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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(3): 337-344, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384170

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is the second most prevalent malignancy among head and neck tumors, and the treatment of patients with stage I or II disease can be performed with surgery or radiation therapy. National population studies describing therapeutic results comparing these modalities are unusual, but they can be very important to direct treatment guidelines. Objective To evaluate the survival results of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at clinical stages I or II, according to the main therapeutic modalities used. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using the database of Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo from January 2000 to March 2019. Inclusion criteria were patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in clinical stages cT1-2N0. To compensate for the non-random allocation of patients and the imbalance between confounding variables between groups, we used the propensity score methodology. Results A total of 3786 patients met the inclusion criteria. Regarding the cT stage, there were 2171 patients (57.3%) with cT1 tumors. Patients in the public health system had a longer time between diagnosis and treatment (p< 0.001). The analysis by propensity score showed that patients treated with surgery had a tendency towards better disease-specific survival (p = 0.012). Comparing radiotherapy alone versus its combination with radiochemotherapy, radiotherapy alone showed a tendency towards a better survival rate (p< 0.001). Conclusion Analysis by propensity score identified better results for disease-specific survival in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at clinical stages I and II treated by surgery when compared to radiotherapy.


Resumo Introdução O carcinoma epidermoide de laringe é o segundo mais prevalente entre os tumores de cabeça e pescoço e o tratamento dos pacientes com doença em estádio I ou II pode ser feito com cirurgia ou radioterapia. Estudos populacionais nacionais que descrevem os resultados terapêuticos e compararam essas modalidades são poucos frequentes, mas podem ser muito importantes para orientar diretrizes de tratamento. Objetivo Avaliar os resultados de sobrevida dos pacientes com carcinoma epidermoide de laringe em estádios clínicos I ou II de acordo com as principais modalidades terapêuticas usadas. Método Estudo transversal de base populacional com a base de dados da Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo de janeiro de 2000 a março de 2019. Os critérios de inclusão foram pacientes com carcinoma epidermoide de laringe em estádios clínicos cT1-2N0. Para compensar pela alocação não randômica dos pacientes e pelo desequilíbrio entre variáveis confundidoras entre os grupos, usamos a metodologia do escore de propensão. Resultados Preencheram os critérios de inclusão 3.786 pacientes. Em relação ao estádio cT, houve 2.171 pacientes (57,3%) com tumores cT1. Os pacientes do sistema único de saúde (SUS) apresentaram um maior tempo entre o diagnóstico e o tratamento (p < 0,001). A análise por escore de propensão mostrou que os pacientes submetidos a cirurgia apresentaram uma tendência de melhor sobrevida doença específica (p = 0,012). Comparando-se radioterapia isolada versus combinação com radioquimioterapia, o tratamento isolado demonstrou tendência a melhor taxa de sobrevida (p< 0,001). Conclusão A análise por escore de propensão identificou melhores resultados de sobrevida doença específica em pacientes com carcinoma epidermoide de laringe estádios clínicos I e II tratados por cirurgia quando comparados a radioterapia.

2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(3): 375-380, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction In many regions, laryngeal carcinoma is a common upper respiratory tract cancer, most commonly involving the glottic region. The treatment of early glottic cancer includes radiotherapy, open surgery and laryngeal laser microsurgery. However, the preferred treatment for early glottic cancer is still controversial. Objectives To study the factors affecting the 5-year survival rate of Tis-2N0M0 early glottis cancer and to demonstrate the oncological safety of different treatments. Methods 144 patients with early glottic cancer were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were clinically node negative. 53 patients underwent open surgery, transoral CO2 laser microsurgery in 46 cases and radiotherapy in 45 cases. The patients were followed up for 26 − 84 months, with an average follow-up period of 62.9 months. Results The 5-year overall survival was 82.6%. The 5 year survival rates of open surgery, laser microsurgery and radiotherapy were 83.0%, 82.6% and 82.2%, respectively. There was no significant difference in 5-year survival rate among the three treatments (p= 0.987). In multivariate analysis, age, T-stage, pathological grading, and anterior commissure involvement were important prognostic factors for early glottic cancer. Conclusion There was no significant difference in 5 year survival rate among patients treated by either radiotherapy, laser microsurgery or open surgery for early glottic cancer. We urge more attention to the age, T-stage, pathological grade, and anterior commissure involvement of the patients.


