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Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(3): 296-308, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558069


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mapping-targeted biopsies (MTB) on the index lesion for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in transperineal fusion-image prostate biopsies. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 309 men with suspected PCa who underwent prostate biopsies at the Creu Blanca reference center in Barcelona, Spain. The Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v.2.1) of the magnetic resonance images (MRI) were reclassified by an expert radiologist reading of pre-biopsy biparametric MRI used for segmentation of suspected lesions. Transperineal MTB of suspicious lesions and 12-core systematic biopsies were performed using the Artemis™ platform. CsPCa was defined as International Society of Urological Pathology grade group ≥ 2. Results: CsPCa was detected in 192 men (62.1%), with detection rates of 6.3% for PI-RADS 2, 26.8% for PI-RADS 3, 87.3% for PI-RADS 4, and 93.1% for PI-RADS 5. MTB of the index lesion identified 185 csPCa (96.3%). CsPCa was detected solely in systematic biopsies in three cases (1.6%), while an additional four cases (2.1%) were identified only in the second suspected lesion. A predictive model for csPCa detection in MTB of the index lesion was developed, with an AUC of 0.918 (95% CI 0.887-0.950). Conclusions: This model had the potential to avoid 23.3% of prostate biopsies without missing additional csPCa cases. MTB of the index lesion was highly effective for identifying csPCa in fusion transperineal prostate biopsies. A developed predictive model successfully reduced the need for almost one quarter of biopsies without missing csPCa cases.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(3): 237-249, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558070


ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare biochemical recurrence, sexual potency and urinary continence outcomes of ablative therapy and radical treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy with androgen deprivation therapy). Material and methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis followed the PRISMA guidelines were performed. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed. Biochemical recurrence at three and five years; incontinence rate (patients who used one pad or more) and erectile dysfunction rate at 12 and 36 months (patients who did not have sufficient erection to achieve sexual intercourse) were evaluated. The Mantel-Haenszel method was applied to estimate the pooled risk difference (RD) in the individual studies for categorical variables. All results were presented as 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Random effects models were used regardless of the level of heterogeneity (I²). (PROSPERO CRD42022296998). Results: Eight studies comprising 2,677 men with prostate cancer were included. There was no difference in biochemical recurrence between ablative and radical treatments. We observed the same biochemical recurrence between ablative therapy and radical treatment within five years (19.3% vs. 16.8%, respectively; RD 0.07; 95%CI=-0.05, 0.19; I2=68.2%; P=0.08) and continence rate at 12 months (9.2% vs. 31.8%, respectively; RD −0.13; 95%CI, −0.27, 0.01; I2=89%; P=0.32). When focal treatment was analyzed alone, two studies with 582 patients found higher erectile function at 12 months in the ablative therapy group than in the radical treatment (88.9% vs. 30.8%, respectively; RD −0.45; 95%CI −0.84, −0.05; I2=93%; P=0.03). Conclusion: Biochemical recurrence and urinary continence outcomes of ablative therapy and radical treatment were similar. Ablative therapy appears to have a high rate of sexual potency.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(3): 319-334, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558077


ABSTRACT Purpose: To create a nomogram to predict the absence of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPCa) in males with non-suspicion multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) undergoing prostate biopsy (PBx). Materials and Methods: We identified consecutive patients who underwent 3T mpMRI followed by PBx for suspicion of PCa or surveillance follow-up. All patients had Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score 1-2 (negative mpMRI). CSPCa was defined as Grade Group ≥2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed via backward elimination. Discrimination was evaluated with area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Internal validation with 1,000x bootstrapping for estimating the optimism corrected AUROC. Results: Total 327 patients met inclusion criteria. The median (IQR) age and PSA density (PSAD) were 64 years (58-70) and 0.10 ng/mL2 (0.07-0.15), respectively. Biopsy history was as follows: 117 (36%) males were PBx-naive, 130 (40%) had previous negative PBx and 80 (24%) had previous positive PBx. The majority were White (65%); 6% of males self-reported Black. Overall, 44 (13%) patients were diagnosed with CSPCa on PBx. Black race, history of previous negative PBx and PSAD ≥0.15ng/mL2 were independent predictors for CSPCa on PBx and were included in the nomogram. The AUROC of the nomogram was 0.78 and the optimism corrected AUROC was 0.75. Conclusions: Our nomogram facilitates evaluating individual probability of CSPCa on PBx in males with PIRADS 1-2 mpMRI and may be used to identify those in whom PBx may be safely avoided. Black males have increased risk of CSPCa on PBx, even in the setting of PIRADS 1-2 mpMRI

Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(3): 335-345, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558078


