Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 641
Filter
1.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 714-718, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922987

ABSTRACT

The MAPK signaling pathway can mediate a variety of cytokines to participate in the processes of inflammation, cancer, immune disorder, and neurodegenerative diseases, and it also plays an important role in the development and progression of hepatic echinococcosis. This article reviews the structure and regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway and elaborates on the role of the MAPK signaling pathway in hepatic echinococcosis. It is pointed out that the MAPK signaling pathway can activate both the cyst and the host in hepatic echinococcosis, participate in the development and progression of the disease, and exert an impact on its treatment. Drug therapy targeting the MAPK signaling pathway is expected to become a new strategy for the treatment of hepatic echinococcosis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937002

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and pulmonary fibrosis are common diseases with high mortality but without effective antidotes in emergency medicine. Our previous study has proved that arctigenin suppressed pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ. We wondered whether arctigenin could also have a protective effect on PQ-induced ALI. METHODS: A PQ-induced A549 cell injury model was used, and the effect of arctigenin was determined by a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) cell viability assay. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining assays and mitochondrial membrane potential assays were performed to evaluate the level of cell apoptosis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reflected by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining and a 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Moreover, immunoblotting studies were used to assess the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and p38 MAPK. RESULTS: Arctigenin attenuated PQ-induced inhibition of A549 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also significantly reduced PQ-induced A549 cell apoptosis, as reflected by the TUNEL assay and mitochondrial membrane potential assay, which may result from suppressed ROS/p38 MAPK signaling because we found that arctigenin dramatically suppressed ROS generation and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Arctigenin could attenuate PQ-induced lung epithelial A549 cell injury in vitro by suppressing ROS/p38 MAPK-mediated cell apoptosis, and arctigenin might be considered a potential candidate drug for PQ-induced ALI.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935769

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of paeoniflorin on hippocampal neuron apoptosis induced by lead acetate. Methods: In September 2020, primary hippocampal neuronal cells were isolated and cultured from fetal rats, and identified using cellular immunofluorescent. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability to determine the concentration and time of lead acetate-induced hippocampal neuron apoptosis. MTT was also used to evaluate the effect of paeoniflorin concentration on the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons induced by lead acetate. According to the results, different concentrations of paeoniflorin were selected to intervene hippocampal neuron cells, after 24 h, lead acetate was added to the cells, meanwhile, blank and model groups were set up, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) , lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , malondialdehyde (MDA) and Caspase-3 were measured. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) , phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) , p38 mitogen -activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) , phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) , c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) protein expression in hippocampal neuronal cells were determined by Western blotting. Results: The isolated and cultured hippocampal neurons were identified by immunofluorescence chemical staining and then treated with lead acetate, MTT results showed that lead acetate had the best toxicity effect when treated for 24 h at a concentration of 25 μmol/L. Paeoniflorin showed no cytotoxic effect on hippocampal neuronal cells when the concentrations below 80 μmol/L. Compared with the model group, the activity of hippocampal neuronal cells was significantly increased after treating with 20, 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin (P<0.05) . Compared with the blank group, the ROS activity, LDH release level, MDA content and caspase-3 content were significantly increased (P<0.01) , and the SOD activity was significantly decreased (P< 0.01) in the hippocampal neuronal cells of the model group. Compared with the model group, the ROS activity, LDH release level, MDA content and caspase-3 content were obviously decreased (P<0.05) , SOD activity was significantly increased (P <0.01) after hippocampal neuronal cells were treated with 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin. Relative to the model group, the ratio of p-ERK/ERK were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) , while the ratios of p-p38MAPK/p38MAPK and p-JNK/JNK were significantly down-regulated after hippocampal neuronal cells were treated with 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Paeoniflorin may down-regulate the expression of p-p38MAPK and p-JNK protein, up-regulate the expression of p-ERK protein, and inhibit the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons induced by lead acetate through the MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acetates/pharmacology , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Glucosides , Hippocampus/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Lead , Monoterpenes , Neurons/metabolism , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933312