Resumo Introdução Em muitas regiões, o carcinoma de laringe é um câncer comum do trato respiratório superior e geralmente envolve a região glótica. O tratamento do câncer glótico inicial inclui radioterapia, cirurgia aberta e microcirurgia a laser de laringe. Entretanto, a forma preferencial de tratamento do câncer glótico inicial ainda é controverso. Objetivos Estudar os fatores que afetam a taxa de sobrevida em 5 anos do câncer glótico inicial Tis-2N0M0 e demonstrar a segurança oncológica de diferentes tratamentos. Método Um total de 144 pacientes com câncer glótico inicial foram analisados retrospectivamente. Todos os pacientes eram clinicamente negativos para linfonodos. Cinquenta e três pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia aberta, 46 à microcirurgia transoral a laser de CO2, e radioterapia em 45 casos. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por 26 a 84 meses, com um período médio de seguimento de 62,9 meses. Resultados A sobrevida global em 5 anos foi de 82,6%. As taxas de sobrevida em cinco anos da cirurgia aberta, microcirurgia a laser e radioterapia foram de 83,0%, 82,6% e 82,2%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significante na taxa de sobrevida em cinco anos entre os três tratamentos (p = 0,987). Na análise multivariada, idade, estágio T, classificação histopatológica e envolvimento da comissura anterior foram fatores prognósticos importantes para o câncer glótico inicial. Conclusão Não houve diferença significante na taxa de sobrevida em 5 anos entre radioterapia, microcirurgia a laser e cirurgia aberta para câncer glótico inicial. Deve-se estar atento à idade, estágio T, histopatológico e envolvimento da comissura anterior dos pacientes.

3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(2): 179-183, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374245

ABSTRACT

Abstract Primary cutaneous lymphomas are defined as the ones that exclusively affect the skin for up to 6 months after the diagnosis. B-cell lymphomas represent 20-25% of primary cutaneous lymphomas and have, among its subtypes, the leg type, which represents 10 to 20% of cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, generally affecting elderly people and with an intermediate prognosis. This is the report of a rare case of a leg-type B-cell lymphoma with an exuberant clinical presentation affecting a young male patient.

4.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 85-89, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362092

ABSTRACT

Introduction Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a tumor originated from the epitheliumof the glandular excretory ducts and has highly variable biological potential. It is the most prevalent cancer of the salivary glands. The present report aims to describe a case of nasal mucoepidermoid carcinoma that developed after adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) treatment of a recurrent pituitary macroadenoma. Case Report Male patient, 62 years old, presented with recurrent nasal epistaxis on the right, associated with intense pulsatile headache, visual analogical scale (VAS) 10/10, with improvement only with the use of opioids andmorphine. After undergoing oncological screening and study by imaging exams, the presence of an expansive seal lesion with suprasellar extension was seen, involving the medial wall of the cavernous segment of the right carotid artery and the anterior cerebral artery, as well as the presence of a new expansive lesion in the right nasal cavity, with ethmoid bone invasion superiorly and medial orbit wall invasion laterally, compressing the ipsilateral optic nerve canal. Discussion Sinonasal neoplasms represent a small portion of all malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, accounting for<5% of these neoplasms. The development of MEC involves risk factors such as occupational issues, history of trauma and surgery involving the nasal area, and radiation exposure, as in previous RT. Conclusion Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasia and can be associated with RT treatment, as used in cases of recurrent pituitary macroadenoma. In general, surgical resection to obtain free margins of neoplastic tissue is the aimed treatment, seeking better prognosis.

5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(1): 66-77, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376907

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rectal cancer is the third most frequent cancer in Colombia and constitutes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for gastroenterologists, surgeons, and oncologists. Diagnostic evaluation and the study of its locoregional and systemic extension have been modified by new imaging methods, enabling an accurate view of anatomical structures that could not be easily examined before. The availability of these new tools in disease staging has significantly impacted therapeutic decisions and the choice of a specific treatment path for each patient, rationalizing the use of neoadjuvant therapies and the performance of surgery with correct anatomical criteria. The preceding has been essential to achieving the best outcomes with the least associated postoperative morbidity. This article will review and explain in detail the most recent changes and up-to-date recommendations for managing rectal cancer.


Resumen El cáncer de recto es el tercer cáncer en frecuencia en Colombia, y constituye un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico para gastroenterólogos, cirujanos y oncólogos. La evaluación diagnóstica y el estudio de su extensión locorregional y sistémica se han modificado por nuevos métodos de imagen, que permiten una visualización precisa de estructuras anatómicas que antes no se podían evaluar fácilmente. La disponibilidad de estas nuevas herramientas en la estadificación de la enfermedad ha tenido un gran impacto en las decisiones terapéuticas y en la escogencia de una ruta de tratamiento específica para cada paciente, lo que ha racionalizado el uso de terapias neoadyuvantes y la realización de cirugía con criterios anatómicos correctos. Esto ha sido fundamental en el objetivo de lograr los mejores desenlaces con la menor morbilidad posoperatoria asociada. En este artículo se revisarán y explicarán en detalle cuáles han sido los cambios más recientes y las recomendaciones más actualizadas para el manejo del cáncer de recto.

6.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 32-37, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375765

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association of fecal incontinence (FI) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients diagnosed with initial prostate cancer (PC) and after any therapeutic approach (surgery and radiotherapy). Methods: Cross-sectional study using the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS), the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) questionnaire, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB). Results: A total of 84 patients with PC were included: 40 of them had not started treatment, 31 were submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP), and 13 were submitted to radiotherapy (RT). Those submitted to RT presented higher scores on the ICIQ-OAB (p=0.01). When comparing the whole sample reagarding the patients with and without FI, we observed that the incontinents presented a higher frequency of urinary incontinence (UI) (p<0.001). Moreover, when comparing patients with/without FI within their treatment groups regarding the presence of UI and FIQL scores, we identified that patients undergoing RP presented an association between UI and FI (p<0.001) and a greater impact of FI on the FIQL (p<0.001). Conclusion: Patients submitted to RT present more intense LUTS. Moreover, patients with FI present a higher association with UI, and this association is more marked in those with FI submitted to RP. (AU)


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fecal Incontinence
7.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 91-95, mar. 2022. Ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362719

ABSTRACT

El angiosarcoma es un tumor vascular maligno poco frecuente. Constituye menos del 2% de todos los sarcomas. Existen varias formas clínicas, una es la producida después de radioterapia, en pacientes que fueron tratadas por un cáncer de mama, con cirugía conservadora y radioterapia. Se presenta como un sarcoma de alto grado, localizado en la piel o en el tejido subcutáneo y, ocasionalmente, el parénquima mamario. El único tratamiento curativo es la cirugía, con tendencia a la recurrencia y a hacer metástasis hematógena, el pronóstico es malo, con alta tasa de mortalidad.


Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. It constitutes less than 2% of all sarcomas. There are several clinical forms; the one produced after radiation therapy is that associated with patients who were treated for breast cancer with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. It presents as a high-grade sarcoma located on the skin or the subcutaneous tissue and, occasionally, the breast parenchyma. The only curative treatment is surgery, with a tendency to recurrence and visceral hematogenous metastasis, with a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate.


El angiossarcoma é um tumor vascular maligno pouco frequente. Constitui menos de 2% de todos os sarcomas. Existem várias formas clínicas, uma é a produzida depois da radioterapia, em pacientes que foram tratadas por um câncer de mama, com cirurgia conservadora e radioterapia. Se apresenta como um sarcoma de alto grau, localizado na pele ou no tecido subcutâneo e, ocasionalmente, o parênquima mamário. O único tratamento curativo é a cirurgia, com tendência à recorrência e a fazer metástasehematogênica, o prognóstico é mau, com alta taxa de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Breast , Subcutaneous Tissue , Parenchymal Tissue , Neoplasm Metastasis
8.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 70(1): e300, Jan.-Mar. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387320

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a very rare and aggressive type of sarcoma. Although its histology and genetic characteristics have been identified, the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy for its treatment are still being studied. Case presentation: In November 2007, a 21-year-old woman presented with a primary tumor in the right thigh, with histological and immunohistochemical confirmation of an alveolar soft part sarcoma, which was totally resected in December 2007. Also, the large size of the mass suggested an unfavorable evolution. Two years after the first surgery, two metastatic tumors were detected in the right lung, which were completely resected separately. Two years later, the patient had two independent relapse events, five months apart: a mass in the right tight, and a metastatic tumor in the adrenal gland, together with a relapse in the tight. All tumors were successfully resected. In June 2014, after the last local relapse, adjuvant radiotherapy was started because of the risk of thigh amputation. At the end of treatment, the patient's general condition was good. Currently, at age 34, the patient is monitored through periodic evaluations, showing disease regression and stabilization. Conclusions: Currently, it is known that radiation not only produces cytotoxic effects on the target region but also induces an immune system-mediated systemic response with potential antimetastatic properties. Emerging radiobiological paradigms should be considered, particularly since they could explain some encouraging and unexpected results, such as those described in this case.


Resumen Introducción. El sarcoma alveolar de partes blandas es un raro y agresivo tipo de sarcoma. Aunque se han identificado sus características histológicas y genéticas, todavía se están estudiando los beneficios de la radioterapia adyuvante en su tratamiento. Presentación del caso. En noviembre de 2007, una mujer de 21 años se presentó con un tumor primario en el muslo derecho, con confirmación histológica e inmunohistoquímica de sarcoma alveolar de partes blandas y que fue completamente removido en diciembre de 2007. La masa mostró un gran tamaño, sugiriendo una evolución desfavorable. Dos años después de la primera cirugía, se detectaron dos tumores metastásicos en el pulmón derecho, que también fueron removidos, de forma separada. Dos años después, la paciente tuvo dos relapsos, separados por cinco meses: una masa en el muslo derecho, y un tumor metastásico en la glándula suprarrenal junto con una recaída en el muslo. Todos los tumores fueron extirpados con éxito. En junio de 2014, después de la última recaída local, el muslo estaba en riesgo de ser amputado, por lo que se decidió iniciar radioterapia adyuvante. Al final del tratamiento, la condición general de la paciente fue buena. Actualmente, ya con 34 años, es evaluada periódicamente, mostrando regresión y estabilización de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Actualmente, se sabe que la radiación no solo produce efectos citotóxicos en la región objetivo, sino que también induce una respuesta sistémica mediada por el sistema inmune, con propiedades potencialmente antimetastásicas. En este sentido, se sugiere considerar los paradigmas radiobiológicos emergentes, ya que estos podrían explicar algunos resultados alentadores e inesperados como los descritos en este caso.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928873

ABSTRACT

CT image based organ segmentation is essential for radiotherapy treatment planning, and it is laborious and time consuming to outline the endangered organs and target areas before making radiation treatment plans. This study proposes a fully automated segmentation method based on fusion convolutional neural network to improve the efficiency of physicians in outlining the endangered organs and target areas. The CT images of 170 postoperative cervical cancer stage IB and IIA patients were selected for network training and automatic outlining of bladder, rectum, femoral head and CTV, and the neural network was used to localize easily distinguishable vessels around the target area to achieve more accurate outlining of CTV.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Neural Networks, Computer , Organs at Risk , Pelvis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928869

ABSTRACT

To study an automatic plan(AP) method for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery based on TiGRT system and and compare with manual plan (MP). The dosimetry parameters of 10 patients and the evaluation of scoring table were analyzed, it was found that the targets dose of AP were better than that of MP, but there was no statistical difference except for CI, The V5, V20 and V30 of affected lungs and whole lungs in AP were lower than all that in MP, the Dmean of hearts was slightly higher than that of MP, but the difference was not statistically significant, the MU of AP was increase by 16.1% compared with MP, the score of AP evaluation was increase by 6.1% compared with MP. So the AP could be programmed and automated while ensuring the quality of the plan, and can be used to design the plans for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Mastectomy, Segmental , Organs at Risk , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927653

ABSTRACT

Objective@#SET8 is a member of the SET domain-containing family and the only known lysine methyltransferase (KMT) that monomethylates lysine 20 of histone H4 (H4K20me1). SET8 has been implicated in many essential cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, DNA damage response, and carcinogenesis. There is no conclusive evidence, however, regarding the effect of SET8 on radiotherapy. In the current study we determined the efficacy of SET8 inhibition on radiotherapy of tumors and the underlying mechanism.@*Methods@#First, we explored the radiotherapy benefit of the SET8 expression signature by analyzing clinical data. Then, we measured a series of biological endpoints, including the xenograft tumor growth in mice and apoptosis, frequency of micronuclei, and foci of 53BP1 and γ-H2AX in cells to detect the SET8 effects on radiosensitivity. RNA sequencing and subsequent experiments were exploited to verify the mechanism underlying the SET8 effects on radiotherapy.@*Results@#Low expression of SET8 predicted a better benefit to radiotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and invasive breast carcinoma (BRCA) patients. Furthermore, genetic deletion of SET8 significantly enhanced radiation treatment efficacy in a murine tumor model, and A549 and MCF7 cells; SET8 overexpression decreased the radiosensitivity. SET8 inhibition induced more apoptosis, the frequency of micronuclei, and blocked the kinetics process of DNA damage repair as 53BP1 and γ-H2AX foci remained in cells. Moreover, RNF8 was positively correlated with the SET8 impact on DNA damage repair.@*Conclusion@#Our results demonstrated that SET8 inhibition enhanced radiosensitivity by suppressing DNA damage repair, thus suggesting that SET8 potentiated radiotherapy of carcinomas. As new inhibitors of SET8 are synthesized and tested in preclinical and clinical settings, combining SET8 inhibitors with radiation warrants consideration for precise radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma/radiotherapy , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Damage , DNA Replication , HeLa Cells , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Humans , Mice , Radiotherapy
12.
Journal of Rural Medicine ; : 94-100, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924476