ABSTRACT Introduction: The superiority of the functional results of robot-assisted radical prostatectomyis still controversial. Despite this, it is known that minimally invasive surgery obtains better results when analyzing blood loss, blood transfusion and length of stay, for example. Several studies have analyzed the impact of the resident physician's involvement on the results of urological surgeries. The simple learning curve for robot-assisted radical prostate surgery is estimated to be around 10 to 12 cases. Learning curve data for robotic surgeons is heterogeneous, making it difficult to analyze. Rare studies compare the results of a radical prostatectomy of an inexperienced surgeon starting his training in open surgery, with the results of the same surgeon, a few years later, starting training in robotic surgery. Objective: to analyze the results of open radical prostatectomy surgeries (ORP) performed by urology residents, comparing them to the results of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), performed by these same surgeons, after completing their training in urology. Materials and methods: a retrospective analysis of the cases of only 3 surgeons was performed. 50 patients underwent ORP (group A). The surgeons who operated on the ORP patients were in the 3rd and final year of the urology residency program and beginners in ORP surgery, but with at least 4 years of experience in open surgery. The same surgeons, already trained urologists, began their training in robotic surgery and performed 56 RARP surgeries (group B). For the comparative analysis, data were collected on age, number of lymph nodes removed, surgery time, hospitalization time, drain volume, drain permanence time, indwelling bladdercateter (IBC) permanence time, positive surgical margin, biochemical recurrence, risk classification (ISUP), intra and postoperative complications, urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED). The console used was the Da Vinci Si, from Intuitive®. For statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk test verified that the data did not follow normality, the Levene test guaranteed homogeneity, and the Mann-Whitney test performed the comparative analysis of the quantitative data. For the analysis of qualitative data, the Chi-square test was used for nominal variables and the Mann-Whitney U test for ordinal variables. Additionally, the Friedman test analyzed whether there was an improvement in the perception of UI or ED over the months, for each group individually (without comparing them), and the post-hoc Durbin-Conover test, for the results with statistically significant difference. We used a p-value < 0.05, and the Jamovi® program (Version 2.0). Results: there was no statistically significant difference between the groups for age, number of lymph nodes removed, positive surgical margin, biochemical recurrence, risk classification and urinary incontinence. Additionally, we observed that the surgical time was longer in group B. On the other hand, the length of stay, drain volume, drain time, IBC time, complication rate and levels of erectile dysfunction in the third and sixth months were higher in group A, when compared to group B. We also observed that there was no evolutionary improvement in ED over the months in both groups, and that there was a perception of improvement in UI from the 1st to the 3rd month in group A, and from the 1st to the 6th month, and from the 3rd to the 12th month, in group B. Conclusion: the learning curve of RARP is equivalent to the curve of ORP. In general, the results for the robotic group were better, however, the functional results were similar between the groups, with a slight tendency of advantage for the robotic arm.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(2): 152-163, Mar.-Apr. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558066


ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study is to perform a high-quality meta-analysis using only randomized controlled trials (RCT) to better define the role of postoperative antibiotics in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Materials and Methods: A literature search for RCTs in EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science up to May 2023 was conducted following the PICO framework: Population—adult patients who underwent PCNL; Intervention—postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis until nephrostomy tube withdrawal; Control—single dose of antibiotic during the induction of anesthesia; and Outcome—systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis and fever after PCNL. The protocol was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42022361579). We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A random-effects model was employed, and the alpha risk was defined as < 0.05. Results: Seven articles, encompassing a total of 629 patients, were included in the analysis. The outcome of SIRS or sepsis was extracted from six of the included studies, while the outcome of postoperative fever was extracted from four studies. The analysis revealed no statistical association between the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis until nephrostomy tube withdrawal and the occurrence of SIRS/sepsis (OR 1.236, 95% CI 0.731 - 2.089, p=0.429) or fever (OR 2.049, 95% CI 0.790 - 5.316, p=0.140). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is no benefit associated with the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis until nephrostomy tube withdrawal in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We recommend that antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered only until the induction of anesthesia in PCNL.

Rev. argent. radiol ; 88(1): 3-10, mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550715


Resumen Antecedentes: La resonancia magnética (RM) de próstata es uno de los métodos diagnósticos para la identificación del carcinoma de próstata. La escala PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System) es el sistema usado para la interpretación de estas imágenes. Es importante, para su reproducibilidad, la estandarización y la evaluación de dicha escala. Objetivo: Determinar la concordancia inter- e intraobservador de la versión 2.1 del PI-RADS. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo, evaluando 129 RM de pacientes con sospecha de cáncer de próstata por tres radiólogos con diferentes años de experiencia y en dos momentos del tiempo, usando el puntaje PI-RADS 2.1. Se evaluó la concordancia intra- e interobservador. Resultados: La concordancia interobservador fue sustancial (kappa > 0,6) en todos los observadores, siendo la categoría 5 la de mayor acuerdo interobservador. Se observó una alta reproducibilidad intraobservardor, con la mayor kappa siendo de 0,856. Cuando se realizó el análisis según años de experiencia de los radiólogos, la concordancia interobservador fue significativa en todos los casos. Conclusiones: El sistema de clasificación PI-RADS 2.1 es reproducible para las diferentes categorías y aumenta la concordancia cuando se trata de lesiones con mayor probabilidad de cáncer clínicamente significativo.

