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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469253

ABSTRACT

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.


Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.

2.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; (6): 669-675, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012959

ABSTRACT

Infertile women experience complex biological and social experiences in the process of receiving IVF. From the perspective of females undergoing IVF, it is helpful to analyze the ethical and social problems that IVF may face more intuitively and concretely. In this study, 213 women who were undergoing IVF were randomly selected to carry out a questionnaire survey. The results showed that the choice of IVF for infertile women was driven by multiple pressures from family and society, not entirely on their own; They are not aware of the technology, but have a positive attitude, and are eager to be fully informed in the treatment process. In addition, the treatment brings great economic pressure to women who were undergoing IVF and has no significant impact on the relationship between husband and wife. Only by paying attention to the above problems and solving them can we benefit more infertile women and help them realize their reproductive wishes.

3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 6-20, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010785

ABSTRACT

Originating but free from chromosomal DNA, extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are organized in circular form and have long been found in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Their biogenesis and function are poorly understood as they are characterized by sequence homology with linear DNA, for which few detection methods are available. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revealed that eccDNAs play crucial roles in tumor formation, evolution, and drug resistance as well as aging, genomic diversity, and other biological processes, bringing it back to the research hotspot. Several mechanisms of eccDNA formation have been proposed, including the breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) and translocation-deletion-amplification models. Gynecologic tumors and disorders of embryonic and fetal development are major threats to human reproductive health. The roles of eccDNAs in these pathological processes have been partially elucidated since the first discovery of eccDNA in pig sperm and the double minutes in ovarian cancer ascites. The present review summarized the research history, biogenesis, and currently available detection and analytical methods for eccDNAs and clarified their functions in gynecologic tumors and reproduction. We also proposed the application of eccDNAs as drug targets and liquid biopsy markers for prenatal diagnosis and the early detection, prognosis, and treatment of gynecologic tumors. This review lays theoretical foundations for future investigations into the complex regulatory networks of eccDNAs in vital physiological and pathological processes.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals , Humans , Swine , DNA, Circular/genetics , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Semen , DNA , Reproduction
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.


Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Strigiformes , Reproduction , Brazil , Feeding Behavior
5.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 74(3): 202-213, sept. 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1536068

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: El aborto es un derecho en salud sexual y reproductiva de la mujer en Colombia, sin embargo no toda la sociedad colombiana reconoce este derecho. Este trabajo busca comprender la transformación de los significados después de haber afrontado una interrupción voluntaria del embarazo tardía, en mujeres residentes en Colombia, y su interacción con familiares, amigos y sistema de salud. Materiales y métodos: Investigación hermenéutica desde un paradigma constructivista, el análisis se hizo desde una perspectiva feminista con técnicas de la teoría fundamentada: codificación, categorización y comparación constante. Se realizaron 19 entrevistas semiestructuradas a 18 mujeres residentes en Colombia que se sometieron a interrupción voluntaria del embarazo tardía definida por ser una gestación mayor a 20 semanas, acompañada de feticidio e inducción de parto, en dos ciudades colombianas, entre 2016 y 2020. Además, se realizaron dos grupos focales, uno con algunas de las entrevistadas, y otro con feministas expertas para triangular la información emergente del proceso investigativo y profundizar los hallazgos. Resultados: Las mujeres tenían un significado negativo y contrario sobre la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo, pero cuando se encuentran inmersas en una situación que las obliga a terminar con la gestación, contravienen los significados propios y los de su sociedad y buscan justificaciones que les ayuden a mantener la decisión. Esta confrontación las hace reflexionar profunda e íntimamente y las lleva a transformar sus vidas. Conclusiones: Los significados sobre el aborto, en las mujeres que se realizan interrupción voluntaria del embarazo tardía, generalmente son contrarios a este derecho en salud sexual y reproductiva. Posterior al evento estos significados se transforman por medio de la reflexión consciente de las mujeres al tener que enfrentar sus propios significados y los de la sociedad.


