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1.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 63-72, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395775

ABSTRACT

Las radiaciones ionizantes tienen el potencial de generar efectos adversos a la salud de las personas. Para hacer un uso más seguro y eficiente de estas radiaciones, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica fundamentalmente ha implementado un sistema de protección radiológica (SPR) que se basa en tres principios: justificación, optimización y límites. A su vez, estos principios se sustentan en cuatro valores éticos (beneficencia, prudencia, justicia y dignidad). Se sabe que en Chile el profesional que esta mandatado para realizar la toma de los exámenes que utilizan radiaciones ionizantes es el/la Tecnólogo Médico en Imagenología. Por lo tanto, resulta interesante valorar el grado de conocimiento adquirido y posteriormente aplicado en torno a los valores éticos del SPR por parte de dichos profesionales. De esta manera el objetivo del este artículo de tipo Punto de Vista fue realizar una serie de reflexiones en torno a esta temática. Cuando se realiza un procedimientos médico u odontológico con radiaciones ionizantes, el/la Tecnólogo Médico en Imagenología participa esencialmente en la realización del mismo, por lo que no debería ser su responsabilidad el cautelar que se cumplan los 4 valores éticos descritos dentro del SPR. A juicio nuestro, el principio de optimización, sería el único principio o pilar del SPR donde tiene real obligación de participar, utilizando las restricciones a las exposiciones individuales y los niveles de referencia para diagnóstico para reducir las desigualdades en la distribución de las exposiciones entre los grupos expuestos. Finalmente, resulta vital investigar si en su formación de especialidad se tocan estas temáticas.


Ionizing radiation has the potential to generate adverse effects on people's health. To make safer and more efficient use of these radiations, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has fundamentally implemented a radiological protection system (RPS) based on three principles: justification, optimization and limits. In turn, these principles are based on four ethical values (beneficence, prudence, justice and dignity). It is known that in Chile the professional who is mandated to perform the exams that use ionizing radiation is the Medical Imaging Technologist. Therefore, it is interesting to assess the degree of knowledge acquired and subsequently applied around the ethical values of the RPS by these professionals. In this way, the objective of this Point of View article was to make a series of reflections on this subject. When a medical or dental procedure is performed with ionizing radiation, the Medical Imaging Technologist essentially participates in its performance, so it should not be their responsibility to ensure that the 4 ethical values described in the RPS are met. In our opinion, the principle of optimization would be the only principle or pillar of the RPS where it has a real obligation to participate, using the restrictions on individual exposures and the diagnostic reference levels to reduce inequalities in the distribution of exposures between exposed groups. Finally, it is vital to investigate whether these topics are addressed in his specialty training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection , Medical Laboratory Personnel/trends , Radiation Dosage , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Multivariate Analysis , Safety Management
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385807

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Se sabe de los beneficios que la radiología dental ha significado para mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas en todo el mundo, sin embargo, también conocemos los riesgos asociados a su uso. Para disminuir estos riegos, diferentes organizaciones a nivel internacional han desarrollado un SISTEMA DE PROTECCIÓN RADIOLÓGICA (SRP) basado en los principios de: Justificación, optimización y limitación de dosis, los cuales a su vez han evolucionado en base al desarrollo de la ciencia, los valores éticos, y la experiencia acumulada en la práctica cotidiana de los profesionales de la protección radiológica. Al revisar la normativa que regula el uso de las radiaciones ionizantes en Chile, analizamos que no se tienen en cuenta los aspectos o valores éticos al momento de hablar y aplicar el SPR en procedimientos de radiología dental. Por todo lo anterior, el objetivo del presente trabajo de revisión narrativa fue elaborar un nuevo documento de consulta para los odontólogos, que contenga de manera resumida y con definiciones precisas, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta a la hora de comprender como funciona el SPR y los valores éticos que lo fundamentan, ayudando de esta manera a resolver objetivamente los juicios de valor que se pueden presentar durante la solicitud, ejecución e interpretación de los procedimientos de radiología dental.