Abstract Background: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the prostate is a key diagnostic tool for identifying prostate carcinoma. The Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scale is the standard system for interpreting these images. Standardizing and evaluating this scale is crucial for ensuring consistent and reproducible results. Objective: This study aims to assess both the interobserver and intraobserver agreement of the PI-RADS version 2.1. Material and methods: In this retrospective observational study, 129 prostate MRI scans from patients with suspected prostate cancer were evaluated. Three radiologists, each with different levels of experience, analyzed these scans at two separate times using the PI-RADS 2.1 scoring system. Both intraobserver and interobserver agreements were measured. Results: The study found substantial interobserver agreement (kappa > 0.6) across all categories, with category 5 showing the highest level of agreement. Intraobserver reproducibility was also high, with the highest kappa value reaching 0.856. Further analysis based on the radiologists’ years of experience revealed significant interobserver agreement in all instances. Conclusions: The PI-RADS 2.1 classification system demonstrates high reproducibility across different categories, particularly for lesions more likely to be clinically significant cancers. This underscores its reliability in varied diagnostic scenarios.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(1): 37-45, Jan.-Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558039


ABSTRACT Background: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is increasingly used for risk stratification and preoperative staging of prostate cancer. It remains unclear how Grade Group (GG) interacts with the ability of mpMRI to determine the presence of extraprostatic extension (EPE) on surgical pathology. Methods: A retrospective review of a robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) database from 2016-2020 was performed. Radiology mpMRI reports by multiple attending radiologists and without clear standardization or quality control were retrospectively assessed for EPE findings and compared with surgical pathology reports. The data were stratified by biopsy-based GG and a multivariable cluster analysis was performed to incorporate additional preoperative variables (age at diagnosis, PSA, etc.). Hazard ratios were calculated to determine how mpMRI findings and radiographic EPE relate to positive surgical margins. Results: Two hundred and eighty nine patients underwent at least one mpMRI prior to RALP. Preoperative mpMRI demonstrated sensitivity of 39.3% and specificity of 88.8% for pathological EPE and had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 49.5%, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 84.0%. Stratification of NPV by GG yielded the following values: GG 1-5 (49.5%), GG 3-5 (40.8%), GG 4-5 (43.4%), and GG 5 (30.4%). Additionally, positive EPE on preoperative mpMRI was associated with a significantly decreased risk of positive surgical margins (RR: 0.655; 95% CI: 0.557-0.771). Conclusions: NPV of prostate mpMRI for EPE may be decreased for higher grade tumors. A detailed reference reading and image quality optimization may improve performance. However, urologists should exercise caution in nerve sparing approaches in these patients.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(1): 65-79, Jan.-Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558045


ABSTRACT Objective: In the following years after the United States Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against prostate cancer screening with PSA in 2012, several authors worldwide described an increase in higher grades and aggressive prostate tumors. In this scenario, we aim to evaluate the potential impacts of USPSTF recommendations on the functional and oncological outcomes in patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in a referral center. Material and Methods: We included 11396 patients who underwent RARP between 2008 and 2021. Each patient had at least a 12-month follow-up. The cohort was divided into two groups based on an inflection point in the outcomes at the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. The inflection point period was detected by Bayesian regression with multiple change points and regression with unknown breakpoints. We reported continuous variables as median and interquartile range (IQR) and categorical variables as absolute and relative percent frequencies. Results: Group 1 had 4760 patients, and Group 2 had 6636 patients, with a median follow-up of 109 and 38 months, respectively. In the final pathology, Group 2 had 9.5% increase in tumor volume, 24% increase on Gleason ≥ 4+3 (ISUP 3), and 18% increase on ≥ pT3. This translated to a 6% increase in positive surgical margins and 24% reduction in full nerve sparing in response to the worsening pathology. There was a significant decline in post-operative outcomes in Group 2, including a 12-month continence reduction of 9%, reduction in potency by 27%, and reduction of trifecta by 22%. Conclusions: The increasing number of high-risk patients has led to worse functional and oncologic outcomes. The initial rapid rise in PSM was leveled by the move towards more partial nerve sparing. Among some historical changes in prostate cancer diagnosis and management in the period of our study, the USPSTF recommendation coincided with worse outcomes of prostate cancer treatment in a population who could benefit from PSA screening at the appropriate time.

Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527676


Introducción: En Uruguay el cáncer de próstata ocupa el primer lugar en incidencia y el tercer lugar en mortalidad en el hombre. La mayoría de estos cánceres se diagnostican en estadios precoces. Hoy en día, para pacientes con adenocarcinoma de muy bajo riesgo, bajo riesgo o riesgo intermedio favorable, la vigilancia activa es una opción adecuada. Objetivos: Describir una población de pacientes con cáncer de próstata de muy bajo riesgo, bajo riesgo o riesgo intermedio favorable, en vigilancia activa en COMERI. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, observacional, retrospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con cáncer de próstata de muy bajo riesgo, bajo riesgo o riesgo intermedio favorable, tratados entre 2010 y 2018 en COMERI. Se recopilaron datos en el sistema de registro clínico electrónico. Resultados: Se incluyeron 33 pacientes, la mediana de edad al diagnóstico fue de 74 años. Todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a controles clínicos y determinación de PSA cada 3 meses. El tacto rectal se realizó en forma anual. El tiempo mediano de vigilancia activa fue de 33 meses. Durante el seguimiento, se observaron pocas variaciones en los valores de PSA. El 21% de los pacientes fue sometido a una nueva biopsia durante el seguimiento activo, y en todos los casos, el Gleason se mantuvo incambiado. Ningún paciente abandonó la modalidad de vigilancia activa. Conclusión: En nuestro entorno, la vigilancia activa se considera una opción terapéutica válida para pacientes altamente seleccionados con cáncer de próstata de muy bajo riesgo, bajo riesgo o riesgo intermedio favorable, y es bien aceptada por ellos.

Introduction: In Uruguay, prostate cancer ranks first in incidence and third in mortality among men. The majority of these cancers are diagnosed at early stages. Nowadays, active surveillance is an appropriate option for patients with adenocarcinoma of very low risk, low risk, or favorable intermediate risk. Objectives: To describe a population of patients with prostate cancer of very low risk, low risk, or favorable intermediate risk under active surveillance at COMERI. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, observational, retrospective study. Patients with prostate cancer of very low risk, low risk, or favorable intermediate risk treated between 2010 and 2018 at COMERI were included. Data were collected from the electronic clinical registry system. Results: Thirty-three patients were included, with a median age at diagnosis of 74 years. All patients underwent clinical monitoring and PSA determination every 3 months. Digital rectal examination was performed annually. The median time of active surveillance was 33 months. During follow-up, there were few variations in PSA values. 21% of patients underwent a repeat biopsy during active surveillance, and in all cases, the Gleason score remained unchanged. No patient discontinued active surveillance. Conclusion: In our setting, active surveillance is considered a valid therapeutic option for highly selected patients with prostate cancer of very low risk, low risk, or favorable intermediate risk, and it is well accepted by them.

Introdução: No Uruguai, o câncer de próstata ocupa o primeiro lugar em incidência e o terceiro lugar em mortalidade entre os homens. A maioria desses cânceres é diagnosticada em estágios precoces. Atualmente, para pacientes com adenocarcinoma de risco muito baixo, baixo risco ou risco intermediário favorável, a vigilância ativa é uma opção adequada. Objetivos: Descrever uma população de pacientes com câncer de próstata de risco muito baixo, baixo risco ou risco intermediário favorável sob vigilância ativa em COMERI. Material e métodos: Estudo descritivo, observacional, retrospectivo. Foram incluídos pacientes com câncer de próstata de risco muito baixo, baixo risco ou risco intermediário favorável, tratados entre 2010 e 2018 em COMERI. Os dados foram coletados no sistema de registro clínico eletrônico. Resultados: Foram incluídos 33 pacientes, com mediana de idade no diagnóstico de 74 anos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a controles clínicos e determinação de PSA a cada 3 meses. O toque retal foi realizado anualmente. O tempo médio de vigilância ativa foi de 33 meses. Durante o acompanhamento, houve poucas variações nos valores de PSA. 21% dos pacientes foram submetidos a uma nova biópsia durante a vigilância ativa, e em todos os casos, o Gleason permaneceu inalterado. Nenhum paciente abandonou a modalidade de vigilância ativa. Conclusão: Em nosso ambiente, a vigilância ativa é considerada uma opção terapêutica válida para pacientes altamente selecionados com câncer de próstata de risco muito baixo, baixo risco ou risco intermediário favorável, e é bem aceita por eles.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Disease Progression , Watchful Waiting , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Patient Selection , Octogenarians
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(6): 732-739, Nov.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550273


ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the perioperative outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) with pelvic lymph-nodes dissection (PLND) when the same surgeon performs RARP and PLND versus one surgeon performs RARP and another surgeon performs PLND. Materials and Methods: From January 2022 to March 2023, data of consecutive patients who underwent RARP with PLND were prospectively collected. The surgeries were performed by two "young" surgeons with detailed profile. Specifically for the study purpose, one surgeon performed RARP, and the other surgeon performed PLND. A set of surgeries performed according to the standard setup (i.e., the same surgeon performing both RARP and PLND) was retrieved from the institutional database and used as comparator arm. To test the study hypothesis, patients were divided into two groups: "dual-surgeon" versus "single-surgeon". Results: Fifty patients underwent RARP and PLND performed according to dual-surgeon setup and were compared to the last 50 procedures performed according to the standard single-surgeon setup. Patients in the groups had comparable baseline characteristics. Dual-surgeon interventions had significantly shorter median total operative (194 [IQR 178-215] versus 174 [IQR 146-195] minutes, p<0.001) and console time (173 [IQR 158-194] versus 154 [IQR 129-170] minutes, p<0.001). No significant differences were found in terms of blood loss, intraoperative complications, postoperative outcomes, and final pathology results. Conclusions: The present analysis found that when RARP and PLND are split onto two surgeons, the operative time is shorter by 20 minutes compared to when a single surgeon performs RARP and PLND. This is an interesting finding that could sponsor further studies.

Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535445


Introducción: Los cánceres de cuello uterino y próstata tienen una importante carga de morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La autoeficacia para solicitar el tamizaje es un elemento clave en la prevención. Objetivo: Comparar la percepción de hombres y mujeres sobre autoeficacia para el tamizaje de cáncer cervical y de próstata. Métodos: Estudio mixto con 50 mujeres y 50 hombres. Se indagaron datos sociodemográficos. Se aplicó la escala de autoeficacia de detección del cáncer cervical, con una modificación de esta para medición de cáncer de próstata en hombres. La autoeficacia se clasificó por niveles y las variables asociadas a esta se identificaron con regresión robusta. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 27 individuos (18 hombres y 9 mujeres) con baja y alta autoeficacia, así como a individuos de "otra" religión, para conocer las diferencias en la intención del tamizaje. Se crearon tres categorías de análisis basadas en el modelo de creencias en salud. Resultados: Mujeres y hombres fueron similares, excepto en religión, ocupación y antecedentes de Papanicolaou o examen rectal. La autoeficacia fue mayor entre las mujeres (ß aj.:-15,29 IC del 95 %: -18,36 a -12,21) y los no creyentes (ß aj.: -5,38 IC del 95 %: -10,33 a -0,44). Ellas buscan más el tamizaje que los hombres, quienes necesitan tener síntomas para hacerlo, necesitan tener síntomas. La vergüenza e incomodidad son barreras expresadas por ambos sexos. En los hombres, el machismo es una fuerte barrera para solicitar el tamizaje. La religión asocia el sexo con impureza, siendo una barrera entre las mujeres. Los servicios de atención de la salud solo se centran en el cribado femenino. Conclusiones: Los roles de género y elementos de religión son expresiones culturales que determinan la intención de detección del cáncer en hombres y mujeres. Las intervenciones de los servicios de salud deben considerar estos elementos para mejorar la cobertura de detección temprana y reducir la morbimortalidad de estos dos tipos de cáncer.

Introduction: Cervical and prostate cancers have a significant burden of disease in developing countries. Self-efficacy to request screening is a key element in prevention. Objective: To compare the perception of men and women on self-efficacy for cervical and prostate cancer screening. Methods: Mixed study with 50 women and 50 men. Sociodemographic data was investigated. The cervical cancer detection self-efficacy scale was applied, with a modification for measuring prostate cancer in men. Self-efficacy was classified by levels and the variables associated with it were identified with robust regression. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 individuals (18 men and 9 women) with low and high self-efficacy and of "other religion" to know the differences in the intention of the screening. Three categories of analysis were created based on the health belief model. Results: Women and men were similar except for religion, occupation, and history of Pap smear or rectal exam. Self-efficacy was higher among women (Adj. ß: -15.29, 95% CI: -18.36 to -12.21) and non-believers (Adj. ß: -5.38, 95% CI: -10.33 to -0.44). They seek screening more than men because they need to have symptoms. Shame and discomfort are barriers expressed by both genders. In men, machismo is a strong barrier to request screening. Religion associates sex with impurity, thus, acts as a barrier among women. Health care services only focus on female screening. Conclusions: gender roles and elements of religion are cultural expressions, which determine the intention of cancer detection in men and women. Health services interventions should consider these elements to improve the coverage of early detection and reduce the morbidity and mortality of these two types of cancer.

Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms , Uterine Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Health Services , Colombia , Self Efficacy , Health Services Accessibility
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(4): 441-451, July-Aug. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506403


ABSTRACT Background: Pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME) is the most common conservative management for urinary incontinence (UI) after radical prostatectomy (RP). We performed this meta-analysis to investigate whether PFME during the entire perioperative period, including before and after RP, can significantly improve the recovery of postoperative UI. Methods: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCT) from PubMed, Medline, web of science, Cochrane library, and prior to October 2022. Efficacy data were pooled and analyzed using Review Manager Version 5.3. Pooled analyses of urinary incontinence rates 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were conducted, using odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: We included a total of 15 RCT studies involving 2178 patients received RP. Postoperative UI could be improved after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months, and the OR were 0.26 (95%CI:0.15-0.46) 0.30 (95%CI: 0.11-0.80) 0.20 (95%CI: 0.07- 0.56) in postoperative PFME group compared to no PFME group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in 12 months after surgery, and the OR was 0.85(95%CI: 0.48,1.51). There were similar results in perioperative PFME group compared to no PFME group with the OR of 0.35 (95%CI: 0.12, 0.98) and 0.40 (95%CI: 0.21, 0.75) in 1 and 3 months after surgery. Our results indicated no significant difference between perioperative PFME group and postoperative PFME group. The OR was 0.58 (95%CI: 0.20-1.71) 0.58 (95%CI:0.20-0.71) and 0.66 (95%CI: 0.32-1.38) in 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Conclusion: Application of PFME after RP significantly reduced the incidence of early postoperative UI, and additional preoperative PFME had no significant improvement on the recovery of UI.