Objectives: As part of sexual and reproductive health, abortion is a woman's right in Colombia. However, not all the members of Colombian society recognize this right. The aim of this work is to understand the transformation of meanings after having to cope with voluntary termination of late pregnancy in women living in Colombia, as well as their interaction with family and friends and the health system. Material and methods: Hermeneutic research undertaken within a constructivist paradigm and analyzed from a feminist perspective using grounded theory techniques: coding, categorization and constant comparison. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted among 18 women living in Colombia who underwent voluntary termination of late pregnancy defined as more than 20 weeks of gestation, accompanied by feticide and labor induction, in two Colombian cities between 2016 and 2020. Besides, two focus groups were conducted, one with some of the interviewees and another with feminist experts in order to cross-reference the information derived from the research process and delve deeper into the findings. Results: Women attached a negative and opposite meaning to voluntary termination of pregnancy, but once they found themselves in a situation that forced them to put an end to gestation, they transgressed their own meanings and those of society to find justifications to help them uphold their decision. This confrontation brought them to a place of profound and intimate reflection and led them to transform their lives. Conclusions: Meanings regarding abortion in women who undergo late pregnancy termination are usually contrary to this right in sexual and reproductive health. After the event, these meanings become transformed through a process of conscious reflection as women come face-to-face with their own meanings and those of society.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Colombia
6.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 25(3): 14408, 10 jul. 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451197

ABSTRACT

Infertile couples seeking treatment experience a social stigma that can lead to the need for privacy and, in turn, compromise their access to social support. This multiple case study, that involved the collection of sociodemographic and health data and interviews with four heterosexual couples accessed by convenience, aimed to examine the perception of the couples about the social support received after the disclosure of the condition of infertility and/or of the assisted reproductive technology treatment. The cases were analysed individually and comparatively. From the couples' statements, it is highlighted that all of them revealed something about infertility and/or treatment at some point in the process, although some considered not revealing it. Both support and lack of support were perceived from the revelations. The non-disclosure was motivated by self-preservation and by avoidance of social pressure. The findings indicate the importance of psychological intervention to expand the couples' social support.


Parejas infértiles que buscan tratamiento experimentan un estigma social que puede acarrear la necesidad de privacidad y, a su vez, comprometer el acceso al apoyo social. Ese estudio de múltiples casos, que involucró la recogida de datos sociodemográficos, de salud y entrevistas con cuatro parejas heterosexuales accedidas por conveniencia, buscó examinar la percepción de las parejas sobre el apoyo social después de la revelación de la condición de infertilidad y/o del tratamiento con técnicas de reproducción asistida. Los casos fueron analizados individual y comparativamente. De las declaraciones de las parejas, se destaca que todas revelaron algo sobre la infertilidad y/o el tratamiento en algún momento del proceso, aunque algunos consideraron no revelarlo. Se percibió tanto el apoyo como la falta de apoyo a partir de las revelaciones. La no revelación fue motivada por la autopreservación y por la evitación de presión social. Los hallazgos indican la importancia de la intervención psicológica para ampliar el apoyo social de las parejas.


Casais inférteis que buscam tratamento experimentam um estigma social que pode acarretar a necessidade de privacidade e, por sua vez, comprometer o acesso ao apoio social. Este estudo de casos múltiplos, que envolveu a coleta de dados sociodemográficos, de saúde e entrevistas com quatro casais heterossexuais acessados por conveniência, objetivou examinar a sua percepção sobre o apoio social recebido após a revelação da condição de infertilidade e/ou de tratamento com técnicas de reprodução assistida. Os casos foram analisados individualmente e comparativamente. A partir das falas, destaca-se que todos revelaram algo sobre a infertilidade e/ou o tratamento em algum momento do processo, ainda que alguns tenham considerado não revelar. Percebeu-se tanto apoio como falta de apoio diante das revelações. A não revelação foi motivada pela autopreservação e pela evitação de pressão social. Os achados indicam a importância da intervenção psicológica para ampliar o apoio social dos casais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Social Support , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Infertility/psychology , Family , Mental Health , Social Stigma , Sociodemographic Factors , Interview, Psychological
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71abr. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449494

ABSTRACT

Introduction: One of the main bottlenecks in restoration projects based on sexual reproduction is post-settlement survival, mainly due to competition for substrate with fleshy algae and predation. Therefore, substrates of different shapes and materials have been created and tested, seeking to optimize these processes with attractive surfaces for the larvae and structures where the recruits are protected from predation, and competition is reduced. Objective: To improve settlement and post-settlement survival of two important Caribbean reef-building corals, using different coatings on substrates. Methods: To determine whether substrate coatings properties are favourable to larval settlement in Orbicella annularis, and O. faveolata, collected in Puerto Morelos, Mexican Caribbean, we evaluated their settlement for three weeks on six coatings with a combination of properties. Each coating was designed to provide a combination of two out of three properties: 1) water repellence (hydrophobicity), 2) phosphorescence-based colour, and 3) mineral-enriched surface chemistry. In a separate experiment larvae settlement was tested using coatings with a single property. Finally, we determined the post-settlement survival of O. annularis and O. faveolata on the different coatings for seven weeks. Results: The combination of high hydrophobicity and light blue phosphorescent microparticles and high hydrophobicity and red-orange phosphorescent microparticles resulted in a higher settlement of O. annularis and O. faveolata when compared with other coatings (30.8 - 66.7 % higher). No significant differences were found in the number of larval settled when the water-repellence and the phosphorescence-based were evaluated independently. Post-settlement survival time on substrates was low, with a maximum of 34 days after settlement for O. annularis and 42 days for O. faveolata. Conclusions: In terms of the larval settlement, the combination of the coatings properties appears to play an essential role in the choice of microhabitat for both O. annularis and O. faveolata. But individually these properties did not generate an advantage in the larval settlement. Moreover, some chemical components associated with the coatings may be counterproductive to the survival of the polyps over time.