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of protein kinase A (PKA)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway in sevoflurane-induced reduction of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-induced cognitive impairment in rats.Methods:Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 4 months, weighing 300-350 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=10 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), group CPB, CPB+ sevoflurane group (group CS) and CPB+ sevoflurane+ PKA inhibitor H89 group (group CSH). After H89 5 μl was injected into the lateral ventricle in group CSH, the rats in group CS and group CSH were exposed to 2.4% sevoflurane for 1 h, and then the CPB model of beating heart without blood priming for 60 min was developed in CPB, CS and CSH groups.The autonomic movement ability was evaluated using the open field test at 2nd day after CPB.Morris water maze test was used to assess the cognitive function at 3rd day after CPB.The rats were sacrificed after the Morris water maze test, the brain was removed and the hippocampal tissues were isolated for determination of the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons (by flow cytometry) and expression of PKA, phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (by Western blot). Results:There was no significant difference in movement speed, distance and time of staying at the central region among the four groups ( P>0.05). Compared with group C, the escape latency was significantly prolonged, the number of crossing the original platform was reduced, the time of staying at the original platform quadrant was shortened, the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons was increased, and the expression of PKA, p-CREB and BDNF was down-regulated in the other three groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group CPB, the escape latency was significantly shortened, the number of crossing the original platform was increased, the time of staying at the original platform quadrant was prolonged, the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons was decreased, and the expression of PKA, p-CREB and BDNF was up-regulated in group CS ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the indexes mentioned above in group CSH ( P>0.05). Compared with group CS, the escape latency was significantly prolonged, the number of crossing the original platform was reduced, and the time of staying at the original platform quadrant was shortened, the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons was increased, and the expression of PKA, p-CREB and BDNF was down-regulated in group CSH ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Sevoflurane can reduce the apoptosis in hippocampal neurons by activating PKA-CREB signaling pathway, and thus reducing the cognitive impairment induced by CPB in rats.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930208

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the mechanism of levosimendan on acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats.Methods:Twenty-five healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group ( n=5), levosimendan group ( n=10) and experimental group ( n=10). A cardiac arrest-cardiopulmonary resuscitation model was established using smothering method in the experimental group and levosimendan group. The levosimendan group was treated with levosimandan during and after resuscitation, while the experimental group was given equivalent volume of saline solution during and after resuscitation, and the control group was only given equivalent volume of saline without performance of CPR. The rats in the three groups were sacrificed at 6 h after resuscitation. The serum and kidney tissue samples were collected. Serum biochemical indicators [serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (Bun), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] were measured. HE staining and Paller score were used to identify the degree of kidney damage. Apoptosis was estimated by TUNEL staining. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK). One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mean values of normally distributed measurement data between groups. Comparisons between groups were performed using the least significant difference t-test. Results:Scr (85.02±1.31) μmol/L, Bun (7.36±0.13) mmol/L, Paller score (7.3±0.2), IL-1β (302.20±17.35) pg/mL, IL-6 (564.60±23.24) pg/mL and TNF-α (1346±83.73) pg/mL in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group [(15.94±0.96) μmol/L, (2.95±0.18) mmol/L, (0.7±0.2), (7.27±0.44) pg/mL, (51.30±2.87) pg/mL, and (10.39±0.52) pg/mL] (all P<0.01). Compared with the experimental group, Scr (63.88±2.01) μmol/L, Bun (5.45±0.47) mmol/L, paller score (4.8±0.2), IL-1β (78.61±3.66) pg/mL, IL-6 (297.90±13.64) pg/mL and TNF-α (276.2±20.18) pg/mL were significantly decreased in the levosimendan group (all P<0.01). TUNEL staining showed that levosimendan could improve the apoptosis of renal cells ( P<0.01). The expression of p-ERK protein in the levosimendan group was significantly higher than that in the experimental group ( P<0.01). Conclusions:Lovosimendan could attenuate acute kidney injury following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation via suppression apoptosis. The mechanism of levosimendan protective effect might be associated with activation of ERK signaling pathway.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2171-2192, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929407

ABSTRACT

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway is widely activated by a variety of extracellular stimuli, and its dysregulation is associated with the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells. ERK1/2 is located at the distal end of this pathway and rarely undergoes mutations, making it an attractive target for anticancer drug development. Currently, an increasing number of ERK1/2 inhibitors have been designed and synthesized for antitumor therapy, among which representative compounds have entered clinical trials. When ERK1/2 signal transduction is eliminated, ERK5 may provide a bypass route to rescue proliferation, and weaken the potency of ERK1/2 inhibitors. Therefore, drug research targeting ERK5 or based on the compensatory mechanism of ERK5 for ERK1/2 opens up a new way for oncotherapy. This review provides an overview of the physiological and biological functions of ERKs, focuses on the structure-activity relationships of small molecule inhibitors targeting ERKs, with a view to providing guidance for future drug design and optimization, and discusses the potential therapeutic strategies to overcome drug resistance.

