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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 648-660, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132406

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many plants may accumulate rainwater, forming phytotelmata, aquatic microhabitats inhabited by various organisms. The aim of this study was to conduct an inventory of heterotrophic flagellates associated with phytotelmata of the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha Lem., found in rocky cliffs on the Upper Paraná River. The bromeliads were removed manually from the rocky wall, the water was removed and cultures of organisms of each plant were mounted in Petri dishes. Sixteen species of heterotrophic flagellate were recorded, drawn and described, among them one species belonging to the Amorpha Domain and 15 species to the Diaphoretiches Domain. The groups with most species were Euglenida and Kinetoplastea. The low diversity of heterotrophic flagellates recorded in this study, compared to the plankton of lakes and reservoirs, is probably related to the fact that phytotelmata are habitats with extreme environmental conditions, thus selecting organisms tolerant to these environments.


Resumo Em sua superfície externa, muitas plantas podem acumular água da chuva formando fitotelmata, ou seja, micro-habitat aquáticos colonizados por diversos organismos, entre eles, os flagelados protistas. Fez-se um inventário de flagelados heterotróficos associados ao fitotelmata da bromélia Aechmea distichantha Lem., encontrada em paredões rochosos em um trecho da bacia do alto rio Paraná. As bromélias foram retiradas manualmente de paredão rochoso e, em laboratório, a água foi retirada dos tanques de cada planta, e foram montadas culturas dos organismos em placas de Petri. Os flagelados heterotróficos foram, então, observados in vivo sob microscópio óptico Olympus BX51, com sistema de contraste de interferência diferencial (DIC) acoplado. Dezesseis espécies flagelados heterotróficos foram registradas, desenhadas e descritas, sendo uma espécie pertencente ao Domínio Amorpha e 15 espécies ao Domínio Diaphoretiches. Os grupos mais especiosos foram Euglenida e Kinetoplastea. A diversidade relativamente reduzida de flagelados heterotróficos, quando comparada ao plâncton de lagos e reservatórios, pode estar relacionada ao fato de os fitotelmata serem habitats limitados, com condições ambientais extremas, selecionando, assim, organismos tolerantes a esses ambientes.


Subject(s)
Bromeliaceae , Fabaceae , Plankton , Ecosystem , Rivers
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 521-526, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001458

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the foundation of the Malacological Center in 1980, Universidad Centro Americana (UCA), Managua-Nicaragua, has been monitoring and collecting the marine, terrestrial, fluvial and lake mollusk population of the country. Many specimens have been photographed by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM), and in one of these, observation of the hairy periostracum reveals a seemingly thriving population of minute protists in possible symbiosis with their host. Adequate magnification and comparison with previous studies allowed the determination of these hosts as diatoms, testaceous amoebae, yeast, phacus, spores and other undetermined organisms which occur in tropical forests on rocks, trees and leaves. Here illustrated are diatoms and other organisms detected for the first time on the periostracum of a tropical rainforest mollusk.


Resumo Desde a fundação do Centro Malacológico em 1980, a Universidad Central Americana (UCA), Manágua-Nicarágua, vem acompanhando e coletando a população de moluscos marinhos, terrestres, fluviais e lagoas do país. Muitos espécimes foram fotografados pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura (SEM) e, em um deles, a observação do periostracum peludo revela uma população aparentemente próspera de protistas de minuto em possível simbiose com o hospedeiro. A ampliação adequada e a comparação com estudos anteriores permitem a determinação dessas diatomáceas, amebas testaceas, leveduras, phacus, esporos e outros organismos indeterminados que ocorrem em florestas tropicais em rochas, árvores e folhas. Aqui estão as diatomeas e outros organismos pela primeira vez detectados no periostracum de um molusco tropical.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/physiology , Symbiosis , Diatoms/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Diatoms/classification , Rainforest , Nicaragua
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 37-42, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839338

ABSTRACT

Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g) = 0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Ecosystem , Environmental Microbiology , Eukaryota , Seawater/microbiology , Water Microbiology , Biodiversity
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 1043-1053, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828098