Introducción: Uno de los principales cuellos de botella en proyectos de restauración basada en reproducción sexual es la supervivencia de las larvas posterior al asentamiento, principalmente por la competencia por el sustrato con algas filamentosas y la depredación. Por ello, se han creado y analizado sustratos de diferentes formas y materiales, buscando optimizar estos procesos con superficies atrayentes para las larvas, y estructuras donde los reclutas se encuentran protegidos de la depredación y se disminuya la competencia. Objetivo: Mejorar el asentamiento y la supervivencia de dos importantes corales formadores de arrecifes del Caribe, utilizando diferentes recubrimientos en sustratos. Métodos: Para determinar si las propiedades de la superficie del sustrato son favorables para el asentamiento de larvas de Orbicella annularis y O. faveolata, recolectadas en Puerto Morelos, Caribe mexicano, evaluamos su asentamiento durante tres semanas en seis recubrimientos con una combinación de propiedades. Cada recubrimiento fue diseñado para proporcionar una combinación de dos de tres propiedades: 1) repelencia al agua (hidrofobicidad), 2) fosforescencia y 3) química superficial enriquecida con minerales. En un experimento separado se evaluó el asentamiento de larvas en sustratos con recubrimientos de una sola propiedad. Finalmente, se determinó la supervivencia posterior al asentamiento de O. annularis y O. faveolata sobre los diferentes recubrimientos durante siete semanas. Resultados: La combinación de alta hidrofobicidad y micropartículas fosforescentes azules y alta hidrofobicidad y micropartículas fosforescentes rojo-naranja dio como resultado un mayor asentamiento de O. annularis y O. faveolata en comparación con otros recubrimientos (30.8 - 66.7 % mayor). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el número de larvas asentadas cuando se evaluaron de forma independiente la repelencia al agua y la fosforescencia. El tiempo de supervivencia posterior al asentamiento en los sustratos fue bajo, con un máximo de 34 días después del asentamiento para O. annularis y 42 días para O. faveolata. Conclusiones: En el asentamiento de larvas, la combinación de las propiedades del recubrimiento parece desempeñar un papel importante en la elección del microhábitat tanto para O. annularis como para O. faveolata. Pero de forma individual estas propiedades no generaron una ventaja en el asentamiento larvario. Además, algunos componentes químicos asociados con los recubrimientos pueden ser contraproducentes para la supervivencia de los pólipos a lo largo del tiempo.

8.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 12(1): 92-104, jan.-mar.2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417226

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: discutir diferentes abordagens éticas, na perspectiva do Modelo Bioética Complexa (MBC), sobre as questões da saúde da mulher. O MBC é uma reflexão que tem por finalidade verificar a adequação das ações envolvidas com os aspectos biológicos e biográficos, em uma perspectiva interdisciplinar, amparada por referenciais teóricos diversos e considerando também situações individuais e sociais. Metodologia: revisão narrativa de literatura, considerando múltiplas perspectivas bioéticas e éticas em relação aos temas de saúde da mulher. Resultados: os resultados de pesquisa envolvem a referência de 37 textos e considerações dos autores, fruto de pesquisas envolvendo o MBC há mais de 17 anos, em ambiente de saúde. Conclusão: a reflexão da adequação de avaliações e decisões na área da saúde da mulher deve envolver uma multiplicidade de aspectos e perspectivas, neste sentido é necessário que está visão complexa permeie o desenho de políticas de assistência à saúde.