Radiol. bras ; 56(3): 125-130, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449033


Abstract Objective: To describe the behavior of total alkaline phosphatase (tALP) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving radium-223 therapy, in a real-world scenario, and to describe overall survival (OS) among such patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 97 patients treated between February 2017 and September 2020. Patients were stratified by the baseline tALP (normal/elevated). A tALP response was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction from baseline at week 12. For patients with elevated baseline tALP, we also evaluated treatment response as a ≥ 10% reduction in tALP after the first cycle of treatment. We defined OS as the time from the first treatment cycle to the date of death. Results: There was a significant reduction in the median tALP after each cycle of treatment (p < 0.05 for all). Data for tALP at week 12 were available for 71 of the 97 patients. Of those 71 patients, 26 (36.6%) responded. Elevated baseline tALP was observed in 47 patients, of whom 19 (40.4%) showed a response. Longer OS was observed in the patients with normal baseline tALP, in those with elevated baseline tALP that showed a response to treatment (≥ 10% reduction), and in those who received 5-6 cycles of therapy. Conclusion: The tALP may be used to predict which patients will benefit from treatment with a greater number of cycles of radium-223 therapy and will have longer OS.

Resumo Objetivo: Descrever o comportamento da fosfatase alcalina total (tALP) em pacientes com carcinoma de próstata metastático resistente a castração, submetidos a terapia com rádio-223 em um cenário do mundo real, e a sobrevida global (SG) desses pacientes. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo envolvento 97 pacientes, no período de fevereiro/2017 a setembro/2020. Os pacientes foram estratificados de acordo com a tALP basal (normal/elevada). A resposta à tALP foi definida como uma redução em relação à linha de base de ≥ 30% na semana-12. Para pacientes com tALP basal elevada, também foi avaliada a resposta ao tratamento como uma redução de ≥ 10% de tALP após o primeiro ciclo. A SG foi definida como o tempo entre o primeiro ciclo e a data do óbito. Resultados: A redução da tALP média após cada ciclo foi significativa (p < 0,05). A tALP na semana 12 estava disponível para 71 dos 97 pacientes. Desses 71 pacientes, 26 (36,6%) responderam. Dezenove (40,4%) dos 47 pacientes com tALP elevada apresentaram resposta. Foi observada uma SG mais longa nos pacientes com tALP basal normal, nos pacientes com tALP basal elevada que apresentaram resposta ao tratamento (redução de ≥ 10%) e nos pacientes que receberam 5-6 ciclos. Conclusão: A tALP pode ser usada para prever parte dos pacientes que se beneficiarão do tratamento com um maior número de ciclos e uma SG mais longa.

Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(6)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560230


Introducción: El cáncer prostático (CaP) es una patología de alta prevalencia e incidencia mundial. El tamizaje ha perseguido el diagnóstico precoz de esta enfermedad para otorgar tratamientos oportunos. Nosotros buscamos caracterizar los pacientes de un hospital local respecto al diagnóstico y etapificación, y comparar estos resultados con datos previamente reportados. Material y Método: Análisis retrospectivo de pacientes diagnosticados con CaP en un hospital institucional. Se recolectaron variables clínicas al momento del diagnóstico, los métodos de etapificación, el estadío según TNM y grado histológico. Resultados: Se incluyeron 129 pacientes en el análisis. La mediana de APE (ng/mL) al diagnóstico fue de 7,29. El grado histológico fue clasificado como ISUP 1 en 37,5%. Se realizó una resonancia magnética multiparamétrica de próstata (RMmp) en el 42,19% de los pacientes, siendo clasificados como PIRADS 4 en mayor proporción (21,09%). La etapificación con PET-CT PSMA se utilizó principalmente en el grupo de alto riesgo y ante dudas frente a etapificación con medios convencionales. Se prefirió la Tomografía computada (TC) contrastada y la cintigrafía ósea en los otros grupos. 6,25% fue catalogado N1 y 9,37% M1. Conclusión: La etapa al diagnóstico de nuestra serie es algo mayor a lo reportado por países desarrollados, pero considerablemente menor a lo publicado por otros países de Latinoamérica e inclusive de otros hospitales de nuestro país. Pareciera ser de gran relevancia nacional contar con protocolos claros de tamizaje y acceso a APE con el fin de disminuir los casos diagnosticados en etapas avanzadas.

Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a disease with a high prevalence and incidence worldwide. Screening has pursued the early diagnosis of this disease to provide early treatment. We sought to characterize patients from a local hospital with respect to diagnosis and staging and to compare these results with previously reported data. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with PCa at an institutional hospital. Clinical variables were collected at the time of diagnosis, staging methods, TNM stage, and histological grade. Results: 129 patients were included in the analysis. The median PSA (ng/mL) at diagnosis was 7.29. The histological grade was classified as ISUP 1 in 37.5%. An MRI was performed in 42.19% of the patients, being classified mostly as PIRADS 4 (21.09%). PET-CT PSMA staging was used mainly in the high-risk group, preferring contrast-enhanced CT and bone scintigraphy in the other groups. 6.25% were classified as N1 and 9.37% as M1. Conclusion: The stage at diagnosis in our series is somewhat higher than that reported by developed countries but considerably lower than that published by other Latin American countries and even from other hospitals in our country. It is of great national relevance to have clear protocols for screening and access to PSA to reduce the cases diagnosed in advanced stages.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(3): 334-340, may-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440257


ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze the learning curve regarding complication rates of transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) versus transperineal prostate biopsy (TPPB), using real time software-based magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound (MRI-US) fusion techniques, along with first year experience of transperineal approach. Materials and Methods retrospective unicentric cohort study at a quaternary care hospital. Medical records of all consecutive patients that underwent TPPB between March 2021 and February 2022, after the introduction of MRI-US fusion device, and those who underwent TRPB throughout the entire years of 2019 and 2020 were analyzed. All complications that occurred as consequences of the procedure were considered. Descriptive statistics, Chi-squared and Fisher tests were used to describe complications and compare the two groups. Results A total of 283 patients were included in the transperineal group and 513 in the transrectal group. The analysis of a learning curve for the transperineal method showed lower complications rates comparing the first six months of TPPB procedures (group 1); The complication rate for TPPB was lower than that of TRPB (55.1% versus 81.9%, respectively; p<0.01). TPPB showed specifically lower rates of hematuria (48.8% versus 66.3%;p<0.001) and rectal bleeding(3.5% versus 18.1%; p<0.001). There were no cases of prostatitis after transperineal biopsies and three cases (0.6%) after transrectal procedures. Conclusions We evidenced the learning curve for performing the transperineal biopsy, with a lower rate of complications for the experienced team, after 142 cases after 6 months of practice. The lower complication rate of TPPB and the absence of infectious prostatitis imply a safer procedure when compared to TRPB.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(3): 359-371, may-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440259


ABSTRACT Purpose Targeted biopsy (TB) combined with systematic biopsy (SB) is an optimized mode of prostate biopsy but can often lead to oversampling and overdiagnosis accompanied by potential biopsy-related complications and patient discomfort. Here, we attempted to reasonably stratify the patient population based on multi-parameter indicators with the aim of avoiding unnecessary SB. Methods In total, 340 biopsy-naïve men with suspected lesions, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 20 ng/mL and prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PI-RADS) ≥ 3 enrolled for study underwent both TB and SB. The primary outcome was to determine independent predictors for a valid diagnosis, assuming that only TB was performed and SB omitted (defined as mono-TB), taking TB + SB as the reference standard. The secondary outcomes were exploration of the predictive factors of mono-TB and TB + SB in detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant PCa (csPCa). Results The mean PSA density (PSAD) of patient group was 0.27 ng/mL/mL. Multiparametric MRI PI-RADS scores were 3-5 in 146 (42.94%), 105 (30.88%), and 89 (26.18%) cases, respectively. PCa and csPCa were detected in 178/340 (52.35%) and 162/340 (47.65%) patients, respectively. Overall, 116/178 (65.17%) patients diagnosed with PCa displayed pathological consistencies between mono-TB and TB + SB modes. PSAD and PI-RADS were independent predictors of valid diagnosis using mono-TB. Conclusions PSAD combined with PI-RADS showed utility in guiding optimization of the prostate biopsy mode. Higher PSAD and PI-RADS values were associated with greater confidence in implementing mono-TB and safely omitting SB, thus effectively balancing the benefits and risks.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218025


Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is indispensable part of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) patients. There is documented association between ADT and adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, with variability between the different modes. However, there is dearth of evidence on the background CV risk factors of these group of patients at diagnosis. Aims and Objectives: We envisaged this retrospective observational study in the department of oncology to document the background CV risk factors of MPC patients at diagnosis, to help us better select the available ADTs based on their CV risks. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 2 years, all patients registered for treatment with a diagnosis of MPC, indicated for ADT, and available detailed history and background cardiological evaluation at presentation, were included in the study. As indirect indicators of CV risks, history of smoking, presence and treatment of dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), were documented. As direct indicators of CV risks, presence and treatment of hypertension, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive cardiac failure (CCF), ECG, and echocardiography changes suggesting cardiac morbidity were documented and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. Results: Indirect indicators: dyslipidemia, habit of smoking, and T2DM were found in 74%, 29.3%, and 13.3% patients, respectively. Direct indicators: Presence of hypertension, IHD, CCF, abnormalities in ECG, and echocardiography were found in 38.7%, 10.6%, 4%, 28%, and 34.6% patients, respectively. ST-T changes on ECG, low EF, and IHD on echocardiography were seen in 28.5%, 23%, and 26.9%, respectively. Conclusions: MPC patients have a substantial pre-existing CV risk at diagnosis. Our findings warrant a meticulous screening of all MPC patients for CV risk factors, to help in judicious selection of their ADT.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(2): 233-242, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440242