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this work was to investigate the patterns of diversity and abundance of ciliates protozoa community in three tropical urban streams and verify which species can be considered bioindicators of water quality. In each stream, three regions (headwater, middle and mouth) were sampled in two years, in the rainy and dry seasons. The abiotic factors (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, width, depth, flow and conductivity) and biotic factors (total coliforms, bacterioplankton, chlorophyll and flagellates) were analyzed using appropriate methods and ciliates were identified and counted through specialized literature. We identified 84 species distributed into 24 orders. Peniculida was the most representative order followed by Prorodontida. The RDA scores showed a spatial difference between streams. On the other hand, regarding the temporal variation, there was no separation of the sampled data. The Indval analysis showed ten species indicators, such as Coleps hirtus, Euplotes moebiusi and Tintinidium pusillum. The Cluster analysis per stream versus period showed a greater distinction of the streams in the dry season. On the other hand, a low similarity was observed between sections within the same stream. In summary, the results indicated that the ciliates can be used as important tools as bioindicators in lotic environments affected by different degrees of pollution, due to the fact that they have short life cycle, allowing the detection of impacts on a small time scale, as well as by having direct answers to environmental changes and high sensitivity to contaminants.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar os padrões de diversidade e abundância da comunidade de protozoários ciliados em três córregos urbanos tropicais, bem como verificar quais espécies podem ser consideradas bioindicadoras da qualidade da água. Em cada córrego foram amostradas três regiões (cabeceira, intermediária e foz) em dois anos, nas estações chuvosa e seca. Os fatores abióticos (oxigênio dissolvido, pH, temperatura, turbidez, largura, profundidade, fluxo e condutividade) e fatores bióticos (coliformes totais, bacterioplâncton, clorofila e flagelados) foram analisados ​​por metodologia específica e os ciliados foram contados e identificados por meio de literatura especializada. Foram identificadas 84 espécies distribuídas em 24 ordens. Peniculida foi a ordem mais representativa, seguida por Prorodontida. Os escores da RDA mostraram uma diferença espacial entre os córregos. Por outro lado, em relação à variação temporal, não houve separação entre os dados amostrados. A análise Indval mostrou dez espécies indicadoras, como Coleps hirtus, Euplotes moebiusi e Tintinidium pusillum. A análise de Cluster realizada por riacho versus período evidenciou uma maior distinção dos córregos no período seco. Por outro lado, foi observada uma baixa similaridade entre os locais dentro do mesmo córrego. Em síntese, os resultados indicaram que os ciliados podem ser utilizados como ferramentas importantes como bioindicadores em ambientes lóticos afetados por diferentes graus de poluição, devido ao fato de apresentarem um curto ciclo de vida, permitindo a detecção de impactos em uma pequena escala de tempo, bem como por apresentarem respostas diretas às mudanças ambientais e alta sensibilidade a contaminantes.


Subject(s)
Water Microbiology , Water Quality , Ciliophora/isolation & purification , Rivers/microbiology , Seasons , Brazil , Ciliophora/growth & development
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 181-190, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715585

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the differences in composition, abundance and morphology of testate amoebae among different habitats of the same aquatic environment (plankton, aquatic macrophyte and sediment) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Triplicate samplings were undertaken monthly at each habitat from April 2007 to March 2008. The structure of the community of testate amoebae was different among the habitats. The species typical for each habitat, according to Indval, were classified by their shell morphology. Arcella species together with Difflugia gramen and Difflugia pseudogramem were more abundant for plankton. Trinema and Phryganella stood out by their abundance and frequency in aquatic macrophytes. Centropyxis was an indicator of sediment. The results indicated a higher frequency of hemispherical and spherical shells in plankton and spherical and elongated shells in aquatic macrophytes. In the sediment, there was a high frequency of elongated species. Our results support the hypothesis that the community of testate amoebae has different structures among the habitats, refuting the idea that the organization of this community in plankton is guided by random events like the resuspension of organisms from the sediment and their displacement from marginal vegetation.


Este estudo avaliou as diferenças na composição, abundância e morfologia das amebas testáceas entre diferentes hábitats de um mesmo ambiente aquático (plâncton, macrófitas aquáticas e sedimento) da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente no período de abril de 2007 a março de 2008. A estrutura da comunidade de amebas testáceas foi diferente entre os hábitats. As espécies típicas para cada hábitat, de acordo com o Indval, foram classificadas pela morfologia da teca. Espécies de Arcella, Difflugia gramen e Difflugia pseudogramem foram mais abundantes para o plâncton. Trinema e Phryganella destacaram-se pela alta abundância e frequência nas macrófitas aquáticas. Centropyxis foi considerado indicador do sedimento. Os resultados indicaram uma alta frequência de tecas esféricas e hemisféricas no plâncton e de tecas alongadas nas macrófitas aquáticas. No sedimento foi registrada uma maior frequência de espécies alongadas. Nossos resultados suportam a hipótese que a comunidade de amebas testáceas possui estrutura diferente entre os hábitats, refutando a ideia que a comunidade presente no plâncton é guiada por processos estocásticos como a ressuspensão dos organismos do sedimento e simples carreamento da vegetação marginal.