ABSTRACT: The benefits of dental radiology that improve the quality of life of populations worldwide have been well established. However, the risks associated with its use are also known. With these risks in mind, various international organizations have developed a Radiological Protection System (RPS) based on the principles of: Justification, optimization and dose limitation, which in turn have evolved based on science, values ethics, and the experience accumulated during the daily practice by radiation protection professionals. While reviewing the standards that regulate the use of ionizing radiation in Chile, we observed that ethical aspects or values are not taken into account when applying the RPS in dental radiology procedures. In light of these findings, the objective of this narrative review was to develop a new consultation procedure for dentists, which contains the main aspects to consider when understanding how SPR works, in a summarized precise form, as well as the supporting ethical values. Thereby helping to resolve the value judgments that may arise during the performance and interpretation of dental radiology procedures.

3.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 194-199, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923236

ABSTRACT

In China, the current effective special standards on radiological protection for non-uranium mines include GBZ 139-2019 Radiological Protection Requirements for the Production Places of Rare Earths, GBZ/T 233-2010 Radiological Protection Standards for the Workplaces of Tin Mine, and GBZ/T 256-2014 Radiological Protection Requirements for Radon Exposure in the Non-Uranium Mining. The above-mentioned special standards are applicable to all types of non-uranium mines except coal mines, and basically cover all aspects related to the practice of occupational exposure protection principles, such as responsibilities, workplace protection requirements, occupational exposure dose control, protective facilities and equipment, occupational exposure monitoring and evaluation, occupational health surveillance, and personnel training et al. However, there are differences in aspects such as workplace classification, individual dose monitoring and occupational health surveillance. According to the requirements of Chinese basic safety standard GB 18871-2002 Basic Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources and international standards on occupational exposure protection, the hierarchical management in the workplace, occupational health management and radiological protection training of miners should be further improved, to provide suggestions and references for the formulation and revision of relevant standards for the prevention and control of occupational radiological diseases of non-uranium mine employees in China.

4.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 476-480, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923222

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the abnormal results and their causes of personal dose monitoring on medical radiation workers.METHODS: The medical radiation workers monitored from 2016 to 2019 in the personal dose monitoring room of Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment were selected as the study subjects using convenient sampling method. The abnormal results and their causes of the medical radiation workers with personal dose equivalent ≥1.25 mSv(investigation level) in a single period were analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of abnormal results of personal dose monitoring was 0.26%(263/102 284). The false result rate was 0.19%(194/102 284), and that of the true result rate was 0.07%(69/102 284). A total of 73.38%(193/263) of medical radiation workers had abnormal results with an personal dose equivalent less than 5.00 mSv. Among different occupational groups, the abnormal results and false results in personal dose monitoring in interventional radiology group were the highest(all P<0.01). The abnormal result rate and false result rate were higher in the Pearl River Delta area than that in the non-Pearl River Delta area(0.27% vs 0.17%, 0.20% vs 0.12%, all P<0.05). The rate of false result of personal dose monitoring in the tertiary hospitals was lower than that in the non-tertiary hospitals(0.18% vs 0.30%, P<0.05). The main reason for the true results of personal dose monitoring was the increase of workload(43.48%), and the main reason for the false results was that the dosimeter was left in the workplace(57.73%). CONCLUSION: The rate of abnormal results of personal dose monitoring in the medical radiation workers is high. Radiological protection should be strengthened with emphasis on medical radiation workers in interventional radiology, Pearl River Delta area hospitals and non-tertiary hospitals.