Objective: to discuss various ethical approaches from the perspective of the Complex Bioethics Model (CBM) to women's health issues. The CBM aims to review the appropriateness of actions involving biological and biographical aspects in an interdisciplinary perspective, supported by different theoretical references and considering individual and social situations. Methods: narrative literature review considering different bioethical and ethical perspectives related to women's health. Results: research findings include references to 37 texts and reflections by the author, who has conducted health research with CBM for more than 17 years. Conclusion: reflection on the appropriateness of assessments and decisions in the field of women's health should encompass a variety of aspects and perspectives. In this sense, it is necessary that this complex perspective be included in health policy decision making.


Objetivo: este artículo pretende debatir diferentes enfoques éticos, desde la perspectiva del Modelo de Bioética Compleja (MBC), sobre cuestiones de salud de la mujer. El MBC es una reflexión que pretende verificar la adecuación de las acciones involucradas con aspectos biológicos y biográficos, en una perspectiva interdisciplinaria, recortada por diversas referencias teóricas y considerando también situaciones individuales y sociales. Metodología: revisión narrativa de la literatura, considerando múltiples perspectivas bioéticas y éticas en relación con temas de salud de la mujer. Resultados: los resultados de la investigación involucran la referencia de 37 textos y consideraciones de los autores fruto de investigaciones que involucran el MBC por más de 17años en el ambiente de salud. Conclusión: la reflexión sobre la adecuación de las evaluaciones y decisiones en el ámbito de la salud de las mujeres debe implicar una multiplicidad de aspectos y perspectivas, en este sentido es necesario que esta visión compleja impregne el diseño de las políticas de atención sanitaria.

9.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 38(90): 39-43, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553922

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar las estrategias empleadas, por estudiantes de la Facultad de Odon-tología de la Universidad de Buenos Aires para la re-producción del color en restauraciones del sector anterior según autorreporte. Materiales y Métodos: Se confeccionó un formulario en Google Forms (F) que los alumnos completaron en sus celulares con la información correspondiente a cada restaura-ción terminada. Resultados (IC95%): Se registraron 97 restauraciones en el sector anterior. El 57,73 % (47,79 - 67,09) proximales no involucraban el ángu-lo incisal y el 21,65 % (14,62 - 30,84) sí. Un 11,34 % (6,45 - 19,17) localizada en el tercio cervical. En el 93,81 % (87,15 - 97,13) se utilizó al menos una capa de composite de opacidad esmalte (E) mientras que en el 77,32 % (68,04 - 84,52) al menos una de dentina (D). En el 73,19 % (63,63 - 81,01) se utilizaron al me-nos dos opacidades E y D. Los colores de E más utili-zados fueron A2 y A3, 31,87 % (23,19 - 42,01) y 37,36 % (28,12 - 47,62) respectivamente, y el A3 de D 54,67 % (43,45 - 65,43). Tres fueron las estrategias princi-pales para la combinación de colores y opacidades: el empleo de colores iguales en ambas opacidades, y el uso de opacos de mayor o de menor intensidad; entre las que no se encontró ninguna predominante. Conclusiones: A partir de los resultados del presente estudio se puede concluir que en la mayoría de las restauraciones del sector anterior se emplean com-posites de al menos dos opacidades y que no hay una estrategia de asociación de opacidad y color predominante (AU)


The aim of this study was to assess the strategies that students from the Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Buenos Aires claim to use for color reproduction in anterior restorations. Materials and Methods: A form was created in Google Forms (F) and students were instructed to complete on 40REV FAC ODONTOL, UNIV BUENOS AIRES 2023 VOL 38 N° 90RepRoducción del coloR en RestauRaciones del sectoR anteRioRFosas y fisurasProximales sin compromiso de ánguloProximales con compromiso de ánguloTercio cervicalcaras libres706050403020100% (IC95%)57,73%21,65%11,34%9,28%their cell phones with the corresponding information about each completed restoration. Results(95CI%):97 restorations were recorded in the anterior sector of which 57.73 % (47.79 - 67.09) were proximal and 21.65 % (14.62 - 30.84) that involved the incisal edge.11.34 %(6.45 - 19.17) were located in the cervical third of the vestibular surfaces. In 97.94 % of the restorations Brilliant New Generation (Coltene) the chosen composite, in 93.81 % (87.15 - 97.13) enamel opacity composite (E) was used at least for one layer, while in 77.32 % (68. 04 - 84.52) at least one layer of dentin (D) was applied. In 73.19 % (63.63 - 81.01) at least two opacities E and D were required. The most used E shades were A2 and A3, 31.87 % (23.19 - 42, 01) and 37.36 % (28.12 - 47.62) respectively, and A3 of D shades 54.67 % (43.45 - 65.43). Three core strategies were identified: the use of the same colors in both opacities, and the use of opaque of greater or lesser intensity; among which no predominance was found. Conclusions: Within the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that composites of at least two opacities are used in most anterior sector restorations and that there is no predominant opacity and color association strategy (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental/psychology , Composite Resins/therapeutic use , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Argentina , Pit and Fissure Sealants/therapeutic use , Schools, Dental , Surface Properties , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Caries/therapy
10.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511467