ABSTRACT

Objective: Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS), which develops after radiotherapy, occurs as a secondary sarcoma in the irradiated area after a long latency period following radiation exposure.Patient: A 59-year-old man underwent hormone therapy for prostate cancer, followed by proton therapy (74 GyE) four years ago. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography performed 2.5 years later revealed 18F-FDG accumulation in the left pubis. Three years after proton therapy, the patient developed gradually worsening left inguinal pain and visited our department. Imaging revealed bone destruction with a mixture of osteolysis and osteogenesis in the left pubis and the presence of an extraosseous tumor. Following biopsy, the patient was diagnosed with osteosarcoma.Results: A systemic investigation revealed lung metastasis, and chemotherapy was initiated. The lung metastases shrank, and carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT, 70.4 GyE) was performed on the left pubic lesion after colostomy. Six months after carbon ion radiotherapy, recurrence was observed in the irradiated field, and CIRT was performed again. However, the patient died 22 months after the initial diagnosis because of cancerous pleurisy and pericarditis.Conclusions: Although RIS is rare, it should be actively identified using biopsy to confirm the diagnosis, keeping in mind that it is an important late complication of radiotherapy.

13.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 515-518, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923708

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the influencing factors of nosocomial infections among patients undergoing radiotherapy, so as to provide insights into nosocomial infection control among radiotherapy patients. @*Methods@#The malignant tumor patients receiving radiotherapy in Yiwu Central Hospital from 2019 to 2020 were selected. Their demographic features, radiotherapy and nosocomial infections were collected through the eletronic medical records. The factors affecting nosocomial infections were identified among radiotherapy patients using a multivariable logistic regression model.@*Results@#Totally 553 malignant tumor patients receiving radiotherapy were enrolled, including 268 men ( 48.46% ) and with a mean age of ( 60.31±13.66 ) years. The mean duration of hospital stay was ( 28.67±14.32 ) days, and the mean radiotherapy cycle was ( 3.63±1.89 ) weeks. A total of 46 patients were detected with nosocomial infections, with prevalence of 8.32%. The top three sites with the highest prevalence of nosocomial infections included the lower respiratory tract ( 14 cases, 30.43% ), oral cavity ( 10 cases, 21.74 ) and urinary tract ( 8 cases, 17.39% ), and 42 bacterial strains were isolated, with Gram-negative bacteria as the predominant strains ( 25 strains, 59.52% ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that radiotherapy cycle of 4 weeks and longer ( OR=3.857, 95%CI: 1.896-7.846 ), radiotherapy exposure ( OR=3.254, 95%CI: 1.561-6.783 ), arteriovenous catheterization ( OR=2.165, 95%CI: 1.144-4.098 ), urinary tract intubation ( OR=6.028, 95%CI: 1.841-19.734 ) and poor nutritional status ( OR=3.933, 95%CI: 1.493-10.360 ) were associated with nosocomial infections among radiotherapy patients.@*Conclusion@# Radiotherapy cycle, exposure to radiotherapy, arteriovenous catheterization, urinary tract intubation and poor nutritional status are factors affecting nosocomial infections among radiotherapy patients.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923522

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To explore the effect of family swallowing training program on swallowing function in patients with head and neck cancer after radiotherapy. Methods From September, 2020 to September, 2021, 45 patients with head and neck tumors who received radiotherapy in the oncology department of Beidahuang Industry Group General Hospital were randomly divided into control group (n = 23) and observation group (n = 22). Both groups received routine treatment, and the observation group received swallowing training program for 14 weeks at the beginning of radiotherapy, including six weeks of individualized guidance training in hospital and eight weeks of home training after leaving the hospital. The incisors spacing, body mass, Kubota Water Swallowing Test (WST) and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) were compared at the beginning of training, six weeks and 14 weeks after training. Results At the beginning of training, there was no significant difference in incisor spacing, body mass and the scores of WST and FOIS between two groups (P > 0.05). Six weeks and 14 weeks after training, the incisors spacing, and the scores of WST and FOIS were better in the observation group than in the control group (|Z| > 2.332, P < 0.05). Conclusion Family-based swallowing training program is helpful to improve the limitation of mouth opening and dysphagia caused by radiotherapy. Family-based swallowing training program is simple, safe, economical and highly operable, which is worthy of clinical promotion.