5.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20200161, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1252284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the software for the management of radiological protection, SisPRad, and its construction process, as well as to analyze its implementation and use in a radiodiagnosis service. Method: a methodological and quasi-experimental research study carried out between November 2016 and October 2019. The study population consisted of the professionals who make up the Radiological Protection Committee of the service. The model chosen for software engineering was the cascade model. In the implementation phase, an evaluation and analysis of the usability of the software was carried out. Results: the software for radiological protection management presents the structure of the technology and its functionalities. The usability evaluation showed that SisPRad is a tool that will assist the multi-professional and interdisciplinary team of the hospital radiology service in the management of radiological protection. The computerization of the systems and the integration of the sectors that need shared data in the work routines enhance the management of hospital radiological protection for the multi-professional team. The technology was positively evaluated by the multi-professional team working in the hospital radiodiagnosis service. SisPRad generated registration n.. 512019002125-8 by the National Institute of Industrial Property. Conclusion: this tool was developed aiming at the safety of the professionals working in the radiodiagnosis service and of its users, in addition to enabling the constant improvement of the tool, and it can be adapted in other institutions.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir el software para la gestión de protección radiológica, SisPRad, su proceso de construcción y analizar su implementación y uso en un servicio de radiodiagnóstico. Método: investigación metodológica y cuasiexperimental realizada entre noviembre de 2016 y octubre de 2019. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por los profesionales que integran el Comité de Protección Radiológica del servicio. Para la ingeniería de software, se eligió el modelo en cascada. En la etapa de implementación se realizó la evaluación y el análisis de usabilidad del software. Resultados: el software de gestión de protección radiológica presenta la estructura de la tecnología y sus funcionalidades. La evaluación de usabilidad mostró que SisPRad es una herramienta que ayudará al equipo multidisciplinario e interdisciplinario del servicio de radiología del hospital en la gestión de la protección radiológica. La informatización de sistemas y la integración de sectores que requieren datos en común en las rutinas de trabajo potencian la gestión de la protección radiológica hospitalaria del equipo multidisciplinario. La tecnología fue valorada positivamente por el equipo multiprofesional que cumple sus funciones en el servicio de radiodiagnóstico del hospital. SisPRad generó el registro 512019002125-8 en el Instituto Nacional de Propiedad Industrial. Conclusión: esta herramienta fue desarrollada con el objetivo de promover la seguridad de los profesionales que trabajan en el servicio de radiodiagnóstico y de sus usuarios, además de permitir la mejora constante de la herramienta, que puede ser adaptada a otras instituciones.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever o software para gestão da proteção radiológica, SisPRad, seu processo de construção e analisar sua implantação e utilização em um serviço de radiodiagnóstico. Método: pesquisa metodológica e quase-experimental realizada entre novembro de 2016 e outubro de 2019. A população do estudo foi constituída pelos profissionais que compõem o Comitê de Proteção Radiológica do serviço. O modelo escolhido para a engenharia do software foi o modelo em cascata. Na fase de implantação foi realizada avaliação e análise da usabilidade do software. Resultados: o software de gestão para proteção radiológica apresenta a estrutura da tecnologia e suas funcionalidades. A avaliação da usabilidade evidenciou que o SisPRad é uma ferramenta que irá auxiliar a equipe multiprofissional e interdisciplinar do serviço de radiologia hospitalar na gestão da proteção radiológica. A informatização dos sistemas e a integração dos setores que necessitam de dados em comum nas rotinas de trabalho potencializam a gestão da proteção radiológica hospitalar para a equipe multiprofissional. A tecnologia foi avaliada positivamente pela equipe multiprofissional atuante no serviço de radiodiagnóstico hospitalar. O SisPRad gerou o registro 512019002125-8 pelo Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial. Conclusão: essa ferramenta foi desenvolvida visando a segurança dos profissionais atuantes no serviço de radiodiagnóstico e seus usuários, além de possibilitar a melhora da ferramenta constantemente, podendo ser adaptada em outras instituições.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection , Radiology Department, Hospital , Medical Informatics , Technology, Radiologic , Health Management
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 610-616, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134547

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las exposiciones médicas con radiación ionizante son actualmente la principal fuente de exposición a la radiación artificial a nivel global, entre ellas, los exámenes dentales corresponden a uno de los más frecuentes. Para prevenir dosis innecesariamente altas a los pacientes durante estas exposiciones, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica (ICRP) recomienda la utilización de Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (DRLs), como una herramienta efectiva de ayuda a la optimización de la protección radiológica en la exposición médica de pacientes. Dado que la legislación de Chile aún no ha incorporado el uso de los DRLs, el presente trabajo de revisión tuvo como objetivo analizar la publicación N° 135 de la ICRP para generar un documento que sirva de guía para los odontólogos, explicando de manera didáctica y en un lenguaje sencillo, pero técnico, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta para establecer los DRLs en procedimientos de radiología dental.


SUMMARY: Currently exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the main source of exposure to artificial radiation worldwide, with dental examinations being one of the most frequent events. In order to prevent exposure of unnecessarily high doses in patients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), as an effective tool to help maximize protection from radiation during medical exposure of patients. Given that the Chilean legislation has not yet incorporated the use of DRLs, the purpose of this study was to analyze publication N° 135 of the ICRP to generate a document, to serve as a guide for dentists, didactically outlining in simple but technical language, the main aspects to consider when establishing DRLs in dental radiology procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiography, Dental/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , International Agencies , Practice Guideline , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Evaluation Studies as Topic
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811613

ABSTRACT

X-ray imaging is an important method for the diagnosis of corona virus disease(COVID-19), but there is a risk of nosocomial infection during X-ray imaging diagnosis. By analyzing the process of X-ray imaging diagnosis and the possible infection factors in hospital, Jiangsu province took the lead in issuing the Guideline for the nosocomial infection prevention and control of X-ray imaging diagnosis of COVID-19. This guideline clarifies the basic requirements for controlling infections during X-ray imaging diagnosis, the specific measures for staff protection, disinfection of personnel and places, and the protection and disinfection of subjects, which is instructive for field work. It is worth noting that while focusing on controlling infections, the principle of optimal protection for medical exposure cannot be ignored.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811611

ABSTRACT

Since the epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia broke out, diagnostic imaging was providing valuable radiological support for disease diagnosis and progress evaluation. Radiological staff, especially radiographers were staying at the front line of epidemic prevention and control. They were facing the patients directly with dual responsibility and pressure of infection control protection and radiation protection. A number of relevant professional experts established the consensus which clarified three parts of detailed implementing rules including infection control and protection of the radiological staff, disinfection of diagnostic radiology equipment and place, radiological protection. The aim was to further standardize the clinical procedures of radiological staff, reduce the infection risk and the radiation risk of medical staff and patients.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755033

ABSTRACT

Objective To survey the current situation of wearing protective articles by accompanying examiners in the nursing conditions of intervention and non-intervention during CT diagnosis in a tertiary A hospital. Methods A control group and an intervention group were set up to investigate the situation of wearing protective devices. Attempt was made to use mobile lead screens in place of personal protective devices and their effects were investigated. Results A total of 4890 unavoidable accompanying examiners wearing protective equipment during CT examination were investigated. After nursing guidance, the wearing rate increased from 73% to 94%, and the complete wearing rate increased from 19% to 81%. Refusal to wear protective devices was mostly due to limited time. Refusal rate of emergency accompanying examiners was significantly higher than that of outpatient and inpatient accompanying examiners. After using mobile lead screen, the probability of personnel protection increased to 99%. Conclusions Nursing intervention can effectively improve the wearing rate and complete wearing rate of protective articles for accompanying examiners. Moving glass lead screen is conducive to the improvement of protection level for accompanying examiners..