7.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 348-354, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939896

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Salvadora persica (SP) is used as a food additive and is a common ingredient in folk medicine. This study investigates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial effects of SP against cyclophosphamide (CYP) toxicity in rats.@*METHODS@#In a 10-day study, 32 male rats were equally allocated into 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows: the normal control (NC group), normal rats that only received oral aqueous extract of SP (100 mg/[kg·d]; SP group), animals treated with intraperitoneal CYP injections (30 mg/[kg·d]; CYP group), and the CYP + SP group that concurrently received CYP with SP aqueous extract. Serum samples were collected to measure the liver and renal biochemical profiles, as well as antioxidant and oxidative stress markers and the concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Hepatic and renal tissues were also harvested for histopathology and to measure apoptosis using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling technique, alongside tissue levels of oxidative stress markers.@*RESULTS@#Liver enzymes, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea, as well as serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB increased significantly, whilst total protein, albumin, calcium, IL-10 and AMPK declined in serum of the CYP group relative to the NC group. The hepatorenal concentrations of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and catalase declined markedly in the CYP group, whereas malondialdehyde, protein adducts, and apoptosis index increased compared with the NC group. By contrast, the hepatorenal biochemistry and apoptosis index of the SP group were comparable to the NC group. Interestingly, the CYP + SP group had significant improvements in the liver and renal biochemical parameters, enhanced anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and marked declines in hepatic and renal apoptosis relative to the CYP group. Moreover, all monitored parameters were statistically indistinguishable between the CYP + SP group and the NC group.@*CONCLUSION@#This study suggests that the aqueous extract of SP could be a potential remedy against CYP-induced hepatorenal damage and may act by modulating the AMPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and promoting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apoptosis , Biomarkers , Cyclophosphamide , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liver , Male , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Salvadoraceae/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1134-1144, dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350046

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A cardiopatia isquêmica atraiu muito atenção devido às altas taxas de mortalidade, custos do tratamento e a crescente morbidade na população jovem. Estratégias de reperfusão reduziram a mortalidade. Porém, a reperfusão pode levar à morte do cardiomiócito e subsequente dano irreversível ao miocárdio. No momento, não há um tratamento eficiente e direcionado para a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (I/R). Objetivos Avaliar se a dexmedetomidina (DEX) tem efeito protetivo na I/R do miocárdio e explorar os possíveis mecanismos por trás dela. Métodos Corações de ratos foram perfundidos com o sistema de perfusão de Langendorff e aleatoriamente distribuídos em cinco grupos: grupo controle, perfundido com solução de Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) por 205 minutos sem isquemia; e quatro grupos de teste que foram submetidos a 40 minutos de isquemia global e 120 minutos de reperfusão. O Grupo DEX, o grupo ioimbina (IO) e o grupo DEX + IO foram perfundidos com DEX (10 nM), IO (1 μM) ou a combinação de DEX e IO antes da reperfusão, respectivamente. A hemodinâmica cardíaca, o tamanho do infarto do miocárdio e a histologia do miocárdio foram avaliados. A expressão da proteína-78 regulada pela glicose (GRP78), a proteína quinase do retículo endoplasmático (PERK), a PERK fosforilada, o fator de iniciação eucariótico 2α (eIF2α), eIF2α fosforilado, o fator de transcrição 4 (TCF-4) e a proteína homóloga à proteína ligadora do acentuador CCAAT (CHOP) foram avaliados. P< 0,05 foi considerado para indicar a diferença estatisticamente significativa. Resultados O pré-condicionamento com DEX melhorou a função cardíaca nos corações com I/R, reduziu o infarto do miocárdio, a apoptose do miocárdio e a expressão de GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, TCF-4 e CHOP. Conclusões O pré-tratamento com DEX reduziu a lesão de I/R no miocárdio ao suprimir a apoptose, o que foi induzido pela via PERK.