15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0033, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376776

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A obstrução de via lacrimal é uma possível complicação decorrente de tratamentos oncológicos sistêmicos e locais. A epífora crônica gera grande impacto na qualidade de vida desses pacientes, e, como a fibrose terminal da via lacrimal pode necessitar de procedimentos complexos para sua resolução, é importante estarmos atentos a esse efeito adverso, com o objetivo de reconhecê-lo e tratá-lo precocemente, ou mesmo preveni-lo. Nesta revisão da literatura, os autores analisam todos os agentes quimioterápicos e radioterápicos associados à obstrução lacrimal e descrevem os mecanismos, a frequência, os tratamentos e a profilaxia. Os tratamentos oncológicos associados à obstrução lacrimal foram: radioterapia em cabeça e pescoço (dosagem acima de 45 a 75Gy), radioiodoterapia (dosagem acima de 150mCi) e quimioterapia com 5-FU, S-1, capecitabine e docetaxel. A obstrução lacrimal pode ser irreversível, e a intubação profilática das vias lacrimais é uma possibilidade descrita de tratamento profilático em casos de radioterapia e uso do 5-FU, S-1 e docetaxel. O tratamento cirúrgico de todos os casos é a dacriocistorrinostomia.


ABSTRACT Lacrimal duct obstruction can be a side effect of systemic and/or local cancer treatments. Chronic epiphora has a great impact on the quality of life of oncological patients. Since terminal fibrosis of the lacrimal system may require complex procedures, it is important to be aware of this adverse effect in order to recognize and treat it, or even prevent it. A literature review was performed to identify all types of systemic cancer treatment associated with lacrimal obstruction and to describe the mechanisms, frequency, treatment, and prophylaxis. The oncological treatments associated with lacrimal obstruction were head and neck radiotherapy (dosage above 45-75 Gy), radioiodine therapy (dosage above 150 mCi), and chemotherapy with 5-FU, S-1, Capecitabine and Docetaxel. Depending on the dose, this complication may be irreversible. Prophylactic intubation of the lacrimal system is an option for prophylaxis in cases of radiotherapy, use of 5-FU, S-1, and Docetaxel. Final surgical treatment is dacryocystorhinostomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Iodine Radioisotopes/adverse effects , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/etiology , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/chemically induced , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Dacryocystorhinostomy , Drainage , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases/prevention & control , Nasolacrimal Duct/drug effects , Nasolacrimal Duct/radiation effects
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(3): 376-378, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383563

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 73-year-old male patient developed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the anal canal nine months ago. He was treated with two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin and concomitant radiotherapy (6 MeV linear photon accelerator, total dose of 54 Gy), with complete remission. Since forty-five days he presentes a painful perianal and intergluteal erosion with circinate pustular borders. Light microscopy showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the epidermis with microabscesses of inflammatory cells (neutrophils and eosinophils) and acantholytic keratinocytes . Indirect immunofluorescence was positive for IgG, with an intercellular pattern, 1:80 titer. The diagnosis of radiotherapy-induced pemphigus vegetans was established and there was significant regression with oral prednisone (40 mg) and topical betamethasone.

17.
Odontoestomatol ; 24(39)2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386404

ABSTRACT

Resumen Caries relacionada a radiación es una complicación tardía frecuente de la radioterapia de cáncer de cabeza y cuello, ocasionada por efectos directos e indirectos de la radioterapia. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una revisión y analizar literatura sobre el manejo de caries relacionada a radiación, materiales usados, fallas en el tratamiento y protocolo con mejores resultados; tres revisores independientes realizaron una búsqueda en diferentes bases de datos: PubMed, Lilacs y Web Of Science, determinando criterios de inclusión y exclusión para la selección. Estudios clínicos y revisiones indicaron que los materiales más usados son cemento ionómero de vidrio convencional, cemento ionómero de vidrio modificado con resina y resina compuesta con aplicaciones de flúor. Son necesarios más estudios para definir el mejor tratamiento que incluya técnica de preparación de la cavidad y material restaurador con mejores resultados. Se recomienda realizar estudios comparando diferentes sistemas adhesivos, concentraciones de flúor y restauraciones en dentina radicular.


Resumo Cárie relacionada à radiação é uma complicação tardia frequente da radioterapia de câncer de cabeça e pescoço, ocasionada por efeitos diretos e indiretos da radioterapia. O objetivo do presente trabalho é realizar uma revisão e analisar literatura sobre o tratamento de cárie relacionada à radiação, materiais usados, falhas no tratamento e manejo com melhores resultados; foi realizada uma busca em diferentes bases de dados: PubMed, Lilacs e Web Of Science, por três revisores independentes, usando critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Estudos clínicos e revisões de literatura indicam que os materiais mais usados são cimento de ionômero de vidro convencional, cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado com resina e resina composta com aplicações de flúor. Mais estudos são necessários para definir o melhor tratamento que inclua a técnica de preparo cavitário e material restaurador com melhores resultados. Recomenda-se a realização de estudos comparando diferentes sistemas adesivos, concentrações de flúor e restaurações em dentina radicular.


Abstract Radiation-related caries are a frequent late complication caused by the direct and indirect effects of head and neck cancer radiotherapy. This study aimed to review and analyze the literature on managing radiation-related caries, restorative materials, treatment failures, and treatment protocols. A search was conducted in Pubmed, Lilacs, and Web of Science by three independent reviewers, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for paper selection. According to clinical studies and literature reviews, the most used materials are conventional glass-ionomer cement, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, and composite resin with fluoride applications. More studies are needed to determine the best treatment, including cavity preparation technique and restorative material with better results. We suggest conducting studies comparing various adhesive systems, fluoride concentrations, and root dentin restorations.

18.
Niger. j. clin. pract. (Online) ; 25(6): 923-930, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1373631

ABSTRACT

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies seen in the Western World. It is increasing in developing countries due to adaptation of the western lifestyle with an incidence of 6% in Nigeria. Treatment options are dependent on the stage of disease at presentation, the performance status of the patient, and increasingly the molecular makeup of the tumor. There is a dearth of data on the treatment options obtainable for the management and outcome of CRC cases in Northwestern, Nigeria. Aim: The study assessed the treatment options and outcome of colorectal cancer patients in a tertiary institution, in Northwestern, Nigeria over a 10-year period. Patients and Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2015, data of one-hundred and twenty-two histologically confirmed colorectal cancer cases seen at the Surgery, Radiotherapy and Oncology Departments, ABUTH Zaria, were retrieved retrospectively from the case files and treatment cards of the patients at the health information unit of the hospital. The stage at disease presentation, treatment received, and outcome were analyzed. Results: Nearly a quarter of the patients fell within the age bracket 31­40 years with the median age being 41 years. While only 41% of the patients had their disease staged, 30.4% of the patients presented with advanced disease (Dukes'C + D). Only 95 cases received a form of surgery or the other. Colostomy however accounted for 28.4%. Eighty-nine of the patients received chemotherapy either as neoadjuvant, adjuvant or with palliative intent. External beam radiotherapy either with radical or palliative intent was received by 60 patients (49.2%). At 1-year follow-up sixty cases had been lost to follow up, and thirty-six cases had defaulted on one form of treatment. Conclusion: The study showed that stage at presentation and the available treatment options in the hospital informed treatment offered to the patients. However, surgery was readily performed due to the pattern of presentation and most patients benefited from just a diverting colostomy. Majority of the patients presented with rectal tumor which required radiotherapy as part of its treatment modality, although this is still a luxury in this part of the world. Chemotherapy is also readily available and often prescribed. Cost and limited facility for biomarker (K-ras) testing restrict the use of targeted therapy. Outcome at 1-year follow-up was poor with whereabouts of nearly half of the patients unknown.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease Management , Drug Therapy , Hospitals, Teaching
19.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(1): e20210118, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341027

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the incidence and degree of acute radiodermatitis at the end and after the end of treatment in women with breast cancer undergoing hypofractionated radiotherapy. Methods: Observational, prospective, and longitudinal study, conducted between March 2019 and January 2020, in a radiotherapy outpatient clinic. Results: Thirty-two women participated in the study, among whom, in the last session of hypofractionated radiotherapy, 15 (46.9%) had radiodermatitis, erythema in 13 (40.6%), and wet peeling in 2 (6.3%). In the post-treatment evaluation, 27 (84.4%) had radiodermatitis, erythema in 17 (53.1%), dry peeling in 8 (25%), and wet peeling in 2 (6.3%). Conclusion: The general incidence of radiodermatitis after hypofractionated radiotherapy in women with breast cancer was 37.5%, erythema, 12.5%, and dry peeling, 25%. The development of care protocols for the management of radiodermatitis after treatment is of paramount importance.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Estimar la incidencia y el grado de radiodermatitis aguda al final y después el término del tratamiento en mujeres con cáncer de mama sometidas a la radioterapia hipofraccionada. Métodos: Estudio observacional, prospectivo y longitudinal, realizado entre marzo de 2019 y enero de 2020, en un ambulatorio de radioterapia. Resultados: Participaron del estudio 32 mujeres, de entre las cuales, en la última sesión de radioterapia hipofraccionada, 15 (46,9%) presentaban radiodermatitis, siendo eritema en 13 (40,6%) y descamación húmeda en 2 (6,3%). En la evaluación después del tratamiento, 27 (84,4%) presentaban radiodermatitis, siendo eritema en 17 (53,1%), descamación seca en 8 (25%) y descamación húmeda en 2 (6,3%). Conclusión: La incidencia general de radiodermatitis después radioterapia hipofraccionada en mujeres con cáncer de mama fue 37,5%: eritema, 12,5%; y descamación seca, 25%. Es de suma importancia el desarrollo de protocolos asistenciales para el manejo de radiodermatitis después del tratamiento.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a incidência e o grau de radiodermatite aguda ao final e após o término do tratamento em mulheres com câncer de mama submetidas à radioterapia hipofracionada. Métodos: Estudo observacional, prospectivo e longitudinal, realizado entre março de 2019 e janeiro de 2020, em um ambulatório de radioterapia. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 32 mulheres, dentre as quais, na última sessão de radioterapia hipofracionada, 15 (46,9%) apresentavam radiodermatite, sendo eritema em 13 (40,6%) e descamação úmida em 2 (6,3%). Na avaliação após o tratamento, 27 (84,4%) apresentavam radiodermatite, sendo eritema em 17 (53,1%), descamação seca em 8 (25%) e descamação úmida em 2 (6,3%). Conclusão: A incidência geral de radiodermatite após radioterapia hipofracionada em mulheres com câncer de mama foi 37,5%: eritema, 12,5%; e descamação seca, 25%. É de suma importância o desenvolvimento de protocolos assistenciais para o manejo de radiodermatite após o tratamento.