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world. There is evidence that this herbicide can induce deleterious effects in non-target organisms, including impairment of reproduction function. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive effects of the chronic consumption of contaminated feed with 2,4-D in rats using food environmental spraying simulation. Methods: Animals orally exposed received nebulized chow with 2,4-D solution in different concentrations for 180 days: 0 (control - CG), 20.69 (LCG), 34.63 (MCG), or 51.66 ppm day−1 (HCG). Results: Sperm quality was impaired to 2,4-D. The percentage of sperm with progressive movement, number of sperm in the testis and daily sperm production were decreased in all exposed groups to the herbicide compared to CG. Sperm counts in the caput/corpus and cauda epididymis were reduced in MCG and HCG, and sperm transit time was delayed in the epididymis of LCG. There was a negative impact on sperm morphology and plasma membrane integrity in MCG and HCG, respectively. Germ cell exfoliation within the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and epithelial vacuolization in epididymis were found in the HCG. Conclusion: This is the first study to describe the negative impact on male reproductive morphophysiology after chronic exposure to 2,4-D using food nebulization in environmentally relevant concentrations, based on agronomic use of the herbicide. The reproductive injuries identified raise concerns about the impacts of wide population exposure to 2,4-D (AU).


Introdução: O herbicida 2,4- ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) é um dos agrotóxicos mais utilizados no mundo. Há evidências de que este herbicida pode induzir efeitos deletérios em organismos não-alvo, incluindo prejuízo na função reprodutiva. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos reprodutivos do consumo crônico de ração contaminada com 2,4-D em ratos, utilizando simulação de pulverização ambiental de alimentos. Métodos: Animais expostos oralmente receberam ração nebulizada com solução de 2,4-D em diferentes concentrações por 180 dias: 0 (controle - GC), 20,69 (LCG), 34,63 (MCG) ou 51,66 ppm dia−1 (HCG). Resultados: A qualidade espermática foi prejudicada pelo 2,4-D. A porcentagem de espermatozoides com movimento progressivo, número de espermatozoides no testículo e produção diária de espermatozoides foram menores em todos os grupos expostos ao herbicida, quando comparados ao GC. A contagem de espermatozoides na cabeça/corpo e cauda do epidídimo foi reduzida em MCG e HCG, e o tempo de trânsito espermático atrasou no epidídimo em LCG. Houve impacto negativo na morfologia espermática e na integridade da membrana plasmática em MCG e HCG, respectivamente. Esfoliação de células germinativas no lúmen dos túbulos seminíferos e vacuolização epitelial no epidídimo foram encontradas em HCG. Conclusão: Este é o primeiro estudo a descrever o impacto negativo na morfofisiologia reprodutiva masculina após exposição crônica ao 2,4-D, utilizando nebulização de alimentos em concentrações ambientalmente relevantes, com base no uso agronômico do herbicida. As lesões reprodutivas identificadas levantam preocupações sobre os impactos da ampla exposição da população ao 2,4-D (AU).


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reproduction , Spermatozoa , Agrochemicals/toxicity , Pesticide Exposure , Environmental Exposure
11.
Salud colect ; 19: e4481, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522903

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El artículo se interroga por los alcances y los límites del paradigma de la medicina de precisión y su relación con el enfoque de la salud colectiva. Para ello, se toma la evaluación genética preimplantatoria o PGT (preimplantation genetic testing) dado que constituye un ejemplo paradigmático de tecnologías que apuntan a la "individualización" de los procesos de salud. En esta dirección, se revisan las características y los fundamentos científico-normativos acerca de las tecnologías PGT en Argentina, y el camino que queda por recorrer para su análisis bioético. De manera más específica, se visibilizan algunas de las condiciones de posibilidad para su implementación desde la perspectiva norte-sur. Como síntesis del análisis, proponemos tres ejes o nudos problemáticos relacionados con los sesgos en la producción de conocimiento, los valores e intereses subyacentes a sus usos y los presupuestos epistemológicos que operan en la base de estas tecnologías. A lo largo de este trabajo, presentamos estos dilemas y sugerimos algunas recomendaciones para ser tenidas en cuenta en futuras investigaciones.