Abstract Background Ischemic heart disease has attracted much attention due to its high mortality rates, treatment costs and the increasing morbidity in the young population. Strategies for reperfusion have reduced mortality. However, reperfusion can lead to cardiomyocyte death and subsequent irreversible myocardial damage. At present, the timely and targeted treatment of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is often lacking. Objectives To evaluate if dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a protective effect in myocardiual I/R and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Methods Rat hearts were perfused with a Langendorff perfusion system, and randomly assigned to five groups: control group, perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution for 205 minutes without ischemia; and four test groups that underwent 40 minutes of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The DEX group, the yohimbine (YOH) group and the DEX + YOH group were perfused with DEX (10 nM), YOH (1 μM) or the combination of DEX and YOH prior to reperfusion, respectively. Cardiac hemodynamics, myocardial infarct size, and myocardial histology were evaluated. The expression of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylated PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phosphorylated eIF2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were assessed. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results DEX preconditioning improved the cardiac function of I/R hearts, reduced myocardial infarction, myocardial apoptosis, and the expression of GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. Conclusions DEX pretreatment reduced myocardial I/R injury by suppressing apoptosis, which was induced by the PERK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury , Myocardial Ischemia , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3433-3446, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922806

ABSTRACT

RAS, a member of the small GTPase family, functions as a binary switch by shifting between inactive GDP-loaded and active GTP-loaded state. RAS gain-of-function mutations are one of the leading causes in human oncogenesis, accounting for ∼19% of the global cancer burden. As a well-recognized target in malignancy, RAS has been intensively studied in the past decades. Despite the sustained efforts, many failures occurred in the earlier exploration and resulted in an 'undruggable' feature of RAS proteins. Phosphorylation at several residues has been recently determined as regulators for wild-type and mutated RAS proteins. Therefore, the development of RAS inhibitors directly targeting the RAS mutants or towards upstream regulatory kinases supplies a novel direction for tackling the anti-RAS difficulties. A better understanding of RAS phosphorylation can contribute to future therapeutic strategies. In this review, we comprehensively summarized the current advances in RAS phosphorylation and provided mechanistic insights into the signaling transduction of associated pathways. Importantly, the preclinical and clinical success in developing anti-RAS drugs targeting the upstream kinases and potential directions of harnessing allostery to target RAS phosphorylation sites were also discussed.

10.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(5): e360501, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278109

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To demonstrate the effect of IL-33 on the macrophage pyroptosis in mice with sepsis through the NF-kB/p38 MAPK signal pathway. Methods In total, 24 C57BL/6 mice were divided into the sham operation group (sham) and the cecal ligation and puncture group (CLP). After CLP, 24 IL-33-/- mice were divided into the IL-33-/- group and the IL-33-/- intervention group. The latter group was intraperitoneally injected with IL-33. Mouse mortality was observed after CLP. Macrophage apoptosis in peritoneal lavage fluid was detected by flow cytometry. Serum inflammatory factor level was detected by ELISA. Apoptotic protein expression and NF-κB/p38 MAKP signaling pathway protein expression were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Results Knocking out IL-33 significantly reduced the mortality of CLP mice, as well as the mRNA expression of IL-33 and the levels of serum inflammatory factors, including IL-33, IL-1β, and IL-18. It also reduced the rate of macrophage apoptosis and the expression of the apoptotic protein caspase-1 p10; increased the expression of IκBα; and reduced the protein expression of NF-κB and p38 MAPK. These effects were reversed after exogenous injection of IL-33. Conclusions IL-33 can increase the level of macrophage pyroptosis in mice with sepsis (by activating the NF-kB/p38MAPK signal pathway) and the mortality of these mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Sepsis , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Interleukin-33 , Pyroptosis , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
11.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 469-474, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911473