20.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 25(4): 196-209, oct.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388943

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El melanoma ocasiona el 75% de las muertes por cáncer de piel. Según GLOBOCAN, en 2018 se presentaron 287.723 casos nuevos de melanoma, con una mortalidad de 60.712 casos, que equivale al 20% del total de los casos incidentes. Las alternativas para el tratamiento del melanoma se fundamentan en la estatificación de la enfermedad, y en las características moleculares de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Consensuar, por común acuerdo de expertos, sugerencias para el diagnóstico y manejo de melanoma temprano basadas en la evidencia y ajustadas al contexto colombiano. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un consenso de expertos multidisciplinario, constituido por 19 oncólogos clínicos, 2 cirujanos de mama y tejidos blandos, 2 dermatólogos, 2 patólogos y 2 radioterapeutas, miembros activos de la Asociación Colombiana de Hemato Oncología (ACHO). Este consenso se realizó en 4 etapas: 1. Estructuración de 29 preguntas, que se calificaron de 1 a 9. 2. Reenvío de las preguntas no consensuadas. 3. Análisis y discusión de las respuestas. 4. Las respuestas no consensuadas se llevaron a un consenso nominal. Resultados: Se discutieron 29 preguntas relacionadas con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de melanoma temprano, se construyeron sugerencias basadas en evidencia utilizada por los expertos y en guías de manejo de oncología reconocidas internacionalmente, adaptadas al contexto y realidad colombianos. Conclusiones: Se presentan sugerencias multidisciplinarias para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de melanoma temprano, las cuales debe considerarse para orientar la toma de decisiones y homogenizar la práctica clínica de acuerdo al contexto colombiano y a las características propias del sistema de salud del país. Este es un documento académico y no regulatorio.


Abstract Introduction: Melanoma causes 75% of deaths from skin cancer. In 2018, according to GLOBOCAN, 287,723 new melanoma cases were registered, with a mortality of 60,712 cases, which is equivalent to 20% of all incident cases. Alternatives for the treatment of melanoma are based on disease staging and the molecular characteristics of the disease. Objective: To establish a consensus by common agreement of experts and construct suggestions for the diagnosis and management of early-stage melanoma based on evidence and adjusted to the Colombian context. Methods: A multidisciplinary expert consensus was established, wth the participation of 19 clinical oncologists, 2 soft tissue surgeons, 2 dermatologists, 2 pathologists, and 2 radiotherapists, active members of the Colombian Association of Hemato-Oncology (ACHO). This consensus was carried out in four stages: 1) Structuring of 29 questions, which were scored from 1 to 9; 2) Resubmission of non-consensual questions; 3) Analysis and discussion of responses; and 4) Validation of non-consensual responses by nominal consensus. Results: Twenty-nine questions related to the diagnosis and treatment of early-stage melanoma were discussed in order to construct suggestions based on evidence proven by experts, as well as on internationally recognized oncology management guidelines adapted to the Colombian context and reality. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary suggestions are offered for the diagnosis and treatment of early-stage melanoma, which should be considered in order to guide decision-making and homogenize clinical practice according to the Colombian context and the characteristics of the Colombian health care system. This is an academic and non-regulatory document.

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