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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2300-2314, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929401

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death, characterized by excessive membrane lipid peroxidation in an iron- and ROS-dependent manner. Celastrol, a natural bioactive triterpenoid extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii, shows effective anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory activities in multiple hepatic diseases. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of action and the direct protein targets of celastrol in the treatment of liver fibrosis remain largely elusive. Here, we discover that celastrol exerts anti-fibrotic effects via promoting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducing ferroptosis in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). By using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) in combination with bio-orthogonal click chemistry reaction and cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), we show that celastrol directly binds to peroxiredoxins (PRDXs), including PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX4 and PRDX6, through the active cysteine sites, and inhibits their anti-oxidant activities. Celastrol also targets to heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and upregulates its expression in activated-HSCs. Knockdown of PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX4, PRDX6 or HO-1 in HSCs, to varying extent, elevated cellular ROS levels and induced ferroptosis. Taken together, our findings reveal the direct protein targets and molecular mechanisms via which celastrol ameliorates hepatic fibrosis, thus supporting the further development of celastrol as a promising therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2280-2299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929398

ABSTRACT

Disturbance of macrophage-associated lipid metabolism plays a key role in atherosclerosis. Crosstalk between autophagy deficiency and inflammation response in foam cells (FCs) through epigenetic regulation is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that in macrophages, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) leads to abnormal crosstalk between autophagy and inflammation, thereby causing aberrant lipid metabolism mediated through a dysfunctional transcription factor EB (TFEB)-P300-bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) axis. ox-LDL led to macrophage autophagy deficiency along with TFEB cytoplasmic accumulation and increased reactive oxygen species generation. This activated P300 promoted BRD4 binding on the promoter regions of inflammatory genes, consequently contributing to inflammation with atherogenesis. Particularly, ox-LDL activated BRD4-dependent super-enhancer associated with liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) on the regulatory regions of inflammatory genes. Curcumin (Cur) prominently restored FCs autophagy by promoting TFEB nuclear translocation, optimizing lipid catabolism, and reducing inflammation. The consequences of P300 and BRD4 on super-enhancer formation and inflammatory response in FCs could be prevented by Cur. Furthermore, the anti-atherogenesis effect of Cur was inhibited by macrophage-specific Brd4 overexpression or Tfeb knock-out in Apoe knock-out mice via bone marrow transplantation. The findings identify a novel TFEB-P300-BRD4 axis and establish a new epigenetic paradigm by which Cur regulates autophagy, inhibits inflammation, and decreases lipid content.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1163-1185, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929376

ABSTRACT

Cancer immunotherapy has become a new generation of anti-tumor treatment, but its indications still focus on several types of tumors that are sensitive to the immune system. Therefore, effective strategies that can expand its indications and enhance its efficiency become the key element for the further development of cancer immunotherapy. Natural products are reported to have this effect on cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, immune-check points inhibitors, and adoptive immune-cells therapy. And the mechanism of that is mainly attributed to the remodeling of the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment, which is the key factor that assists tumor to avoid the recognition and attack from immune system and cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, this review summarizes and concludes the natural products that reportedly improve cancer immunotherapy and investigates the mechanism. And we found that saponins, polysaccharides, and flavonoids are mainly three categories of natural products, which reflected significant effects combined with cancer immunotherapy through reversing the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment. Besides, this review also collected the studies about nano-technology used to improve the disadvantages of natural products. All of these studies showed the great potential of natural products in cancer immunotherapy.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1305-1321, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929349

