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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887


Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.

Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.

Animals , Ecosystem , Murinae , Pakistan , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Feeding Behavior
Acta biol. colomb ; 27(1): 127-130, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360057


ABSTRACT Cerradomys goytaca is a cricetid rodent endemic to "Restinga" formations from southeastern Atlantic Forest. It is known from only five localities, and it is considered endangered of extinction. Herein, we furnish new data on C. goytaca from an additional locality in Rio de Janeiro state. The present record provides new data on habitat and represents the westernmost geographic limit of this poorly known species.

RESUMEN Cerradomys goytaca es un roedor cricetideo endémico de las formaciones de Restinga del sureste de la Selva Atlantica. Es conocido solo en cinco localidades, y se considera en peligro de extinción. Aquí, proporcionamos nuevos datos sobre C. goytaca de una localidad adicional en el estado de Río de Janeiro. El presente registro proporciona nuevos datos del hábitat y representa el límite geográfico más occidental de esta especie poco conocida.

Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 302-306, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920772


Objective@#To examine the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S ( BPS ), bisphenol F ( BPF ) and bisphenol AF ( BPAF ) on the proliferation and oxidative stress of BRL 3A rat liver cells, and to preliminarily evaluate their mutagenicities.@*Methods@#In vitro cultured BRL 3A rat liver cells were treated with BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μmol/L for 48 h, respectively. Then, the cell viability was determined using the CCK-8 assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration ( IC50 ) was calculated. The minimum inhibitory concentration for BRL 3A cell proliferation was screened, and the intracellular reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) was measured in BRL 3A cells using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate ( DCFH-DA ) assay. In addition, the effects of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF at concentrations of 1 000, 200, 40, 8 and 1.6 μg/plate on the mutant colonies of histidine-deficient Salmonella typhimurium ( TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 ) were tested using the Ames test.@*Results@#Treatment with BPA and BPF at concentrations of 100 to 200 μmol/L and with BPAF at concentrations of 25 to 200 μmol/L inhibited BRL 3A cell survival at a concentration-dependent manner, while exposure to BPS at concentrations of 5 to 200 μmol/L resulted in no changes in BRL 3A cell survival. The IC50 values of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF were 131.7, >200, 187.5 and 21.6 μmol/L against BRL 3A cells, respectively. Treatment with BPS at 100 μmol/L or BPAF at 25 μmol/L caused no significant changes in the ROS level; however, exposure to BPA at 100 μmol/L and BPF at 100 μmol/L significantly increased the ROS level. Ames test showed that BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF did not induce mutagenicity in TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100 or TA102 strains.@*Conclusions@#BPAF shows the highest cytotoxicity to BRL 3A cells, and low-concentration exposure to BPS has few effects on BRL 3A cells. The cytotoxicity of bisphenols against BRL 3A cells may be associated with the induction of oxidative stress. None of the four bisphenols show mutagenic effects under the present experimental conditions.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 592-596, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920730


OBJECTIVE To optimize th e p rocessing technology of Portulaca oleracea charcoal,and to investigate its improvement effect on the symptom of hemorrhoid model rats. METHODS The effects of roasting temperature ,dosage and roasting time on the processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal were investigated with Box-Behnken response surface methodology using comprehensive score of tannin content ,water-soluble extract content and appearance properties as the index. The optimal process parameters are selected and verified. The hemorrhoid model rats were treated with P. oleracea charcoal(0.8 g/mL)prepared by the optimal processing technology ,once a day ,for 11 days. After last medication ,the perianal pathological score of hemorrhoid model rats were performed ;serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukin 6(IL-6)and IL- 1β were detected. RESULTS The optimal processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal included roasting temperature of 200 ℃, dosage of 150 g and roasting time of 14 min. Results of validation test showed that the comprehensive score of P. oleracea charcoal was 92.57,and relative error of it with predicted value (96.59)was -4.13%. External use of P. oleracea charcoal 0.8 g/mL prepared by the optimal processing technology could significantly promote the wound healing of hemorrhoid model rats ,reduced the amount of exudate ,and decreased the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-β in serum. CONCLUSIONS The optimized processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal is feasible. P. oleracea charcoal prepared by the optimized processing technology has good curative effect on the symptom of hemorrhoid model rats.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 38-45, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907010


OBJECTIVE To study the absorbed components of Xiebai powder in blood. METHODS UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method was adopted. SD rats were randomly divided into blank group and administration group ,with 10 rats in each group. Blank group was given water intragastrically ,and administration groups were given 2 g/mL(by the amount of crude drug )Xiebai powder solution intragastrically. Administration volume was 11.3 mL/kg,twice a day for 3 days. One point five hours after last administration,blood was taken from the abdominal aorta of each rat ,the serum was processed to obtain the supernatant for analysis;the relevant data in positive and negative ion mode were collected ,and the absorbed components of Xiebai powder in blood were analyzed and identified by using self-built secondary mass spectrometry database and consulting the relevant literature. RESULTS Totally 17 components from Xiebai powder were identified ,among which 6 components came from sovereign Moru salba,7 from minister Cortex Lycii ,12 from assistant Glycyrrhiza uralensis ,i.e. kukoamine A ,chlorogenic acid ,tachiogroside B,astringin,neoglycyrrhizin,glycyrrhizin,azelaic acid ,isoglycyrrhizin,glycyroside,anthocyanin,sebacic acid ,parthenolide, anthocyanin,18β-glycyrrhetinic acid ,6-gingerol,palmitoamide,erucamide. These compounds were mainly flavonoids ,alkaloids and organic acids. CONCLUSIONS In this study ,17 absorbed components of Xiebai powder in blood are preliminarily determined,which are consistent with the effect of Xiebai powder. They may be the pharmacodynamic substances of Xiebai powder.

Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(4): 300-309, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355226


La administración crónica de cafeína evita la alteración de la glucosa postprandial en ratas. El aumento en el consumo de la cafeína alrededor del mundo no es discutible, es así como su investigación se ha vuelto extensa en sus diferentes campos. Objetivo. Analizar los efectos de la administración crónica de cafeína en ratas alimentadas con dieta de cafetería, a través de evaluar índices de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Materiales y métodos. La dieta de cafetería es un modelo dietético equivalente a las características de la dieta occidental típica que origina síndrome metabólico en humanos. En esta investigación se realizó la administración crónica vía intraperitoneal de cafeína por ocho semanas a ratas adultas macho Wistar alimentadas con dieta de cafetería. Dada la poca evidencia acerca de los efectos biológicos y comportamentales de la administración crónica de dicha sustancia frente a un modelo de dieta de cafetería se evaluaron parámetros de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Resultados. La dieta de cafetería ocasionó anomalías asociadas al síndrome metabólico; no obstante, la administración de cafeína en las ratas alimentadas con esa dieta resultó ser un factor protector en la glucosa postprandial, más no en la alteración de la tolerancia a la glucosa o perfil lipídico. Conclusiones. La cafeína permitió proteger los niveles de glucosa postprandial al término del experimento y un descenso en el peso corporal y consumo de alimento solo en la primera semana. Sin embargo, no se observaron mejoras significativas en el perfil de lípidos, adiposidad, tolerancia a la glucosa y glucosa plasmática(AU)

Chronic caffeine administration prevents postprandial glucose disturbance in rats. The increase in caffeine consumption is not debatable, this is how his research has become extensive in his different fields. Objective. To analyze the effects of chronic administration of caffeine in rats fed a cafeteria diet, by evaluating consumption, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Previous studies refer to administering caffeine in diets high in carbohydrates and / or in fat that induce obesity or symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Material and methods. The cafeteria diet is a dietary model equivalent to the characteristics of the typical western diet that causes metabolic syndrome in humans. In this research, chronic intraperitoneal administration of caffeine was performed for 8 weeks to adult male Wistar rats fed a cafeteria diet. Given the little evidence about the biological and behavioral effects of the chronic administration of this substance against a cafeteria diet model, consumption, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results. After eight weeks it was found that the cafeteria diet given to the controls caused abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome; regarding the administration of caffeine in the rats fed this diet, the treatment turned out to be a protective factor in postprandial glucose, but not in the alteration of glucose tolerance or lipid profile. Conclusions. Caffeine allowed to protect postprandial glucose levels at the end of the experiment and a decrease in body weight and food consumption only in the first week. However, no significant improvements were seen in lipid profile, adiposity, glucose tolerance, and plasma glucose(AU)

Animals , Rats , Body Weight , Caffeine/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Postprandial Period , Reference Parameters , Glucose/analysis , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Adenosine , Rats, Wistar , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eating , Receptors, Leptin , Obesity
Agora (Rio J.) ; 24(3): 46-54, set.-dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1355598


RESUMO: O presente artigo pretende abordar, por meio do caso O Homem dos Ratos, o caráter ficcional da neurose. Partindo da proposição lacaniana de que a neurose nasce de um furo no saber soberano, o que se busca ressaltar é que, por mais que haja uma intensificação dos excessos e da falta de referências na contemporaneidade, a angústia e o sintoma já estavam presentes desde os tempos de Freud. Assim, com o objetivo de evidenciar que a função paterna é falha por estrutura, investigaremos o complexo de Édipo, fundador do mito de origem, lançando luz sobre o aspecto paradoxal da castração.