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of resveratrol on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and related genes in human SZ95 sebocytes induced by benzo (a) pyrene.Methods:Human SZ95 sebocytes were cultured in vitro, and divided into 4 groups: control group treated with 1‰ dimethyl sulfoxide for 27 hours, resveratrol group treated with 1 × 10 -5 mol/L resveratrol for 24 hours, benzo (a) pyrene group treated with 1 × 10 -5 mol/L benzo (a) pyrene for 3 hours, resveratrol+benzo (a) pyrene group treated with 1 × 10 -5 mol/L resveratrol for 24 hours followed by 1 × 10 -5 mol/L benzo (a) pyrene for 3 hours. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR was performed to determine the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL) -1α, IL-6, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) , cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) in SZ95 sebocytes in the above groups; Western blot analysis was conducted to determine the phosphorylation level of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK, expressed as the ratio of phosphorylated to total p38 MAPK) and AhR protein expression; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to detect levels of IL-1α and IL-6 in the cell culture supernatant in each group. One-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of means among multiple groups, and least significant difference- t test was used for multiple comparisons. Results:The mRNA and protein expression of IL-1α in SZ95 sebocytes significantly differed among the control group, resveratrol group, benzo (a) pyrene group and resveratrol+benzo (a) pyrene group (mRNA: 2.045 ± 0.272, 2.058 ± 0.154, 3.124 ± 0.094, 2.185 ± 0.337, protein: 9.132 ± 1.181, 9.429 ± 0.771, 20.361 ± 0.907, 9.917 ± 0.897, F=14.662, 101.705, P < 0.01, < 0.001, respectively) , and were significantly lower in the resveratrol+benzo (a) pyrene group than in the benzo (a) pyrene group (both P < 0.01) . In addition, the phosphorylation level of p38 was significantly higher in the benzo (a) pyrene group than in the control group, resveratrol group and resveratrol+benzo (a) pyrene group ( F=303.129, P < 0.000 1) . The mRNA expression of AhR, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was significantly lower in the resveratrol+benzo (a) pyrene group than in the benzo (a) pyrene group ( t=10.64, 33.599, 18.327, respectively, all P < 0.001) . The benzo (a) pyrene group showed significantly decreased protein expression of AhR compared with the resveratrol+benzo (a) pyrene group ( P < 0.001) . Conclusion:Resveratrol can inhibit the environmental pollutant benzo (a) pyrene-induced expression of inflammatory factor IL-1α in SZ95 sebocytes, which is likely mediated by the AhR and p38MAPK pathways.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911316

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of TBK1 overexpression on hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) injury in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes subjected to high glucose and the relationship with mitochondrial autophagy.Methods:Normally cultured log-phase HL-1 mouse cardiomyocytes were inoculated in a 6-well plate at a density of 1×10 6 cells/ml and were divided into 4 groups ( n=10 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), high glucose group (group HG), high glucose and H/R group (group HG+ H/R), and TBK1 overexpression group (group TBK1). The cells were incubated in culture medium with 1% fetal bovine serum and 1% double antibody for 24 h when the cell density reached 50%.When the cell density reached 80%, pcDNA3.1 (+ ) was used as a vector to achieve TBK1 overexpression.The cells were cultured with high glucose medium (33 mmol/L) for 24 h, exposed to 94% N 2+ 5% CO 2+ 1% O 2 for 24 h in an incubator at 37℃ followed by 12 h reoxygenation in an incubator containing 5% CO 2 at 37°C to establish the model of H/R injury to cardiomyocytes subjected to high glucose.After reoxygenation, CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell viability, the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in supernatant was detected using LDH kit, mitochondrial contents were determined using Mito-Tracter green fluorescent probe, and the expression of TBK1 and mitophagy-related proteins PINK1, Parkin, LC3B and P62 was detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with group C, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the activity of LDH in supernatant was increased, mitochondrial contents were decreased, the expression of TBK1, PINK1, Parkin and LC3B was down-regulated, and the expression of P62 was up-regulated in HG group and HG+ H/R group ( P<0.05). Compared with group HG, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the activity of LDH in supernatant was increased, mitochondrial contents were decreased, the expression of TBK1, PINK1, Parkin and LC3B was down-regulated, and the expression of P62 was up-regulated in group HG+ H/R ( P<0.05). Compared with group HG+ H/R, the the cell viability was significantly increased, the activity of LDH in supernatant was decreased, mitochondrial contents were increased, the expression of TBK1, PINK1, Parkin and LC3B was up-regulated, and the expression of P62 was down-regulated in group TBK1 ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism by which TBK1 overexpression reduces the H/R injury is related to restoring mitophagy in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes subjected to high glucose.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911295