ABSTRACT

Cisplatin-related ototoxicity is a critical side effect of chemotherapy and can lead to irreversible hearing loss. This study aimed to assess the potential effect of the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor RG108 on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Immunohistochemistry, apoptosis assay, and auditory brainstem response (ABR) were employed to determine the impacts of RG108 on cisplatin-induced injury in murine hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Rhodamine 123 and TMRM were utilized for mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assessment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) amounts were evaluated by Cellrox green and Mitosox-red probes. Mitochondrial respiratory function evaluation was performed by determining oxygen consumption rates (OCRs). The results showed that RG108 can markedly reduce cisplatin induced damage in HCs and SGNs, and alleviate apoptotic rate by protecting mitochondrial function through preventing ROS accumulation. Furthermore, RG108 upregulated BCL-2 and downregulated APAF1, BAX, and BAD in HEI-OC1 cells, and triggered the PI3K/AKT pathway. Decreased expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and high methylation of the LRP1 promoter were observed after cisplatin treatment. RG108 treatment can increase LRP1 expression and decrease LRP1 promoter methylation. In conclusion, RG108 might represent a new potential agent for preventing hearing loss induced by cisplatin via activating the LRP1-PI3K/AKT pathway.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1254-1270, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929346

ABSTRACT

Molecular targeted therapy has become an emerging promising strategy in cancer treatment, and screening the agents targeting at cancer cell specific targets is very desirable for cancer treatment. Our previous study firstly found that a secretory peroxidase of class III derived from foxtail millet bran (FMBP) exhibited excellent targeting anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity in vivo and in vitro, whereas its underlying target remains unclear. The highlight of present study focuses on the finding that cell surface glucose-regulated protein 78 (csGRP78) abnormally located on CRC is positively correlated with the anti-CRC effects of FMBP, indicating it serves as a potential target of FMBP against CRC. Further, we demonstrated that the combination of FMBP with the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of csGRP78 interfered with the downstream activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in CRC cells, thus promoting the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell grown inhibition. These phenomena were further confirmed in nude mice tumor model. Collectively, our study highlights csGRP78 acts as an underlying target of FMBP against CRC, uncovering the clinical potential of FMBP as a targeted agent for CRC in the future.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 907-923, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929334

ABSTRACT

Although several artificial nanotherapeutics have been approved for practical treatment of metastatic breast cancer, their inefficient therapeutic outcomes, serious adverse effects, and high cost of mass production remain crucial challenges. Herein, we developed an alternative strategy to specifically trigger apoptosis of breast tumors and inhibit their lung metastasis by using natural nanovehicles from tea flowers (TFENs). These nanovehicles had desirable particle sizes (131 nm), exosome-like morphology, and negative zeta potentials. Furthermore, TFENs were found to contain large amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, functional proteins, and lipids. Cell experiments revealed that TFENs showed strong cytotoxicities against cancer cells due to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) amplification. The increased intracellular ROS amounts could not only trigger mitochondrial damage, but also arrest cell cycle, resulting in the in vitro anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and anti-invasion activities against breast cancer cells. Further mice investigations demonstrated that TFENs after intravenous (i.v.) injection or oral administration could accumulate in breast tumors and lung metastatic sites, inhibit the growth and metastasis of breast cancer, and modulate gut microbiota. This study brings new insights to the green production of natural exosome-like nanoplatform for the inhibition of breast cancer and its lung metastasis via i.v. and oral routes.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 838-852, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929329

ABSTRACT

Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis through targeting damaged mitochondria for mitophagy. Accumulating evidence suggests that the acetylation modification of the key mitophagy machinery influences mitophagy level, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, our study demonstrated that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) by treatment of HDACis activates mitophagy through mediating Parkin acetylation, leading to inhibition of cervical cancer cell proliferation. Bioinformatics analysis shows that Parkin expression is inversely correlated with HDAC2 expression in human cervical cancer, indicating the low acetylation level of Parkin. Using mass spectrometry, Parkin is identified to interact with two upstream molecules, acetylase acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) and deacetylase HDAC2. Under treatment of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), Parkin is acetylated at lysine residues 129, 220 and 349, located in different domains of Parkin protein. In in vitro experiments, combined mutation of Parkin largely attenuate the interaction of Parkin with PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and the function of Parkin in mitophagy induction and tumor suppression. In tumor xenografts, the expression of mutant Parkin impairs the tumor suppressive effect of Parkin and decreases the anticancer activity of SAHA. Our results reveal an acetylation-dependent regulatory mechanism governing Parkin in mitophagy and cervical carcinogenesis, which offers a new mitophagy modulation strategy for cancer therapy.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 692-707, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929320