ABSTRACT This article examines the scope and limitations of the precision medicine paradigm and its relationship with the collective health approach. To that end, it takes preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) as a paradigmatic example of technologies aimed at the "individualization" of health processes. In this regard, we review the characteristics and scientific and regulatory foundations of PGT technologies in Argentina, and discuss the next steps for their bioethical analysis. More specifically, we shed light on some of the conditions for their implementation from a north-south perspective. We propose three themes or problematic aspects as a synthesis of our analysis, related to biases in the production of knowledge, the values and interests underlying its uses, and the underlying epistemological assumptions of these technologies. Throughout the article, we review these dilemmas and suggest some issues that should be taken into account in future research.

12.
Salud colect ; 19: e4492, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522905

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En las últimas décadas hubo un desarrollo significativo de técnicas de reproducción asistida que ayudaron a parejas con dificultades a tener hijos. Estas técnicas han sido bien recibidas en diferentes partes del mundo, y los países musulmanes no han sido una excepción. Desde la perspectiva teórica de la socióloga Michèle Lamont basada en las fronteras o "boundaries", en el año 2022 se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 20 profesionales de la salud y líderes de asociaciones musulmanes de Tánger y Barcelona, con el objetivo de analizar, en primer lugar, cómo actores claves musulmanes conciben la relación entre islam y ciencia y; en segundo lugar, cómo se negocia esta comprensión en el caso de los tratamientos de reproducción asistida. Se concluye sobre la complejidad de la delimitación de fronteras en las definiciones de ciencia y religión, y se destaca la importancia de centrarse en casos empíricos para comprender mejor la compleja relación entre los dos ámbitos y entender los debates bioéticos existentes.


ABSTRACT In recent decades there have been significant developments in assisted reproduction techniques, which have aided couples with difficulties in having children. These techniques have been well received in different parts of the world, and Muslim countries have been no exception. Adopting sociologist Michèle Lamont's theoretical perspective on "boundaries", semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 health professionals and Islamic community leaders in the cities of Tangier and Barcelona during 2022. The aim of this article is twofold: first, to analyze how key actors in the Muslim community conceive of the relationship between Islam and science; second, to explain how this understanding is negotiated in relation to assisted reproduction treatments. The article concludes with a consideration of the complexities related to drawing the line between the positions of science and religion, and emphasized the importance of examining empirical cases in order to better capture the complex relationship between these two spheres and gain a deeper understanding of existing bioethical debates.

13.
Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 17(1): 10-26, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411563

ABSTRACT

Background: Ebola Virus causes disease both in human and non-human primatesespecially in developing countries. In 2014 during its outbreak, it led to majority of deaths especially in some impoverished area of West Africa and its effect is still witnessed up till date. Materials and Methods:We studied the spread of Ebola virus and obtained a system of equations comprising of eighteen equations which completely described the transmission of Ebola Virus ina population where control measures were incorporated and a major source of contacting the disease which is the traditional washing of dead bodies was also incorporated. We investigated the local stability of the disease-free equilibrium using the Jacobian Matrix approach and the disease-endemic stability using the center manifold theorem. We also investigated the global stability of the equilibrium points using the LaSalle's Invariant principle.Results: The result showed that the disease-free and endemic equilibrium where both local and globally stable and that the system exhibits a forward bifurcation.Conclusions: Numerical simulations were carried out and our graphs show that vaccine and condom use is best for susceptible population, quarantine is best for exposed population, isolation is best for infectious population and proper burial of the diseased dead is the best to avoid further disease spread in the population and have quicker and better recovery.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine
14.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; (6): 419-427, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005724

ABSTRACT

In the field of reproductive rights disputes, following the wrong birth litigation caused by prenatal diagnosis errors, the emerging reproductive rights litigation caused by the fault of human assisted reproductive technology has become more typical. Medical institutions shall bear the corresponding liability for compensation for loss, damage, wrong implantation of gametes or embryos in vitro due to its negligence, which constitutes an infringement on the reproductive rights of patients and spouses. During cryopreservation of embryo in vitro, if one of the couple of the gamete donor dies, the surviving spouse has the right to exercise the reproductive right. The surviving spouse has the right to ask the medical institution to remove the obstacles for the behavior that the medical institution refuses to hand over the frozen embryos to the surviving spouse. For the deliberate destruction of frozen embryos by medical institutions, patients have the right to ask medical institutions to bear the liability for damages.