ABSTRACT Introduction To evaluate the possible effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the oncologic results of patients with prostate cancer regarding clinical staging, presence of adverse pathological outcomes, and perioperative complications. Materials and methods This retrospective study included patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The time between biopsy and surgery, staging tests, final histopathological evaluation after surgery, lymphadenectomy rate, postoperative complications, and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels (initial and 30 days after surgery) were analyzed and compared in a group of patients before and during the pandemic period. Results We included 226 patients: 88 in the pre-pandemic period and 138 during the pandemic period. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age, body mass index, ASA, pathological locally advanced disease, the proportion of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, and ISUP grade in the biopsy between the groups. Positive surgical margins, prostatic extracapsular extension, and PSA levels at 30 days were also similar between the groups. The mean time between medical consultation and surgery was longer in the pandemic period than in the pre-pandemic (124 vs. 107 days, p<0.001), and the mean time between biopsy and medical consultation (69.5 days vs. 114 days, p<0.001) and between biopsy and surgery (198.5 days vs. 228 days, p=0.013) was shorter during the pandemic. The incidence of severe early and late perioperative complications was similar between the periods. Conclusions There was no delay between diagnosis and treatment at our institution during the COVID-19 pandemic period. No worsening of the prostate cancer features was observed.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(1): 50-60, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421710


ABSTRACT Introduction: Even in the era of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), we sometimes encounter patients with severe urinary incontinence after surgery. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of urinary continence recovery among patients with urinary incontinence immediately after surgery (UIIAS). Materials and Methods: We identified 274 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent LRP and RALP between 2011 and 2018. UIIAS was defined as a urine loss ratio > 0.15 on the first day of urethral catheter removal. Urinary continence recovery was defined as using ≤ 1 pad/day one year after surgery. In the present study, we evaluated factors affecting urinary function recovery one year after surgery among patients with urinary incontinence immediately after LRP and RALP. Results: UIIAS was observed in 191 out of 274 patients (69.7%). A multivariate analysis identified age (< 65 years, p = 0.015) as an independent predictor affecting immediate urinary continence. Among 191 incontinent patients, urinary continence one year after surgery improved in 153 (80.1%). A multivariate analysis identified age (< 65 years, p = 0.003) and estimated blood loss (≥ 100 mL, p = 0.044) as independent predictors affecting urinary continence recovery one year after surgery. Conclusion: The present results suggest that younger patients and patients with higher intraoperative blood loss recover urinary continence one year after surgery even if they are incontinent immediately after surgery.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(1): 123-135, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421714


ABSTRACT Background: Global cancer incidence ranks Prostate Cancer (CaP) as the second highest overall, with Africa and the Caribbean having the highest mortality. Previous literature suggests disparities in CaP outcomes according to ethnicity, specifically functional and oncological are suboptimal in black men. However, recent data shows black men achieve post radical prostatectomy (RP) outcomes equivalent to white men in a universally insured system. Our objective is to compare outcomes of patients who self-identified their ethnicity as black or white undergoing RP at our institution. Materials and methods: From 2008 to 2017, 396 black and 4929 white patients underwent primary robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Exclusion criteria were concomitant surgery and cancer status not available. A propensity score (PS) match was performed with a 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 ratio without replacement. Primary endpoints were potency, continence recovery, biochemical recurrence (BCR), positive surgical margins (PSM), and post-operative complications. Results: After PS 1:1 matching, 341 black vs. 341 white men with a median follow-up of approximately 8 years were analyzed. The overall potency and continence recovery at 12 months was 52% vs 58% (p=0.3) and 82% vs 89% (p=0.3), respectively. PSM rates was 13.4 % vs 14.4% (p = 0.75). Biochemical recurrence and persistence PSA was 13.8% vs 14.1% and 4.4% vs 3.2% respectively (p=0.75). Clavien-Dindo complications (p=0.4) and 30-day readmission rates (p=0.5) were similar. Conclusion: In our study, comparing two ethnic groups with similar preoperative characteristics and full access to screening and treatment showed compatible RARP results. We could not demonstrate outcomes superiority in one group over the other. However, this data adds to the growing body of evidence that the racial disparity gap in prostate cancer outcomes can be narrowed if patients have appropriate access to prostate cancer management. It also could be used in counseling surgeons and patients on the surgical intervention and prognosis of prostate cancer in patients with full access to gold-standard screening and treatment.