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway in tetramethylpyrazine-induced reduction of hippocampal inflammatory responses in mice with sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE).Methods:Sixty healthy male C57BL6 mice, weighing 24-27 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=15 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group Sham), sepsis group (group Sep), tetramethylpyrazine group (group TMP) and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 group (group SB). The model of SAE was established by cecal ligation and puncture in anesthetized mice.Tetramethylpyrazine 10 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally once a day at 3 days before the establishment of the model in TMP group, and SB203580 2.0 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 30 min after the establishment of the model in SB group.The equal volume of normal saline was given intraperitoneally in Sham and Sep groups.At 1 day after operation, cognitive function was assessed by Morris water maze, and the escape latency and ratio of time spent in the target quadrant were recorded.The animals were sacrificed after the test, and hippocampal tissues were taken for determination of the contents of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and for detection of the expression of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, GSK3 and CREB and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (by Western blot). Results:Compared with group Sham, the escape latency was significantly prolonged, the ratios of time spent in the target quadrant were decreased, the contents of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were increased, the phosphorylation of hippocampus p38 MAPK was increased, the phosphorylation of GSK3 and CREB were decreased, and the expression of BDNF was down-regulated in Sep, TMP and SB groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group Sep, the escape latency was significantly shortened, the ratios of time spent in the target quadrant were increased, the contents of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were decreased, the phosphorylation of hippocampus p38 MAPK was decreased, the phosphorylation of GSK3 and CREB were increased, and the expression of BDNF was up-regulated in TMP and SB groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group TMP, no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group SB ( P>0.05). Conclusion:p38 MAPK/CREB signaling pathway is involved in the process of tetramethylpyrazine-induced reduction of hippocampal inflammatory responses in mice with SAE.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911249

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between edaravone-induced inhibition of pressure overload-induced myocardial remodeling and angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R)/mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) signaling pathway in rats.Methods:Thirty-six clean-grade healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 2 months, weighing 200-220 g, were divided into 3 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (S group), pressure overload group (POL group) and edaravone group (E group). The cardiac pressure overload was induced by ligation of thoracic aorta for 8 weeks.After the model preparation, 0.9% sodium chloride 10 ml/kg was intraperitoneally injected daily in group POL, and edaravone 10 mg/kg was given instead in group E for 8 consecutive weeks.After the model was successfully established, the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular shortening fraction (FS) were measured by two-dimensional ultrasound.The animals were sacrificed by bloodletting, and the heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW ratio) was calculated.Myocardial tissues were obtained for determination of the cross-sectional area (MSA) after HE staining, the collagen volume fraction (CVF) (using Masson′s staining), the expression of AT1R and StAR (by immunohistochemistry), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK phosphorylation levels (p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio) (by Western blot) and the aldosterone content (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results:Compared with group S, the HW/BW ratio, MSA and CVF were significantly increased, EF and FS were decreased, AT1R and StAR expression was up-regulated, and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio, p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio and aldosterone content were increased in group POL ( P<0.05). Compared with POL group, the HW/BW ratio, MSA and CVF were significantly decreased, EF and FS were increased, AT1R and StAR expression was down-regulated, and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio, p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio and aldosterone content were decreased in group E ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism of edaravone-induced inhibition of pressure overload-induced myocardial remodeling is probably associated with inhibiting the activation of AT1R/MAPKs/StAR signaling pathway in rats.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911187