15.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 522-528, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003612

ABSTRACT

Pneumocystis, an important opportunistic fungal pathogen that parasitizes in multiple mammalian lungs, may cause life-threatening Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and even death among immunocompromised individuals. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing and multi-omics technologies, systematic comparative analyses of genome, transcriptome, and whole-genome sequencing results demonstrate that Pneumocystis is a type of obligate biotrophic fungi, and requires obtaining nutrition from hosts. In addition, sexual reproduction is an essential process for Pneumocystis survival, production and transmission, and asexual reproduction facilitates Pneumocystis survival, which provides new insights into understanding of the whole developmental process of Pneumocystis in the host lung and inter-host transmission of Pneumocystis. This review summarizes the advances in the reproduction mode of Pneumocystis and underlying mechanisms, which provides insights into prevention and treatment of PCP, notably for the prophylaxis against nosocomial transmission of PCP.

16.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 83-88, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969299

ABSTRACT

E-cigarettes have gained considerable popularity worldwide recently, which have also drawn the attention of adolescents and pregnant women. However, recent studies have uncovered the negative effects of e-cigarettes on our cardiovascular system, respiratory system, nervous system, blood system and so on. Furthermore, several studies indicate that e-cigarettes can significantly impair users’ reproductive ability. In this review, we collected the most recent studies on the effects of e-cigarettes on reproductive system based on human studies, animal studies and in vitro preclinical studies. In addition, the review shows the urgency of setting e-cigarettes exposure standards. As a result, we recommend setting strict limits on the production and sales of e-cigarettes, thus encouraging consumers to consume reasonably.

17.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 251-257, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978512

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the reproduction of Culex pipiens pallens, so as to provide insights into selection of targets for controlling mosquito vector populations. Methods Cx. pipiens pallens was collected from Tangkou County, Shandong Province in 2009. Female and male mosquitoes were selected at 72 hours post-eclosion, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) assay was used to detect the expression of ACE gene in the whole body and reproductive tissues of male mosquitoes and fertilized female mosquitoes before (0 h) and after blood meals (24, 48, 72 h), respectively. Then, 150 female and 150 male mosquitoes at 0 to 4 hours post-eclosion were selected and divided into the wild-type group (WT group), small interfering RNA-negative control group (siNC group) and small interfering RNA-ACE group (siACE group), of 50 mosquitoes in each group. Mosquitoes in the WT group were given no treatment, and mosquitoes in the siNC and siACE groups were given microinjection of siNC and siACE into the hemolymph at a dose of 0.3 μg per mosquito. The knockdown efficiency was checked using qPCR assay, and the reproductive phenotype of mosquitoes was observed. Results The relative ACE gene expression was higher in the whole body of male mosquitoes (5.467 ± 1.006) relative to females (1.199 ± 0.241) (t = 5.835, P = 0.004) at 72 h post-eclosion, and the highest ACE expression was seen in reproductive tissues of male mosquitoes (199.100 ± 24.429), which was 188.3 times higher than in remaining tissues (1.057 ± 0.340) (t = 6.602, P = 0.002). Blood meal induced high ACE expression in all body tissues of fertilized female mosquitoes, with peak expression at 24 h after blood meals (14.957 ± 2.815), which was 14.8 times higher than that before blood meals (1.009 ± 0.139) (P = 0.002). The transcriptional level of ACEs continued to increase in the ovaries of female mosquitoes after blood meals during the vitellogenesis phase, peaking at 48 h after blood meals (5.500 ± 0.734), which was 5.1 times higher than that before blood meals (1.072 ± 0.178) (P = 0.002). Small RNA interference targeting ACE resulted in a 57.2% reduction in ACE expression in female mosquitoes in the siACE group (0.430 ± 0.070) relative to the siNC group (1.002 ± 0.070) (P = 0.001), and a 41.1% reduction in male mosquitoes in the siACE group (0.588 ± 0.067) relative to the siNC group (1.008 ± 0.131) (P = 0.016). Knockdown of ACE expression resulted in a 48.0% decrease in the number of eggs laid by female mosquitoes in the siACE group [(94.000 ± 27.386) eggs] relative to the siNC group [(180.800 ± 27.386)] (P < 0.001), and a 45.0% decrease in the number of eggs laid by wild female mosquitoes mated with males in the siACE group [(104.500 ± 20.965) eggs] relative to the siNC group [(190.050 ± 10.698) eggs] (P < 0.001). Conclusions Reduced ACE expression may inhibit the fecundity of male and female mosquitoes, and ACE may be as a potential target for mosquito vector population suppression.

