be considered, highlighting the importance of complementary tests for PCa screening.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Biomarkers , Risk Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Blacks , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Utilization
Multimed (Granma) ; 25(3): e2317, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279472


RESUMEN El cáncer de próstata suele diagnosticarse tardíamente en obesos debido a que el exceso de tejido adiposo dificulta la detección del tumor al interferir en la exploración física (dificultad para realizar el tacto rectal) y en la confiabilidad de exámenes de diagnóstico complementarios como el Antígeno Prostático Específico (PSA, por sus siglas en inglés), retardando de esta forma la realización de la biopsia prostática. Con el objetivo de identificar la relación entre la obesidad y la agresividad del cáncer de próstata al momento de su diagnóstico, se realizó un estudio transversal, analítico en 136 pacientes diagnosticados con cáncer de próstata mediante biopsia transrectal, en el Hospital Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes", de Bayamo, Granma, Cuba, desde el 1ro de enero de 2018 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2020. El análisis de asociación entre las variables (Índice de Masa Corporal [IMC], PSA, Suma de Gleason y Estadio Clínico) se realizó a través de la prueba de Tukey y la U de Mann-Whitney. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 66,1 años. No se encontró asociación significativa entre el PSA y el IMC (p > 0,05), sin embargo, el valor del PSA mostró una tendencia a disminuir en la medida que aumentó el IMC. La suma de Gleason y el Estadio Clínico mostraron una asociación directa con el IMC, (p<0,003) y (p=0.000) respectivamente. Los pacientes con sobrepeso y obesidad fueron más propensos a presentar valores de PSA más bajos y mayor Gleason, manifestándose en estos un mayor riesgo de cáncer de próstata agresivo al momento del diagnóstico.

ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is often diagnosed late in obese because excess adipose tissue makes it difficult to detect the tumor by interfering with physical examination (difficulty performing rectal touch) and the reliability of complementary diagnostic tests such as Psa, the delaying prostate biopsy. In order to identify the relationship between obesity and the aggressiveness of prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis, a cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted in 136 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer by transrectal biopsy, at the Provincial Hospital "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes", Bayamo, Granma, Cuba, from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2020. The association analysis between the variables (Body Mass Index [BMI], PSA, Gleason Sum and Clinical Stage) was performed through the Mann-Whitney Tukey and U test. The average age of patients was 66.1 years. No significant association was found between PSA and BMI (p > 0.05), however, the psa value showed a tendency to decrease as BMI increased. The sum of Gleason and the Clinical Stadium showed a direct association with BMI, (p<0.003) and (p-0.000) respectively. Overweight and obese patients were more likely to develop lower PSA and higher Gleason values, with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis.

RESUMO O câncer de próstata é frequentemente diagnosticado tardiamente em obesidade porque o excesso de tecido adiposo dificulta a detecção do tumor interferindo no exame físico (dificuldade em realizar o toque retal) e a confiabilidade de exames diagnósticos complementares como psa, a biópsia da próstata retardando. Como objetivo de identificar a relação entre obesidade e agressividade do câncer de próstata no momento do diagnóstico, foi realizado umestudo transversal e analítico em 136 pacientes diagnosticados comcâncer de próstata por biópsiatransretal, no Hospital Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes", bayamo, Granma, Cuba, de 1º de janeiro de 2018 a 31 de dezembro de 2020. A análise de associação entre as variáveis (Índice de Massa Corporal [IMC], PSA, Gleason Sum e Estágio Clínico) foi realizada através do teste Mann-WhitneyTukey e U. A idademédia dos pacientes foi de 66,1 anos. Nãofoi encontrada associação significativa entre PSA e IMC (p > 0,05), porém, o valor do PSA apresentou tendência a diminuir à medida que o IMC aumentou. A soma de Gleason e do Estádio Clínico mostrou associação direta com o IMC, (p<0.003) e (p-0,000), respectivamente. Pacientes com sobrepeso e obesidade foram mais propensos a desenvolver menores valores de PSA e Gleason mais elevados, commaior risco de câncer agressivo de próstata no momento do diagnóstico.

Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(277): 5803-5818, jun.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1253727


Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à masculinidade no diagnóstico precoce do câncer de próstata. Método: trata-se de uma revisão narrativa realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: SCIELO, LILACS e PUBMED. Após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade, a amostra do estudo foi composta por 14 artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2021. Resultados: os estudos abordam fortemente a influência dos aspectos socioeconômicos e culturais na busca preventiva dos homens pelo autocuidado. Os padrões estipulados pela sociedade dificultam a adesão masculina fazendo-os diminuir a procurar por serviços de saúde em relação às mulheres dificultando o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de próstata. O exame de toque retal encontra-se atrelado à transgressão de sua masculinidade repercutindo no medo de realizá-lo. Conclusão: concepções socioculturais acerca da masculinidade associam-se negativamente à saúde dos homens impondo dificuldades no diagnóstico precoce do câncer e, conseqüentemente, aumentando a mortalidade masculina.(AU)

Objective: to identify the factors associated with masculinity in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Method: this is a narrative review conducted in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS and PUBMED. After applying the eligibility criteria, the study sample was composed of 14 articles published between 2000 and 2021. Results: the studies strongly address the influence of socioeconomic and cultural aspects on men's preventive search for self-care. The standards set by society hinder male adherence, making them less likely to seek health services than women, hindering the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. The rectal examination is linked to the transgression of their masculinity, resulting in the fear of performing it. Conclusion: sociocultural conceptions about masculinity are negatively associated with men's health, imposing difficulties in the early diagnosis of cancer and consequently increasing male mortality.(AU)

Objetivo: identificar los factores asociados a la masculinidad en el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de próstata. Método: se trata de una revisión narrativa realizada en las siguientes bases de datos: SCIELO, LILACS y PUBMED. Tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad, la muestra del estudio estuvo compuesta por 14 artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2021. Resultados: los estudios abordan la influencia socioeconómica y cultural en la búsqueda preventiva del autocuidado por los hombres. Las normas estipuladas por la sociedad dificultan la adherencia masculina haciendo que reduzcan la búsqueda de servicios sanitarios en relación con las mujeres dificultando el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de próstata. El tacto rectal está vinculado a la transgresión de su masculinidad, lo que provoca miedo a realizarlo. Conclusión: las concepciones socioculturales sobre la masculinidad se asocian negativamente con la salud del hombre imponiendo dificultades en el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer y, en consecuencia, aumentando la mortalidad masculina.(AU)

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Masculinity , Self Care , Digital Rectal Examination , Men's Health , Sociological Factors
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 415-420, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888428


To improve the diagnostic efficiency of prostate cancer (PCa) and reduce unnecessary biopsies, we defined and analyzed the diagnostic efficiency of peripheral zone prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PZ-PSAD). Patients who underwent systematic 12-core prostate biopsies in Shanghai General Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 2012 and January 2018 were retrospectively identified (n = 529). Another group of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 100) were randomly preselected to obtain the PSA density of the non-PCa cohort (N-PSAD). Prostate volumes and transition zone volumes were measured using multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and were combined with PSA and N-PSAD to obtain the PZ-PSAD from a specific algorithm. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the PCa detection efficiency in patients stratified by PSA level, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PZ-PSAD was higher than that of PSA, PSA density (PSAD), and transition zone PSA density (TZ-PSAD). PZ-PSAD could amend the diagnosis for more than half of the patients with inaccurate transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and mpMRI results. When TRUS and mpMRI findings were ambiguous to predict PCa (PIRADS score ≤3), PZ-PSAD could increase the positive rate of biopsy from 21.7% to 54.7%, and help 63.8% (150/235) of patients avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy. In patients whose PSA was 4.0-10.0 ng ml

Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 906-909, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911147


Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and multi-parameter magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in patients with granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy.Methods:The medical records of eight patients with pathologically proven granulomatous prostatitis in Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University from January, 2015 to June, 2020, were enrolled and analyzed in this retrospective study. All 8 patients (ages 47-76, mean 63.6) underwent pelvic mpMRI and serum tPSA levels before TURBT, which showed the results of tPSA, f/t and mpMRI were normal before TURBT (0.45-3.62 ng/ml, 0.20-0.51 and normal signal intensities on T1WI and T2WI, respectively). All patients underwent intravesical BCG therapy after post-TURBT 4-6-weeks’ intravesical gemcitabine therapy as a result of pathologically proven middle and high risk NMIBC via cystoscopy.Results:The results of tPSA levels in all 8 patients were elevated after intravesical BCG therapy after 9-15 months (mean 10.5 months), with 4 patients above 4 (6.77-12.89)ng/ml and 4 patients within the normal ranges(2.02-2.68)ng/ml, and f/t levels decreased to lower than 0.16 (0.09-0.15)in all patients. The mpMRI abnormal signals in all patients were all located in the peripheral zone of prostate. All nodular lesions of prostate mpMRI showed lower signal intensity (SI) on T2WI, higher SI on DWI and lower SI on ADC after BCG therapy. All patients underwent prostate biopsy for abnormal signal on prostate mpMRI. The biopsy pathologic results of all patients were granulomatous prostatitis.Conclusions:When elevated PSA and abnormal signals on prostate mpMRI after intravesical BCG therapy occurred, prostate biopsy may not be required for secondary granulomatous prostatitis patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in combination of clinical history.

Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 691-695, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911097


Objective:To analyze the prognosis of patients with positive resection margin after radical prostatectomy, as well as the prostate-specific antigen (PSA)level and risk factors for PSA progression.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of 141 patients with pathologically diagnosed prostate cancer who underwent RP from May 2012 to August 2020 in Beijing Hospital. The mean age was (67.4±6.7)years, the preoperative median PSA was 9.6 (1.4-152.8) ng/ ml and the median follow-up time was 56 months. Postoperative pathology was T 2 stage 74 (52.5%), T 3 stage 63 (44.7%), T 4 stage 4 (2.8%). Biochemical recurrence after radical resection was defined as PSA rose to more than 0.2 ng/ml and showed an upward trend after two consecutive follow-ups. In this study, serum PSA ≥ 0.1 ng/ml without biochemical recurrence after radical operation was defined as PSA progression. The PSA level, risk factors of PSA progression and prognosis of patients with positive resection margin were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between age, preoperative PSA level, pathological stage (pT), ISUP classification, surgical approach, lymph node dissection, single/multiple positive margins and PSA progression. Results:The median follow-up of 141 patients was 52 months(1-104 months). There were 69 (48.9%) patients in the PSA progression group and 72 (51.1%) patients in the non PSA progression group. In the PSA progression group, 13 (18.8%) patients did not receive treatment and 8 (61.5%) patients had biochemical recurrence. 4 (5.8%) patients received radiotherapy alone, and 2 (50.0%) patients had biochemical recurrence. 52 (75.4%) patients received endocrine therapy or endocrine therapy combined with radiotherapy, and 5 (9.6%) patients developed castration resistance. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed preoperative PSA ( HR=1.015, 95% CI 1.005-1.025, P =0.004), ISUP grade and group ( HR=1.351, 95% CI 1.091-1.673, P =0.006), surgical method ( HR=2.233, 95% CI 1.141-4.370, P =0.019) was correlated with PSA progression. Conclusions:The incidence of surgical positive margin is high after RP. Nearly half of the patients with surgical positive margin developed a PSA progression status. Preoperative PSA, ISUP grade group, and the surgical approach are risk factors for PSA progression in patients with positive surgical margins. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored more closely and treated more aggressively.

Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 675-678, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911094


Objective:To investigate the characteristics of 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT imaging in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with different PSA levels. Methods:The imaging and clinical data of 50 patients with CRPC who underwent 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT examination in Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 2018 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The average age was 72 (54-95) years old. Serum total PSA was 92.28(0.36-2000.00) ng/ml. According to the total PSA level, the patients were divided into low PSA group(total PSA ≤ 1 ng/ml, n=9), medium PSA group (1 ng/ml<total PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, n=18) and high PSA group(total PSA>10ng/ml, n=23). According to the standardized evaluation standard of molecular imaging, the suspicious tumor lesions on 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT imaging were scored by molecular imaging PSMA(miPSMA), and the miPSMA score ≥2 was defined as positive lesions. According to the number of lesions displayed by 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT, patients were divided into oligofocal group (the number of lesions ≤3) and multiple lesions group (the number of lesions >3). The imaging characteristics of patients in different groups were summarized. Results:The 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT imaging results of 50 cases in this study were all positive, including oligofocal group (n=27) and multiple lesions group (n=23). Of the 30 patients with unresected prostate, 18 had local recurrence of the prostate, while the other 12 patients with unresected prostate and 20 patients with resected prostate had no signs of local recurrence. The oligofocal group showed local recurrence, regional lymph node metastasis or bone metastasis. Patients with multiple lesions showed multiple lymph nodes and/or bone metastasis with or without local recurrence. There were 9, 18 and 4 patients with oligofoci in low, middle and high PSA groups, respectively.There were 27 patients in the oligonucleogenous group, and 21 of the 22 patients receiving local treatment were effective. All 3 patients treated with systemic treatments were effective. PSA progressed in 2 untreated patients. In the multi-foci group of 23 patients, 6 of 9 patients treated with abiraterone were effective. Two patients treated with enzalumide were ineffective. One of the 4 patients with chemotherapy was effective. One of the two patients treated with 177 Lu-PSMA nuclide was effective. One case did not respond to treatment with 89SrCl 2. Radiotherapy failed in 2 cases. PSA progressed in 3 untreated patients. Conclusions:18F-DCFPyLPET/CT imaging has a high detection rate of lesions in patients with CRPC and has potential guiding significance for follow-up treatment. The number of lesions in CRPC patients with different PSA levels was different, and the patients with low PSA levels were mainly oligofoci.

Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 650-655, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911089


Objective:To investigate the prognosis after salvage radiotherapy with or without hormone therapy for prostate cancer.Methods:From May 2014 to December 2020, 248 patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy due to prostate-specific antigen (PSA)persistence or biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (n=157) and West China Hospital, Sichuan University (n=91) were analyzed. Median age was 66 (45-78) years old. Median PSA was 23.50 (0.18-845.00) ng/ml. The number of PSA persistence and biochemical progression were 143 (59%) and 105 (42%). The number of pT 2, pT 3a, pT 3b, pT 4, and unknown T stage was 99, 49, 78, 15 and 7 cases.The number of N 0, N 1 and unknown N stage was 153, 44 and 51 cases. 165 cases had positive surgical margin. Gleason score of 6, 7, 8, >8 score and unknown was in 12, 104, 34, 90 and 8 patients. Early and late salvage radiotherapy was performed in 117 and 131 patients, and 70 patients (28%) were CRPC. Hormone therapy was used combined with radiotherapy in 182 patients (73%). PSA decline after radiotherapy was compared with Chi-squre test. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to compare progression free-survival (PFS)after radiotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses of PFS were performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Early salvage radiotherapy was defined as PSA≤0.5 ng/ml before radiotherapy, and late salvage radiotherapy was defined as PSA>0.5ng/ml. Results:PSA response (PSA decline ≥50%) rate was 94% (233/248), and 82% (203/248) patients had PSA decline ≥ 90%. Twelve (5%) patients had rising PSA after completing radiotherapy, but only 4 (2%) had real progression. The median PFS was 69 months (95% CI 68-70), and 3-year and 5-year PFS rate were 80% and 67%. PFS of PSA persistence and biochemical progression were similar ( HR =0.71, 95% CI 0.37-1.37, P=0.311). Compared with late salvage radiotherapy, early salvage radiotherapy had better PFS [69 (95% CI 68-70) vs. 59 (95% CI 44-74) months, P<0.001]. Compared with hormone sensitive, castration-resistant was associated with worse PFS (5-year PFS rate 74% vs. 51%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, Gleason score>8, castration-resistant and late salvage radiotherapy were unfavorable prognostic factors. Conclusions:In patients receiving salvage radiotherapy with or without hormone therapy for PSA persistence and biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy, high PSA level before radiotherapy and castration resistant is associated with poor prognosis.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 258-270, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881135


Liposomes have made remarkable achievements as drug delivery vehicles in the clinic. Liposomal products mostly benefited from remote drug loading techniques that succeeded in amphipathic and/or ionizable drugs, but seemed impracticable for nonionizable and poorly water-soluble therapeutic agents, thereby impeding extensive promising drugs to hitchhike liposomal vehicles for disease therapy. In this study, a series of weak acid drug derivatives were designed by a simplistic one step synthesis, which could be remotely loaded into liposomes by pH gradient method. Cabazitaxel (CTX) weak acid derivatives were selected to evaluate regarding its safety profiles, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics. CTX weak acid derivative liposomes were superior to Jevtana® in terms of safety profiles, including systemic toxicity, hematological toxicity, and potential central nerve toxicity. Specifically, it was demonstrated that liposomes had capacity to weaken potential toxicity of CTX on cortex and hippocampus neurons. Significant advantages of CTX weak acid derivative-loaded liposomes were achieved in prostate cancer and metastatic cancer therapy resulting from higher safety and elevated tolerated doses.

Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 300-305, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879751


We performed this study to investigate the diagnostic performance of prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) in a multicenter cohort of the Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium. Outpatients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ≥4.0 ng ml

Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 36-40, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879727


A standard modality for prostate cancer detection in men 75 years and older has not been established. A simple screening method for elderly patients is needed to avoid unnecessary biopsies and to effectively diagnose prostate cancer. A retrospective study was conducted on elderly patients who had prostate biopsy at Kanazawa University Hospital (Kanazawa, Japan) between 2000 and 2017. Of the 2251 patients who underwent prostate biopsy, 254 had clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC) with a Gleason score (GS) of≥7 and 273 had a GS of <7 or no malignancy. In this study, patients aged 75 years or older were classified as elderly patients. GS ≥ 7 was characterized by a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of the maximum area under the curve of 12 ng ml

Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11439, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285649


Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is a cysteine protease responsible for the adhesion and migration of both immune and tumor cells. Due to its dual role, we hypothesized that the site of CTSZ expression could be determinant of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic effects of this enzyme. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed CTSZ expression data in healthy and tumor tissues by bioinformatics and evaluated the expression levels of CTSZ mRNA in the blood cells of prostate cancer (PCa) patients by qRT-PCR compared with healthy subjects, evaluating its diagnostic and prognostic implications for this type of cancer. Immune cells present in the blood of healthy patients overexpress CTSZ. In PCa, we found decreased CTSZ mRNA levels in blood cells, 75% lower than in healthy subjects, that diminished even more during biochemical relapse. CTSZ mRNA in the blood cells had an area under the curve for PCa diagnosis of 0.832, with a 93.3% specificity, and a positive likelihood ratio of 9.4. The site of CTSZ mRNA expression is fundamental to determine its final role as a protective determinant in PCa, such as CTSZ mRNA in the blood cells, or a malignant determinant, such as found for CTSZ expressed in high levels by different types of primary and metastatic tumors. Low CTSZ mRNA expression in the total blood is a possible PCa marker complementary to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for biopsy decisions, with the potential to eliminate unnecessary biopsies.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cathepsin Z , Prognosis , Blood Cells , RNA, Messenger , Prostate-Specific Antigen
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20212965, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340675


ABSTRACT A main challenge in the clinical management of prostate cancer is to identify which tumor is aggressive and needs invasive treatment. Thus, being able to predict which cancer will progress to biochemical recurrence is a great strategy to stratify prostate cancer patients. With that in mind, we created a mathematical formula that takes into account the patients clinical and pathological data resulting in a quantitative variable, called PSA density of the lesion, which has the potential to predict biochemical recurrence. To test if our variable is able to predict biochemical recurrence, we use a cohort of 219 prostate cancer patients, associating our new variable and classic parameters of prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence. Total PSA, lesion weight, volume and classic PSA density were positively associated with biochemical recurrence (p<0.05). ISUP score was also associated with biochemical recurrence in both biopsy and surgical specimen (p<0.001). The increase of PSA density of the lesion was significantly associated with the biochemical recurrence (p=0.03). Variables derived from the formula, PSA 15% and PSA 152, were also positive associated with the biochemical recurrence (p=0.01 and p=0.002 respectively). Logistic regression analysis shows that classic PSA density, PSA density of the lesion and total PSA, together, can explain up to 13% of cases of biochemical recurrence. PSA density of the lesion alone would have the ability to explain up to 7% of cases of biochemical recurrence. In conclusion, this new mathematical approach could be a useful tool to predict disease recurrence in prostate cancer.

RESUMO Um dos principais desafios no manejo clínico do câncer de próstata é identificar qual tumor é agressivo e precisa de tratamento invasivo. Assim, ser capaz de prever qual irá progredir para recorrência bioquímica é uma ótima estratégia para estratificar pacientes com câncer de próstata. Pensando nisso, criamos uma fórmula matemática que leva em consideração os dados clínicos e patológicos resultando em uma variável quantitativa, denominada densidade de PSA da lesão, que tem potencial para predizer recidiva bioquímica. Para testar se nossa variável é capaz de predizer recorrência bioquímica, usamos uma coorte de 219 pacientes com câncer de próstata, associando nossas variáveis e parâmetros clássicos como a recorrência bioquímica. PSA total, peso da lesão, volume e densidade de PSA clássico foram associados com recorrência bioquímica (p<0,05). O escore ISUP também foi associado à recorrência bioquímica na biópsia e na amostra cirúrgica (p<0,001). O aumento da densidade do PSA da lesão foi significativamente associado à recidiva bioquímica (p=0,03). As variáveis ??derivadas da fórmula, PSA 15% e PSA 152, também foram associadas positivamente à recorrência bioquímica (p=0,01 e p=0,002 respectivamente). A análise de regressão logística mostra que a densidade do PSA clássico, do PSA da lesão e PSA total, juntos, podem explicar até 13% dos casos de recorrência. A densidade de PSA da lesão por si só poderia explicar até 7% dos casos de recorrência. Em conclusão, esta nova abordagem matemática pode ser uma ferramenta útil para prever a recorrência da doença no câncer de próstata.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Biopsy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis