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1.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(3): 46-53, 18-jul-2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379490

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los procesos de evaluación educativa constituyen un elemento indispensable no solo para conocer la perspectiva del alumno hacia su educación sino también para el diseño de estrategias que mejoren la experiencia de los alumnos en el aula. A partir de la pandemia de COVID-19, la mayoría de los sistemas educativos en México pasaron a la educación en línea. La Escuela de Enfermería en Tijuana del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) aplicó esta misma estrategia, por lo que es necesario evaluar metodológicamente la satisfacción de los alumnos ante esta modalidad educativa. Objetivo: evaluar la satisfacción respecto a la educación en línea de una muestra de alumnos de enfermería ante la contingencia de COVID-19. Metodología: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo transversal, con una muestra de 285 alumnos de la Escuela de Enfermería IMSS-UABC Tijuana. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de satisfacción de alumnos universitarios hacia la formación online, además de un cuestionario breve sobre tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Resultados: de manera general los resultados fueron positivos en cuanto a satisfacción, con una media de 3.10, y hubo una mayor satisfacción en segundo y sexto semestre; la dimensión con mayor satisfacción fue la de profesor-tutor. Conclusiones: la satisfacción percibida por parte de los alumnos fue adecuada; sin embargo, factores como el no contar con dispositivos de acceso a internet pueden influir en la satisfacción percibida de la educación en línea.


Introduction: The educational evaluation processes constitute an essential element not only to know the perspective of the student towards his education but also is a basic tool for the design of strategies that improve the experience of the students in the classroom. From the start of COVID-19 pandemic onwards, most of the educational systems in Mexico switched to distance education. The Mexican Institute for Social Security's (IMSS, according to its initials in Spanish) Nursing School in Tijuana carried out this same strategy, which is why it was necessary to evaluate the satisfaction of the students in a methodological way in the presence of this new educational modality. Objective: To evaluate the satisfaction concerning online education of a sample of nursing students in the face of the COVID-19 contingency. Methodology: Quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional study, with a sample of 285 students from the IMSS-UABC Tijuana nursing school. The instrument called Satisfaction questionnaire of university students towards online training was administered, in addition to a brief questionnaire on technologies of information and communication. Results: In general, the results were reported as positive with regards to satisfaction with an average of 3.10, finding greater satisfaction in the second and sixth semesters. The teacher-tutor dimension was the one with the highest satisfaction. Conclusions: The satisfaction perceived by the students was appropriate; however, factors such as not having devices to access internet can influence the perceived satisfaction of online education.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Educational Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Nursing/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Information Technology/trends
2.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220016521, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375936

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: Social distancing policies to combat the pandemic of COVID-19 directly impacted the physical activity (PA) index of the population. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with insufficient leisure-time PA and the changing behavior of residents of the city of Sao Paulo, the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil. Methods: The questionnaire used in this research was made available online and included questions on demographics and physical activity. A total of 1.096 adult residents of Sao Paulo completed the questionnaire between July 8th and August 8th, 2020. Results: For individuals who were already physically active before the restrictions, a total of 55.8% of the sample kept insufficiently active during the quarantine. Factors such as education, working conditions, and direct relationship with Covid-19 care were associated with decreased leisure-time PA practice, impacting 57.6% of the sample, especially females. People with less formal education, those who possibly changed their routines to working from home, and those who were directly connected to Covid cases were not able to maintain a daily PA routine. Conclusion: The data presented here warn about the impacts of the pandemic on engagement in PA, suggesting the need for incentives from intersectoral public policies on sports, leisure, and health to perform these activities.

3.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 40: e2020385, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340804

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to analyze the effects of social isolation on children's and teenagers' development, with emphasis on the possible impacts over their physical and mental health. Data source: Review of the literature following the standards of PRISMA using the SciELO, LILACS and PubMed databases. The following key-words were used: "social isolation" and "child development", "quarantine" and "adolescent development" according to the Medical Subject Headings (MESH) and their translation to the Portuguese. Studies in English, Portuguese and Spanish from inception were included. Data synthesis: 519 studies were screened and 12 were included in the systematic review. Five of those focused the psychology and social issues, two of them the effects of pandemics on these issues; four studies reported on impacts on general health and two consequences over the hypothalamus- hypophysis - adrenal axis and the cognitive and social development. Conclusions: The review shows a strong association between social isolation and anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Social isolation leads to higher levels of cortisol and worse cognitive development. Therefore, the mental and physical health of children and adolescents need a careful follow up by health professionals during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos do isolamento social para o desenvolvimento de crianças e adolescentes, considerando consequências em médio e longo prazos, e entender possíveis impactos sobre a saúde mental e física. Fontes de dados: Revisão sistemática da literatura seguindo os parâmetros da lista Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) nas bases de dados Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) e PubMed. Os descritores utilizados foram "social isolation" AND "child development", "quarantine" AND "child development", "social isolation" AND "adolescent development", "quarantine" AND "adolescent development" de acordo com o Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) e seus equivalentes para a língua portuguesa, conforme os Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS). Incluíram-se artigos originais em inglês, português e espanhol, sem delimitação temporal. Síntese dos dados: Identificaram-se 519 referências, e, após critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 12 artigos foram analisados. Cinco abordaram a questão psicossocial (sendo dois sobre os efeitos das pandemias), quatro sobre os impactos na saúde em geral, dois sobre consequências no eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal e um sobre o desenvolvimento cognitivo e social. Conclusões: Os artigos revisados evidenciaram forte relação entre isolamento social e maior incidência de sentimentos como ansiedade e depressão na população de crianças e adolescentes. Além disso, identificaram-se aumento nos níveis de cortisol e piora no desenvolvimento cognitivo dessa faixa etária. Logo, o acompanhamento da saúde mental e física desses jovens por profissionais da saúde deve estar presente durante e após a pandemia.