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745266

ABSTRACT

Objective To survey the frequency of medical X-ray diagnosis and estimate the medical exposure levels of Jiangsu province in 2016,so as to be able to improve effectively the protection against medical radiation exposure.Methods All medical institutions in the province were covered in the survey for their basic medical information by means of census method.Frequencies of diagnostic medical X-ray examination were studied using random sampling method in 31 medical institutions.A linear model was established by number of outpatients number of inpatients,number of staff and number of radiation workers to evaluate the medical examination frequency.Results A total of 9 248 pieces of medical X-ray diagnostic equipment by the end of 2016 in Jiangsu province,including 1 110 CT scanners.The total frequencies of diagnostic medical X-ray examination were estimated to be 911.45 examinations per 1 000 population,covering 239.25 per 1 000 for CT scanning.The number of medical X-ray diagnostic equipment increased by a factor of 0.8 while CT scanners by a factor of 3.6 compared to 1999.Medical X-ray diagnostic frequency raised by a factor of 3.2 while CT frequency by a factor of 15.1 compared with previous data.Conclusions The medical X-ray diagnostic frequencies in Jiangsu province was 1.9 times the value given in the UNSCEAR 2008 Report,close to those in some developed European countries.Compared with the study in 2015,the present study has made greater improvement in sampling technique for selection of hospitals and equipment,frequency estimation method and acquisition of influence factors.Estimates of medical X-ray diagnosis frequency are closer to actual level.Further improvement will be needed for the future survey,so as to further study medical exposure levels and to provide basic information for better patient protection.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801038

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To survey the current situation of radiological protection in primary medical institutions in Xi′an, analyze the existing problems, and provide countermeasures and suggestions for further strengthening the radiological protection management of radiological diagnosis and treatment in primary medical institutions.@*Methods@#A total of 58 primary medical institutions in Xi′an were selected by stratified cluster sampling according to the work plan of national radiological health monitoring project and the related implementation plan in Shaanxi province. Data were collected by using a unified design questionnaire to investigate and analyze the basic protection situation, radiological diagnosis and treatment equipment, protective auxiliary equipment and their use situations as well as the standardization of the machine room of these radiological diagnosis and treatment institutions. Protective monitoring of the machine room was conducted by the Radiological Health Department of Xi′an CDC together with the relevant data being recorded.@*Results@#The survey found that the holding rate of the license of radiological diagnosis and treatment in primary medical institutions was 96.6%, the ratio of professional and technical workers with professional expertise in radiological diagnosis and treatment 89.6%, the training rate of radiological staff 89.6%, and the proportion of protective equipment 85.7%, the utilization rate of protective equipment 74.3%, the rate of physical examination for radiation workers 91.4%, and the rate of personal dose monitoring 96.5%. There was no statistically significance in the area and at the shortest side of the machine rooms between different types(P>0.05). There were statistically significances in ventilation (χ2=7.034, P<0.05), tidiness (χ2=29.075, P<0.05), warning sign equipment (χ2=23.156, P<0.05) and status indicator light equipment (χ2=23.478, P<0.05) between different types of primary medical institutions. The qualified rate of radiation protection in the workplace of the radiological diagnosis and treatment institutions was 74.1%, and the difference in radiation dose levels in the surrounding environment of the workplace of the radiological diagnosis and treatment institutions between different types was statistically significant (χ2=14.028, P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#The patients′personal protective equipment allocation rate and the utilization rate of examined individuals′ protective equipment in the primary medical institutions are low, the standardization of the radiation workplace is poor, and the radiation protection in the workplace needs to be improved.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797663

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To survey the current situation of wearing protective articles by accompanying examiners in the nursing conditions of intervention and non-intervention during CT diagnosis in a tertiary A hospital.@*Methods@#A control group and an intervention group were set up to investigate the situation of wearing protective devices. Attempt was made to use mobile lead screens in place of personal protective devices and their effects were investigated.@*Results@#A total of 4 890 unavoidable accompanying examiners wearing protective equipment during CT examination were investigated. After nursing guidance, the wearing rate increased from 73% to 94%, and the complete wearing rate increased from 19% to 81%. Refusal to wear protective devices was mostly due to limited time. Refusal rate of emergency accompanying examiners was significantly higher than that of outpatient and inpatient accompanying examiners. After using mobile lead screen, the probability of personnel protection increased to 99%.@*Conclusions@#Nursing intervention can effectively improve the wearing rate and complete wearing rate of protective articles for accompanying examiners. Moving glass lead screen is conducive to the improvement of protection level for accompanying examiners..

13.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 24(1): 5-11, mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959567

ABSTRACT

Resumen:Existen diversos documentos y recomendaciones internacionales sobre nombres, conceptos, definiciones y campos de aplicación para diversas magnitudes y unidades utilizadas para monitorear los niveles de radiación ionizante a los que son expuestos los trabajadores durante los procedimientos de Radiodiagnóstico e Intervencionismo. Sin embargo, la legislación nacional, al igual que para la dosimetría de los pacientes, no se encuentra actualizada en este sentido y no contempla en sus documentos un glosario actualizado que permita encontrar en forma rápida y precisa este tipo de información. Por lo anterior, este trabajo de revisión corresponde a un segundo documento guía, complementario a nuestro trabajo publicado en 2015 titulado "Magnitudes y unidades para dosimetría a pacientes en radiodiagnóstico e intervencionismo", que describe de manera didáctica y en un lenguaje sencillo para los profesionales de la salud y áreas afines, las principales magnitudes y unidades que se deben conocer y utilizar en la dosimetría ocupacional de los trabajadores que participan en procedimientos de Radiodiagnóstico e Intervencionismo.


Abstract: There are many documents and international recommendations offer names, concepts, definitions and fields of application for various quantities and units used to monitor the exposure levels of ionising radiation to which workers are exposed during the diagnostic and interventional radiology procedures. However, as in the case of patient dosimetry, national legislation is not up-to-date in this area and nowhere does it establish an up-to-date glossary that would facilitate rapid and precise location of this kind of information. In light of the foregoing, this review paper presents a second guidance document, complementary to our published article in 2015 titled "Quantities and units used in patient dosimetry in radiodiagnostic and intervencional procedures", which describes the principal quantities and units that must be known and used in occupational dosimetry for workers participating in diagnostic and interventional radiology procedures, in a didactical manner and using simple language for professionals in health and similar areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Health Personnel , Dosimetry/methods , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-506990

ABSTRACT

Objective To ascertain and evaluate the quality of radiological protection in rural and urban primary health care institutions . Methods Questionnaires were designed to investigate the protection levels in diagnostic radiology in primary health care institutions in six cities in 2013 and to evaluate the results by using the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution ( TOPSIS) combined with the rank sum ratio ( RSR) method.Results The six cities and an integrated case ( all the data of the six prefecture-level citys were merged as one for comprasion ) were ranked based on the comprehensive assessment.The order from good to bad was Suzhou , Dalian, Yichang, integrated case, Shaoxing, Quzhou and Heihe.The results were divided into three grades , with Suzhou, Dalian at best grade, Yichang, integrated case, Shaoxing, Quzhou at middle grade, and Heihe at poor grade. Conclusions The quality of protection in radiation diagnosis varied considerably .Suzhou ranked the first and Heihe ranked the last .The study suggests that efforts should be focused on the management of key cities and indicators to upgrade whole protection level in radiation diagnosis .

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615430

ABSTRACT

Objective To quantify the correlations between Elekta XVI cone beam CT dose and various scanning protocols,providing mathematical models to assess the protocol-dependency of imaging dose during imnage guided radiotherapy.Methods Based on standard protocols and various combinations of kVp and mA on an XVI mounted on an Elekta Versa HD accelerator,the air KERMA was measured at various positions in a standard PTW CTDI body phantom using calibrated PTW 30009 kV chamber and UNIDOS webline electrometer.Weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) was computed thereafter.SigmaPlot 10.0 was used to fit the measurements against mA and/or kVp yielding empirical functions.Results Under standard protocols,the CTDIw of Varian OBI was only 11.23% (chest) and 9.15% (pelvis) of Elekta XVI.Using the default and other 4 investigated kVp values,the central and peripheral KERMA were both proportional to mA,and vet the slope value a varied dramatically from 0.479 to 6.679.Major affecting factors included kVp settings,measurement locations,and dosimetric mnetrics,etc.None linear regressions were used to fit kVp against KERMA at various locations and CTDIw (R2 > 0.997).The differences between all coefficients were statistically significant (P < 0.05).The impact of changing both mA and kVp on the dose to phantom center can be described as mGy =(5.917-0.197 ×kVp+0.002 × kVp2-5.063 × 10-6 × kVp3) × mA.Conclusions Imaging dose of Elekta XVI is strongly dependent on scanning paraneters.The proposed mathematical models can be used as efficient and robust indicators of such dependency.

16.
Arq. odontol ; 52(3): 130-135, jul.-set. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-832133

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento de cirurgiões-dentistas da cidade de Patos-PB acerca da biossegurança em radiologia odontológica e métodos de proteção utilizados. Métodos: Foi utilizada uma abordagem indutiva com procedimento estatístico descritivo e técnica de documentação direta através da pesquisa de campo, utilizando o formulário como instrumento. Participaram do estudo 50 cirurgiões-dentistas que trabalhavam em consultórios particulares com aparelho de raios X intraoral na cidade de Patos-PB. Após a assinatura do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido pelos profissionais, foram aplicados questionários para avaliação do conhecimento dos mesmos sobre biossegurança em radiologia e práticas de proteção utilizadas. Os dados foram tabulados e foi feita análise descritiva das variáveis qualitativas pelas medidas de proporção, frequências e porcentagens. Resultados: Observou-se que todos os profissionais mostraram preocupação em relação à radioproteção e que buscavam realizar os exames radiográficos seguindo os princípios de cada técnica radiográfica a fim de se evitar a repetição das mesmas. Para proteção do paciente, a maioria relatou utilizar avental de chumbo, incluindo protetor de tireóide, além de reduzir o tempo de exposição. Acerca da proteção própria, a maior parte afirmou possuir paredes com revestimento de chumbo. Conclusão: Observouse que a maioria dos profissionais tem conscientização acerca dos aspectos de radioproteção, contudo, alguns cirurgiões-dentistas ainda desconhecem os mesmos e não praticam a biossegurança em radiologia, colocando em risco sua própria saúde e a dos pacientes.(AU)


Aim: To assess the knowledge of dentists in the city of Patos, PB, Brazil, about biosafety in radiology and applied protection methods. Methods: This study involved an inductive approach with a descriptivestatistical procedure and a research technique for direct documentation in the field, using a questionnaire as the main instrument. This study included 50 dentists who work in private practices with intraoral X-ray units in Patos, PB. After the professionals had signed the Free and Informed Consent Form, questionnaires were applied to evaluate the dentists' knowledge about biosafety in radiology and their protection practices. The data were tabulated, and a descriptive analysis was performed regarding the qualitative variables measured by proportion, frequencies, and percentages. Results: It was observed that all of the staff were concerned about their own radioprotection and that they sought to comply with the principles of each radiographic technique in order to avoid repeating radiographs. For patient protection, the majority reported using lead aprons, including a thyroid shield, in addition to reducing exposure time. Regarding their own protection, most facilities have walls with lead casing. Conclusion: It was observed that most professionals are aware of the aspects of radiological protection; however, some are still unfamiliar with these procedures and do not practice biosafety in radiology, putting their own health and that of their patients at risk.(AU)


Subject(s)
Dentists , Radiation Protection , Radiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Radiobiology
17.
Journal of Practical Radiology ; (12): 1109-1111, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-496497

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the radiation dose distribution in the X-ray room,and provide the strategy of radiation protection for the medical staff and the patient’s nursing who had to enter the room while the X-ray was exposing.Methods The thermolumi-nescent dosemeters(TLDs)was placed around the center of the X-ray tube with the same level of the bed.Then,exposure parame-ters,including the X-ray tube voltage value and the field of view,were changed for different groups while exposing.All of the TLDs were taken back to the lab for analysis.Results The differences between the two groups which had the same distance in different di-rections were statistically significant (P <0.01).With the same radiographic condition and direction,the radiation dose on the site of 10 cm from X-ray tube center was the maximum,while the site of 120 cm was the minimum.With the same radiographic condition and distance,the radiation dose on the anode side of the X-ray tube in the room was relative lower,while the site behind the X-ray tube was relative higher.With the same voltage value,distance and direction,the same sites that had the smaller FOV(34 cm×34 cm) received lower radiation dose than those with larger FOV(52.6 cm× 52.6 cm).Meanwhile,the sites with the voltage of 70 kV re-ceived the lower radiation dose than that with the voltage value of 120 kV.Conclusion In the X-ray room,the medical staff and the patient’s nursing can choose the area on the right side(anode side),keep far away from the X-ray tube center,avoid the rear of the X-ray tube and the cathodic direction of the X-ray tube to reduce the radiation dose.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66010

ABSTRACT

International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Humans , International Agencies/organization & administration , Radiation Injuries/etiology , Radiation Protection/history , Radiation, Ionizing
19.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377236

ABSTRACT

Japan has experienced serious nuclear disaster being a country hit by atomic bombs and as well as the occurrence of recent nuclear plant accidents. On the other hand, the Japanese population is exposed to higher dose of medical radiation compared to other developed countries, which is due to increasing number of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) examinations. The correlation between low-dose radiation exposure and cancer risks has been discussed nationwide since Fukushima nuclear plant accident has occurred, whereas cancer risks due to low-dose ionizing radiation from CT scans have been evident in recent large cohort studies. Though CT scan is a valuable diagnostic tool in medical practice because of its high resolution image with speed of scanning, it is crucial to evaluate whether the use of CT is appropriate weighing the benefits and possible risks. Hospitalist is required to have core competency to improve quality of medical care of the hospital and to coordinate with other departments or co-medical workers. In this regard, we discuss how hospitalist could play a role to justify the use of CT and minimize unnecessary radiological exposure, cooperating with radiologists or radiological technologists.

20.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 30(4): 319-331, oct.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-735293

ABSTRACT

El campo de utilización cada vez más amplio de las sustancias radiactivas en la medicina exige el manejo y la aplicación de los principios de la ética en una relación muy estrecha con la protección radiológica (PR). Existe una necesidad insoslayable de llevar la perspectiva de la ética en el uso de las radiaciones ionizantes y de la PR del paciente a la práctica de la Medicina Nuclear en Hematología (MNH). Esto no debe asumirse como un proceso de simple adopción, sino como la aplicación creativa de sus principios. Será de gran utilidad continuar incluyendo en la docencia que se imparte a los profesionales de las diversas especialidades que emplean la medicina nuclear como herramienta diagnóstica o terapéutica, una formación científica basada en los principios de la ética sumados a elementos de la PR. El colectivo multidisciplinario dedicado a la MNH tiene una responsabilidad de índole moral y ética en la garantía del uso adecuado de las sustancias radiactivas en la técnica médica y el desarrollo científico de la especialidad. La siguiente revisión del tema pretende contribuir al fomento de principios éticos en los especialistas de hematología durante su quehacer diario. Con la aplicación de la ética en el contexto de la MNH, perfeccionaremos la gestión de PR en el manejo de los pacientes, contribuiremos a la mejor atención a estos y elevaremos la calidad de nuestro trabajo...


The increasingly width of the field of radioactive substances use in medicine demands the managing and the application of ethics principles in a very close relation to radiological protection. There is an unavoidable need to take ethics perspective in the use of ionizing radiations and the radiological protection of the patient to the practice of Nuclear Medicine in Hematology (NMH). This must not be assumed as a process of simple adoption, but as the creative application of his principles. It will be highly useful to continue including in the teaching programs aimed to professionals who use nuclear medicine as a diagnostic or therapeutic tool, a scientific formation based on the ethics principles including the elements of radiological protection. The multidisciplinary group dedicated to NMH has a moral and ethical responsibility to guarantee the appropriate use of radioactive substances in the medical technology and scientific development of this specialty. The following review on the subject wishes to contribute to the promotion of ethical principles in hematology specialists during their daily work. With the application of ethics in the context of NMH, we will also improve the radiological protection of our patients which will contribute to their best care and will increase the quality of our work...


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematology/education , Hematology/ethics , Nuclear Medicine/ethics , Radiation Protection/methods , Ethics, Medical/education
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