ABSTRACT

Owing to incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) ultimately developing after treating with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), it is vital to devise new therapeutic strategies to treat CRPC. Treatments that target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have been approved for human cancers with clinical benefit. However, many patients, especially prostate cancer, fail to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, so it is an urgent need to seek a support strategy for improving the traditional PD-1/PD-L1 targeting immunotherapy. In the present study, analyzing the data from our prostate cancer tissue microarray, we found that PD-L1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (HnRNP L). Hence, we further investigated the potential role of HnRNP L on the PD-L1 expression, the sensitivity of cancer cells to T-cell killing and the synergistic effect with anti-PD-1 therapy in CRPC. Indeed, HnRNP L knockdown effectively decreased PD-L1 expression and recovered the sensitivity of cancer cells to T-cell killing in vitro and in vivo, on the contrary, HnRNP L overexpression led to the opposite effect in CRPC cells. In addition, consistent with the previous study, we revealed that ferroptosis played a critical role in T-cell-induced cancer cell death, and HnRNP L promoted the cancer immune escape partly through targeting YY1/PD-L1 axis and inhibiting ferroptosis in CRPC cells. Furthermore, HnRNP L knockdown enhanced antitumor immunity by recruiting infiltrating CD8+ T cells and synergized with anti-PD-1 therapy in CRPC tumors. This study provided biological evidence that HnRNP L knockdown might be a novel therapeutic agent in PD-L1/PD-1 blockade strategy that enhanced anti-tumor immune response in CRPC.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 558-580, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929314

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive human cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. Multiple efforts have been made to explore pharmaceutical therapies to treat HCC, such as targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors, immune based therapies and combination of chemotherapy. However, limitations exist in current strategies including chemoresistance for instance. Tumor initiation and progression is driven by reprogramming of metabolism, in particular during HCC development. Recently, metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), a reappraisal of new nomenclature for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), indicates growing appreciation of metabolism in the pathogenesis of liver disease, including HCC, thereby suggesting new strategies by targeting abnormal metabolism for HCC treatment. In this review, we introduce directions by highlighting the metabolic targets in glucose, fatty acid, amino acid and glutamine metabolism, which are suitable for HCC pharmaceutical intervention. We also summarize and discuss current pharmaceutical agents and studies targeting deregulated metabolism during HCC treatment. Furthermore, opportunities and challenges in the discovery and development of HCC therapy targeting metabolism are discussed.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 511-531, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929312

ABSTRACT

Aging is by far the most prominent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and both aging and AD are associated with apparent metabolic alterations. As developing effective therapeutic interventions to treat AD is clearly in urgent need, the impact of modulating whole-body and intracellular metabolism in preclinical models and in human patients, on disease pathogenesis, have been explored. There is also an increasing awareness of differential risk and potential targeting strategies related to biological sex, microbiome, and circadian regulation. As a major part of intracellular metabolism, mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial quality-control mechanisms, and mitochondria-linked inflammatory responses have been considered for AD therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes and highlights these efforts.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 483-495, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929310

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prominent form of dementia in the elderly, has no cure. Strategies focused on the reduction of amyloid beta or hyperphosphorylated Tau protein have largely failed in clinical trials. Novel therapeutic targets and strategies are urgently needed. Emerging data suggest that in response to environmental stress, mitochondria initiate an integrated stress response (ISR) shown to be beneficial for healthy aging and neuroprotection. Here, we review data that implicate mitochondrial electron transport complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation as a hub for small molecule-targeted therapeutics that could induce beneficial mitochondrial ISR. Specifically, partial inhibition of mitochondrial complex I has been exploited as a novel strategy for multiple human conditions, including AD, with several small molecules being tested in clinical trials. We discuss current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this counterintuitive approach. Since this strategy has also been shown to enhance health and life span, the development of safe and efficacious complex I inhibitors could promote healthy aging, delaying the onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 378-393, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929301