Abstract: This paper aims to approach, through the case The Rat Man, the fictional character of the structure of neurosis. Starting from the Lacanian assumption that neurosis is born from a gap on the sovereign knowledge, hereby we aim at highlighting that even though on the present days there is an intensification of excesses and of a lack of reference, the anguish and the symptom were already present in Freud's days. Hence, with the objective of demonstrating that the paternal figure is structurally flawed, we will investigate the Oedipus' Complex, founder of its origin myth, so that we can shed some light on the paradoxical aspect of castration.

Paternity , Psychoanalysis , Neurotic Disorders
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 34(2): 91-97, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339031


ABSTRACT Although it has been demonstrated that exposure of lactating rats to CrVI delays tooth eruption, the effects of CrVI exposure on bone remodeling in the developing alveolus during tooth eruption remain unknown. Our purpose was to analyze the effect of CrVI in the alveolus of the first lower molar of rats. Thirty-two suckling Wistar rats were divided into two groups. The experimental group received 12.5 mg/kg body weight/day of potassium dichromate dissolved in saline solution by oral gavage as of day 4 of the experiment; the control group received an equal dose of saline solution. Each group was divided into two sub-sets and euthanized at the ages of 9 and 15 days, respectively. Histochemical and histomorphometric studies of the bone surfaces of the developing tooth alveolus were performed. The percentage of bone formation surfaces was lower in experimental animals than in age-matched controls. The percentage of bone resorption surfaces was significantly lower in 9-day-old experimental rats than in controls and significantly higher in 15-day-old experimental rats than in controls. Exposure to CrVI during lactation alters the sequence of bone resorption and formation in the walls of the developing alveolus, both of which are necessary for tooth eruption, thus causing a delay.

RESUMEN Si bien ya ha sido demostrado que la exposición a CrVI de ratas lactantes retrasa la erupción dentaria, aún se desconocen los efectos de la exposición a CrVI que se producen sobre la modelación y remodelación de las paredes del alvéolo en formación que ocurren en los diferentes estadios de la erupción dentaria. Por tal motivo, el propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del CrVI sobre la formación y la reabsorción óseas del alvéolo del primer molar inferior en desarrollo en ratas, a los 9 y a los 15 días de edad, que corresponden a los estadios intraóseo y de penetración mucosa de la erupción dentaria, respectivamente. El grupo experimental recibió una dosis diaria de 12,5 mg/kg de peso corporal de dicromato de potasio disuelto en solución salina por sonda bucal a partir del 4° día; mientras que el grupo control, un volumen equivalente de solución salina. Cada grupo fue dividido en 2 subgrupos de acuerdo al tiempo experimental en el que se llevó a cabo la eutanasia: 9 y 15 días de edad. Se llevaron a cabo estudios histoquímicos e histomorfométricos de las superficies óseas de los alveólos dentarios en formación. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente utilizando la prueba t de Student; estableciéndose un valor de p<0,05 como estadísticamente significativo. El porcentaje de superficies en formación fue menor en los animales experimentales de 9 y de 15 días de edad que en los respectivos controles. El porcentaje de superficies en reabsorción en los animales experimentales de 9 días de edad fue significativamente menor y en los animales de 15 días de edad fue significativamente mayor con respecto a sus controles. La exposición al cromo hexavalente durante la lactancia altera la secuencia de la reabsorción y la formación ósea de las paredes del alvéolo en desarrollo necesarias para que la pieza dentaria erupcione, causando su retraso. Los hallazgos obtenidos muestran la importancia del control de sustancias tóxicas en el agua potable, ya que sus efectos pueden alterar la remodelación ósea y por ende, el crecimiento y el desarrollo de los individuos que fueron expuestos durante la infancia temprana.

Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 303-314, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343478


In this study, against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diapetic nephropathy (DN); it is aimed to investigate the use of thymoquinone (TQ) and ß-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) and to compare the effects of these agents. With random selection of 35 male rats, five groups (seven rats in each group) were constituted as follows: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. In the STZ group; body weight, glutathione (GSH) and insulin levels decreased, relative kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels were increased. Also, in kidney tissue; histopathological changes (such as thickening of the capsular, glomerular and tubular basement membranes, increased mesangial matrix amount, increased cytoplasmic vacuolization in some of the tubular epithelial cells, increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in interstitial tissue) were detected. It was observed that these changes occurring after diabetes mellitus (DM) reversed significantly in TQ, BAIBA and TQ + BAIBA groups.

En este estudio, contra la nefropatía diapética (ND) inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ); tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de timoquinona (TQ) y ácido ß-aminoisobutírico (BAIBA) y comparar los efectos de estos agentes. Con la selección aleatoria de 35 ratas macho, se constituyeron cinco grupos (siete ratas en cada grupo) como sigue: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. En el grupo STZ; el peso corporal, los niveles de glutatión (GSH) y de insulina disminuyeron, el peso relativo de los riñones, el malondialdehído (MDA), la glucosa, el nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN) y los niveles de creatinina (Cr) aumentaron. Además, en tejido renal; se detectaron cambios histopatológicos (como engrosamiento de las membranas basales capsular, glomerular y tubular, aumento de la cantidad de matriz mesangial, aumento de la vacuolización citoplasmática en algunas de las células epiteliales tubulares, aumento de la expresión del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e infiltraciones de células inflamatorias en tejido intersticial). Se observó que estos cambios que ocurren después de la diabetes mellitus (DM) se revirtieron significativamente en los grupos TQ, BAIBA y TQ + BAIBA.

Animals , Male , Rats , Benzoquinones/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Aminoisobutyric Acids/administration & dosage , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress , Creatinine/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose/analysis , Glutathione/analysis , Kidney/drug effects
West Indian med. j ; 69(1): 56-59, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341862


ABSTRACT Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is an increasingly frequent metabolic disorder that is important for both baby and mother. New studies on the development and treatment of the disease are required. Objective: To investigate the effects on offspring's survival and the biochemical values of diabetes mellitus, induced by different doses of two chemical agents among 35 rats with advanced pregnancy. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into five groups, with the rats in Group 1 as the control group. Alloxan was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg in Groups 2 and 3, respectively. Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg in Groups 4 and 5, respectively. Deliveries were monitored, and offspring numbers, survival rates and congenital anomalies were recorded. At the end of the study, blood was drawn from one female offspring in each group; glucose, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus levels were measured, and inter-group comparisons were made. Diabetic agents administered at various doses prolonged the duration of pregnancy. Results: Offspring's deaths were most frequent in the alloxan groups. The number of offspring mortalities in the streptozotocin group was higher than that of the control group, but lower than that of the alloxan group. No differences in glucose, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus levels were observed between the groups. These results indicate that the female offspring, born from rats with gestational diabetes mellitus induced by different chemicals, were only clinically affected. No effect of the type of chemicals on the results was found. Conclusion: The use of streptozotocin in the studies on female offspring born from rats with gestational diabetes mellitus is recommended.

Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 29-36, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292313


BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is considered a renewable organic material, but the industrial production of biofuel from lignocellulose is challenging because of the lack of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The guts of herbivores contain many symbiotic microorganisms that have evolved to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. Chinese bamboo rats mainly consume high-fiber foods, indicating that some members of the intestinal tract microbiota digest lignocellulose, providing these rats with the energy required for growth. RESULTS: Here, we used metagenomics to analyze the diversity and functions of the gut microbiota in Chinese bamboo rats. We identified abundant populations of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria, whose main functions involved carbohydrate, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism. We also found 587 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes belonging to different families, including 7 carbohydrate esterase families and 21 glycoside hydrolase families. The glycoside hydrolase 3, glycoside hydrolase 1, glycoside hydrolase 43, carbohydrate esterase 4, carbohydrate esterase 1, and carbohydrate esterase 3 families demonstrated outstanding performance. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes and enzymes identified in our study expand the existing arsenal of proficient degraders and enzymes for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This study also describes a powerful approach for targeting gut microbes and enzymes in numerous industries.

Animals , Rats , Cecum/enzymology , Enzymes/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Cecum/microbiology , Cellulose/metabolism , Bacteroidetes , Biofuels , Metagenomics , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 53-61, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153329


Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the biological behavior and osteogenic potential of magnesium (Mg) substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres, implanted in a critical bone defect, considering that this ion is of great clinical interest, since it is closely associated with homeostasis and bone mineralization. For the purpose of this study, 30 rats were used to compose three experimental groups: GI - bone defect filled with HA microspheres; GII - bone defect filled with HA microspheres replaced with Mg; GIII - empty bone defect; evaluated at biological points of 15 and 45 days. The histological results, at 15 days, showed, in all the groups, a discrete chronic inflammatory infiltrate; biomaterials intact and surrounded by connective tissue; and bone neoformation restricted to the borders. At 45 days, in the GI and GII groups, an inflammatory response of discrete granulomatous chronic type was observed, and in the GIII there was a scarce presence of mononuclear inflammatory cells; in GI and GII, the microspheres were seen to be either intact or fragmented, surrounded by fibrous connective tissue rich in blood vessels; and discrete bone neoformation near the edges and surrounding some microspheres. In GIII, the mineralization was limited to the borders and the remaining area was filled by fibrous connective tissue. It was concluded that the biomaterials were biocompatible and osteoconductive, and the percentage of Mg used as replacement ion in the HA did not favor a greater bone neoformation in relation to the HA without the metal.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o comportamento biológico de microesferas de hidroxiapatita (HA) substituída com magnésio (Mg) durante o reparo de defeito ósseo crítico, tendo em vista que este íon é de grande interesse clínico, pois está intimamente associado à homeostasia e à mineralização óssea. Para tanto, utilizou-se 30 ratos para compor três grupos experimentais: GI - defeito ósseo preenchido com microesferas de HA; GII - defeito ósseo preenchido com microesferas de HA substituída com Mg; GIII (controle) - defeito ósseo vazio; avaliados nos pontos biológicos de 15 e 45 dias. Os resultados histológicos evidenciaram, aos 15 dias, discreto infiltrado inflamatório crônico e neoformação óssea restrita às bordas, em todos os grupos. Nos grupos GI e GII, os biomateriais mantiveram-se íntegros e circundados por tecido conjuntivo frouxo. Aos 45 dias, notou-se resposta inflamatória do tipo crônica granulomatosa discreta nos grupos GI e GII, e no GIII presença escassa de células inflamatórias mononucleares. As microesferas implantadas no GI e GII mantiveram-se, em sua maioria, íntegras e envolvidas por tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Notou-se discreta neoformação óssea próxima às bordas e circunjacente a algumas microesferas. No GIII, a mineralização limitou-se às bordas e a área remanescente foi preenchida por tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Conclui-se que os biomateriais foram biocompatíveis, bioativos, osteocondutores e apresentaram biodegradação lenta, indicando seu grande potencial para em aplicações clínica como biomaterial de preenchimento.

Animals , Rats , Durapatite , Magnesium , Osteogenesis , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Regeneration
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922098


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the synergistic effect of Naoxintong Capsule (NXTC, ) and Guhong Injection (GHI, ) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury.@*METHODS@#Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups: control group, oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) group, nimodipine group (9.375 mg/kg), NXTC group (0.5 g/kg), GHI group (5 mL/kg) and NXTC+GHI group (0.5 g/kg NXTC+5 mL/kg GHI), after the onset of reperfusion and once per day for the following 7 days. Blood was collected 1 h after final administration, and the sera were collected. Cultured primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs) were subjected to OGD to establish a cell injury model. Untreated rBMECs were used as blank control. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to assess cell viability using the sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis was evaluated after Hoechst33342 staining using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. JC-1 staining was performed to assess changes in mitochondrial membrane potential.@*RESULTS@#Statistical analysis indicated that more than 95% of the cells were rBMECs. Compared with the OGD group, the cellular morphology of the all drug delivery groups improved. In particular, the combined drug group had the most significant effect. Compared with the OGD group, all drug intervention groups induced a decrease in the apoptotic rate of rBMECs, increased the SOD levels, and decreased the MDA levels (all P<0.01). Compared with the mono-therapy groups, the NXTC+GHI group exhibited a significant improvement in the number of apoptotic rBMECs (P<0.01). All drug intervention groups showed different degrees of increase in membrane potential, and the NXTC+GHI group was higher than the NXTC or GHI group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The combinationa application of NXTC and GHI on cerebral I/R injury clearly resulted in protective benefits.

Animals , Apoptosis , Brain , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Endothelial Cells , Glutamine/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1144-1153, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921856


Currently, commercial devices for electrical neural stimulations can only provide fixed stimulation paradigms with preset constant parameters, while the development of new stimulation paradigms with time-varying parameters has emerged as one of the important research directions for expanding clinical applications. To facilitate the performance of electrical stimulation paradigms with time-varying parameters in animal experiments, the present study developed a well-integrated stimulation system to output various pulse sequences by designing a LabVIEW software to control a general data acquisition card and an electrical stimulus isolator. The system was able to generate pulse sequences with inter-pulse-intervals (IPI) randomly varying in real time with specific distributions such as uniform distribution, normal distribution, gamma distribution and Poisson distribution. It was also able to generate pulse sequences with arbitrary time-varying IPIs. In addition, the pulse parameters, including pulse amplitude, pulse width, interphase delay of biphasic pulse and duration of pulse sequence, were adjustable. The results of performance tests of the stimulation system showed that the errors of the parameters of pulse sequences output by the system were all less than 1%. By utilizing the stimulation system, pulse sequences with IPI randomly varying in the range of 5~10 ms were generated and applied in rat hippocampal regions for animal experiments. The experimental results showed that, even with a same mean pulse frequency of ~130 Hz, for neuronal populations, the excitatory effect of stimulations with randomly varying IPIs was significantly greater than the effect of stimulations with fixed IPIs. In conclusion, the stimulation system designed here may provide a useful tool for the researches and the development of new paradigms of neural electrical stimulations.

Animals , Electric Stimulation , Neurons , Rats
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921813


To reveal the rationality of compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma(SMRR) and Puerariae Lobatae Radix(PLR) from the perspective of pharmacokinetics, this study established a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of PLR flavonoids(3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, puerarin 6″-O-xyloside, 3'-methoxy puerarin, puerarin apioside) and salvianolic acids and tanshinones(salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone Ⅱ_A) in plasma of rats. Rats were given SMRR extract, PLR extract, and SMRR-PLR extract by gavage and then plasma was collected at different time. UPLC separation was performed under the following conditions: Eclipse C_(18) column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.8 μm), 0.1% formic acid in water(A)-0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile(B) as mobile phase for gradient elution. Conditions for MS are as below: multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), ESI~(+/-). Comprehensive validation of the UPLC-MS/MS method(specifically, from the aspects of calibration curve, precision, accuracy, repeatability, stability, matrix effect, extract recovery) was performed and the result demonstrated that it complied with quantitative analysis requirements for biological samples. Compared with SMRR extract alone or PLR extract alone, SMRR-PLR extract significantly increased the AUC and C_(max) of PLR flavonoids and tanshinones in rat plasma, suggesting that the combination of SMRR and PLR promoted the absorption of the above components. The underlying mechanism needs to be further studied.

Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Plant Roots/chemistry , Pueraria/chemistry , Rats , Rhizome/chemistry , Salvia miltiorrhiza/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921684


Due to the limited resource of bear bile powder, the major raw material of Tanreqing Capsules(TRQ), cultured bear bile powder is used as a replacement to develop the Tanreqing Capsules Substitute(TRQS). An LC-MS/MS method was established in this study for simultaneous quantitation of 8 compounds from TRQS in rat plasma: tauroursodeoxycholic acid(TUDCA), taurocheno-deoxycholic acid(TCDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA), ferulic acid, wogonoside, baicalin, and forsythoside A. Thereby, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of TRQ and TRQS were evaluated. Concentration of endogenous compounds TUDCA, TCDCA, UDCA, and CDCA was determined with the stable isotope surrogate analytes: D4-TUDCA, D4-TCDCA, D4-UDCA, and D4-CDCA. Plasma samples were extracted by acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation. The LC conditions are as follows: Waters BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase of 10 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate aqueous solution(containing 0.01% formic acid) and acetonitrile-methanol mixture(1∶5). MS conditions are as below: multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), ESI~(+/-). Concentration of UDCA, CDCA, TUDCA, and TCDCA was corrected with a response factor, which is the ratio between the responses recorded for the surrogate and the authentic analyte at the equal concentration. Each of the plasma components showed good linearity(r > 0.995 1). Accuracy and precision met the criteria(inter-day RSD<7.0%, RE 89.98%-112.0%; intra-day RSD<12%, RE 90.41%-111.2%). The recovery was 64.83%-119.9% and matrix effect was 87.15%-113.8%. The validated method was applied for pharmacokinetic study of TRQS and TRQ(po, 0.94 g·kg~(-1)). There was no significant difference in C_(max) and AUC_(0-24 h) of baicalin, UDCA, TUDCA, and TCDCA between the two groups, indicating similar pharmacokinetic behaviors between TRQS and TRQ in rats.

Animals , Capsules , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 526-534, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912274


Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with recombinant rat platelet-derived growth factor BB (rrPDGF-BB) gene on the distraction osteogenesis.Methods:From October, 2019 to June, 2020, 48 batches of BMSCs were cultured from 48 young SD rats, 24 of which were transfected with rrPDGF-BB gene by lentivirus. Meanwhile, other 72 male adult SD rats were randomly selected to establish the right femoral distraction osteogenesis model. The rats were equally divided into 3 groups. PBS, BMSCs without intervention and BMSCs transfected with rrPDGF-BB gene were injected into the distraction space of each group of rats assigned as Blank group, Negative group and Experimental group, respectively. Results of the experiment were evaluated by means of imaging and immunohistochemistry. P<0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. Results:The cultured BMSCs grew well. The expression of CD34(0.1%) and CD45(2.8%) in the third generation of BMSCs was low, and that of CD29 (95.1%) was high, which was consistent with the phenotype of BMSCs described in literatures. After transfection, the expression of green fluorescence gradually increased with the extension of transfection time, confirming the success of transfection. After 14 days, all rats reached the expected distance of distraction. The rats were observed at assigned time points in 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The photos of femur specimen showed that continuous callus could be seen in the experimental group, the hardness and colour were close to the normal bone tissue, and the activity of the distraction space was poor, which was lower than that of the blank group. X-ray examination showed that there were more new callus in the experimental group, and the bone marrow cavity was re-canalized earlier than that of the blank group; Micro-CT examination, in sagittal plane, showed that the distraction space of the experimental group healed well, the broken end was connected, and the recanalization of bone marrow cavity was earlier than that of the blank group; Micro-CT parameters of each group showed that trabecular thickness[(0.297±0.005) mm], trabecular number [(1.663±0.032) mm], bone volume fraction[(59.832±2.187)%] and bone mineral density[(0.586±0.014) g/cm 3] of the experimental group were the greatest, while trabecular separation[(0.399±0.051) mm] of the experimental group was the smallest. There was statistical difference between each group( P < 0.05); HE staining and VEGF immunohistochemistry showed that the vessels and chondrocytes formed earlier and were more in the experimental group than that in the blank group. In 8 weeks, the new callus joined into one piece under the microscope in the experimental group, and the bone marrow cavity was re-canalized with a large number of red blood cells. Conclusion:Studies have shown that BMSCs transfected with rrPDGF-BB gene can promote the formation of callus in the distraction area of rats, shorten the mineralisation time of new callus, and promote the maturation of new bone in the area of distraction osteogenesis.

Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 414-419, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912262


Objective:To investigate the effects and mechanism of miR206 in rat model of denervated muscular atrophy.Methods:From September, 2020 to December, 2020, a total of 40 rats were selected for this study. Denervated muscular atrophy model was established on 16 SPF Sprague-Dawley rats, by removing 1 cm in length of sciatic nerve. The rats were classified into 4 groups according to the sampling time: 0 d, 3 d, 7 d and 14 d(4 rats per group). The other 24 rats were also established into denervated skeletal muscle atrophy models and assigned into 3 groups: denervation add miR206 group, denervation add NC transfection reagent group, and sham-operated group( n=8 in each group). After sampling, the area of cross section of the gastrocnemius muscle and gastrocnemius muscle mass were measured to evaluate muscle atrophy. The mRNA and protein expression of myostatin were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Combining with luciferase report to explore the underlying mechanism of miR206, the t-test and oneway ANOVA were used for data analysis used in this study. In one-way ANOVA analysis, if the difference between groups was statistically significant, Bonferroni method would be used for further comparing of all pairs. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results:After excision of a part of sciatic nerve of rat models, gastrocnemius muscle mass of denervation plus miR206 group, denervation plus NC transfection reagent group and sham-operated group were: (0.63±0.04), (0.51±0.02) and (1.05±0.02), respectively. The cross section areas of gastrocnemius muscle in each groups were: (761.30±21.79) μm 2, (640.30±30.31) μm 2 and (1066.00±51.65) μm 2, respectively( P<0.05). Myostatin mRNA expression showed lower in miR206 group than in NC group tested by Western blot, which were(0.57±0.04) in miR206 and (0.81±0.04) in NC group tested by qPCR( P<0.05). The protein expression measured by Western blot test revealed same expression pattern as mRNA expression pattern. The different of relative expression between miR206 group and NC group( P<0.05). Finally, in the mmu-miR206 co-transfected with the MSTN 3'UTR-luciferase sensor group, the relative luciferase activity was measured at 0.26±0.07 and it was significant lower than any other groups( P<0.05). Conclusion:The miR206 can counteract denervated skeletomuscular atrophy through down regulating the myostatin expression. Myostatin is a new discovered target gene of miR206.

Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 292-297, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912248


Objective:To observe the effect of adipose tissue decellularized matrix hydrogel (DAT-gel) on the repair of sciatic nerve defect in rats.Methods:From April, 2019 to April, 2020, aseptic granular adipose tissue was collected from healthy adult women who underwent thigh or abdominal liposuction in the Department of Plastic Surgery, the First Medical Centre of the PLA General Hospital. Decellularisation and enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue were performed to prepare DAT-gel. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the ultrastructure of the hydrogel, and rheology was employed to test the gel dynamics and viscoelasticity of the hydrogel. A rat model of sciatic nerve defect was established and randomly divided into 3 groups: simple chitin catheter group (Chitin group), DAT-gel plus chitin catheter group (DAT-gel group) and autologous nerve reverse connection group (Autograft group) with 10 rats in each group. At the 12th week after surgery, the general view, function and morphology of the regenerated nerve were observed to evaluate the repairing status of the injured nerve. One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) was used for data analysis. If the difference between the groups was statistically significant, the Turkey method was further used for pairwise comparison. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results:The results of SEM showed that the DAT-gel had a three-dimensional structure in porous fibre network. The results of rheological test results showed that the complex viscosity of the hydrogel at 4 ℃ and 37 ℃ were 148.91 mPa·s and 801.29 mPa·s, respectively. DAT-gel underwent a sol-gel phase transition when the temperature had been increased. The results showed that DAT-gel had a good temperature-sensitive effect, and its critical point of sol-gel phase transition was similar to the internal temperature of rat. The results of animal experiments showed that the morphology and function of the regenerated nerve in the DAT-gel group were superior to Chitin group at 12 weeks after surgery, according to macroscopic view of the regenerated nerve, electrophysiology of the nerve, the morphology of the new axon and the target muscle, etc.. There was statistically significant between groups ( P<0.05). Conclusion:DAT-gel can significantly promote a repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910435


Objective:To explore the establishment of radiation-induced heart damage (RIDH) SD rat models caused by irradiation of 15Gy/3f and the changes in early detection indicators, and evaluate the effect of irradiation combined with recombinant human endostatin (Endostar).Methods:75 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into the blank control group (C group), Endostar group (E group), 25Gy irradiation group (MHD 25 group), 15Gy irradiation group (MHD 15 group) and 15Gy irradiation combined with Endostar group (MHD 15+ E group), respectively. Blood sample was taken to measure the CK, CK-MB, LDH and CRP at 24h, 48h and 15d after corresponding interventions. After cardiac echocardiography at 1, 3 and 6 months, 5 rats in each group were randomly sacrificed and myocardial tissues were collected for HE and Masson staining. Two-way ANOVA was employed for statistical analysis. Results:Compared with group C, myocardial fibrosis were observed in the MHD 15 group at 6 months ( P<0.05), which occurred later than that in the MHD 25 group. Ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) were significantly decreased after 3 months in each irradiation group (all P<0.05), whereas the degree of decrease was similar among all groups (all P>0.05). The expression levels of myocardial enzymes and inflammatory cytokines did not significantly differ among different groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions:In the early stage, exposure to 15Gy/3f irradiation can cause cardiac function damage in SD rat hearts, such as the reduction of EF and FS, and even lead to myocardial fibrosis in the late stage, which is delayed and less severe than high-dose irradiation. Irradiation combined with Endostar has no significant effect on radiation myocardial injury in rats.