Subject(s)
Amoeba/classification , Ecosystem , Rivers/parasitology , Biodiversity , Brazil , Wetlands
6.
J Environ Biol ; 2011 July; 32(4): 497-503
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146607

ABSTRACT

Taxonomical composition and abundance of the planktonic ciliate assemblage in a Lake Tezozomoc, a hypertrophic pond located into an urban park in Mexico City, was investigated along the rainy season (May to October). The aims of the study were to know the main trophic roles and ecological significance of ciliates in a highly productive environment. A low number of taxa (27) and a wide abundance fluctuation (104-387 cil ml-1) were found. The most abundant species (up to 162 cil ml-1) was Halteria grandinella, an oligotrich ciliate that graze on bacteria and picoplankton, but also several big body sized species that feed on pico and nanoplankton were abundant. Sudden temporal changes in species dominance occurred. Ciliate biomass was very high and fluctuated widely (1.6-88 106 ?m3 ml-1) being dominated by the >50 ?m size fraction that mainly included the pico and nanoplankton feeders. Ciliates are a very important component in the plankton of hypertrophic lakes and their main control factor seems to be the grazing by big-body size Daphnia species.

7.
Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 8(4): 111-122, Oct.-Dec. 2008. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-509789

ABSTRACT

The biodiversity of marine heterotrophic protists is poorly known in the South Atlantic coastal zone (~32 ºS) especially regarding the nanoflagellates. The presence of loricate choanoflagellates was reported for the first time in the Patos Lagoon estuary and the adjacent coastal zone. Seventeen species of eleven genera of loricate choanoflagellates were observed between October 1998 and May 2000 in fixed water samples (lugol's solution + glutaraldehyde) in a JEM 100-SX transmission electron microscope. Most species were recorded in euhaline and mixopolyhaline waters during the spring and summer, none in autumn and a few (four) in winter. The absence of choanoflagellates at the more sheltered inshore stations is due freshwater influence, and at the beach station, probably due the strong wave action. The probably cosmopolitan species Pleurasiga minima, Cosmoeca norvegica, C. ventricosa and Parvicorbicula circularis were present in spring or summer in the estuary channel and coastal area while Stephanoeca diplocostata which apparently prefers lower temperature, was recorded in winter. Calotheca alata and Campyloacantha spinifera are mainly temperate species and were present in spring. The new species Diplotheca tricyclica was recorded at the estuary channel in the summer 1999, in high salinity water.


A biodiversidade de protistas heterotróficos é pouco conhecida na zona costeira do Atlântico Sul (~32 ºS), especialmente dos nanoflagelados. No presente estudo, foi registrada pela primeira vez a presença de coanoflagelados loricados no estuário da Lagoa dos Patos e na zona costeira adjacente. Dezessete espécies de onze gêneros de coanoflagelados loricados foram observadas em amostras de água fixadas (solução de lugol + glutaraldeido) coletadas entre outubro de 1998 e maio de 2000, e analisadas em microscópio de transmissão JEM 100-SX. A maior parte das espécies foi registrada em águas euhalinas e mixopolihalinas durante a primavera e o verão, nenhuma no outono e poucas (quatro) no inverno. A ausência de coanoflagelados nas estações mais protegidas deve-se a influência da água doce, e na estação da praia deve-se, provavelmente, a forte ação das ondas. As espécies, provavelmente cosmopolitas, Pleurasiga minima, Cosmoeca norvegica, C. ventricosa and Parvicorbicula circularis ocorreram na primavera ou no verão no canal principal do estuário e na área costeira, enquanto Stephanoeca diplocostata, que aparentemente prefere baixas temperaturas, foi registrada no inverno. Calotheca alata e Campyloacantha spinifera são principalmente de ambientes temperados e estiveram presentes na primavera. Uma espécie nova, Diplotheca tricyclica, foi registrada na área do canal principal do estuário, no verão de 1999, em águas de alta salinidade.


Subject(s)
Aquatic Fauna , Biodiversity , Classification , Coasts , Eukaryota , Plankton , Seasons
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