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1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 99(1): 57-65, Jan.-Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527712

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: One of the main adverse reactions of adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer is radiodermatitis. Objective: To assess the incidence of radiodermatitis in women with breast cancer, identify factors associated with its severity and determine the time at which this event occurs. Methods: Prospective cohort study in 113 women with breast cancer who were evaluated before radiotherapy and at every fifth session until the end of treatment. Logistic regression and Cox proportional regression model were used for the assessment of risk factors; P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The incidence rate of radiodermatitis was 98.2% and it was demonstrated that for each additional point of the Body Mass Index (BMI), the chance of occurrence of grades II to IV radiodermatitis increases by 14% (OR = 1.14 [95% CI 1.04-1.26]; p = 0.004) and statin use increases the risk of more severe skin lesions by four-fold (OR = 4.27 [95% CI 1.11-16.42]; p = 0.035). The exclusive use of hydrogel for skin hydration was an independent factor in delaying the onset of radiodermatitis (HR = 0.55 [95% CI 0.36-0.82]; p = 0.004). Study limitations: The main limitation of this study was its external validity. The identified factors should be considered for services and populations similar to those in this study. Conclusions: There was a high incidence of radiodermatitis and its severity was related to higher BMI, statin use; there was a protective effect of hydrogel use.

2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6)dic. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528776

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study is to investigate the effect of survivin down-regulation by Egr1-survivin shRNA combined with radiotherapy on the apoptosis and radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ECA109 and KYSE150 cells. ECA109 and KYSE150 cells were transfected with Egr1-survivin shRNA, and then treated with radiotherapy. After 24 h, the mRNA and protein levels of Egr1-survivin were detected by qPCR and Western-Blot. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot also detected levels of cleavaged Caspase 3 and Caspase 9. YM155 was used as a positive control to inhibit survivin expression. The levels of survivin mRNA and protein in ECA109 and KYSE150 cells treated with Egr1-survivin shRNA combined with radiotherapy were significantly lower than those of the blank control group, the empty vector control group, and, the YM155 + radiotherapy group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, after survivin down-regulation, the ratio of G2 to S phase of ECA109 and KYSE150 cells increased significantly, leading to significant G2 and S phase arrest. Additionally, apoptosis of ECA109 and KYSE150 cells increased significantly (P <0.01). Further, protein levels of cleavaged Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 significantly increased in Egr1-survivin shRNA combined with radiotherapy group. Egr1-survivin shRNA combined with radiotherapy can down-regulate survivin expression, which further increases the apoptosis, and enhances the radiosensitivity of ECA109 and KYSE150 cells.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto de la regulación negativa de survivina por el shRNA de Egr1-survivina combinado con radioterapia sobre la apoptosis y la radiosensibilidad del carcinoma de células escamosas de esófago Células ECA109 y KYSE150. Las células ECA109 y KYSE150 se transfectaron con shRNA de survivina Egr1 y luego se trataron con radioterapia. Después de 24 h, los niveles de ARNm y proteína de Egr1-survivina se detectaron mediante qPCR y Western-Blot. El ciclo celular y la apoptosis se detectaron mediante citometría de flujo. La transferencia Western también detectó niveles de Caspasa 3 y Caspasa 9 escindidas. Se usó YM155 como control positivo para inhibir la expresión de survivina. Los niveles de ARNm y proteína de survivina en células ECA109 y KYSE150 tratadas con shRNA de survivina Egr1 combinado con radioterapia fueron significativamente más bajos que los del grupo control en blanco, el grupo control de vector vacío y el grupo de radioterapia YM155 + (P <0,05). Mientras tanto, después de la regulación negativa de survivina, la proporción entre las fases G2 y S de las células ECA109 y KYSE150 aumentó significativamente, lo que llevó a una detención significativa de las fases G2 y S. Además, la apoptosis de las células ECA109 y KYSE150 aumentó significativamente (P <0,01). Además, los niveles de proteína de Caspasa 3 y Caspasa 9 escindidas aumentaron significativamente en el shRNA de Egr1- survivina combinado con el grupo de radioterapia. El shRNA de survivina de Egr1 combinado con radioterapia puede regular negativamente la expresión de survivina, lo que aumenta aún más la apoptosis y mejora la radiosensibilidad de las células ECA109 y KYSE150.

3.
Medisan ; 27(4)ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1514562

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La elastografía cualitativa por ecografía endoscópica es una técnica para examinar las propiedades elásticas de los tejidos, que puede distinguir la fibrosis del tumor mediante patrones de colores. Objetivo: Determinar el valor de la elastografía por patrones de colores en la reestadificación del cáncer de recto. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional y descriptivo (serie de casos) de 54 pacientes con cáncer de recto atendidos en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso, en La Habana, entre septiembre del 2018 y diciembre del 2022, a quienes se les realizó elastografía por ecografía endoscópica para la reevaluación del tumor. Para determinar el valor de dicha técnica se calculó la sensibilidad, la especificidad, los valores predictivos positivo y negativo, las razones de verosimilitud positiva y negativa, así como el índice de Youden. Se estableció la concordancia diagnóstica según el índice kappa y el estudio histológico de la muestra tomada fue el estándar de referencia. Resultados: La concordancia de la elastografía con el resultado anatomopatológico fue buena (κ=0,84). La especificidad y el índice de validez resultaron ser de 91,7 y 94,4 %, respectivamente; mientras que el valor predictivo negativo fue de 84,6 %. Los 16 pacientes con patrón elastográfico mixto (ye3) tenían tumor residual localizado en alguna de las capas de la pared del recto. El índice de Youden alcanzó valores cercanos a 1. Conclusiones: El valor de esta técnica radica en su especificidad diagnóstica y en el valor predictivo negativo al diferenciar la fibrosis del tumor residual en la pared rectal.


Introduction: The qualitative elastography by endoscopic echography is a technique to examine the elastic properties of tissues that can distinguish the fibrosis of the tumor by means of color patterns. Objective: To determine the value of elastography by color patterns in the reestadification of the rectum cancer. Methods: An observational and descriptive study (serial cases) of 54 patients with rectum cancer was carried out, who were assisted in the National Center of Minimum Access Surgery, in Havana, between September, 2018 and December, 2022 to whom elastography by endoscopic echography were carried out for the reevaluation of the tumor. To determine the value of this technique the sensibility, specificity, the predictive positive and negative values, the positive and negative true ratio, as well as the index of Youden were calculated. The diagnostic consistency was established according to the kappa index and the histologic study of the sample was the reference standard. Results: The elastography consistency with the pathologic result was good (ĸ=0.84). The specificity and the index of validity were 91.7 and 94.4%, respectively; while the negative predictive value was 84.6%. The 16 patients with mixed elastographic pattern (ye3) had residual tumor located in some of the layers of the rectum wall. The Youden index reached values close to 1. Conclusions: The value of this technique resides in its diagnostic specificity and negative predictive value when differentiating fibrosis from the residual tumor in the rectal wall.


Subject(s)
Rectal Neoplasms , Elasticity Imaging Techniques
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(4): 653-658, July-Aug. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective We aim to describe an experimental model for studying femoral fractures in rats after exposure to ionizing radiation, demonstrating a way to apply a substance for analysis, the method for patterning fracture and irradiation, and how to evaluate its effectiveness based on radiographic studies. Methods We used 24 rats divided into 2 groups of 12 animals each. The STUDY group was exposed to ionizing radiation and treated with saline solution, and the CONTROL group was not exposed to radiation and was treated with saline solution. All animals were subjected to standardized fracture of the right femur that was fixed with intramedullary wire. The efficiency of the bone union was assessed by radiographic exam. Results Fracture healing was more efficient in bones not exposed to ionizing radiation (p = 0.012). All fractures met the criteria of being simple, diaphyseal, transverse or short oblique. Conclusion The experimental model presented is an efficient alternative for the study of fractures in irradiated bones in rats.


Resumo Objetivo Nosso objetivo é descrever um modelo experimental para estudo de fraturas de fêmur em ratos após exposição a radiação ionizante, demonstrando uma forma de aplicação de uma substância para análise, o método de padronização de fratura e irradiação e a forma de avaliação de sua eficácia com base em estudos radiográficos. Métodos Utilizamos 24 ratos divididos em dois grupos de 12 animais cada. O grupo ESTUDO foi exposto à radiação ionizante e tratado com soro fisiológico, enquanto o grupo CONTROLE não foi exposto à radiação e foi tratado com soro fisiológico. Todos os animais foram submetidos à fratura padronizada do fêmur direito e sua fixação com fio intramedular. A eficácia da consolidação óssea foi determinada por exame radiográfico. Resultados A cicatrização de fraturas foi mais eficiente em ossos não expostos à radiação ionizante (p = 0,012). Todas as fraturas atenderam aos critérios de serem simples, diafisárias, transversas ou oblíquas curtas. Conclusão O modelo experimental apresentado é uma boa alternativa para o estudo de fraturas em ossos irradiados em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Radiation Effects , Fracture Healing , Femoral Fractures/surgery , Fractures, Spontaneous/therapy
5.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 208-214, July-sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521142

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the complete response (CR) rate and surgeries performed in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant therapy (NT) at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo and at Hospital São Paulo, in Ribeirão Preto, from January 2007 to December 2017. Methods: We evaluated 166 medical records of patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (T3, T4 or N+) who underwent NT. The regimen consisted of performing conventional (2D) or conformational (three-dimensional-3D/ radiotherapy with modulated intensity - IMRT) at a dose of 45-50.4Gy associated with capecitabine 1650mg/m2 or 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin (LV). The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, pretreatment stage, radiotherapy, CR index, local and distant recurrence rates. Surgical treatment and complications were also evaluated. Results: The CR index was 28.3%. Patients treated with 3D/IMRT radiotherapy had a higher rate of CR (36.3% x 4.8%; p < 0.001), higher rates of clinical follow-up (21% x 0%; p < 0.001), lower surgery rates (79% x 100%; p < 0.001), higher rates of transanal resection (37.1% x 9.5%; p = 0.001), lower rates of abdominal rectosigmoidectomy (25.8% x 50%; p = 0.007) and lower rates of abdominoperineal resection of the rectum (16.1% x 40.5%; p = 0.002), when compared to patients treated with 2D radiotherapy. Conclusion Modern radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal and IMRT, by offering greater adequacy and precision of treatment, could result in better local control and less toxicity in organs at risk, enabling organ preservation strategies and less invasive approaches in selected cases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Staging
6.
Indian J Cancer ; 2023 Jun; 60(2): 245-247
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221790

ABSTRACT

We present the case report of a 58?year?old man with recurrent chondroid syringoma, which was histopathologically confirmed, who underwent exenteration surgery of the right eye. Furthermore, the patient was receiving postoperative radiation therapy, and presently there is no local and/or distant evidence of disease in the patient

7.
Indian J Cancer ; 2023 Jun; 60(2): 258-265
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221784

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently, recommended heart dose constraints are difficult to meet in whole?breast irradiation (WBI) for left?sided breast cancer patients, who cannot be treated with the deep inspiration breath hold. We performed a radiotherapy planning study to establish if the use of intensity?modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric?modulated arc therapy (VMAT) allows for better sparing of the heart and its subvolumes than the three?dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D?CRT), and how these attempts affect the dose delivered to the other organs. Methods: A total of 17 left?sided and 10 right?sided consecutive patients treated with free?breathing WBI were retrospectively included. The 3D?CRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans were generated. Several dose杤olume parameters and plan quality indices were compared, separately for the left? and right?sided plans. Results: All the techniques fulfilled the planning objectives. In the left?sided plans, there was no heart or left ventricle dose reduction with IMRT, nor with VMAT; the maximum dose in the left anterior descending coronary artery was reduced with VMAT (P = 0.005); V5 for the contralateral breast, contralateral lung, and total?body increased markedly in VMAT, and for the ipsilateral lung (V5IL) also in IMRT, compared with 3D?CRT (P < 0.001). In the right?sided plans, the V5 values, except for V5IL, did not differ between the three techniques. Conclusions: IMRT and VMAT had a limited heart?sparing benefit in the left?sided free?breathing WBI, at the cost of increased low?dose volumes, measured by V5. The low?dose volumes are not increased by IMRT or VMAT in the right?sided WBI, where heart sparing is not a problem, but the attempts to reduce cardiac doses in the left?sided WBI increase them.

8.
Indian J Cancer ; 2023 Jun; 60(2): 185-190
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221774

ABSTRACT

Background: Adequate lymphadenectomy in middle? and lower?third esophagus cancer is still a matter of debate. This study aims to find out the extent of histopathological supracarinal lymph nodes positivity rate to establish an adequate lymph node dissection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases operated up?front or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) + radiotherapy (RT) and its short?term oncological outcome. Materials and Methods: After approval from institutional board review, a retrospective study was conducted from April 2017 to September 2019. A total of 76 patients having mid? or lower?third carcinoma esophagus were operated at our institute for partial/total esophagectomy with extended two?field lymph node dissection were followed. Intraoperative nodal stations were harvested separately and lebeled individually according to the Japanese Esophageal Classification and sent for histopathological examination. Results: The patients had an average age of 52 years. Histologically all were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Forty?four patients received preoperative concurrent RT plus drug therapy, whereas 18 cases were operated up?front. Fourteen patients were operated after palliative treatment (CT/RT). The average total lymph node yield was 22 nodes (range 3�). In 26 patients (34.2%), lymph nodes were positive (N+ disease). Supracarinal nodes were positive in 20 cases (26.31%). The average supracarinal lymph node yield was 10.33 nodes (range 2�). Five patients (6.5%) had only supracarinal lymph nodes positive on histopathological examination. Seventeen patients had a complete pathological response rate (pCR). Conclusion: In cases of mid?third esophageal carcinoma, extended two fields with supracarinal lymphadenectomy is strongly recommended even after the patient has received neoadjuvant treatment, although the same for lower?third/gastroesophageal (GE) junction tumors should be considered.

9.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 38(2): 1-9, abr.jun.2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443507

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Keloids are one of the most aggressive spectrums of healing disorders. They have a unique pathophysiology and multiple specific genetic and cellular factors, which have not yet been fully elucidated. So far, literature reviews have found the influence of genetics, injury site, and ethnicity on the incidence and rate of recurrence. Furthermore, the need to associate an adjuvant method with surgical excision has already been verified, but the best therapy has yet to be defined. Method: A retrospective analysis of medical records was carried out to assess the profile of patients who underwent postoperative radiotherapy with an electron beam to treat keloids at the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu between 2015 and 2019. Results: Data from 131 patients were evaluated, with 269 keloid scars treated. The average duration of treatment was 51 days, and the number of sessions was 17. White patients were predominant (78%) and women (70%), with surgical incision being the main cause of formation (49%) and ear the most identified location (33%). Women were more likely to complete the proposed treatment (p=0.04), while non-literates completed less than those who had at least completed primary or secondary education (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Postoperative radiotherapy for keloid scars is a well-established treatment in the literature and an important tool for plastic surgeons. Knowing the profile of patients who need this therapy is essential to create methods that improve adherence and results.


Introdução: Os queloides correspondem a um dos espectros mais agressivos dos distúrbios da cicatrização. Possuem fisiopatologia ímpar e múltiplos fatores genéticos e celulares específicos, ainda não totalmente elucidados. Até o momento, revisões literárias encontraram influência da genética, local da lesão e etnia sobre a incidência e taxa de recorrência. Ademais, já foi constatada a necessidade de associação de um método adjuvante com a excisão cirúrgica, mas ainda sem definição da melhor terapia. Método: Realizada uma análise retrospectiva de prontuários para avaliação do perfil dos pacientes submetidos a radioterapia pós-operatória com feixe de elétrons para o tratamento de queloides no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, entre 2015 e 2019. Resultados: Foram avaliados os dados de 131 pacientes, com um total de 269 cicatrizes queloideanas tratadas. A média da duração do tratamento foi de 51 dias e do número de sessões, de 17. Houve predominância de pacientes brancos (78%) e de mulheres (70%), sendo incisão cirúrgica a principal causa de formação (49%) e a orelha a localização mais identificada (33%). As mulheres tiveram mais chance de completar o tratamento proposto (p=0,04), enquanto os não alfabetizados completaram menos do que aqueles que tinham pelo menos ensino fundamental ou médio completo (p<0,0001). Conclusão: A radioterapia pós-operatória em cicatrizes queloideanas é um tratamento consagrado na literatura e uma importante ferramenta do cirurgião plástico. Conhecer o perfil dos pacientes que necessitam desta terapia é fundamental para criar métodos que melhorem a adesão e o resultado da mesma.

10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 89(3): 477-484, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447701

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the changes in gray matter in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with normal hearing (Group 1) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with hearing loss (Group 2) after radiotherapy using voxel-based morphological analysis and to analyze the relationship with the radiation doses of the temporal lobe. Methods 21 patients in Group 1, 14 patients in Group 2, and 21 healthy volunteers were selected. All participants underwent an otologic examination and three-dimensional magnetization preparatory rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence scan. The correlation between the variation of whole brain gray matter volume and the doses of the temporal lobe was analyzed by Data Processing & Analysis for Brain Imaging software. Results Compared with the normal control group, the brain areas with reduced gray matter volume in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy were mainly in the left posterior cerebellar lobe (T = −8.797), left insular lobe (T = −7.96), and the right insular lobe (T = −6.632). Compared to Group 1, the brain areas of Group 2 patients with reduced gray matter volume were mainly in the left superior temporal gyrus (T = −2.366), left olfactory bulb (T = −2.52), left Rolandic operculum (T = −2.431), and right olfactory bulb (T = −3.100). Compared with Group 1, the brain areas of Group 2 patients with increased gray matter volume were mainly in the left calcarine sulcus (T = 3.425) and right calcarine sulcus (T = 3.169). There were no correlations between the changes of brain gray matter volume and the radiation doses of the temporal lobe in both Group 1 and Group 2. Conclusions The radiotherapy may cause the changes of brain areas associated with cognitive function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a long-term follow-up. At the same time, nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with the radiation-induced hearing loss had abnormal gray matter volumes in the auditory center and other sensory centers. Our findings might provide new understanding into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this exploratory study should be taken with caution.

11.
Radiol. bras ; 56(3): 145-149, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449030

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radiation-induced secondary tumors constitute a rare complication of radiation therapy and typically occur in or near the irradiated area. Women who undergo thoracic radiotherapy before 30 years of age have a significantly greater lifetime risk of developing breast cancer than do those in the general population. It is recommended that a patient who has previously received thoracic radiotherapy with a radiation dose ≥ 10 Gy subsequently undergo annual screening with mammography and magnetic resonance imaging, beginning eight years after the initial treatment or when the patient has reached 25 years of age (whichever comes later). The treatment of secondary breast cancer in this population should be individualized and should be discussed with a multidisciplinary team to avoid toxicity related to the treatment of the primary cancer.


Resumo Os cânceres secundários induzidos por radiação são complicações raras da radioterapia e geralmente ocorrem na área tratada ou próximo a ela. Mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tratadas com radioterapia torácica têm risco significativamente aumentado de desenvolver câncer de mama ao longo da vida, em comparação com a população em geral. Para as pacientes tratadas com irradiação torácica com dose igual ou superior a 10 Gy é recomendado rastreamento anual com mamografia e ressonância magnética iniciando oito anos após o tratamento, desde que este início seja após 25 anos de idade. O tratamento do câncer de mama secundário nessa população deve ser individualizado e discutido com equipe multidisciplinar, para evitar toxicidade relacionada ao tratamento do câncer primário.

12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 May; 71(5): 2014-2019
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225018

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To reveal early intervention outcomes for patients describing with choroidal metastasis. Methods: A retrospective interventional case series on 27 eyes of 22 patients treated for choroidal metastasis with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) With and without intravitreal injections. The prescribed radiation dose was a mean and median 30 Gy (range of 30–40 Gy in 180–200 cGy daily fractions). Outcome measures included change in tumor thickness, subretinal fluid, visual acuity, radiation oculopathy, and survival. Results: Decreased vision was the most common presenting symptom (n = 20/27, 74%). Pre?treatment vision for subfoveal lesions was a mean 20/400, median 20/200, and range 20/40 to hand motions (HM). Pre?treatment vision for extrafoveal tumors were a mean 20/40, median 20/25, range 20/20 to counting fingers (CF) which improved to a mean 20/32, median 20/20, range 20/12.5 to 20/200. Local control, with ultrasonographic height regression (44.5%; mean: 2.7–1.5 mm), was observed in all eyes at mean follow?up of 16 months (range: 1–72 months). Intravitreal anti?vascular endothelial growth factor (anti?VEGF) was given in nine cases (n = 9/27, 33%) to slow the growth of the metastasis and suppress their exudative detachments and to treat radiation maculopathy in 10 cases (n = 10/27, 37%). Late radiation complications included keratoconjunctivitis sicca in four cases (n = 4/27, 15%), exposure keratopathy in two cases (n = 2/27, 7%), and radiation retinopathy in 10 cases (n = 10/27, 37%). Of the 23 phakic eyes, four (n = 4, 17%) developed cataract. Conclusion: Radiation therapy with or without intravitreal anti?VEGF injections was a safe and effective treatment for choroidal metastasis. It was associated with local tumor control, reduction of secondary retinal detachments, and vision preservation.

13.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(3): 368-377, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449823

ABSTRACT

Abstract The increase in life expectancy of the world population has led to a concomitant increase in the prevalence of multiple myeloma (MM), a disease that usually affects the elderly population. Bone lesions are frequent in patients with this condition, demanding an early approach, from drug treatment, through radiotherapy to orthopedic surgery (prophylactic or therapeutic) with the objective of preventing or delaying the occurrence of fracture, or, when this event has already occurred, treat it through stabilization or replacement (lesions located in the appendicular skeleton) and/or promote stabilization and spinal cord decompression (lesions located in the axial skeleton), providing rapid pain relief, return to ambulation and resocialization, returning quality of life to patients. The aim of this review isto update the reader on the findings of pathophysiology, clinical, laboratory and imaging, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach of multiple myeloma multiple myeloma bone disease (MMBD).


Resumo O aumento da expectativa devida da população mundial levou a incremento concomitante na prevalência de mieloma múltiplo (MM), patologia que geralmente afeta a população idosa. Lesões ósseas são frequentes nos portadores desta condição, demandando abordagem precoce, desde o tratamento medicamentoso, passando pela radioterapia até a cirurgia ortopédica (profilática ou terapêutica) com os objetivos de prevenir ou retardar a ocorrência de fratura, ou, quando este evento já ocorreu, tratá-la mediante estabilização ou substituição (lesões situadas no esqueleto apendicular) e/ou promover estabilização e descompressão medular (lesões situadas no esqueleto axial), proporcionando rápido alívio da dor, retorno à deambulação e ressocialização, devolvendo a qualidade de vida aos pacientes. O objetivo desta revisão é atualizar o leitor sobre a fisiopatologia, a clínica, exames laboratoriais e de imagem, diagnóstico diferencial e abordagem terapêutica da doença óssea no mieloma múltiplo (DOMM).


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy , Orthopedic Procedures , Diphosphonates , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures , Fractures, Spontaneous , Multiple Myeloma
14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222302

ABSTRACT

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare and low-grade sarcoma of fibroblast origin with a tendency to invade and recur locally. The most common sites of origin of DFSP are the head, neck, and extremities. However, DFSP breast has also been reported. It infiltrates surrounding subcutaneous tissue and fascia, with an incidence of <2% for lung metastases. Surgery being the main modality of the treatment, literature has shown that radiation therapy also plays an important role to improve local control in case of recurrent tumors. In this article, we will be discussing one such rare case of DFSP in a recurrent setting and the role of radiation therapy.

15.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(1): 352, abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1509732

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de cabeza y cuello comprende a todos aquellos tumores que se desarrollan en el tracto aerodigestivo superior, una de las características de éstos es su diversidad, que no es solo desde el punto de vista histológico y etiológico, sino que incluyen diversas formas de presentación, progresión y enfoques terapéuticos. Son de causa multifactorial, siendo el alcohol y el tabaco los principales factores de riesgo asociados; en los últimos años se ha relacionado a ciertos virus con potencial oncogénico con la génesis tumoral, entre ellos al Virus del Papiloma Humano, lo que ha permitido modificar el sistema de estadificación tumor primario-nodos linfáticos cancerosos-metástasis (TNM); presentándolo ahora en dos grandes grupos acorde a la Proteína supresora de tumores P16: P16+ y P16-,los cuales tienen características y manejo diferente. En vista de la heterogeneidad de la enfermedad, son diversos los tratamientos que se ha empleados para el manejo de la misma, entre ellos cirugía, radioterapia, quimioterapia e/o inmunoterapia; ésta última terapéutica, está dirigida hacia la estimulación del sistema inmune del paciente con la finalidad de generar la destrucción de las células tumorales, se realizan previo a una intervención quirúrgica para reducir el tamaño del tumor. Una forma destacable, es la del bloqueo de puntos de control inmunitarios, especialmente hacia proteínas de control inmune moduladoras de respuesta de células T, como los anti-PD-1 y los anti-CTLA-4. La inmunoterapia cada vez va tomando más protagonismo en oncología, en especial las formas de evasión de las reacciones inmunitarias por parte de las células cancerígenas(AU)


Head and neck cancer includes all those tumors that develop in the upper aerodigestive tract, one of the characteristics of these is their heterogeneity, which is not only from the histological and etiological, but also include various forms of presentation, progression and therapeutic approaches.They have a multifactorial cause, with alcohol and tobacco being the main associated risk factors, however, in recent year scertain viruses with oncogenic potential have been linked to tumor genesis, including HPV, which has made it possible tomodify the TNM staging system; now presenting it in two large groups, P16+ and P16-, which have different characteristics and management. In view of the heterogeneity of the disease, there are various treatments that have been used to manageit, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and/ orimmunotherapy which will be determined taking into account the location and tumor extension. The latter treatment, is aimedat stimulating the patient's immune system in order to generate the destruction of tumor cells, are performed prior to a surgical intervention to reduce the size of the tumor. A remarkable therapy is that of blocking immune checkpoints, especially anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA. Immunotherapy is becoming more and more prominent, however, there is still much to discover, so we believe that we should continue investigating the ways of evasion of immune reactions by cancer cells(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder , Alcohol Drinking , Risk Factors , Head and Neck Neoplasms/etiology , Immunotherapy , T-Lymphocytes , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity
16.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 36(1): 3-14, Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447070

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Oral mucositis (OM) is a frequent complication in cáncer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It manifests as an inflammation of the oral mucosa, sometimes provoking severe consequences such as eating limitations, difficulty in speaking, and possibly superinfection. Aim: The aim of this review was to update the evidence published during the last five years on the treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy in patients with cancer. Materials and Method: A search was conducted in Pubmed, Scielo and Scopus, using the search terms mucositis, stomatitis, therapy, treatment, oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer and head and neck carcinoma, with Mesh terms and free terms, from 2017 to January 2023. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Results: A total 287 articles were retrieved, of which 86 were selected by title and abstract, and 18 were included after full-text analysis. The most frequently assessed variables were OM severity, pain intensity and healing time. Treatment types were diverse, and included drugs, mouthwashes, medicines based on plant extracts, cryotherapy and low-intensity laser therapies. Conclusión: Dentoxol mouthwashes, Plantago major extract, thyme honey extract, zinc oxide paste, vitamin B complex combined with GeneTime, and the consumption of L-glutamine are effective in diminishing the severity of OM. Pain intensity was lower with doxepin mouthwashes and diphenhydramine-lidocaine-antacid mouthwashes.


RESUMEN La mucositis oral (MO) es una complicación frecuente en pacientes oncológicos sometidos a quimioterapia o radioterapia. Se manifiesta como una inflamación de la mucosa oral, provocando en ocasiones graves consecuencias como limitaciones en la alimentación, dificultad para hablar y posiblemente sobreinfección. Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión fue actualizar la evidencia publicada durante los últimos cinco años sobre el tratamiento de la mucositis oral inducida por radioterapia y/o quimioterapia, en pacientes con cáncer. Materiales y Método: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, Scielo y Scopus, con las palabras de búsqueda mucositis, stomatitis, therapy, treatment, oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer and head and neck carcinoma, utilizando términos Mesh y libres, de 2017 a enero de 2023. La revisión sistemática se realizó de acuerdo con los lineamientos de declaración del PRISMA. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 287 artículos, de los cuales 86 fueron seleccionados por título y resumen y finalmente 18 fueron incluidos por texto completo. Las variables evaluadas con mayor frecuencia fueron la severidad de la MO, la intensidad del dolor y el tiempo de cicatrización. Los tipos de tratamientos fueron diversos, desde medicamentos, colutorios bucales, medicamentos a base de extractos de plantas, crioterapia y terapias con láser de baja intensidad. Conclusiones: Los enjuagues bucales de Dentoxol, extracto de Plantago major, extracto de miel de tomillo, pasta de óxido de zinc, mezcla de compuestos de vitamina B combinados con GeneTime y el consumo de L-glutamina son efectivos para disminuir la severidad de la MO. La intensidad del dolor fue menor con los colutorios de doxepina y también con los colutorios de difenhidramina-lidocaína-antiácido. Palabras clave: mucositis bucal;cáncer;quimioterapia;radioterapia;tratamiento

17.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2023 Mar; 66(1): 141-144
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223401

ABSTRACT

Pineocytoma is a rare tumor. It is rare for pineocytoma to present as leptomeningeal metastasis. We present a rare case of pineocytoma with malignant transformation and leptomeningeal metastasis after subtotal tumor resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. This case was a 58-year-old male with an unsteady gait for 2 months. Enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneous mass involving the pineal region. The initial pathological diagnosis of pineocytoma was confirmed after subtotal tumor resection. Two years after adjuvant radiotherapy to the primary site, the magnetic resonance imaging showed C2 and T2 metastatic lesions, with the final pathological diagnosis being pineal parenchymal tumor (PPT) with intermediate differentiation after the removal of T2 intramedullary tumor. After that adjuvant radiotherapy at the cervical and thoracic spinal cord was completed. There was no recurrence of the tumor 1 year after the radiotherapy. We report a rare case of pineocytoma with malignant transformation to PPT with intermediate differentiation and leptomeningeal dissemination.

