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1.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-7, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556497

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da compressão intermitente imediata sobre anastomoses arteriais microcirúrgicas em comparação com compressão fixa e com utilização isolada de irrigação com soro fisiológico e heparina em laboratório experimental. Método: 12 ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente divididos em três grupos para terem suas artérias femorais seccionas e anastomosadas de forma término-terminal, para comparação de patência com 30 minutos e 7 dias. Grupo I: foi realizada compressão intermitente imediata sobre a anastomose por 60 segundos; grupo II: uma compressão fixa foi mantida imediatamente após a anastomose, também por 60 segundos; grupo III, após o término da anastomose, não foi feita nenhuma intervenção adicional. Além da avaliação da patência, os animais foram pesados e medidos os diâmetros arteriais operados. Resultados: 24 artérias femorais foram abordadas. As médias de peso inicial dos ratos dos grupos I, II e III foram, respectivamente, de 243,8g, 254,6g e 260,4g, enquanto as finais foram de 264,4g, 281g e 282,1g (p<0,001). O diâmetro médio das artérias abordadas foi, respectivamente, de 0,89mm, 0,88mm e 0,90mm, e os tempos de anastomoses em minutos, de 25,6, 24,5 e 24,5, respectivamente; As patências finais após 7 dias foram, respectivamente, de 62,5% (p=0,07), 25% (p=0,48) e 50% (p=0,13). Conclusão: A compressão intermitente imediata pode ser realizada ao término de anastomoses arteriais microcirúrgicos sem prejuízo na patência final do procedimento.


Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the effect of immediate intermittent compression on microsurgical arterial anastomoses in comparison with fixed compression and only observation in an experimental laboratory. Methods: The two femoral arteries of twelve male Wistar rats were sectioned and reanastomosed to compare patency at 30 minutes and 7 days. Group I: immediate intermittent compression was performed over the anastomosis for 60 s; group II: a fixed compression was maintained immediately after the anastomosis for 60 s; group III: after completion of the anastomosis, no additional intervention was performed. In addition to the patency assessment, the animals were weighed and the operated arterial diameters were measured. Results: Twenty-four femoral arteries were examined. Initial average weights of the rats in groups I, II, and III were 243.8g, 254.6g, and 260.4g, respectively, while the final weights were 264.4g, 281g, and 282.1g (p<0.001), respectively; mean diameter of the approached arteries was 0.89, 0.88, and 0.90mm, respectively, and the anastomoses (time in minutes) were 25.6, 24.5, and 24.5, respectively; final patencies after 7 days were 62.5% (p=0.07), 25% (p=0.48), and 50% (p=0.13), respectively. Conclusion: Immediate intermittent compression can be performed at the end of microsurgical arterial anastomoses without affecting the final patency of the procedure.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 782-790, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016524

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect and mechanism of echinacoside (ECH) in improving liver injury in rats with acute pancreatitis by establishing a rat model of acute pancreatitis and liver injury. MethodsA total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank group (Con group), control group (Con+ECH group), acute pancreatitis group (AP group), and acute pancreatitis+ECH intervention (AP+ECH group). The rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg ECH on day 7 before the establishment of the model of acute pancreatitis; at 24 hours after the last administration of cerulein, blood samples were collected via the abdominal aorta, and serum was separated for biochemical analysis including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (Alb), total bilirubin (TBil), cholinesterase, blood amylase (Amy), and lipase (LPS). HE staining was used to observe the histopathological changes of the pancreas and the liver; transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the microstructural changes of pancreas and liver tissue; ELISA was used to measure the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-16 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in liver tissue homogenate; immunohistochemistry was used to measure the levels of TNF-α and p-p65 NF-κB in pancreas and liver tissue; Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of NF-κB pathway proteins in liver tissue. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the SNK test or the Dunnett’s T3 method was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsCompared with the Con group, the AP group had significant increases in ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, ALP, TBil, Amy, and LPS (all P<0.01), as well as significant increases in the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in liver tissue homogenate (all P<0.01). ECH intervention reduced the levels of ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, ALP, TBil, AMY, and LPS and inhibited the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in rats with acute pancreatitis. HE staining showed that ECH intervention alleviated the vacuolar degeneration of acinar cells, inflammatory cell infiltration in pancreatic tissue, and the necrosis of hepatocytes compared with the AP group. TEM showed that compared with the AP group, there was a reduction in the degree of mitochondrial swelling in liver and pancreatic cells after ECH intervention. ECH intervention partially reversed the elevated expression levels of p-p65 NF-κB and TNF-α in liver and pancreatic tissue. In addition, the expression levels of MyD88, p-IκBα, p-IKKα, and p-p65 were upregulated in liver tissue of rats with acute pancreatitis, which could be partially reversed after ECH intervention. ConclusionEchinacoside can alleviate liver and pancreatic injury induced by acute pancreatitis by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway.

3.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 469-475, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013639

ABSTRACT

Aim To observe the effects of oral puerarin (Pue) on the maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) rats and its fetal growth and development, so as to provide references for the application of Pue in the treatment of GDM. Methods The GDM rat model was established by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) into the tail vein of pregnant female rats, and the rats were treated with Pue orally for 12 days; the body weight and abortion of pregnant rats were recorded. The fasting blood glucose of pregnant rats was detected before and at the end of the treatment, and the glucose tolerance was tested on the 5th and 10th days after the administration of the drug. The cesarean sections were carried out on the 20th day of pregnancy. The blood glucose content of the fetal rats was detected, and the state of development was observed. The body weight and length were measured, as well as the placenta and the important organs weight, and the indexes of the organs were calculated. Results Compared with the model group, Pue could significantly reduce the fasting blood glucose of GDM pregnant rats and fetal rats, improve the glucose tolerance of pregnant rats, effectively alleviate the excessive weight gain of pregnant rats and overweight of fetal rats caused by GDM, and reduce the abortion rate; it could also reverse the decrease in the indexes of the organs of brain, heart, and liver, and the increase in the indexes of organs of kidney in fetal rats caused by GDM. Conclusions Pue can relieve the maternal and the fetal hyperglycemia in GDM, reduce the rate of miscarriage, reduce the incidence of macrosomia, and promote the development of vital fetal organs.

4.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 324-334, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013627

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the relation between the effect of geniposide (GE) in improving angiogenesis in arthralgia spasm syndrome collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rats and the modulation of heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) release. Methods A CIA model was constructed by multiple intradermal injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and an equal volume mixture of chicken type II collagen (CCII) into the dorsal and caudal root regions of rats, on the basis of which a rheumatic fever stimulus was given to build up a moist heat arthralgia spasm syndrome in CIA rats. After successful modeling, the groups were randomly grouped, and the administered groups were gavaged with GE (60, 120 mg · kg

5.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 545-551, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013581

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the effects of 2-dode-cyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2 , 5-diene-l, 4-dione ( DM-DD) on resisting hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride ( CC14 ) in rats and the underlying mechanisms , with a specific focus on the TGF-pi/Smads signaling pathway. Methods The hepatic fibrosis model was replicated using 50% CC14. Various parameters, including levels of aspartate transferase ( AST) , ala-nine transferase ( ALT ) , albumin/globulin ( A/G ) , total protein (TP) , total bilirubin (T-BIL) , hyaluron-ic acid ( HA ) , laminin ( LN ) , collagen type Ж ( Col Ж) , and collagen type IV(ColIV) in the blood, were measured. Liver tissue lesions and fiber formation were observed using HE and Masson staining. The expression levels of a smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) , collagen type I ( Col I ) , transformed growth factor (TGF-pi), Smad2, and Smad7 proteins were assessed using immunohistochemistry. a-SMA, Coll, TGF-pi, and Smad7 mRNA levels in liver tissue were measured by RT-PCR. Additionally, the expression levels of TGF-pi, Smad4, and Smad7 proteins in liver tissue were determined by Western blot. Results In comparison to the normal control group, the model group exhibited significantly elevated levels of AST, ALT, TP, T-BIL, HA, LN, Col Ш and Col IV in serum. But A/G level notably decreased. Successful modeling was confirmed by the presence of extensive fiber formations observed through HE and Massonstaining in liver tissue. The DMDD administration group demonstrated a notable decrease levels of AST, ALT, TP, T-BIL, HA, LN, Col III, and CollV, but A/G was significantly elevated when compared to the model group. Furthermore, a-SMA, Coll, TGF-f31, Smad2 and Smad4 mRNA and protein levels in the DMDD administration group were significantly reduced, while Smad7 significantly declined. HE and Masson staining results reflected a marked reduction in fibrous hyper-plasia. Conclusion DMDD exhibits a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, and its mechanism appears to be associated with the TGF-fJl/ Smads signaling pathway.

6.
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice ; (12): 176-182, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013374

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effect of enriched environment (EE) combined with acupuncture at head point (HA) on behavior in rats with autism spectrum disorder. MethodsHealthy female Wistar rats were given peritoneal injection of sodium valproate at 12.5 days of gestation. Twenty-four male offspring rats were randomly selected and then randomly divided into model group (n = 6), EE group (n = 6), HA group (n = 6) and EE combined with HA group (the combined group, n = 6). Six male offspring rats born from female mice injected with the same amount of saline intraperitoneally were as control group. After four weeks of treatment, all the five groups were tested with three-chamber test and marble burying test, and the sociability index, the social novelty index and the number of buried marbles were recorded. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in peripheral blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ResultsAfter treatment, compared with the model group, the sociability index and the social novelty index improved (P < 0.05), the number of buried marbles reduced (P < 0.05), and the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β in peripheral blood decreased in EE group, HA group and the combined group (P < 0.05); while the combined group was the best (P < 0.01). ConclusionBoth EE or acupuncture at HA could improve behavioral symptoms, and reduce the expression of inflammatory factors in rats with autism spectrum disorder. The combination of the two methods showed the best result.

7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 312-318, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007246

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the role and possible mechanism of action of rhubarb decoction (RD) retention enema in improving inflammatory damage of brain tissue in a rat model of mild hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). MethodsA total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into blank group (CON group with 6 rats) and chronic liver cirrhosis modeling group with 54 rats using the complete randomization method. After 12 weeks, 40 rats with successful modeling which were confirmed to meet the requirements for MHE model by the Morris water maze test were randomly divided into model group (MOD group), lactulose group (LT group), low-dose RD group (RD1 group), middle-dose RD group (RD2 group), and high-dose RD group (RD3 group), with 8 rats in each group. The rats in the CON group and the MOD group were given retention enema with 2 mL of normal saline once a day; the rats in the LT group were given retention enema with 2 mL of lactulose at a dose of 22.5% once a day; the rats in the RD1, RD2, and RD3 groups were given retention enema with 2 mL RD at a dose of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg, respectively, once a day. After 10 days of treatment, the Morris water maze test was performed to analyze the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats. The rats were analyzed from the following aspects: behavioral status; the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the level of blood ammonia; pathological changes of liver tissue and brain tissue; the mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in brain tissue. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsCompared with the MOD group, the RD1, RD2, and RD3 groups had a significantly shorter escape latency (all P<0.01), significant reductions in the levels of ALT, AST, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and blood ammonia (all P<0.05), significant alleviation of the degeneration, necrosis, and inflammation of hepatocytes and brain cells, and significant reductions in the mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR in brain tissue (all P<0.05), and the RD3 group had a better treatment outcome than the RD1 and RD2 groups. ConclusionRetention enema with RD can improve cognitive function and inflammatory damage of brain tissue in MHE rats, possibly by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 96-103, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006433

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) co-cultured with bone marrow-derived M2 macrophages (M2-BMDMs), named as BMSCM2, on a rat model of liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)/2-acetaminofluorene (2-AAF). MethodsRat BMDMs were isolated and polarized into M2 phenotype, and rat BMSCs were isolated and co-cultured with M2-BMDMs at the third generation to obtain BMSCM2. The rats were given subcutaneous injection of CCl4 for 6 weeks to establish a model of liver cirrhosis, and then they were randomly divided into model group (M group), BMSC group, and BMSCM2 group, with 6 rats in each group. A normal group (N group) with 6 rats was also established. Since week 7, the model rats were given 2-AAF by gavage in addition to the subcutaneous injection of CCl4. Samples were collected at the end of week 10 to observe liver function, liver histopathology, and hydroxyproline (Hyp) content in liver tissue, as well as changes in the markers for hepatic stellate cells, hepatic progenitor cells, cholangiocytes, and hepatocytes. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsCompared with the N group, the M group had significant increases in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01); compared with the M group, the BMSC and BMSCM2 groups had significant reductions in ALT and AST (P<0.01), and the BMSCM2 group had significantly better activities than the BMSC group (P<0.05). Compared with the N group, the M group had significant increases in Hyp content and the mRNA and protein expression levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the liver (P<0.01); compared with the M group, the BMSC and BMSCM2 groups had significant reductions in Hyp content and the expression of α-SMA (P<0.05), and the BMSCM2 group had a significantly lower level of α-SMA than the BMSC group (P<0.01). Compared with the N group, the M group had significant increases in the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic progenitor cell markers EpCam and Sox9 and the cholangiocyte markers CK7 and CK19 (P<0.01) and significant reductions in the expression levels of the hepatocyte markers HNF-4α and Alb (P<0.01); compared with the M group, the BMSC and BMSCM2 groups had significant reductions in the mRNA expression levels of EpCam, Sox9, CK7, and CK19 (P<0.05) and significant increases in the mRNA expression levels of HNF-4α and Alb (P<0.05), and compared with the BMSC group, the BMSCM2 group had significant reductions in the mRNA expression levels of EpCam and CK19 (P<0.05) and significant increase in the expression level of HNF-4α (P<0.05). ConclusionM2-BMDMs can enhance the therapeutic effect of BMSCs on CCl4/2-AAF-induced liver cirrhosis in rats, which provides new ideas for further improving the therapeutic effect of BMSCs on liver cirrhosis.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 70-75, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006429

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo quantitatively investigate the changes in the total volume and contour density of hepatic oval cells (HOC) in hepatic lobules of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. MethodsA total of 11 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group with 5 rats and hepatic fibrosis group with 6 rats, and CCl4 and olive oil suspension were injected subcutaneously twice a week, 3 mL/kg each time. After five weeks of hepatic fibrosis modeling, five liver tissue blocks with a size of about 1 mm3 were randomly selected from the liver of each rat to prepare one Epon812 epoxy resin-embedded ultrathin section, and the stereological method and transmission electron microscopy were used for the quantitative analysis of the total volume and contour density of HOC in the hepatic lobules of rats. In addition, four liver tissue blocks with a thickness of 2 mm were randomly selected from the remaining liver of each rat to prepare two paraffin-embedded Masson staining sections, and the degree of liver fibrosis in each rat was qualitatively evaluated according to the Metavir staging criteria for liver fibrosis. The independent-samples t test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups. ResultsThe quantitative stereological analysis showed that the total volume of HOC in hepatic lobules was 15.40±7.63 mm3 in the control group and 146.80±114.00 mm3 in the liver fibrosis group, and compared with the control group, the total volume of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats in the liver fibrosis group was significantly increased by 8.53 times (t=-2.551, P=0.031); the contour density of HOC in hepatic lobules was 56.20±40.40 in the control group and 566.50±317.00 in the liver fibrosis group, and compared with the control group, the contour density of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats in the liver fibrosis group was significantly increased by 9.08 times (t=-3.539, P=0.006). Qualitative observation showed that liver fibrosis stage of rats reached stage Ⅱ-Ⅲ according to the Metavir scoring criteria, and massive proliferation of HOC was observed around the proliferation site of hepatic stellate cells in the perisinusoidal space of rats. ConclusionCCl4 induces significant proliferation of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats with liver fibrosis.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 100-106, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005258

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effects of Youguiwan on bone metabolism and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)/Smad signaling pathway in ovaries-removed rats with osteoporosis and study the mechanism of Youguiwan in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. MethodA postmenopausal rat model of osteoporosis was prepared by bilateral ovariectomy. The 40 female SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, including sham operation group, model group, alendronate sodium group (0.1 mg·kg-1), and high-dose and low-dose (5.36 and 2.68 g·kg-1) groups of Youguiwan. The drug was given seven days after modeling, once a day for 12 weeks. After the treatment, the changes in femur tissue structure were observed by micro-CT, including bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), bone surface/bone volume (BS/BV), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Ossification was observed by saffrane-solid green staining, and serum levels of bone metabolism markers, including bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (BGP), type Ⅰ procollagen amino terminal propeptide (PINP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein and mRNA expression levels of Runx2, BMP-2, and Smad1 in rat femur were detected by Western blot and Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). ResultCompared with the sham operation group, bone trabecula in the model group was sparse. BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). BS/BV (P<0.05) and Tb.Sp were increased. The content of BGP, BALP, PINP, and TRACP-5b in serum was significantly increased (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expressions of Runx2, BMP-2, and Smad1 in rat femur were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the number of bone trabeculae in the high-dose and low-dose groups of Youguiwan was increased, and the bone microstructure was improved. BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th were increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01), and BS/BV and Tb.Sp were increased. The content of bone metabolic markers decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionYouguiwan has certain preventive and therapeutic effects on postmenopausal osteoporosis, and its mechanism may be related to promoting bone formation by regulating the BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 118-126, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003415

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effect of earthworm protein on the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (PI3K/Akt/Nrf2) pathway in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and explore mechanism of earthworm protein in treating hypertensive vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). MethodTen 10-week-old Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and fifty SHR rats were selected for a week of adaptive feeding. WKY rats were selected as the normal group, and fifty SHR rats were randomized according to body weight into model, valsartan (8×10-3 g·kg-1·d-1), and high-, medium-, and low-dose (0.2, 0.1, 0.05 g·kg-1·d-1, respectively) earthworm protein groups. The normal and model groups were administrated with equal volume of double distilled water by gavage. During the drug intervention period, the general situations of rats in each group were observed and their blood pressure was monitored at specific time points every other week before and after administration. After 8 weeks of drug intervention, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to measure the levels of angiotensin-Ⅱ (Ang-Ⅱ) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the serum of rats in each group. The corresponding kits were used to determine the levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ferrous ion (Fe2+). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was employed to observe the changes in the intima of the aorta. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was employed to measure the mRNA levels of PI3K, Akt, Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in the aortic tissue. Western blotting was used to determine the protein levels of p-PI3K (Tyr467/199), PI3K, p-Akt (Ser473), Akt, Nrf2, HO-1, and GPX4 in the thoracic aorta. ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group had decreased body mass, increased irritability, severe endothelial damage, elevated blood pressure and serum levels of Ang-Ⅱ, ET1, MDA, and Fe2+ (P<0.01), lowered NO level (P<0.01), and down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of p-PI3K (Tyr467/199), PI3K, p-Akt (Ser473), Akt, Nrf2, HO-1, and GPX4 in the aortic tissue (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, drug intervention caused no significant change in the body mass, calmed the rats, alleviated the endothelial damage, lowered blood pressure and serum levels of Ang-Ⅱ, ET1, MDA, and Fe2+ (P<0.01), elevated the NO level (P<0.05), and up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of p-PI3K (Tyr467/199), PI3K, p-Akt (Ser473), Akt, Nrf2, HO-1, and GPX4 (P<0.05). ConclusionThe earthworm protein can exert antihypertensive effects by ameliorating VED in SHR. Specifically, it may regulate the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway to inhibit oxidative stress and ferroptosis.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469257

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Burns/drug therapy , Glutamine , Rats, Wistar , Dipeptides , Disease Models, Animal , Amino Acids
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23493, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533989

ABSTRACT

Abstract A novel, simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method was developed and validated for the characterization of the preclinical pharmacokinetics of melatonin under pregnant conditions. Plasma samples (25 µL) were treated with 30 µL of ethanol absolute (containing the internal standard, IS). After a centrifugation process, aliquots of supernant (5 µL) were injected into the chromatographic system. Compounds were eluted on a Xbridge C18 (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) maintained at 30°C. The mobile phase consisted in a mixture of aqueous solution of 0.4% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (70:30 v/v). The wavelengths were set at 305 nm (excitation) and 408 nm (emission) and the total analysis time was 8 min/sample. All validation tests were obtained with accuracy and precision, according to FDA guidelines, over the concentration range of 0.005-20 µg/mL. Pharmacokinetic study showed that melatonin systemic exposure increased from day 14, with a significant difference at 19 days of gestation compared to the control group. Our findings suggest a decreased metabolism of melatonin as result of temporary physiological changes that occur throughout pregnancy. However, other maternal physiological changes cannot be ruled out.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Plasma , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Melatonin/agonists , Pregnancy , Pharmacokinetics
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e392124, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1556661

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of curcumin supplementation on abdominal surgical wound healing in rats using clinical, histological, and hematological parameters. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the curcumin group, and the control group. The curcumin group received, in addition to water and standard feed, curcumin via gavage at the dose of 200 mg/kg for seven days preceding and seven days following surgery. The control group received only water and standard feed. Both groups underwent median laparotomy and left colotomy. On the eighth postoperative day, the groups were euthanized, and the left colon was resected for histological analysis. Results: In the preoperative evaluation, there was a significant decrease in the mean C-reactive protein levels in the curcumin group (0.06) compared to the control group (0.112) (p = 0.0001). In the postoperative wound healing assessment, a significant decrease was observed in inflammatory infiltrate (p = 0.0006) and blood vessel count (p = 0.0002) in the curcumin group compared to the control group. Conclusions: Curcumin supplementation was able to significantly reduce inflammatory parameters in both pre-and post-operative phases of abdominal surgical wounds in rats.

16.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e391224, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1556663

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) in gingival tissues injury in rats. Methods: Twenty rats were categorized into two groups. In burn group, an excisional wound area was created by removing a 4-mm diameter flap from the left molar region in the mucoperiosteal region of the gingiva. In burn + ellagic acid group, 1.2 mg/mL EA was administered as irrigation for one week. Animals was sacrificed under anesthesia at the end of experiment. Malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and glutathione (GSH) level were measured. Hematoxylin and eosin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) immunostainings were applied to tissues. Results: MDA, MPO, inflammation and leukocyte infiltration were high in burn group. Degeneration epithelium, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in connective tissue areas, and dilatation and congestion in blood vessels were observed in burn group. In burn + EA group, the gingival epithelium improved, collagen fiber production increased and organized dermis were observed. After burn injury, FGF and EGF activity was increased in EA treated groups. Conclusions: We suggest that EA have the potential for better healing outcomes in oral wounds. EA seems to have promising therapeutic efficacy to enhance oral wound healing.

17.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e391324, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1556671

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop a new 4/6 infarct nephrectomy (INx) model rat mimicking moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to evaluate its application. Methods: We modified the conventional 5/6 INx rat model to create the 4/6 INx model by ligating the renal artery branch to induce infarction of one-third of the left kidney after right kidney removal and compared biochemically and histologically both models. To demonstrate the application of the 4/6 INx model, the effects of a supplementary compound containing calcium carbonate, chitosan, palm shell activated charcoal etc., that is effective for both CKD and its complications, were compared between both models. Results: Impairment of renal function in the 4/6 INx group was significantly more moderate than in the 5/6 INx group (P < 0.05). The 4/6 INx group showed less histological damage in kidney than in the 5/6 INx group. The supplementary compound did not improve CKD in the 5/6 INx group, but ameliorated elevation of blood urea nitrogen in the 4/6 INx group. Conclusions: We developed the 4/6 INx model, which is more moderate than the conventional 5/6 INx model. This model could potentially demonstrate the effectiveness of drugs and supplements intended to prevent CKD and its progression.

18.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e391724, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1556672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate inflammation and cell adhesion molecules in the vagina after ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods: 20 Wistar albino female rats were divided into two groups: control, and IR groups. In IR group, blood flow was restricted for 2 hours for ovarian ischemia. Then, tissues were re-blood 2 hours for reperfusion. Vagina tissues were excised and processed for histopathological analysis. Histopathological and biochemical follow-ups were performed. Results: Both malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase values were increased in IR group compared to control group. Glutathione content was decreased in IR group compared to control group. Epithelial degeneration, inflammation, dilatation, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were increased in IR group compared to control group. E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased in IR group. In the IR group, E-cadherin showed a positive reaction in adenomas, gland-like cryptic structures, cellular junctions with clustered inflammatory cells. In the IR group, NF-κB expression was increased in basement membrane, inflammatory cells, in blood vessels. Conclusions: Ovarian ischemia caused degeneration of epithelial cells in the vaginal region and disruptions in the cell junction complex, which leads to activation of E-cadherin and NF-κB signaling pathway and alterations in reproductive and embryonal development in the vaginal region.

19.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e392224, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1556673

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate, by quantitative and qualitative methods, the glomerular ultrastructure in Wistar rats fed a cafeteria diet. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups at 21 days of age: control (C, n = 10) and cafeteria diet (CAF, n = 8). The animals were followed up until 5 months of age, followed by euthanasia. The blood, kidneys, and fat deposits--epididymal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous--were extracted and analyzed. Data were analyzed by Student's t test, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The cafeteria diet promoted glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia (p < 0.0001), and deposition of retroperitoneal fat (p < 0.005). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the length of the foot process was similar in both groups. The quantitative analyses by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cafeteria diet reduced the thickness of the glomerular basement membrane (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The intake of lipids and simple carbohydrates were found to be associated with alteration in the glomerular ultrastructure. However, more studies are needed to evaluate not only the effects of high-protein and high-fat diets on components of the glomerular filtration barrier, but also renal physiology.

20.
Braz. j. anesth ; 74(2): 744470, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557239

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Methylene Blue (MB) has been shown to attenuate oxidative, inflammatory, myocardial, and neurological lesions during ischemia-reperfusion and has great potential during cardiac arrest. This study aimed to determine the effects of MB combined with epinephrine during cardiac arrest on myocardial and cerebral lesions. Method: Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: the sham group (SH, n = 5), and three groups subjected to cardiac arrest (n = 11 /group) and treated with EPI 20 μg.kg−1 (EPI), EPI 20 μg.kg−1 + MB 2 mg.kg−1 (EPI + MB), or saline 0.9% 0.2 ml (CTL). Ventricular fibrillation was induced by direct electrical stimulation in the right ventricle for 3 minutes, and anoxia was maintained for 5 minutes. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) consisted of medications, ventilation, chest compressions, and defibrillation. After returning to spontaneous circulation, animals were observed for four hours. Blood gas, troponin, oxidative stress, histology, and TUNEL staining measurements were analyzed. Groups were compared using generalized estimating equations. Results: No differences in the Returning of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) rate were observed among the groups (EPI: 63%, EPI + MB: 45%, CTL: 40%, p = 0.672). The mean arterial pressure immediately after ROSC was higher in the EPI+MB group than in the CTRL group (CTL: 30.5 [5.8], EPI: 63 [25.5], EPI+MB: 123 [31] mmHg, p = 0.007). Serum troponin levels were high in the CTL group (CTL: 130.1 [333.8], EPI: 3.70 [36.0], EPI +MB: 43.7 [116.31] ng/mL, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The coadministration of MB and epinephrine failed to yield enhancements in cardiac or brain lesions in a rodent model of cardiac arrest.

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