ABSTRACT

The immune checkpoint blockade therapy has profoundly revolutionized the field of cancer immunotherapy. However, despite great promise for a variety of cancers, the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors is still low in colorectal cancer (CRC). This is mainly due to the immunosuppressive feature of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Emerging evidence reveals that certain chemotherapeutic drugs induce immunogenic cell death (ICD), demonstrating great potential for remodeling the immunosuppressive TME. In this study, the potential of ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) as an ICD inducer against CRC cells was confirmed using in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches. The ICD efficacy of Rg3 could be significantly enhanced by quercetin (QTN) that elicited reactive oxygen species (ROS). To ameliorate in vivo delivery barriers associated with chemotherapeutic drugs, a folate (FA)-targeted polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticle (NP) was developed for co-encapsulation of Rg3 and QTN. The resultant nanoformulation (CD-PEG-FA.Rg3.QTN) significantly prolonged blood circulation and enhanced tumor targeting in an orthotopic CRC mouse model, resulting in the conversion of immunosuppressive TME. Furthermore, the CD-PEG-FA.Rg3.QTN achieved significantly longer survival of animals in combination with Anti-PD-L1. The study provides a promising strategy for the treatment of CRC.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 246-261, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929291

ABSTRACT

The first rate-limiting enzyme of the serine synthesis pathway (SSP), phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), is hyperactive in multiple tumors, which leads to the activation of SSP and promotes tumorigenesis. However, only a few inhibitors of PHGDH have been discovered to date, especially the covalent inhibitors of PHGDH. Here, we identified withangulatin A (WA), a natural small molecule, as a novel covalent inhibitor of PHGDH. Affinity-based protein profiling identified that WA could directly bind to PHGDH and inactivate the enzyme activity of PHGDH. Biolayer interferometry and LC-MS/MS analysis further demonstrated the selective covalent binding of WA to the cysteine 295 residue (Cys295) of PHGDH. With the covalent modification of Cys295, WA blocked the substrate-binding domain (SBD) of PHGDH and exerted an allosteric effect to induce PHGDH inactivation. Further studies revealed that with the inhibition of PHGDH mediated by WA, the glutathione synthesis was decreased and intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated, leading to the inhibition of tumor proliferation. This study indicates WA as a novel PHGDH covalent inhibitor, which identifies Cys295 as a novel allosteric regulatory site of PHGDH and holds great potential in developing anti-tumor agents for targeting PHGDH.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 92-106, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929283

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (Nano-DDSs) have emerged as possible solution to the obstacles of anticancer drug delivery. However, the clinical outcomes and translation are restricted by several drawbacks, such as low drug loading, premature drug leakage and carrier-related toxicity. Recently, pure drug nano-assemblies (PDNAs), fabricated by the self-assembly or co-assembly of pure drug molecules, have attracted considerable attention. Their facile and reproducible preparation technique helps to remove the bottleneck of nanomedicines including quality control, scale-up production and clinical translation. Acting as both carriers and cargos, the carrier-free PDNAs have an ultra-high or even 100% drug loading. In addition, combination therapies based on PDNAs could possibly address the most intractable problems in cancer treatment, such as tumor metastasis and drug resistance. In the present review, the latest development of PDNAs for cancer treatment is overviewed. First, PDNAs are classified according to the composition of drug molecules, and the assembly mechanisms are discussed. Furthermore, the co-delivery of PDNAs for combination therapies is summarized, with special focus on the improvement of therapeutic outcomes. Finally, future prospects and challenges of PDNAs for efficient cancer therapy are spotlighted.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 50-75, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929281

ABSTRACT

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling exert essential regulatory function in microbial-and onco-immunology through the induction of cytokines, primarily type I interferons. Recently, the aberrant and deranged signaling of the cGAS-STING axis is closely implicated in multiple sterile inflammatory diseases, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, aortic aneurysm and dissection, obesity, etc. This is because of the massive loads of damage-associated molecular patterns (mitochondrial DNA, DNA in extracellular vesicles) liberated from recurrent injury to metabolic cellular organelles and tissues, which are sensed by the pathway. Also, the cGAS-STING pathway crosstalk with essential intracellular homeostasis processes like apoptosis, autophagy, and regulate cellular metabolism. Targeting derailed STING signaling has become necessary for chronic inflammatory diseases. Meanwhile, excessive type I interferons signaling impact on cardiovascular and metabolic health remain entirely elusive. In this review, we summarize the intimate connection between the cGAS-STING pathway and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. We also discuss some potential small molecule inhibitors for the pathway. This review provides insight to stimulate interest in and support future research into understanding this signaling axis in cardiovascular and metabolic tissues and diseases.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 33-49, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929280