18.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Practice ; (6): 403-407, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978477

ABSTRACT

Functional peptides refer to peptides that are beneficial to life activities or have special physiological activities, also known as bioactive peptides. Oyster is rich in protein and is a good material for developing bioactive peptides, which has great potential as a functional food and great application value in pharmaceutical and medical industry. With the development of modern biotechnology and medical technology, the method innovation of oyster peptide preparation,the absorptivity and biological activity of oyster peptide have been enhanced significantly, which lead to deep recognition of the biological function of oyster peptide and offer the boarder application prospect. The researches on the diversification activities of oyster peptides were summarized in this review, which provided clues and ideas for the development of the oyster peptide applications.

19.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 67(2): e20230005, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pair-formation, courtship, copulatory, and post-copulatory behaviors of Eidmanacris meridionalis Desutter-Grandcolas, 1995, were described under laboratory conditions and compared with congeneric species and other Phalangopsidae crickets whose mating behavior has been previously studied. Field observations for the species are also reported. Mating behaviors were observed in E. meridionalis couples: they first remained motionless, and then began walking through the arena screening the substrate. Mating behavior started with antennal contact, followed by males positioning themselves in front of females, that, when receptive, mounted on the males back and started feeding on metanotum secretions of the males. Copulation (female-above-male position) started with the engaging of copulatory structures and stopped with couple detachment. The end-to-end position was observed once, right after couple detachment. Males always remained with the spermatophore, which was eaten after removal or, alternatively, left in the substrate. The main differences in mating behavior of Eidmanacris species regard the mating position and the duration of the reproductive stages, suggesting that other reproductive repertoires can be observed in the genus since 27 species have not yet been studied in regards their reproductive behavior. We can also assume that the morphological, genetic, and chemical diversity found among the species of Phalangopsidae reflects in the behaviors of pair-formation, courtship, copulation, and post-copulation, leading to a diversity of copulation positions, duration of the stages, methods of attracting partners and parental investment. The description of Phalangopsidae mating patterns can provide important information for future evolutionary and phylogenetic studies, apart from useful for distinguishing cryptic species.

20.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1505-1508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997213

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the knowledge of reproductive health among female college students and the effectiveness of intervention measures, so as to provide a reference for conducting reproductive health education and health guidance for female college students.@*Methods@#From March to November 2022, 1 019 female college students of grade 1 to 3 from a university were selected by convenient sampling method,who were included in the conventional group( n =315), WeChat group( n =462) and outpatient and peer group( n =242). The Outpatient and peer group was provided with reproductive health education and health knowledge manuals and relevant guidance by receiving medical staff, the conventional group received routine health education and guidance from the school, and the WeChat group received online reproductive health education and guidance on the WeChat platform. Survey questionnaires were filled out before and after reproductive health related education and health guidance, and the results were compared and analyzed.@*Results@#After intervention, the awareness rates of women’s menstrual cycle , ovulation period, AIDS detection window period and suitable contraceptive methods in outpatient and peer groups and WeChat group were higher than those in conventional group ( χ 2=26.78, 31.70, 61.50 and 13.96 respectively). The awareness rates of women s physiological time easy to be pregnant and unreliable contraceptive methods in outpatient and peer groups were higher than those in conventional group ( χ 2= 9.10 , 10.68), and the awareness rates of unreliable contraceptive methods and main precautions during menstruation were higher than those in WeChat group ( χ 2=9.10, 8.02). The awareness rate of emergency contraception methods in WeChat group was higher than that in conventional group ( χ 2=7.94). All the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.05). After intervention, the knowledge scores of reproductive physiology (2.55±1.09, 2.42±1.08), contraception (2.62±1.20, 2.53±1.06), sexually transmitted disease (2.89±1.35, 2.76±1.24) and the total score of reproductive health knowledge (12.82±3.94, 12.12±3.06) among female college students of the outpatient and peer group and WeChat group were higher than those in the conventional group (2.10± 0.91 , 2.33±1.09, 2.55±1.18, 11.39±3.07). The knowledge score of accidental pregnancy and induced abortion (1.78±0.91) and the total score of reproductive health knowledge (12.82±3.94) among female college students of the outpatient and peer group were higher than those in the conventional group and WeChat group (1.57±0.87, 1.62±0.87; 11.39±3.07, 12.12±3.06). All the differences were statistically significant ( F =14.94, 5.27, 5.28, 13.02; 4.15, 13.02, P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#Female college students lack comprehensive understanding of reproductive health related knowledge. The reproductive health education and health care guidance to female college students should be developed through multiple channels, which would improve the reproductive health knowledge cognition of female college students and promote the formation of good health care behavior.

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