18.
Indian J Cancer ; 2023 Mar; 60(1): 59-64
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221755

ABSTRACT

Background: Carcinoma cervix contributes to a major proportion of cancer treatment in tertiary oncology centers. The outcomes are dependent on multiple factors. We conducted an audit to establish the pattern of treatment practiced for carcinoma cervix at the institute and suggest changes thereof to improve the quality of care. Methodology: A retrospective observational study of 306 diagnosed cases of carcinoma cervix was carried out for the year 2010. Data was collected with regards to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: Out of 306 cases, 102 (33.33%) patients received only radiation therapy and 204 (66.66%) patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The most common chemotherapy used was weekly cisplatin 99 (48.52%), followed by weekly carboplatin 60 (29.41%) and three weekly cisplatin 45 (22.05%). Disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years was 36.6% with patients of overall treatment time (OTT) of <8 weeks and >8 weeks showing DFS of 41.8% and 34% (P = 0.149), respectively. Overall survival (OS) was 34%. Concurrent chemoradiation improved overall survival by a median of 8 months (P = 0.035). There was a trend towards improved survival with three weekly cisplatin regimen, however, insignificant. Stage correlated with improved overall survival significantly with stage I and II showing 40% and stage III and IV showing 32% (P < 0.05) OS. Acute toxicity (grade I-III) was higher in the concurrent chemoradiation group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This audit was a first of its kind in the institute and threw light on the treatment and survival trends. It also revealed the number of patients lost to follow-up and prompted us to review the reasons for it. It has laid the foundation for future audits and recognized the importance of electronic medical records in the maintenance of data

19.
Indian J Cancer ; 2023 Mar; 60(1): 52-58
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221754

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography朿omputed tomography (PET-CT) in determining the correct stage and predicting the pathological response. Methods: Seventy one patients with pathologic proven rectal adenocarcinoma, clinical stage IIA-IVA, and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) were evaluated retrospectively. Radiotherapy was delivered 45� Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant oral capecitabine. Pelvic MRI, colonoscopy, and 18F-FDG PET-CT were performed before the neoadjuvant treatment (NAT). After NAT, MRI and PET-CT were performed for re-evaluation. Results: The median follow-up time was 25 months (range: 3� months). Of the 71 patients who underwent NAT, 57 patients underwent surgery. Downstaging was recorded in 48 (84.2%) of 57 patients who underwent surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between both MRI and PET-CT with pathology results in terms of response evaluation. As a result of the comparison of MRI and PET-CT with pathological results; sensitivity and specificity were 91.6% (44/48) and 22.2% (2/9) for MRI, and 100% (47/47) and 12.5% (1/8) for PET-CT, respectively. Conclusion: PET-CT and MRI are effective in predicting response to NAT and predictive for the pathological response. A more accurate response can be judged when both PET-CT and MRI are executed together in restaging after NAT

20.
Indian J Cancer ; 2023 Mar; 60(1): 37-43
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221751

ABSTRACT

Background: Kimura抯 disease is a rare inflammatory disease that usually appears in head and neck region. We reported natural history of the disease and treatment outcome of radiotherapy (RT) in Chiang Mai University Hospital. Methods: A retrospective review was performed for all Kimura抯 disease patients treated with radiotherapy at our center between 2002 and 2017. Results: A total of 20 patients with Kimura抯 disease were reviewed. There were 14 men and 6 women. All patients presented with the mass in head and neck region. Eleven patients were treated with a definitive intent with RT, 9 patients were treated with RT after recurrence from other modalities. All patients were treated with local external beam RT with 2 Gy per fraction to a median total dose of 30 Gy (range 30�). The median follow-up time was 4 years (range 1�.5 years). One patient died from HIV opportunistic infection after 1.5 year of radiation with complete response of Kimura抯 disease. Most of the patients responded to radiotherapy and controlled the disease at the time of analysis. Two patients had multiple recurrences at new areas outside radiotherapy field. Skin toxicity grade 1 was the most common late side effect which was found in 8 (44%) patients. We did not find severe late toxicity or second malignancy in this patient cohort. Conclusion: Good local control of Kimura抯 disease can be achieved, with a radiation dose of 30� Gy, with insignificant late toxicities. We suggest that radi

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