4.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 53: e300, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365442

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los gobiernos al inicio de la pandemia, con el fin de mitigar y suprimir la propagación del virus implementaron medidas no farmacológicas ante la falta de vacunas y tratamientos farmacológicos efectivos. El gobierno colombiano emprendió acciones para controlar el contagio del COVID-19. Estas afectaron a la población y por ello el país requiere una evaluación profunda de la respuesta social ante la pandemia. Objetivo: Analizar la respuesta social a las medidas no farmacológicas para controlar la propagación del COVID-19 en Colombia. Metodología: Estudio exploratorio descriptivo transversal. El total de personas que respondieron la encuesta fue de 3549 adultos, entre el 8 y el 20 de abril de 2020. Resultados: En el país existen tres grupos de personas que han respondido a la pandemia de formas diferentes: quienes se resisten (34 %), quienes sufren (26 %) y quienes la aceptan (40 °%). En general, 90 % de las personas adoptó al menos una medida para protegerse, el 68 % adoptó más de tres medidas de higiene y autocuidado y un 60 °% implementó más de tres medidas de distanciamiento físico. Conclusiones: Al inicio de la pandemia, la ausencia de una vacuna hizo que las acciones individuales fueran tan importantes como las medidas implementadas por el gobierno. Sin embargo, pedagogía a nivel comunitario y el acceso a la información correcta, clara y concisa contribuyó con cambios de comportamientos positivos en la higiene, autocuidado y adherencia a medidas de distanciamiento, todo esto ha sido crucial para detener la propagación de COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: At the beginning of the pandemic, governments implemented non-pharmacological measures to mitigate and suppress the spread of the virus in the absence of vaccines and effective pharmacological treatments. The Colombian government undertook actions to control the spread of COVID-19. These affected the population; therefore, the country requires a thorough evaluation of the social response to the pandemic. Objective: To analyze the social response to non-pharmacological measures to control the spread of COVID-19 in Colombia. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study. The total number of people who responded to the survey was 3549 adults, between April 8 and 20, 2020. Results: There are three groups of people in the country who are responding to the pandemic in different ways: those who resist (34%), those who suffer (26%) and those who accept it (40%). Overall, 90% of people took at least one measure to protect themselves and others, 68% took more than three hygiene and self-care measures, 60% implemented more than three physical distancing measures. Conclusions: At the beginning of the pandemic, in the absence of a vaccine, individual actions are as important as measures implemented by the government. However, community-level education and access to correct, clear and concise information contributed to positive behavioral changes in hygiene, self-care and adherence to distancing measures, all of which are crucial to stop the spread of COVID-19.

5.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 53: e302, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365444

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La exposición de largo y corto plazo a determinadas concentraciones de contaminantes ambientales parece incidir en la propagación y agravamiento de la COVID-19. Por otra parte, se ha hipotetizado que las cuarentenas tienen un efecto positivo en la calidad del aire. Objetivo: Examinar la concentración de material particulado 10 (CPM10) en los últimos cinco años; en meses precuarentena y postcuarentena de 2020 y el impacto de la cuarentena en la CPM10 en Santa Marta (Colombia). Materiales y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de corte longitudinal, sobre la CPM10 en una muestra de cinco estaciones de monitoreo ambiental, periodo 2016 - 2020. Se calcularon distribuciones de CPM10 por año y estación, así como entre meses pre y postcuarentena. Resultados: Se evidenció una reducción estadísticamente significativa del CPM10 en 2020 respecto a los cuatro años anteriores, cercana al 34 %; lo propio sucedió para meses postcuarentena versus precuarentena, con disminución del 40 % en los primeros. No hubo diferencias significativas de CPM10 entre las estaciones, aunque se observaron medianas superiores del contaminante en las del sur. La CPM10 de 2016 - 2020 (largo plazo) y en meses precuarentena (corto plazo) sobrepasaron los límites de riesgo aumentado de morbimortalidad por COVID-19 establecidos en estudios internacionales previos. Conclusión: La cuarentena tuvo un impacto positivo en la calidad del aire en Santa Marta. No obstante, los niveles de CPM10 encontrados a largo y corto plazo pudieron haber predispuesto a la población al contagio y fallecimiento por el virus.


Abstract Introduction: Long and short-term exposure to certain concentrations of environmental pollutants seems to influence the spread and worsening of COVID-19. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that quarantines have a positive effect on air quality. Objective: To examine the concentration of particulate material 10 (CPM10) in the last five years, in pre-quarantine and post-quarantine months of 2020 and the impact of the quarantine on CPM10 in Santa Marta (Colombia). Materials and Methods: Retrospective longitudinal study of CPM10 on a sample of five environmental monitoring stations, period 2016-2020. CPM10 distributions were calculated for each year and season, as well as between months before and after quarantine. Results: A statistically significant reduction of 34% in CPM10 was evidenced in 2020 compared to the previous four years. CPM10 of post-quarantine months decreased 40% in comparison with the pre-quarantine months. There were no significant differences in CPM10 between the stations, although median values of CPM10 were higher in the southern stations. CPM10 from 20162020 (long term) and in pre-quarantine months (short term) exceeded the limits of increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 established in previous international studies. Conclusion: The quarantine had a positive impact on the air quality in Santa Marta. However, CPM10 levels found in the long and short term could have predisposed the population to infection and death from the virus.

6.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(3): 398-404, Sep.-Dec. 2021. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356358

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the growth of coronavirus indices in the North region highlights the region's historical social inequalities and the problems in accessing citizenship. OBJECTIVE: to analyze the mortality and lethality of COVID-19 in the state of Pará, Brazil. METHODS: this is an ecological study with a time series design of secondary data. All registered cases and deaths reported by COVID-19 in the period from March 2020 to June 2021, in the state of Pará, Brazil, were considered. The incidence and mortality and lethality rates were used. The daily percentage variation and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: the total number of confirmed cases and deaths from COVID-19 in the state of Pará was 552,937 and 15,469, respectively, from March 2020 to June 2021. Incidence and mortality rates from March 2020 to June 2021 were, respectively, 6,407.9 and 179.3 per 100,000 inhabitants and the lethality was 43.3. Regarding the analysis of the daily trend of rates in the period from March 2020 to June 2021, both mortality and incidence increased. CONCLUSION: it was found that the behavior of the trend of rates in the first wave was increasing in the incidence of confirmed cases and the lethality decreasing, and in the second wave, the mortality and lethality rates were increasing.