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in dexmedetomidine-induced inhibition of propofol-caused apoptosis in isolated hippocampal neurons of fetal rats.Methods:Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 16 days of gestation were sacrificed, and the fetal rats were taken out, and hippocampal neurons of fetal rats were obtained and primarily cultured in vitro for 7 days.The neurons were divided into 9 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), fat emulsion group (group I), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group, dexmedetomidine group (group D), propofol group (group P), propofol plus dexmedetomidine group (group PD), PD98059 plus propofol plus dexmedetomidine group (group PDP), MH89 plus propofol plus dexmedetomidine group (group HDP), and KG501 plus propofol plus dexmedetomidine group (group KDP). Group C received no treatment.In group I, 20% fat emulsion was added, and the neurons were incubated for 30 min, and 0.25% DMSO was added in group DMSO, and the neurons were incubated for 30 min.Dexmedetomidine at a final concentration of 10 μmol/L was added, and the neurons were incubated for 30 min in group D. Propofol at a final concentration of 100 μmol/L was added, and the neurons were incubated for 3 h in group P. In group PD, dexmedetomidine at a final concentration of 10 μmol/L was added, the neurons were incubated for 30 min, propofol at a final concentration of 100 μmol/L was added, and the neurons were incubated for 3 h. In PDP, HDP and KDP groups, 25 μmol PD98059 (p-ERK1/2 inhibitor), 10 μmol H89 (p-CREB inhibitor) and 25 μmol KG501 (CREB inhibitor) were added, respectively, the neurons were incubated for 30 min, dexmedetomidine at a final concentration of 10 μmol/L was added, the neurons were incubated for 30 min, and propofol at a final concentration of 100 μmol/L was added, and the neurons were incubated for 3 h. The cell ultrastructure was observed with the transmission electron microscope, the apoptosis in neurons was detected by flow cytometry, the expression of ERK1/2, CREB and BDNF mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of p-ERK1/2, CREB, p-CREB, BDNF and cleaved caspase-3 was detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with group C, the apoptosis rate was significantly increased, the expression of p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB was down-regulated, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was up-regulated in P, PD, PDP, HDP and KDP groups, and the expression of BDNF was significantly down-regulated in P, PDP, HDP and KDP groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group P, the apoptosis rate was significantly decreased, the expression of p-ERK1/2, p-CREB and BDNF was up-regulated, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was down-regulated in group PD ( P<0.05). Compared with group PD, the apoptosis rate was significantly increased, the expression of p-ERK1/2, p-CREB and BDNF was down-regulated, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was up-regulated in PDP, HDP and KDP groups ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The ERK1/2/CREB/BDNF signaling pathway is involved in dexmedetomidine-induced inhibition of propofol-caused apoptosis in isolated hippocampal neurons of fetal rats.

16.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 1034-1041, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909973

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of mechano-growth factor(MGF)on osteoclast activity and its mechanism.Methods:The RAW264.7 precursor osteoclast cell line was cultured with 25 ng/ml macrophage-colony stimulating factor(M-CSF)and 30 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand(RANKL),and identified by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase(TRAP)staining after 7 days of culture. Western blot anslysis was used to determine the effect of 45 ng/ml MGF on the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/AKT)signaling pathway in separated osteoclasts,including levels of AKT,phosphorylation(p)-AKT,lactation mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR),p-mTOR and TRAP at 0,4,8 and 12 hours. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to expressions of TRAP in osteoclasts at 0,4,8 and 12 hours. The PI3K/Akt phosphorylation inhibitor LY294002(20 μmol/L)combined with MGF(45 ng/ml)was used to act on osteoclasts,and expression levels of Akt,p-Akt,mTOR,p-mTOR and TRAP were detected by Western blot at 0,4,8 and 12 hours.Results:After culturing RAW264.7 cells with M-CSF and RANKL for 7 days,a large number of osteoclasts with positive TRAP staining can be obtained. Western blot analysis showed expression levels of Akt and mTOR did not change significantly over time( P>0.05),expression levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR increased continuously from(2.18±0.34)pg/ml and(0.83±0.10)pg/ml at 0 hour to(3.86±0.36)pg/ml and(1.56±0.19)pg/ml at 12 hours( P<0.05),and expression level of TRAP decreased significantly over time,from(5.66±0.47)pg/ml at 0 hour to(3.76±0.38)pg/ml at 12 hours( P<0.05). Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis of expression of TRAP in osteoclasts showed that MGF inhibited the expression of TRAP in osteoclasts,which decreased from 1.02±0.06 at 0 hour to 0.53±0.11 at 12 hours( P<0.05). After acting LY294002 combined with MGF on osteoclasts,Western blot analysis showed expression levels of Akt and mTOR did not change significantly over time( P>0.05),expression levels of p-AKT and p-mTOR decreased significantly from(3.28±0.18)pg/ml and(3.29±0.22)pg/ml at 0 hour to(2.06±0.34)pg/ml and(2.04±0.20)pg/ml at 12 hours( P<0.05),and expression level of TRAP had no significant difference over time( P>0.05). Conclusions:MGF inhibits osteoclast activity by inhibiting the expression of TRAP in osteoclasts through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. LY294002 inhibits the expression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in osteoclasts,further verifying the mechanism of MGF inhibiting osteoclast activity,and this finding puts forward new ideas for clinical prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 961-977, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881178