ABSTRACT

Metabolic homeostasis requires dynamic catabolic and anabolic processes. Autophagy, an intracellular lysosomal degradative pathway, can rewire cellular metabolism linking catabolic to anabolic processes and thus sustain homeostasis. This is especially relevant in the liver, a key metabolic organ that governs body energy metabolism. Autophagy's role in hepatic energy regulation has just begun to emerge and autophagy seems to have a much broader impact than what has been appreciated in the field. Though classically known for selective or bulk degradation of cellular components or energy-dense macromolecules, emerging evidence indicates autophagy selectively regulates various signaling proteins to directly impact the expression levels of metabolic enzymes or their upstream regulators. Hence, we review three specific mechanisms by which autophagy can regulate metabolism: A) nutrient regeneration, B) quality control of organelles, and C) signaling protein regulation. The plasticity of the autophagic function is unraveling a new therapeutic approach. Thus, we will also discuss the potential translation of promising preclinical data on autophagy modulation into therapeutic strategies that can be used in the clinic to treat common metabolic disorders.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 600-620, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929273

ABSTRACT

The use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) has been under investigation for the treatment of several unmet medical needs, including acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) wherein siRNA may be implemented to modify the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at the mRNA level. The properties such as clear anatomy, accessibility, and relatively low enzyme activity make the lung a good target for local siRNA therapy. However, the translation of siRNA is restricted by the inefficient delivery of siRNA therapeutics to the target cells due to the properties of naked siRNA. Thus, this review will focus on the various delivery systems that can be used and the different barriers that need to be surmounted for the development of stable inhalable siRNA formulations for human use before siRNA therapeutics for ALI/ARDS become available in the clinic.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2768-2782, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888886

ABSTRACT

Pyroptosis is the process of inflammatory cell death. The primary function of pyroptosis is to induce strong inflammatory responses that defend the host against microbe infection. Excessive pyroptosis, however, leads to several inflammatory diseases, including sepsis and autoimmune disorders. Pyroptosis can be canonical or noncanonical. Upon microbe infection, the canonical pathway responds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), while the noncanonical pathway responds to intracellular lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The last step of pyroptosis requires the cleavage of gasdermin D (GsdmD) at D275 (numbering after human GSDMD) into N- and C-termini by caspase 1 in the canonical pathway and caspase 4/5/11 (caspase 4/5 in humans, caspase 11 in mice) in the noncanonical pathway. Upon cleavage, the N-terminus of GsdmD (GsdmD-N) forms a transmembrane pore that releases cytokines such as IL-1

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2585-2604, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888873

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent a growing public concern for clinicians to manage in many medical settings, with substantial associated morbidities and mortalities. Among many current therapeutic options for the treatment of IFIs, amphotericin B (AmB) is the most frequently used drug. AmB is considered as a first-line drug in the clinic that has strong antifungal activity and less resistance. In this review, we summarized the most promising research efforts on nanocarriers for AmB delivery and highlighted their efficacy and safety for treating IFIs. We have also discussed the mechanism of actions of AmB, rationale for treating IFIs, and recent advances in formulating AmB for clinical use. Finally, this review discusses some practical considerations and provides recommendations for future studies in applying AmB for combating IFIs.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2306-2325, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888864

ABSTRACT

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) strictly controls matter exchange between blood and brain, and severely limits brain penetration of systemically administered drugs, resulting in ineffective drug therapy of brain diseases. However, during the onset and progression of brain diseases, BBB alterations evolve inevitably. In this review, we focus on nanoscale brain-targeting drug delivery strategies designed based on BBB evolutions and related applications in various brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and brain tumor. The advances on optimization of small molecules for BBB crossing and non-systemic administration routes (

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