INTRODUÇÃO: o crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na região Norte evidencia as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania. OBJETIVO: analisar a mortalidade e letalidade da COVID-19 no estado do Pará, Brasil. MÉTODO: trata-se de um estudo ecológico com delineamento de série temporal de dados secundários. Foram consideradas todos os casos registrados e óbitos notificados por COVID-19 no período de março de 2020 a junho de 2021, no estado do Pará, Brasil. Foi utilizado a taxa de incidência, mortalidade e letalidade. Estimou-se a variação percentual diário e seus respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança. RESULTADO: o total de casos confirmados e óbitos por COVID-19 no estado do Pará foi de 552.937 e 15.469, respectivamente, no período de março de 2020 a junho de 2021. As taxas de incidência e mortalidade do período de março de 2020 a junho de 2021 foram, respectivamente, 6.407,9 e 179,3 por 100.000 habitantes e a letalidade foi 43,3. Com relação à análise de tendência diária das taxas no período de março de 2020 a junho de 2021 tanto a mortalidade quanto a incidência foram crescentes. CONCLUSÃO: constatou-se que o comportamento da tendência das taxas na primeira onda foi crescente na incidência de casos confirmados e a letalidade decrescente e, na segunda onda, as taxas de mortalidade e letalidade foram crescentes.


Subject(s)
Quarantine , COVID-19 , COVID-19/mortality , Social Isolation
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(11): 847-852, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357076

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) before and during the COVID-19 quarantine in CrossFit women and their relationship with training level. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among 197 women practicing CrossFit. The inclusion criteria were nulliparous women, between 18 and 45 years old, who had trained, before quarantine, in accredited gyms. The exclusion criteria were not following the COVID-19 prevention protocols and having UI on other occasions than just sport. An online questionnaire was emailed containing questions about frequency, duration, and intensity of training and data related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were invited to answer whether they were infected with COVID-19 and what treatment/recommendation they have followed. Whether UI stopped among participants, they were asked about the possible reasons why this happened. The training intensity was categorized as "the same," "decreased" or "increased." Results The mean age of the participants was 32 years old and most (98.5%) could practice CrossFit during the pandemic. There was a decrease in training intensity in 64% of the respondents. Exercises with their own body weight, such as air squat (98.2%), were the most performed. Urinary incontinence was reported by 32% of the participants before the COVID-19 pandemic, and by only 14% of them during the pandemic (odds ratio [OR]=0.32 [0.19-0.53]; p<0.01; univariate analysis). Practitioners reported that the reason possibly related to UI improvement was the reduction of training intensity and not performing doubleunder exercise. Conclusion The reduction in the intensity of CrossFit training during the COVID-19 quarantine decreased the prevalence of UI among female athletes.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar a prevalência de incontinência urinária (IU) no CrossFit, antes e durante a quarentena por COVID-19, e sua relação com a intensidade do treinamento. Métodos Estudo observacional com 197 atletas de CrossFit. Os critérios de inclusão foram: nulíparas, 18 a 45 anos, treinando antes da quarentena em academias credenciadas. Os critérios de exclusão foram: não seguir os protocolos de prevenção da COVID-19 e ter IU em outras ocasiões que não apenas no esporte. Utilizou-se um questionário online com perguntas sobre frequência, duração e intensidade do treinamento e dados relacionados à pandemia, além de caso tivessem tido infecção pelo SARS-COV2, qual tratamento/recomendação seguiram. Caso a IU tenha parado entre as participantes, elas foram perguntadas quanto quais as possíveis razões pelas quais isso aconteceu. A intensidade do treinamento foi categorizada como "igual," "diminuída" ou "aumentada ". Resultados A média de idade foi de 32 anos e a maioria (98,5%) conseguiu praticar CrossFit durante a pandemia. Houve uma diminuição na intensidade do treinamento em 64% das entrevistadas. Exercícios com o próprio peso corporal, como agachamento no ar (98,2%), foram os mais realizados. Incontinência urinária foi relatada por 32% das participantes antes da pandemia e por apenas 14% durante a pandemia (odds ratio [OR]=0,32 [0,19-0,53]; p<0,01). As atletas relataram que o motivo possivelmente relacionado à melhora da IU foi a redução da intensidade do treinamento e não realizar o exercício doubleunder. Conclusão A redução da intensidade do treinamento de CrossFit durante a quarentena por COVID-19 diminuiu a prevalência de IU entre as atletas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Urinary Incontinence/prevention & control , Urinary Incontinence/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Quarantine , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
8.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(7, supl 1): 93-98, out. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1337770

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Relatar a experiência de um Círculo de Cultura virtual para promover a saúde de enfermeiras, diante dos desdobramentos da Coronavirus Disease 2019. Método: Realizou-se um Círculo de Cultura virtual em abril de 2020, com a participação de 15 enfermeiras, residentes em Santa Catarina, Brasil. Para tanto, percorreu-se as três etapas do Itinerário de Paulo Freire por meio de uma analogia com as partes de um estetoscópio: o diafragma (Investigação Temática); o tubo de condução (Codificação e Descodificação); e as hastes e olivas (Desvelamento Crítico). Resultados: A dialogicidade do Círculo de Cultura resultou em um tem gerador "lugar de fala" no enfrentamento da COVID-19. As enfermeiras refletiram sobre o seu papel durante a pandemia, destacando sua influência sobre usuários e outros profissionais, por seus conhecimentos científicos e protagonismo no cuidado em saúde. Considerações finais: Estimulou-se a compreensão sobre o "lugar de fala" da Enfermagem durante a pandemia e a importância de seu fortalecimento. O Círculo de Cultura virtual destacou-se como uma possibilidade de promoção da saúde em situações de restrição social. (AU)


Objective: To report the experience of a virtual Culture Circle to promote the health of nurses, in view of the consequences of Coronavirus Disease 2019. Methods: A virtual Culture Circle was held in April 2020, with the participation of 15 nurses, residing in Santa Catarina Brazil. Therefore, the three stages of Paulo Freire's Itinerary were covered through an analogy with the parts of a stethoscope: the diaphragm (Thematic Research); the conduction tube (Encoding and Decoding); and the stems and olives (Critical Unveiling). Results: The dialogicity of the Culture Circle resulted in a "place of speech" generator in the confrontation of COVID-19. The nurses reflected on their role during the pandemic, highlighting their influence on users and other professionals, due to their scientific knowledge and leading role in health care. Conclusion: The understanding of the "place of speech" in Nursing during the pandemic and the importance of strengthening it was stimulated. The virtual Culture Circle stood out as a possibility for health promotion in situations of social restriction. (AU)


Objetivo: Informar la experiencia de un Círculo de Cultura virtual para promover la salud de enfermeras, ante las consecuencias de la Enfermedad del Coronavirus 2019. Métodos: Se realizó un Círculo de Cultura virtual en abril de 2020, con la participación de 15 enfermeras, residentes en Santa Catarina Brasil. Por tanto, las tres etapas del Itinerario de Paulo Freire fueron cubiertas a través de una analogía con las partes de un estetoscopio: el diafragma (Investigación Temática); el tubo de conducción (codificación y decodificación); y los tallos y aceitunas (Desvelamiento Crítico). Resultados: La dialogicidad del Círculo Cultural resultó en un generador de "lugar de habla" en el enfrentamiento del COVID-19. Los enfermeros reflexionaron sobre su papel durante la pandemia, destacando su influencia en los usuarios y otros profesionales, por su conocimiento científico y protagonismo sanitario. Conclusión: Se incentivó la comprensión del "lugar del habla" en Enfermería durante la pandemia y la importancia de fortalecerlo. El Círculo de Cultura virtual se destacó como una posibilidad de promoción de la salud en situaciones de restricción social. (AU)


Subject(s)
Quarantine , Adaptation, Psychological , Communicable Diseases , Nursing , Nurse Practitioners
9.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(3): 448-465, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340192

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Una vez emitidas las alertas tempranas sobre la COVID-19, Cuba comenzó a revisar todos los protocolos de actuación en frontera y las tareas del Control Sanitario Internacional que estarían contenidas en el Plan para el control y la prevención del nuevo coronavirus; se reforzaron las tres líneas de vigilancia epidemiológica, el plan con nuevas medidas y los protocolos de actuación. Se establecieron los Protocolos de Control Sanitario Internacional en la atención primaria de salud y en las instalaciones turísticas. Implementar la cuarentena con características turísticas para los viajeros que arriben a Cuba, en Fase Epidémica, de Recuperación o en Fase de Nueva Normalidad, en hoteles o instalaciones destinadas al turismo de salud, es una propuesta organizativa que fortalece el Programa Nacional de Control Sanitario Internacional para la prevención del SARS-COV-2. Estas acciones contribuirán a controlar la pandemia, evitar los rebrotes, y mantener el turismo con ingresos a la economía nacional.


ABSTRACT Once the early warnings on COVID-19 were issued, Cuba began to review all action protocols at the border and International Sanitary Control tasks that would be contained in the Plan for the control and prevention of the new coronavirus; three lines of epidemiological surveillance, the plan with new measures and the action protocols were reinforced. International Health Control Protocols were established in primary health care and in tourist facilities. Implementing the quarantine with tourist characteristics for travelers arriving in Cuba, in the Epidemic, Recovery or New Normality Phase, in hotels or facilities for health tourism, is an organizational proposal that strengthens the National Program for International Sanitary Control to prevent SARS-COV-2. These actions will help to control the pandemic, prevent outbreaks, and maintain tourism with incomes to the national economy.


Subject(s)
Quarantine , Coronavirus Infections , Sanitary Control of Travelers , Pandemics
10.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(3): e1711, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351970

ABSTRACT

La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar el impacto del aislamiento social por COVID-19 en los hábitos de consumo de los medios de comunicación de la población peruana. El estudio fue descriptivo simple y contó con una muestra de 3 618 personas de entre 18 y 69 años de edad, residentes en el Perú. Se aplicó en forma online un cuestionario tipo Likert de 36 ítems que midieron 6 dimensiones. La validez de contenido del instrumento fue evaluada por 20 expertos, y la validez de constructo y la confiabilidad fueron evaluadas en una muestra piloto de 200 sujetos. Los resultados evidenciaron un impacto positivo del aislamiento social en los hábitos de consumo de los medios de comunicación (54,4 por ciento), que fue más alto en la frecuencia de consumo de los medios de comunicación online (62,2 por ciento); la utilidad de los medios de comunicación (59,1 por ciento); la necesidad de información sobre la COVID-19 (47,7 por ciento); la interactividad a través de los medios de comunicación (43,7 por ciento) y la preferencia de los medios comunicación (41,9 por ciento); mientras que el impacto nulo fue preponderante en la frecuencia de consumo de los medios de comunicación offline (46 por ciento) y en la actitud hacia el tratamiento de la información sobre la COVID-19 (48,4 por ciento). Se concluyó que el impacto del aislamiento social por COVID-19 en los hábitos de consumo de los medios de comunicación en la población estudiada fue positivo, con mayor incidencia en los medios online(AU)


The research aimed to determine the impact of social isolation by COVID-19 on the media consumption habits among the Peruvian population. It was a simple descriptive study that included a sample of 3618 people between the ages of 18 and 69, residing in Peru. A Likert questionnaire of 36 items measuring 6 dimensions was applied online; the content validity of the instrument was evaluated by 20 experts, and the construct validity and reliability were evaluated in a pilot sample of 200 subjects. The results showed a positive impact of social isolation on media consumption habits (54,4 percent), which was higher in the frequency of online media consumption (62.2 percent), the usefulness of the media (59.1 percent), the need for information about COVID-19 (47.7 percent), the interactivity through the media (43.7 percent), and the media preference (41.9 percent); whereas the null impact was predominant in the frequency of offline media consumption (46 percent) and in the attitude towards the treatment of information about COVID-19 (48.4 percent). It was concluded that the impact of social isolation by COVID-19 on media consumption habits among the studied population was positive, with greater incidence in online media(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Isolation/psychology , Communications Media , Social Impact Indicators , COVID-19/epidemiology , Peru , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S107-S122, agosto 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281045

ABSTRACT

La Subcomisión de Derechos del Niño y el Comité de Pediatría Social, de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, realizaron un trabajo de campo que permitiera dar voz a nuestros niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) durante la cuarentena y el aislamiento social obligatorio impuestos en nuestro país por la pandemia mundial por la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19). Los objetivos fueron relevar el impacto sobre sus sentimientos, emociones y deseos; evaluar y comparar las repercusiones personales, familiares y sociales antes, durante y después de la cuarentena; e identificar las necesidades de apoyo y contención.Los resultados de la investigación permiten afirmar que los niños han sido los más afectados y los menos escuchados. La cuarentena ha tenido un enorme impacto individual, social y familiar en los NNA, y reclama un abordaje holístico, comprometido y mancomunado de la sociedad civil, las familias, los profesionales de la salud, los docentes y las autoridades políticas.


The Subcommittee on the Rights of the Child and the Social Pediatrics Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría carried out a fieldwork that allowed us to give a voice to our children and adolescents (NNA), during quarantine and social isolation mandatory imposed in our country by the global pandemic COVID-19. The objectives were to analyze the impact on their feelings, emotions and desires; evaluate and compare personal, family and social repercussions pre, intra and post quarantine; and identify support and containment needs.The results of the research allow us to affirm that children have been the most vulnerable and the least listened to. The quarantine has had an enormous individual, social and family impact on children and adolescents and calls for a holistic, committed and joint approach from civil society, families, health professionals, teachers and political authorities


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Perception , Social Isolation/psychology , Child Welfare/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Emotions , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Adolescent Health , Physical Distancing , Human Rights
12.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 23(2): 27-34, 20210000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1352989

ABSTRACT

O isolamento domiciliar e o distanciamento social têm sido sugeridos como estratégias a serem adotadas em estágios mais avançados de pandemias. Até recentemente tais medidas, geralmente, eram aplicadas somente para grupos de risco e/ou para contactantes de pessoas infectadas. A pandemia atual é a primeira experiência de implementação deste tipo de medida em larga escala. É fundamental avaliarmos as diferentes consequências que tanto a pandemia, como suas medidas de enfrentamento (isolamento domiciliar e distanciamento social), podem vir a ocasionar em territórios e estratos sociais distintos. Nesse estudo, buscou-se observar os efeitos da quarentena na saúde mental dos estudantes de medicina de uma faculdade particular, os fatores que influenciam, os recursos utilizados para lidar com essas dificuldades e quais as especificidades de ser estudante de medicina na quarentena. Para tanto, foram aplicados questionários semi-estruturados on-line analisados por meio de análise do conteúdo. Apresenta-se aqui os resultados preliminares e específicos quanto às estratégias utilizadas pelos acadêmicos para lidar com o sofrimento e os contratempos cotidianos. Os estudantes privilegiaram atividades de auto-cuidado e atividades de lazer experimentadas individualmente. Discutimos esses achados, considerando a carga do isolamento e seus efeitos para o processo de socialização dos acadêmicos.(AU)


Isolation and social distance have been suggested as strategies to be adopted in more advanced stages of pandemics. Until recently, such measures were generally applied only to groups at risk and / or to contact persons infected. The current pandemic is the first experience of implementing this type of measure on a large scale. It is essential to assess the different consequences that both the pandemic and its measures of coping (home isolation and social distance), may have in different territories and social strata. In this study, we sought to observe the effects of quarantine on the mental health of medical students from a particular college, the factors that influence it, the resources used to deal with these difficulties and what are the specifics of being a medical student in quarantine. For that, semi-structured questionnaires were applied online and analyzed through content analysis. Preliminary and specific results regarding the strategies used by academics to deal with daily suffering and setbacks are presented here. Students favored self-care activities and leisure activities experienced individually. We discussed these findings, considering the burden of isolation and its effects on the students socialization process.(AU)


Se ha sugerido que el aislamiento del hogar y la distancia social son estrategias a adoptar en las etapas más avanzadas de las pandemias. Hasta hace poco, estas medidas se aplicaban generalmente solo a grupos en riesgo y / o para contactar personas infectadas. La pandemia actual es la primera experiencia de implementación de este tipo de medidas a gran escala. Es fundamental evaluar las diferentes consecuencias que tanto la pandemia como sus medidas de afrontamiento (aislamiento domiciliario y distancia social), pueden tener en diferentes territorios y estratos sociales. En este estudio, buscamos observar los efectos de la cuarentena en la salud mental de los estudiantes de medicina de una universidad en particular, los factores que influyen en ella, los recursos utilizados para hacer frente a estas dificultades y cuáles son las particularidades de ser un estudiante de medicina en cuarentena. Para ello, se aplicaron cuestionarios semiestructurados online y se analizaron mediante análisis de contenido. A continuación se presentan resultados preliminares y específicos sobre las estrategias que utilizan los académicos para afrontar el sufrimiento y los retrocesos cotidianos. Los estudiantes favorecieron las actividades de cuidado personal y las actividades de ocio experimentadas individualmente. Discutimos estos hallazgos, considerando la carga del aislamiento y sus efectos en el proceso de socialización de los estudiantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , COVID-19
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(7): 2833-2842, jul. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278780

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo investiga a associação entre diagnóstico autorreferido de Doença Crônica Não Transmissível (DCNT) e adesão ao distanciamento social e utilização dos serviços de saúde durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Estudo transversal com adultos brasileiros que participaram da ConVid Pesquisa de Comportamentos, realizada de 24 de abril a 24 de maio de 2020, via web (n = 45.161). Considerou as DCNT: diabetes, hipertensão, doença respiratória, doença do coração e câncer. Avaliou a utilização de serviços de saúde e a adesão ao distanciamento social. Estimou as prevalências e razões de prevalências ajustadas (RPa). 33,9% (IC95%: 32,5-35,3) referiu uma ou mais DCNT. Indivíduos com DCNT tiveram maior adesão ao distanciamento social intenso (RPa:1,07; IC95%:1,03-1,11), procuraram mais o serviço de saúde (RPa:1,24; IC95%:1,11-1,38) e tiveram mais dificuldades para marcar consulta (RPa:1,52; IC95%:1,35-1,71), conseguir atendimento de saúde (RPa:1,50; IC95%:1,22-1,84) e medicamentos (RPa:2,17; IC95%:1,77-2,67), realizar exames (RPa:1,78; IC95%:1,50-2,10) e intervenções programadas (RPa:1,65; IC95%:1,16-2,34). A presença de DCNT associou-se à maior adesão ao distanciamento social, procura por atendimento de saúde e dificuldade na utilização dos serviços de saúde.


Abstract The present study investigates the association between the self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable disease (NCD) and the adherence to social distancing and the use of health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study with Brazilian adults who participated in the ConVid- Behavior Survey, conducted online between April 24 and May 24, 2020(n = 45.161). This studyconsidered the following NCDs: diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease, heart disease, and cancer, and evaluated the use of health services and the adherence to social distancing, as well as estimated the prevalences and adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR); 33,9% (95% CI: 32,5-35,3) referred to one or more NCD. Individuals with NCDsshowed a greater adherence to intense social distancing (aPR: 1,07;95% CI: 1,03-1,11), sought out health services more often (aPR:1,24; 95% CI:1,11-1,38), and found greater difficultyin scheduling doctor's appointments (aPR:1.52; 95% CI 1,35-1,71), receiving healthcare treatment (APR:1,50;95% CI:1,22-1,84) and medication (APR:2,17;95% CI:1,77-2,67), and performing examinations (APR:1,78;95% CI:1,50-2,10) and scheduled interventions (APR:1,65;95% CI:1,16-2,34). The presence of NCDs was associated with social distancing, seeking out health care, and difficulty in using health services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Services
14.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(2): 581-585, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279145

ABSTRACT

Resumen A pesar de los esfuerzos del Estado por contener la llegada y propagación de la covid-19, que comprendió una cuarentena estricta a nivel nacional por más de cien días, el Perú fue uno de los países en el mundo con más casos y número de muertes por la pandemia. La pandemia hizo visible la precariedad del sistema de salud, del empleo, de las condiciones de vivienda y transporte. Demostró además que mientras no se resuelvan problemas de fondo en el sistema social y económico del país, es poco lo que se puede hacer desde el sector salud para confrontar una crisis sanitaria. Este artículo analiza las respuestas estatales y sociales a la pandemia entre febrero y agosto del 2020.


Abstract Despite efforts by the Peruvian state to contain the outbreak and spread of covid-19, including a strict nationwide quarantine for more than one hundred days, Peru had one of the highest numbers of cases and deaths in the world due to the pandemic. The pandemic highlighted the precariousness of the health care system, work, living conditions and transport. The pandemic also demonstrated that until underlying problems in the country's social and economic system are solved (such as inequality and poverty), the health sector can do little to combat a health care crisis. This article analyzes state and societal responses to the pandemic between February and August 2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Quarantine , Government
15.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e898, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341410

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cuarentena y el aislamiento social son las medidas más recomendadas por las autoridades de salud con el objetivo de reducir la interacción social entre las personas y disminuir el riesgo de contagio por la COVID-19 en la comunidad. Sin embargo, estas restricciones y limitaciones pueden traer consecuencias en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de adultos jóvenes. Objetivo: Comparar la calidad de vida autorreportada entre un entorno sin pandemia vs. un contexto bajo alerta sanitaria por la COVID-19, en adultos jóvenes. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo; 157 adultos jóvenes (63 mujeres y 94 hombres), de entre 18 y 28 años, respondieron el cuestionario de salud SF-36 en 2 situaciones: contexto sin pandemia (septiembre de 2019) y contexto de pandemia (abril de 2020). El SF-36 incluye 36 preguntas agrupadas en 8 ítems: función física, rol físico, dolor corporal, salud general, vitalidad, función social, rol emocional y salud mental. Resultados: Al comparar las evaluaciones entre los contextos con y sin pandemia, se observó una disminución de la calidad de vida en las dimensiones vitalidad (p = 0,004), función social (p = 0,001), rol emocional (p = 0,001), salud mental (p = 0,003) y salud general (p = 0,001). Las dimensiones más alteradas fueron el rol emocional y la salud general, las cuales disminuyeron un 39,5 por ciento y 21,0 por ciento, respectivamente. Conclusión: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de adultos jóvenes se ve disminuida en un contexto de cuarentena por la COVID-19, principalmente, en las dimensiones psicológicas y sociales(AU)


Introduction: Quarantine and social isolation are the actions most recommended by health authorities with the aim of reducing social interaction between people and reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection in the community. However, these restrictions and limitations can have consequences on the health-related quality of life of young adults. Objective: To compare the self-reported quality of life between a pandemic-free environment versus a context of COVID-19 pandemic in young adults. Methods: Retrospective study; 157 young adults (63 women and 94 men) between 18 and 28 years old answered the SF-36 health questionnaire in 2 situations: context without pandemic (September 2019) and context of pandemic (April 2020). The SF-36 includes 36 questions grouped into 8 items: physical function, physical role, body pain, general health, vitality, social function, emotional role, and mental health. Results: When comparing the evaluations between the contexts with and without a pandemic, a decrease in the quality of life was observed in the vitality dimensions (p = 0,004), social function (p = 0,001), emotional role (p = 0,001), health mental (p = 0,003) and general health (p = 0,001). The most altered dimensions were emotional role and general health, which decreased by 39,5 percent and 21,0 percent, respectively. Conclusions: This study determined that the health-related quality of life of young adults is diminished in context of quarantine by COVID-19, mainly in the psychological and social dimensions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Social Isolation , Mental Health , Pandemics , Social Interaction , COVID-19 , Disaster Warning , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies
16.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 23(1): 1-19, Jan.-Apr. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1250551

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objectives of the study were to investigate parents' mental health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic; to find correlations between parents' mental health and their perceptions of risk, virus exposure, use of preventive measures, COVID-19 knowledge, and social distancing practices; and to analyze correlations between parents' mental health and their perception about children's emotional regulation (ER). Participants were 69 parents of children aged between 5 and 12. The instruments used were ERC, HADS, ABEP, and a questionnaire about COVID-19. Descriptive analyses, the Wilcoxon test, and Spearman's correlation were conducted. The results indicated increased parental anxiety and depression during the pandemic, and a weak negative correlation between parental anxiety and their children's ER. The pandemic acts as a stressor, which impacts the mental health of both parents and children.


RESUMO Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar a saúde mental parental antes e durante a pandemia da COVID-19; verificar as associações entre saúde mental parental e suas percepções de risco, exposição ao vírus, uso de medidas preventivas, conhecimento sobre a COVID-19 e práticas de distanciamento social; e analisar as relações entre saúde mental parental e suas percepções sobre a Regulação Emocional (RE) infantil. Os participantes desta pesquisa foram 69 pais de crianças entre 5 e 12 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: ERC, HADS, ABEP e questionário sobre a COVID-19. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, Teste de Wilcoxon e correlação de Spearman. Foram encontrados aumento dos níveis de ansiedade e depressão parental durante a pandemia, bem como uma correlação negativa fraca entre ansiedade parental e RE infantil. A pandemia, enquanto agente estressor, tende a impactar a saúde mental de pais e crianças.


RESUMEN Los objetivos del estudio fueron investigar la salud mental de los padres antes y durante la COVID-19; comprobar relaciones entre la salud mental de los padres y sus percepciones de riesgo, exposición a virus, uso de medidas preventivas, conocimiento de COVID-19 y prácticas de distanciamiento social y analizar las correlaciones entre la salud mental de los padres y su percepción sobre la Regulación Emocional (RE) de los niños. Los participantes fueron 69 padres de niños de entre 5 y 12 años. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron ERC, HADS, ABEP y un cuestionario sobre COVID-19. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, la prueba de Wilcoxon y la correlación de Spearman. Los resultados indicaron aumento en la ansiedad y depresión de los padres; correlación negativa débil entre la ansiedad de los padres y la ER de sus hijos. La pandemia actúa como un factor de estrés, que tiene un impacto en la salud mental de padres e hijos.

17.
Av Enferm ; 39(1 supl. Especial Nuevo Coronavirus): 31-43, 01-04-2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1347981

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar as consequências do distanciamento social para a contenção da covid-19 na saúde mental na população. Síntese de conteúdo: revisão integrativa da literatura conduzida nas bases de dados eletrônicas Web of Science, Scopus e MEDLINE/PubMed. Evidenciou-se a ampliação de sentimentos relacionados à ansiedade e à depressão, à redução da qualidade do sono e às preocupações com a vida, a saúde, a morte e a família, ao passo que se observou a redução da satisfação com a vida, da felicidade e do interesse por lazer e encontros Conclusões: as consequências do distanciamento social na pandemia da covid-19 na saúde mental demandam estratégias assistenciais inovadoras para o enfrentamento. Recomendam-se intervenções públicas sobre a disseminação de informações inverídicas acerca da pandemia, além do desenvolvimento de mais pesquisas sobre a temática.


Objetivo: analizar los efectos en la salud mental de la población asociados con el distanciamiento social para contener el avance de la Covid-19 Síntesis de contenido: revisión bibliográfica integral realizada en las bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus y MEDLINE/PubMed. Se observa un incremento en las emociones relacionadas con la ansiedad y la depresión, una disminución en la calidad del sueño y mayores preocupaciones sobre la vida, la salud, la muerte y la familia. Además, se observa una reducción en la satisfacción con la vida, la felicidad y el interés por el ocio y los encuentros personales. Conclusiones: las implicaciones para la salud mental asociadas con el distanciamiento social debido a la pandemia de Covid-19 demandan estrategias innovadoras de asistencia para hacer frente a la situación. Se recomienda la ejecución de intervenciones públicas acerca de la difusión de información falsa sobre la pandemia, junto con el desarrollo de más investigaciones sobre el tema.


Objective: To study the effects of social isolation measures implemented to contain COVID-19 on people's mental health. Content synthesis: Integrative literature review conducted in the electronic databases Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE/PubMed. An increase in feelings related to anxiety and depression, reduced quality of sleep, and concerns about life, health, death and family were observed, coupled with a reduction in satisfaction with life, happiness, and interest in leisure and personal encounters. Conclusions: The implications for mental health associated with social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic demand innovative assistance strategies. Public interventions on the dissemination of untrue information about the pandemic are recommended, in addition to the development of more research studies on the topic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Isolation , Quarantine , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics
18.
Medisur ; 19(2): 318-322, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279450

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento La pandemia actual por SARS-CoV-2 contabiliza más de un millón de contagios, y ha causado la muerte, hasta ahora, a más de 300 000 personas. Además, ha tenido un gran impacto psicológico en el contexto latinoamericano. Objetivo describir las características dinámicas de la salud mental en adultos peruanos durante la cuarentena por COVID-19. Métodos estudio descriptivo, que exploró las características dinámicas de manera gráfica, mediante un instrumento de salud mental aplicado (online) a 763 adultos peruanos. Se aplicó un análisis de red mediante los paquetes qgrap y el gráfico LASSO. Resultados se observaron mayores medidas de centralidad de red en los reactivos vinculados a síntomas negativos en la salud mental, como el reactivo 9 (sentimiento de infelicidad y depresión) y el 10 (pérdida de confianza); así como la mayor conexión positiva entre los reactivos 3 (toma de decisiones y confianza) y 4 (sentido de vida); y la mayor relación negativa entre los componentes 1 (concentración) y 5 (tensión y angustia). Conclusión los sujetos participantes en el estudio manifestaron fundamentalmente sentimientos de infelicidad, depresión y pérdida de confianza, entre otros síntomas negativos. El estudio de la repercusión de la pandemia COVID-19 en la salud mental, adquiere mayor precisión y fundamento científico al aplicarse métodos como el análisis de redes.


ABSTRACT Background The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic accounts for more than one million infections, and has caused the death, so far, more than 300,000 people. In addition, it has had a great psychological impact in the Latin American context. Objective to describe the dynamic characteristics of mental health in Peruvian adults during the COVID-19 quarantine. Methods descriptive study, which explored the dynamic characteristics graphically, using a mental health instrument applied (online) to 763 Peruvian adults. A network analysis was applied using the qgrap packages and the LASSO graph. Results higher network centrality measures were observed in the items related to negative symptoms in mental health, such as item 9 (feeling of unhappiness and depression) and item 10 (loss of confidence); as well as the greater positive connection between items 3 (decision making and trust) and 4 (meaning of life); and the highest negative relationship between components 1 (concentration) and 5 (tension and anguish). Conclusion the individuals participating in the study mainly manifested feelings of unhappiness, depression and loss of confidence, among other negative symptoms. The study of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health acquires greater precision and scientific basis when applying methods such as network analysis.

19.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 69(1): e201, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250751

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: In Ecuador, the first COVID-19 case, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was officially reported on February 29, 2020. As of April 2, the officially confirmed numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths from it were 3 163 and 120, respectively, that is, a mortality rate of 3.8%. Objective: To identify spatial and spatiotemporal clusters of COVID-19 cases officially confirmed in Ecuador. Materials and methods: Case series study. An analysis of all COVID-19 cases officially confirmed in Ecuador from March 13, 2020 to April 2, 2020 was performed. Relative Risk (RR) of COVID-19 contagion was determined using the discrete Poisson distribution model in the SaTScan software. Clusters were generated using purely spatial and spatiotemporal scan statistics. Significance of each cluster was obtained through 999 iterations using the Monte Carlo simulation, obtaining the most probable random model. Results: As of April 2, spatiotemporal clustering allowed identifying two clusters in Ecuador, a main cluster in the Guayas province (area: 15 430 km2; population: 3.6 million inhabitants; RR: 7.08; p<0.000001; calculated annual incidence 1700 cases / 100 000 people) and a secondary cluster in the Pichincha province (area: 88 904 km2; population: 7.1 million; RR: 0.38; p<0.000001; calculated annual incidence 737 cases / 100 000 people.) Conclusions: The implementation of COVID-19 mitigation strategies should be focused on areas of high transmission risk; therefore, spatial, and spatiotemporal clustering with SaTScan can be extremely useful for the early detection and surveillance of COVID-19 outbreaks.


Resumen Introducción. En Ecuador el primer caso de COVID-19, la enfermedad causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, fue reportado oficialmente el 29 de febrero del 2020, y para el 2 de abril, las cifras oficiales de casos confirmados y de muertes ascendían a 3 163 y 120, respectivamente, con una tasa de mortalidad del 3.8% Objetivo. Identificar aglomerados espaciales y espaciotemporales de los casos de COVID-19 confirmados oficialmente en Ecuador. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de series de casos. Se analizaron todos los casos de COVID-19 confirmados oficialmente en Ecuador entre el 13 de marzo y el 2 de abril de 2020. El riesgo relativo (RR) de contagio se determinó en el programa SaTScan de acuerdo con el modelo de probabilidad discreta de Poisson, las aglomeraciones espaciales y espaciotemporales se detectaron con la estadística de rastreo espacial y la significancia estadística de cada aglomerado se determinó mediante 999 iteraciones usando la simulación Monte Carlo, obteniéndose el modelo aleatorio más probable. Resultados. Al 2 de abril, mediante la aglomeración espaciotemporal, fue posible identificar dos aglomerados en Ecuador, uno principal centrado en la provincia de Guayas (superficie: 15 430 km2, población: 3,6 millones de habitantes, RR: 7.08; p<0.000001 e incidencia anual calculada: 1 700 casos/100 000 habitantes) y uno secundario centrado en la provincia de Pichincha (superficie: 88 904 km2, población: 7.1 millones de habitantes, RR: 0.38, p<0.000001 e incidencia anual calculada: 737 casos/100 000 habitantes). Conclusiones. La implementación de las estrategias de mitigación del COVID-19 se debe enfocar en áreas de alto riesgo de transmisión; por tanto, los datos sobre aglomerados espaciales y espaciotemporales obtenidos con el programa SatScan pueden ser de gran utilidad en la detección temprana y vigilancia sanitaria de focos de COVID-19.

20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377551

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El objetivo de esta investigación es describir el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en la salud mental de una muestra de estudiantes pertenecientes a la Región Metropolitana de Chile desde prekínder a cuarto año de enseñanza básica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Apoderados de 4772 estudiantes de prekínder hasta cuarto básico de 46 establecimientos de educación pública pertenecientes a 3 comunas vulnerables de la Región Metropolitana de Chile, completaron el cuestionario en línea de condiciones socioemocionales, desarrollado por Acción Educar y la Dirección de Educación Pública, Ministerio de Educación, respecto de sus hijos. El 47,2% de los hijos de los encuestados fueron niñas. La edad mínima fue de 4 años y la máxima de 11 años. RESULTADOS: La pandemia aumentó significativamente todos los síntomas evaluados. El 20,6% de los estudiantes evolucionaron de no presentar síntomas a tener al menos uno. Los síntomas que más aumentaron fueron "Estar triste", "Falta de ganas, incluso para hacer actividades que le gustan" y "Cambios en el apetito (comer más o tener menos hambre)". Mostraron descenso sintomático: "Preocupación por las tareas escolares" y "Quejarse de dolor de cabeza o de guatita". Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: "Irritabilidad, mal genio" , "No obedecer" y "Cambios en el apetito", sin embargo, la línea de base de estos síntomas antes de la pandemia ya era alta. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio muestra el considerable impacto de la pandemia en la salud mental de los niños. Estos datos deben tenerse en cuenta al planificar la respuesta sanitaria a corto y largo plazo frente al COVID-19.


INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in a sample of students, between pre-kindergarten and fourth grade from Santiago, Chile. Material and METHOD: Parents of 4772 students from pre-kindergarten to fourth grade from 46 public schools belonging to 3 vulnerable communes of Santiago filled out an online questionnaire regarding their children on socio-emotional conditions, developed by Acción Educar y Educación Pública, Ministry of Education. 47.2 of the children sample were girls. The age range was between 4 and 11 years. RESULTS: there was a significant increase due to the pandemic for all symptoms. 20.6% of the students evolved from having no symptoms to having at least one. The symptoms that increased the most were "Being sad", "Lack of desire, even to do activities that you like" and "Changes in appetite (eating more or being less hungry)". A decline for "Preoccupation with schoolwork" and "Complaining of headache or pain in the throat" was observed. The most frequent symptoms were: "Irritability, bad temper", "Disobey" and "Changes in appetite", however, the baseline symptoms prior to the pandemic was already elevated. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the substantial impact of the pandemic on children's mental health. These results must be considered when planning short-term and long-term health responses to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Students/psychology , Mental Health , COVID-19/psychology , Parents , Chile , Quarantine/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics
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