ABSTRACT

As one of the most important components of caveolae, caveolin-1 is involved in caveolae-mediated endocytosis and transcytosis pathways, and also plays a role in regulating the cell membrane cholesterol homeostasis and mediating signal transduction. In recent years, the relationship between the expression level of caveolin-1 in the tumor microenvironment and the prognostic effect of tumor treatment and drug treatment resistance has also been widely explored. In addition, the interplay between caveolin-1 and nano-drugs is bidirectional. Caveolin-1 could determine the intracellular biofate of specific nano-drugs, preventing from lysosomal degradation, and facilitate them penetrate into deeper site of tumors by transcytosis; while some nanocarriers could also affect caveolin-1 levels in tumor cells, thereby changing certain biophysical function of cells. This article reviews the role of caveolin-1 in tumor prognosis, chemotherapeutic drug resistance, antibody drug sensitivity, and nano-drug delivery, providing a reference for the further application of caveolin-1 in nano-drug delivery systems.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 763-780, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881168

ABSTRACT

Intestinal toxicity induced by chemotherapeutics has become an important reason for the interruption of therapy and withdrawal of approved agents. In this study, we demonstrated that chemotherapeutics-induced intestinal damage were commonly characterized by the sharp upregulation of tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN)-kynurenic acid (KA) axis metabolism. Mechanistically, chemotherapy-induced intestinal damage triggered the formation of an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) positive feedback loop, which accelerated kynurenine pathway metabolism in gut. Besides, AHR and G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) negative feedback regulates intestinal damage and inflammation to maintain intestinal integrity and homeostasis through gradually sensing kynurenic acid level in gut and macrophage, respectively. Moreover, based on virtual screening and biological verification, vardenafil and linagliptin as GPR35 and AHR agonists respectively were discovered from 2388 approved drugs. Importantly, the results that vardenafil and linagliptin significantly alleviated chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 30-54, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881123

ABSTRACT

The sustained cell proliferation resulting from dysregulation of the cell cycle and activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is a hallmark of cancer. The inhibition of CDKs is a highly promising and attractive strategy for the development of anticancer drugs. In particular, third-generation CDK inhibitors can selectively inhibit CDK4/6 and regulate the cell cycle by suppressing the G1 to S phase transition, exhibiting a perfect balance between anticancer efficacy and general toxicity. To date, three selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and 15 CDK4/6 inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of cancers. In this perspective, we discuss the crucial roles of CDK4/6 in regulating the cell cycle and cancer cells, analyze the rationale for selectively inhibiting CDK4/6 for cancer treatment, review the latest advances in highly selective CDK4/6 inhibitors with different chemical scaffolds, explain the mechanisms associated with CDK4/6 inhibitor resistance and describe solutions to overcome this issue, and briefly introduce proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC), a new and revolutionary technique used to degrade CDK4/6.

20.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1528-1531, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933288

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between the mechanism underlying methylprednisolone-induced alleviation of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)/nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) pathway in lung tissues of rats.Methods:Sixty clean-grade male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 270-320 g, aged 4-5 months, were divided into 3 groups ( n=20 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), mechanical ventilation group (group V), and methylprednisolone group (group M). Group C breathed air spontaneously for 4 h without mechanical ventilation.Group V was mechanically ventilated (RR 40 times/min, V T 40 ml/kg, I∶E 1∶1, PEEP 0, FiO 2 21%) for 4 h. Group M received intravenous methylprednisolone 10 mg/kg at 20 min before mechanical ventilation.At 4 h of mechanical ventilation, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected to measure the concentrations of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and wet/dry lung weight ratio (W/D ratio), and lung tissues were obtained for microscopic examination of the histopathological changes and for detection of the expression of p38MAPK, phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK), NLRP3, apoptosis-related speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-1 (caspase-1) (using Western blot). Results:Compared with group C, the W/D ratio of lung tissues and concentrations IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α in BALF were significantly increased, and the expression of p-p38MAPK, NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 was up-regulated in group V ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in group M ( P>0.05). Compared with group V, the W/D ratio of lung tissues and concentrations of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α in BALF were significantly decreased, and the expression of p-p38MAPK, NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 was down-regulated in group M ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism by which methylprednisolone alleviates VILI may be related to inhibition of p38MAPK/NLRP3 pathway activity and reduction of inflammatory responses in lung tissues of rats.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL