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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 57: e13229, fev.2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534065

ABSTRACT

Abstract The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) remains high, and many NAFLD patients suffer from severe ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Currently, no practical approach can be used to treat IRI. Puerarin plays a vital role in treating multiple diseases, such as NAFLD, stroke, diabetes, and high blood pressure. However, its role in the IRI of the fatty liver is still unclear. We aimed to explore whether puerarin could protect the fatty liver from IRI. C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high‐fat diet (HFD) followed by ischemia reperfusion injury. We showed that hepatic IRI was more severe in the fatty liver compared with the normal liver, and puerarin could significantly protect the fatty liver against IRI and alleviate oxidative stress. The PI3K-AKT signaling pathway was activated during IRI, while liver steatosis decreased the level of activation. Puerarin significantly protected the fatty liver from IRI by reactivating the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. However, LY294002, a PI3K-AKT inhibitor, attenuated the protective effect of puerarin. In conclusion, puerarin could significantly protect the fatty liver against IRI by activating the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway.

2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 269-279, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016487

ABSTRACT

Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) has a very high incidence, disability, and mortality rates, which seriously affects human life and health. In recent years, modern medicine has made some progress in the diagnosis and treatment of CIRI, but there are still problems such as difficulties in postoperative rehabilitation and adverse drug reactions, and new therapeutic drugs for CIRI are urgently needed. As an important class of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine, flavonoids can play antioxidant, apoptosis inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological effects to improve brain tissue damage, which is important for improving the quality of life of CIRI patients and slowing down the aging of the social population. Numerous studies have found that flavonoids in traditional Chinese medicine can regulate cell surface receptors Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappaB (TLR4/NF-κB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), adenylate-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin protein (AMPK/mTOR), Ras homologous gene family member A/Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (RhoA/ROCK), nuclear factor E2-associated factor 2/Kelch-like epoxychloropropane-associated protein-1/haemoglobin oxygenase 1 (Nrf2/Keap1/ HO-1), Notch, and other signaling pathways, so as to regulate the transcription and expression of related proteins after CIRI, alleviate brain tissue injury, and improve CIRI. This paper analyzed the relevant literature in China and abroad in recent years, reviewed the mechanism of action and related pathways of flavonoids in traditional Chinese medicine to improve CIRI, and explored the new therapeutic direction of CIRI at the metabolic level, with a view to providing a basis for the further development and application of flavonoids in traditional Chinese medicine.

3.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 431-439, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013653

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the regulatory effect of geraniol on Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion(I/R)in rats. Methods In this experiment,all the male SD rats were randomly divided into nine groups receiving the following treatments:sham operation(sham); sham operation+200 mg·kg-1 geraniol; I/R; I/R+50 mg·kg-1 geraniol; I/R+100 mg/kg geraniol; I/R+200 mg·kg-1 geraniol; edaravone; I/R+ brusatol(Nrf2 inhibitor); I/R+200mg·kg-1 geraniol+brusatol. All rats received intraperitoneal injection of geraniol for five consecutive days before MCAO and again after MCAO. During the construction of cerebral I/R injury models,the blood vessels were isolated without any suture in the sham operation and the sham operation +200 mg·kg-1 geraniol groups while the blood vessels with suture in other groups. The damage of neurological function was evaluated by the modified rating scale for neurological function. The TTC,HE and Tunel staining methods were used to determine the cerebral infarction volume,the damage of the ischemic cortex and the apoptosis of cortical cells,respectively. The oxidative stress-related parameters then were measured. The protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining and the target protein expressions of the injured cortex were detected by Western blot. Results Compared with the model group,it was found that the geraniol treatment significantly repaired neural injury,reduced cerebral infarction volume,cerebral cortex damage and cell apoptosis. Meanwhile,geraniol intervention could significantly increase the expression of Nrf2/HO-1 protein in the right-sided cortex and reduce oxidative stress level. Conclusion Geraniol can attenuate cerebral injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats via activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 813-818, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the protective effect and mechanism of Longshengzhi capsules on cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS The model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established by using the improved thread occlusion method. The experiment was divided into six groups: sham surgery group (only separating blood vessels without inserting thread plugs, given the same volume of normal saline), model group (modeling, given the same volume of normal saline), nimodipine group (positive control, modeling, dose of 20 mg/kg), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups of Longshengzhi capsules (modeling, doses of 0.72, 1.44 and 2.88 g/kg, respectively), with 10 mice in each group. Each group was given corresponding medication solution/normal saline by gavage, once a day, for 7 consecutive days. One hour after the last administration, the Zea Longa scoring method was used to score the neurological deficits in each group of rats, and the ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rats; TTC staining was used to observe the volume of cerebral infarction in rats and calculate the cerebral infarction volume ratio. Hematoxylin eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes in the brain tissue of rats. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the positive expression of NLRP3 protein in the brain tissue of rats. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect mRNA relative expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the brain tissue of rats. Western blot assay was adopted to detect the relative expressions of TLR4, NLRP3 and phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) protein in the brain tissue of rats and its intracellular NF-κB protein. RESULTS Compared with the sham surgery group, the neural dysfunction score, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6, cerebral infarction volume ratio, relative expression levels of NF-κB and TLR4 mRNA, as well as protein relative expressions of TLR4, NLRP3 and p-NF-κB in the brain tissue, and relative protein expression of intracellular NF-κB were increased significantly in the model group (P<0.01); the enlarged gap and significant edema were observed in cortical nerve cells of brain tissue in rats, with a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration; the positive expression of NLRP3 protein in brain tissue of rats obviously increased. Compared with the model group, the levels of the above indicators in the medium-dose and high-dose groups of Longshengzhi capsules, as well as the Nimodipine group, were reversed to varying degrees, and most differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01); the pathological morphology observation showed a significant improvement, and the positive expression of NLRP3 protein in the brain tissue of rats was obviously reduced. CONCLUSIONS Longshengzhi capsules may inhibit TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway and neuroinflammatory response, thereby achieving a protective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

5.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 282-288, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012501

ABSTRACT

CD47 is a transmembrane protein widely expressed on cell surface, which is considered as a key molecule for immune escape. With an increasing number of related studies, the role of CD47 and its ligands in immunomodulatory effects has been gradually understood. Recent studies have investigated the role of CD47 in ischemia-reperfusion injury of allogenetic kidney transplantation, rejection and xenotransplantation. Nevertheless, the specific role and the key mechanism remain elusive. In this article, the structure and function of CD47, common CD47 ligands, the relationship between CD47 and kidney transplantation, and the application of CD47 in kidney transplantation were reviewed, the latest research progress of CD47 in kidney transplantation was summarized, and the limitations of current research and subsequent research direction were analyzed, aiming to provide reference for subsequent application of CD47 in allogeneic and kidney xenotransplantation.

6.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 220-228, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012492

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of mouse renal tubular epithelial cells and unravel underlying mechanism. Methods Mouse renal tubular epithelial cells were divided into adenovirus negative control group (Ad-shNC group), targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus group (Ad-shXBP1s group), Ad-shNC+H/R group and Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group. The apoptosis level, mitochondrial reactive oxygen activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial calcium ion level were detected in each group. Chromatin immunocoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) was employed to analyze the binding sites of XBP1s in regulating the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) family. The expression levels of XBP1s and ITPR family messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were determined in each group. Results Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the apoptosis level was higher, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level was increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and mitochondrial calcium ion level was elevated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, the apoptosis level was lower, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level was decreased, mitochondrial membrane potential was elevated, and mitochondrial calcium ion level was decreased in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 mRNAs and proteins were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 proteins were up-regulated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). ChIP-seq results showed that XBP1s could bind to the promoter and exon of ITPR1, the exon of ITPR2, and the exon of ITPR3. Conclusions XBP1s may affect mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane structure and function by directly regulating ITPR transcription and translation. Down-regulating XBP1s may inhibit ITPR expression and mitigate mitochondrial damage.

7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 87-94, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011446

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore whether the mechanism of Shuangshen Ningxin capsules (SSNX) in alleviating myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats is related to the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion. MethodThis study focused on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and ligated the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery to construct a rat model of MIRI. The rats were divided into the sham operation group, model group, SSNX group (90 mg·kg-1) and trimetazidine group (5.4 mg·kg-1). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by micro method. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm) and the degree of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were detected by the chemical fluorescence method. The intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level was detected by the luciferase assay. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression levels of mitochondrial fission and fusion related factors dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), mitochondrial fission 1 protein (FIS1), optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1), mitochondrial outer membrane fusion protein 1 (MFN1), and MFN2 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and Western blot. ResultCompared with the sham operation group, the model group showed a decrease in serum SOD activity and an increase in MDA content. The opening level of mPTP, the level of △Ψm and ATP content decreased, the protein expressions of mitochondrial fission factors DRP1 and FIS1 increased, and the protein expressions and mRNA transcription levels of fusion related factors OPA1 and MFN1 decreased. Compared with the model group,SSNX significantly increased serum SOD activity, reduced MDA content, increased intracellular ATP level and △Ψm, reduced the opening level of mPTP, downregulated the protein expressions of mitochondrial fission factors DRP1 and FIS1, and increased the mRNA transcription levels and protein expressions of fusion related factors OPA1 and MFN1. ConclusionSSNX inhibits the expressions of mitochondrial fission factors DRP1 and FIS1, and increases the expressions of fusion related factors OPA1 and MFN1, inhibiting mitochondrial fission and increasing mitochondrial fusion, thereby alleviating MIRI.

8.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 21-27, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007270

ABSTRACT

Ischemia and hypoxia cause functional damage to brain tissues during stroke, and when blood supply is restored to brain tissues after ischemia, a large number of free radicals and calcium overload cause cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, which further aggravates the condition. Autophagy is a self-protection mechanism that maintains the homeostasis of the intracellular environment, but excessive autophagy causes brain tissue damage. MiRNA is a small endogenous non-coding RNA molecule that regulate various physiological activities at the gene level by binding to complementary sequences in the 3 '- UTR of its target gene mRNA, leading to translation inhibition or mRNA degradation. MiRNA not only directly acts on autophagy related proteins, but also participates in autophagy regulation induced by ischemia/reperfusion through various signaling pathways. However, there is still a lack of systematic induction and analysis of miRNA regulation of autophagy signaling pathways induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. This article reviews the regulation of cellular autophagy during cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion by miRNA-124, miRNA-298, miRNA-202-5p, miRNA-142, miRNA-26b and so on through different signaling pathways, providing a systematic and theoretical approach for the study of autophagy in stroke.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 253-261, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006578

ABSTRACT

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) is a complex cascade reaction process in which the blood flow and oxygen supply of brain tissue in the infarcted area recover after cerebral ischemia, resulting in secondary injury of ischemic brain tissue. At present, thrombolysis as soon as possible and restoration of cerebral blood supply are still the only strategies for the treatment of stroke, but a considerable number of patients' symptoms will be more serious after reperfusion, making patients face adverse outcomes such as neurological function injury and even death and seriously affecting the quality of life and safety of patients. Therefore, an in-depth exploration of the mechanism and treatment strategy of CIRI has important clinical significance. The phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway is one of the classic anti-apoptosis/reproductive-promoting signal transduction pathways, which is responsible for cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation. It is the key cascade signaling pathway of CIRI, located at the core site in many mechanisms such as mitochondrial disorder, apoptosis, autophagy, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is closely related to the occurrence and development of CIRI. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used in the clinical treatment of stroke and its complications for thousands of years, and the clinical effect of traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of CIRI has been affirmed by a large number of research results in recent years. It is further clarified that the monomers, active components, and their compound prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine can directly or indirectly regulate the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by virtue of the biological advantages of multi-targets, multi-components, and multi-pathways and play an overall protective role in CIRI. By analyzing the related research progress of traditional Chinese medicine in China and abroad in recent years, the authors summarized the role and mechanism of regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the prevention and treatment of CIRI, so as to provide further theoretical basis for the study of the mechanism of clinical prevention and treatment of CIRI.

10.
World Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (4): 10-15, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005314

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) can temporarily control traumatic bleeding. However, its prolonged use potentially leads to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Partial REBOA (pREBOA) can alleviate ischemic burden; however, its security and effectiveness prior to operative hemorrhage control remains unknown. Hence, we aimed to estimate the efficacy of pREBOA in a swine model of liver injury using an experimental sliding-chamber ballistic gun. METHODS: Twenty Landrace pigs were randomized into control (no aortic occlusion) (n=5), intervention with complete REBOA (cREBOA) (n=5), continuous pREBOA (C-pREBOA) (n=5), and sequential pREBOA (S-pREBOA) (n=5) groups. In the cREBOA and C-pREBOA groups, the balloon was inflated for 60 min. The hemodynamic and laboratory values were compared at various observation time points. Tissue samples immediately after animal euthanasia from the myocardium, liver, kidneys, and duodenum were collected for histological assessment using hematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the survival rate of the REBOA groups was prominently improved (all P<0.05). The total volume of blood loss was markedly lower in the cREBOA group (493.14±127.31 mL) compared with other groups (P<0.01). The pH was significantly lower at 180 min in the cREBOA and S-pREBOA groups (P<0.05). At 120 min, the S-pREBOA group showed higher alanine aminotransferase (P<0.05) but lower blood urea nitrogen compared with the cREBOA group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In this trauma model with liver injury, a 60-minute pREBOA resulted in improved survival rate and was effective in maintaining reliable aortic pressure, despite persistent hemorrhage. Extended tolerance time for aortic occlusion in Zone I for non-compressible torso hemorrhage was feasible with both continuous partial and sequential partial measures, and the significant improvement in the severity of acidosis and distal organ injury was observed in the sequential pREBOA.

11.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 131-137, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005243

ABSTRACT

Organ preservation fluid could mitigate cold ischemia injury and maintain normal function of the grafts. At present, how to reduce a series of injury caused by cold ischemia of donor liver and improve the preservation quality of grafts are the hot and challenging spots in this field. Currently, preservation fluid in clinical practice has not achieved ideal preservation effect, especially for the protection of marginal donor organs. In the context of severe donor shortage, the key solution is still to explore the optimal preservation protocol for donor liver to prevent grafts from cold ischemia injury. In this article, the mechanism of donor liver injury during cold ischemia, the classification and evolution of donor liver preservation fluid were summarized, the development direction and challenges of donor liver preservation fluid were discussed, aiming to provide novel ideas and references for the research and development of donor liver preservation fluid.

12.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 70-81, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005236

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the core genes of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and construct a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. Methods Original data of GSE145989 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database as the training set, and the GSE172222 and GSE9634 datasets were used as the validation sets, and the differentially-expressed genes (DEG) were identified. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and the core genes were screened, and the diagnostic values of these core genes and the immune infiltration levels of immune cells were evaluated. The ceRNA network was constructed and validated. The targeted drugs based on ceRNA network were assessed. Results A total of 179 DEG were identified, including 61 down-regulated and 118 up-regulated genes. GO analysis showed that DEGs were associated with multiple biological processes, such as cell migration, differentiation and regulation, etc. They were correlated with cell components, such as vesicle membrane, serosa and membrane raft, etc. They were also associated with multiple molecular functions, such as chemokine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor, immune receptor activity and antigen binding, etc. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DEG were involved in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Wnt, interleukin (IL)-17 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways, etc. PPI network suggested that CD8A, IL2RG, STAT1, CD3G and SYK were the core genes of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. The ceRNA network prompted that miR-146a-3p, miR-28-5p and miR-593-3p were related to the expression level of CD3G. The miR-149-3p, miR-342-5p, miR-873-5p and miR-491-5p were correlated with the expression level of IL-2RG. The miR-194-3p, miR-512-3p, miR-377-3p and miR-590-3p were associated with the expression level of SYK. The miR-590-3p and miR-875-3p were related to the expression level of CD8A. The miR-143-5p, miR-1231, miR-590-3p and miR-875-3p were associated with the expression level of STAT1. There were 13 targeted drugs for CD3G, 4 targeted drugs for IL-2RG, 28 targeted drugs for SYK and 3 targeted drugs for lncRNA MUC2. No targeted drugs were identified for CD8A, STAT1 and other ceRNA network genes. Conclusions CD8A, IL2RG, STAT1, CD3G and SYK are the core genes of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. The research and analysis of these core genes probably contribute to the diagnosis of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and providing novel research ideas and therapeutic targets.

13.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 46-54, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005233

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) in the senescence of primary renal tubular epithelial cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Methods Primary renal tubular epithelial cells were divided into the normal control group (NC group), H/R group, empty adenovirus negative control group (Ad-shNC group), targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus group (Ad-shXBP1s group), empty adenovirus+H/R treatment group (Ad-shNC+H/R group) and targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus+H/R treatment group (Ad-shXBP1s +H/R group), respectively. The expression levels of XBP1s in the NC, H/R, Ad-shNC and Ad-shXBP1s groups were measured. The number of cells stained with β-galactosidase, the expression levels of cell aging markers including p53, p21 and γH2AX, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the Ad-shNC, Ad-shNC+H/R and Ad-shXBP1s+H/R groups. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was employed to verify Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) of XBP1s transcription regulation, and the expression levels of Sirt3 and downstream SOD2 after down-regulation of XBP1s were detected. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) were detected by flow cytometry. Results Compared with the NC group, the expression level of XBP1s was up-regulated in the H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the expression level of XBP1s was down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s group (both P<0.001). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the number of cells stained with β-galactosidase was increased, the expression levels of p53, p21 and γH2AX were up-regulated, the levels of ROS, MDA and mtROS were increased, the SOD activity was decreased, the expression level of Sirt3 was down-regulated, and the ratio of Ac-SOD2/SOD2 was increased in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, the number of cells stained with β-galactosidase was decreased, the expression levels of p53, p21 and γH2AX were down-regulated, the levels of ROS, MDA and mtROS were decreased, the SOD activity was increased, the expression level of Sirt3 was up-regulated and the ratio of Ac-SOD2/SOD2 was decreased in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). Conclusions Down-regulation of XBP1s may ameliorate the senescence of primary renal tubular epithelial cells induced by H/R, which probably plays a role through the Sirt3/SOD2/mtROS signaling pathway.

14.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 40-45, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005232

ABSTRACT

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an extremely complicated pathophysiological process, which may occur during the process of myocardial infarction, stroke, organ transplantation and temporary interruption of blood flow during surgery, etc. As key molecules of immune system, macrophages play a vital role in the pathogenesis of IRI. M1 macrophages are pro-inflammatory cells and participate in the elimination of pathogens. M2 macrophages exert anti-inflammatory effect and participate in tissue repair and remodeling and extracellular matrix remodeling. The balance between macrophage phenotypes is of significance for the outcome and treatment of IRI. This article reviewed the role of macrophages in IRI, including the balance between M1/M2 macrophage phenotype, the mechanism of infiltration and recruitment into different ischemic tissues. In addition, the potential therapeutic strategies of targeting macrophages during IRI were also discussed, aiming to provide reference for alleviating IRI and promoting tissue repair.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 124-128, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005226

ABSTRACT

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) is a serious complication of revascularization in patients with myocardial infarction. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathological process of MIRI. Currently,research has found that traditional Chinese medicine has a good effect on myocardial injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Based on the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway,this article summarizes the action mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine formulas and monomers in intervening with MIRI. It is found that traditional Chinese medicine formulas (Yixin formula,Wenyang tongmai formula,Dingxin formula Ⅰ),monomers such as terpenoids (ginkgolides, astragaloside Ⅳ,ginsenosides),phenols (brazilin,hematoxylin A,resveratrol) and quinones (aloe,emodin) can alleviate MIRI by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway,inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions,etc.

16.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e390224, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1533355

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of breviscapine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in diabetes rats. Methods: Forty rats were divided into control, diabetes, MIRI of diabetes, and treatment groups. The MIRI of diabetes model was established in the latter two groups. Then, the treatment group was treated with 100 mg/kg breviscapine by intraperitoneal injection for 14 consecutive days. Results: After treatment, compared with MIRI of diabetes group, in treatment group the serum fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels decreased, the serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased, the heart rate decreased, the mean arterial pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, and fractional shortening increased, the serum cardiac troponin I, and creatine kinase-MB levels decreased, the myocardial tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 levels decreased, the myocardial superoxide dismutase level increased, and the myocardial malondialdehyde level decreased (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: For treating MIRI of diabetes in rats, the breviscapine can reduce the blood glucose and lipid levels, improve the cardiac function, reduce the myocardial injury, and decrease the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, thus exerting the alleviating effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Oxidative Stress , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation , Ischemia
17.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 42(3): 183-189, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529986

ABSTRACT

El precondicionamiento isquémico remoto es una manera eficaz de disminuir el daño por isquemia y reperfusión en el corazón y otros órganos como cerebro o riñón, en modelos experimentales. Este consiste en realizar entre 3 y 5 ciclos de 5 minutos de isquemia seguidos del mismo tiempo de reperfusión, en un tejido alejado del que se quiere proteger, normalmente una extremidad. Estudios preclínicos en animales indican que la isquemia precondicionante inicia señales nerviosas y humorales en el tejido isquémico remoto, que en el corazón activan mecanismos de protección. La señal nerviosa se origina en fibras sensoriales que a nivel cerebral producen una activación del sistema parasimpático. El nervio vago activa ganglios cardíacos intrínsecos del corazón lo que induce protección. Además, desde el tejido isquémico se liberan a la circulación diferentes mediadores que viajan en forma libre o en vesículas lipídicas (exosomas) que inician vías de señalización protectoras en el corazón. A pesar del éxito del precondicionamiento isquémico remoto en animales de experimentación, su aplicación en seres humanos no ha tenido resultados claros. Esta discrepancia puede deberse a una diversidad de factores tales como la edad, la existencia de otras patologías, uso de fármacos u otros tratamientos que afectan la respuesta de los pacientes. Se requiere un mayor conocimiento de las bases moleculares de este mecanismo de protección para que su aplicación en clínica sea exitosa.


In experimental models, remote ischemic preconditioning effectively decreases ischemia reperfusion injury to the heart and other organs such as the brain or kidney. It consists of 3 to 5 cycles of 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion, in a remote tissue, usually a limb. Preclinical studies in animals indicate that preconditioning ischemia initiates neural and humoral signals in the remote ischemic tissue, which activate protective mechanisms in the heart. The nervous signal originates in sensory fibers that activate the parasympathetic system in the brain. The vagus nerve activates the intrinsic cardiac ganglia of the heart, leading to protection from ischemic injury. Furthermore, mediators are released from the ischemic tissue into the circulation that travels freely or in lipid vesicles (exosomes) to the heart where they initiate protective signaling pathways. Despite the success of remote ischemic preconditioning in experimental animals, its application in humans has not produced clear results. This discrepancy may be due to a variety of factors such as age, the existence of other pathologic processes, or the use of drugs or other treatments that affect the patient´s response. An increased knowledge of the molecular bases of this protective mechanism is required for its clinical application to be successful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/instrumentation
18.
Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl ; 43(1): 2-2, mar. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515447

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Renal ischemia (I) could develop due to decreased or ceased blood flow to the kidney in some clinical conditions such as shock, sepsis, and kidney transplantation. The re-supply of blood to the kidney is called reperfusion (R). Ischemia and reperfusion periods can cause severe kidney damage. Objectives: When we examined the I/R molecular progression, antioxidant molecules such as vitamin A seem promising treatment agents. This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin A on renal I/R injury. Material and Methods: In the study, 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into five groups (n=8): the control group, only I/R, I/R+1000, I/R+3000, and I/R+9000 IU/kg of Vitamin A groups. Vitamin A was administrated to each group for seven days via oral gavage. Blood and kidney tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment. We took blood samples for Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) levels, and determined their values. The tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin/eosin to examine the renal changes histopathologically and stereologically under a light microscope. Results: Histopathological changes caused by I/R were decreased with vitamin A administration in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Vitamin A administration decreased MDA levels and increased SOD and CAT activities (p<0.05). The most effective dose among treatment groups was 9000 IU/kg. There was no significant difference between the controls and all other groups regarding BUN and Cr concentrations. Conclusions: Consequently, administration of vitamin A after renal I/R reduced the histological damage and ameliorated the antioxidant state. These results showed that vitamin A could be a promising agent in treating I/R-induced acute kidney injury.


RESUMEN Introducción: La isquemia renal (I) puede desarrollarse debido a la disminución o interrupción del flujo sanguíneo al riñón en algunas condiciones clínicas como shock, sepsis y trasplante renal. El reabastecimiento de sangre al riñón se denomina reperfusión (R). Tanto la isquemia como los períodos de reperfusión pueden causar graves daños renales. Objetivos: Cuando examinamos la progresión molecular I/R, las moléculas antioxidantes como la vitamina A parecen agentes de tratamiento prometedores. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la vitamina A sobre la lesión renal I/R. Material y Métodos: En el estudio, 40 ratas macho Sprague-Dawley se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=8) como: control, solo I/R, I/R+1000, I/R+3000 e I/R+9000 UI/kg de la Vitamina A. La vitamina A se administró a cada grupo durante 7 días por vía oral forzada. Al final del experimento se recolectaron muestras de sangre y tejido del riñón. A partir de muestras de sangre se determinaron los niveles de superóxido dismutasa (SOD), malondialdehído (MDA), catalasa (CAT), nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN) y creatinina (Cr). Las muestras de tejido se tiñeron con hematoxilina/eosina y los cambios en la histología renal se examinaron histopatológicamente y estereológicamente al microscopio de luz. Resultados: Los cambios histopatológicos causados por I/R disminuyeron con la administración de la vitamina A de manera dependiente de la dosis (p<0,05). La administración de la vitamina A disminuyó los niveles de MDA, aumentó las actividades de SOD y CAT (p<0,05). La dosis más eficaz entre los grupos del tratamiento fue de 9000 UI/kg. No hubo una diferencia significativa entre el grupo control y todos los demás grupos con respecto a las concentraciones de BUN y Cr. Conclusiones: Consiguientemente, la administración de la vitamina A, después de I/R renal, redujo el daño histológico y mejoró el estado antioxidante. Estos resultados mostraron que la vitamina A puede ser un agente promisorio en el tratamiento de la lesión renal aguda (LRA) inducida por I/R.

19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(3): 380-385, Mar. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422651

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the protection of enoxaparin (E) against experimental ischemic (I) and ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat ovaries on in vitro fertilization outcomes. METHODS: In total, 56 adult female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups of 8 animals each: Sham, Ischemia, I/R, Sham+E, I+E, and I/R+E. Ischemia groups were subjected to bilateral adnexal torsion for 3 h. In contrast, I/R and I/R+E groups received subsequent detorsion for 3 h. Enoxaparin (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) was administered 30 min prior to ischemia (I+platelet-rich plasma) or reperfusion (I/R+I+platelet-rich plasma). Ovaries were stimulated through intraperitoneal injection of 150-300 internal units IU/kg pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels were measured before and after surgery in all groups. RESULTS: When the number of metaphase II oocytes was evaluated, statistically significant differences were observed between the I and I+E (p=0.001) and I/R and I/R+E (p=0.000) groups. When both I and I+E groups and I/R and I/R+E groups were compared, it was found that E application increased the number of fertilized oocytes. The number of embryos on the second day was higher in the I/R+E group than that in the I/R group. Statistically significant differences were found in the number of grade 1 embryos between the I/R and I/R+E groups (p=0.003). In comparing anti-Müllerian hormone values within the group, the highest decrease was observed in the I and I/R groups. CONCLUSION: Enoxaparin effectively minimizes ovarian damage and preserves ovarian reserve following ovarian torsion.

20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 38(1): 29-36, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423096

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Paraplegia may develop as a result of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in patients who underwent thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. The objective of this research is to determine the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rd pretreatment in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36) were randomly assigned to three groups. The sham (n=12) and control (n=12) groups received normal saline orally. The Rd group (n=12) received ginsenoside Rd (100 mg/kg) orally 48 hours before the induction of spinal cord ischemia. Spinal cord ischemia was induced by aortic occlusion using a Fogarty balloon catheter in the Rd and control groups. A neurological assessment according to the motor deficit index and a histological evaluation of the spinal cord were performed. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of ginsenoside Rd, malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activity were determined. Further, the tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were measured. Results: The Rd group showed significantly lower motor deficit index scores than did the control group throughout the entire experimental period (P<0.001). The Rd group demonstrated significantly greater numbers of normal motor neurons than did the control group (P=0.039). The Rd group exhibited decreased malondialdehyde levels (P<0.001) and increased superoxide dismutase activity (P=0.029) compared to the control group. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta tissue levels were significantly decreased in the Rd group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rd pretreatment may be a promising treatment to prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury in patients who undergo thoracoabdominal aortic surgery.

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