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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 754-760, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351047

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección respiratoria es uno de los diagnósticos más frecuentes en el ámbito sanitario asociado a una elevada mortalidad. Residir en una residencia de ancianos podría ser un factor de riesgo predictivo de mortalidad. El objetivo fue estudiar las características de los pacientes con infección respiratoria según procedieran de su domicilio o de residencias de ancianos, y analizar si la procedencia es un factor de riesgo de mortalidad. Se trata de un estudio de cohortes prospectivo. Participaron 208 pacientes con infección respiratoria ingresados en un Servicio de Medicina Interna. Se recogieron variables clínicas, analíticas, epidemio lógicas, pronosticas y terapéuticas realizándose un análisis multivariado. Los pacientes tuvieron una edad media 83 años y 135 (64.9%) procedían de su domicilio. El 44.7% presentaban insuficiencia cardiaca como antecedente clínico. La mayoría cumplían criterios de pluripatología, polifarmacia y tenían una dependencia moderada según índice de Barthel. La mortalidad durante el internamiento hospitalario fue de 16 pacientes (7.7%), y durante el seguimiento a seis meses de 37 (17.8%). Los procedentes de residencias de ancianos presentaron una mayor mortalidad, un 37%, que los que vivían en su propio domicilio, un 19,3% (p = 0.005). En el análisis multivariado los factores pronósticos de mortalidad fueron un mayor nivel de urea al ingreso (OR = 2.33, IC 95% = 1.06-5.11) y la no prescripción de oxígeno al alta (OR = 2.96, IC 95% = 1.29-6.82). En conclusión, se observó un mayor porcentaje de mortalidad en los pacientes procedentes de residencias de ancianos, sin embargo, es necesario realizar más investigaciones para clarificar si el residir en un centro geriátrico puede ser considerado un factor de riesgo independiente de mortalidad.


Abstract Respiratory infection is one of the most frequent diagnoses associated with high mortality. Living in a nursing home could be a predictive risk factor for mortality. The objective was to study the characteristics of patients with respi ratory infection according to whether they came from their home or nursing homes, and to analyze whether their origin is a risk factor for mortality. It was a prospective cohort study, that included 208 patients with respiratory infection admitted to the Internal Medicine Service, that participated in the study. Clinical, analytical, epidemiologi cal, prognostic and therapeutic variables were collected and a multivariate analysis was performed. Patients had an average age of 83 years and 64.9% came from their home. 44.7% had heart failure as a clinical history. Most of patients met criteria of pluripatology, polypharmacy and were moderately dependent according to Barthel's index. Mortality at admission was 16 patients (7.7%), and during the six-month follow-up of 37 patients (17.8%). Those coming from nursing homes had a higher mortality rate, 37%, than those who lived in their own home, 19.3% (p = 0.005). In the multivariate analysis, the prognostic factors for mortality were a higher level of urea at admission (OR = 2.33, IC 95% = 1.06-5.11) and the non-prescription of oxygen at discharge (OR = 2.96, IC 95% = 1.29-6.82). In conclusion, a higher percentage of mortality is observed in patients coming from nursing homes, however further research is needed to clarify whether living in a residence for elderly can be considered an independent risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Tract Infections , Nursing Homes , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Hospitalization
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S171-S197, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281039

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRAB) continúan representando una importante causa de morbimortalidad en nuestro medio. El manejo normatizado de casos constituye una valiosa herramienta para enfrentarlas.Además de los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas enfermedades, el análisis de factores de riesgo (tanto biológicos como socioambientales), desde una perspectiva local y actual, permitie implementar medidas efectivas de control y/o prevención, así como identificar aquellos pacientes susceptibles de presentar formas graves o complicaciones.Desde 1996 la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría asumió el desafío de generar un documento que guíe el manejo integral de los pacientes con IRAB. En esta cuarta actualización se incluyen los últimos adelantos en el tema.


Acute lower respiratory infections (ARI) continue being an important cause of morbidity and mortality in our region. Standardized case management is a valuable tool to deal with them.In addition to aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, the analysis of risk factors (both biological and socio-environmental) from a local and current perspective, allows the implementation of effective control and/or prevention measures, as well as identifying those patients susceptible to presenting serious forms or complications.Since 1996, the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría asumed the challenge of generating a document that guides the comprehensive management of patients with ARI. This fourth update includes the latest advances on the subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bronchiolitis/diagnosis , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Risk Factors
3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 160-165, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279096

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes y objetivo: Las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio son causa frecuente de prescripción de antibióticos. Actualmente se emplean nuevas tecnologías para su diagnóstico como el FilmArray Respiratory Panel. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar la correlación entre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de infecciones de vías respiratorias con el resultado de PCR para virus respiratorios. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo, se incluyeron 134 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Christus Muguerza en Saltillo, Coahuila. Para todos los casos se analizaron los resultados del panel y el tratamiento que recibieron los pacientes. Resultados: El 58 % recibió tratamiento antibiótico a su ingreso, el 13 % tratamiento combinado (antibiótico + antiviral), 27 % recibió tratamiento sintomático y el 2 % fue tratado con antiviral de primera instancia. Posterior al resultado el 38 % continuó con antibiótico, el 30 % con antibiótico y antiviral, 13.8 % se manejó con antiviral y el 18.2 % con tratamiento sintomático. Conclusión: A pesar de la alerta mundial por la resistencia a los antimicrobianos se sigue tratando a los pacientes con antibióticos, por una situación que se cree está influenciada por varios factores.


Abstract Background and objective: Respiratory system diseases represent one of the leading cause of prescription of antibiotics. At present, new technologies for the diagnosis are being used, including the FilmArray Respiratory Panel. The objective was to identify the correlation between the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections with the result of PCR for respiratory viruses. Material and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, restrospective study. 134 patients were included treated at the Christus Muguerza Hospital in Saltillo, Coahuila. For all cases, the positive results of this test and the treatment patients received were analyzed. Results: 58 % received antibiotic treatment at admission, 13 % received combined treatment (antibiotic + antiviral), 27 % received symptomatic treatment since their admission and 2 % whit antiviral. After receiving a positive result for respiratory viruses, 38 % continued with antibiotics, 30 % with antibiotics and antivirals, 13.8 % only managed with antivirals and 18.2% with symptomatic treatment. Conclusion: Although we are currently on global alert for resistance to antibiotics, there is a lack of awareness about the prescription of antibiotics, due to a situation which is believed to be influenced by several factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/virology , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Private , Mexico
4.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(1): 101-107, ene-mar 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280553

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia viral y las características clínico-epidemiológicas en los episodios de infección respiratoria aguda de pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño San Borja en Lima, se analizó la información de los episodios de pacientes que requirieron al menos una prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa desde el 1 de enero del 2017 al 31 de diciembre del 2018. Se identificaron 1153 episodios en 707 pacientes. La mediana de la edad fue de 1 año y el 55% fueron del sexo masculino. La frecuencia viral fue del 13,4%; el virus respiratorio sincitial se identificó en el 10,7% de los episodios. La frecuencia viral fue mayor en los menores de 1 año (16,2%); en aquellos con enfermedad congénita respiratoria (38,9%) y durante el otoño (24,2%). Los síntomas más comunes fueron tos (70,3%) y fiebre (53,4%); y los principales diagnósticos fueron neumonía viral (31,8%) y bronquiolitis (23,4%). Se concluye que la frecuencia viral respiratoria estuvo relacionada con la edad, estacionalidad y patología preexistente.


ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the viral frequency and clinical-epidemiological characteristics in the episodes of acute respiratory infection in patients of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño San Borja in Lima, the information of the episodes of patients who required at least one direct Immunofluorescence test from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018 was analyzed. 1153 episodes were identified in 707 patients. The median age was 1 year and 55% were male. The viral frequency was 13.4%; respiratory syncytial virus was identified in 10.7% of the episodies. The viral frequency was higher in children under 1 year of age (16.2%); in those with congenital disease respiratory (38.9%) and during the autumn (24.2%). The most common symptoms were cough (70.3%) and fever (53.4%); and the main diagnoses, viral pneumonia (31.8) and bronchiolitis (23.4%). It is concluded that the respiratory viral frequency was related to age, seasonality and pre-existing pathology.

5.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(1): 101-107, ene-mar 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280586

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia viral y las características clínico-epidemiológicas en los episodios de infección respiratoria aguda de pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño San Borja en Lima, se analizó la información de los episodios de pacientes que requirieron al menos una prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa desde el 1 de enero del 2017 al 31 de diciembre del 2018. Se identificaron 1153 episodios en 707 pacientes. La mediana de la edad fue de 1 año y el 55% fueron del sexo masculino. La frecuencia viral fue del 13,4%; el virus respiratorio sincitial se identificó en el 10,7% de los episodios. La frecuencia viral fue mayor en los menores de 1 año (16,2%); en aquellos con enfermedad congénita respiratoria (38,9%) y durante el otoño (24,2%). Los síntomas más comunes fueron tos (70,3%) y fiebre (53,4%); y los principales diagnósticos fueron neumonía viral (31,8%) y bronquiolitis (23,4%). Se concluye que la frecuencia viral respiratoria estuvo relacionada con la edad, estacionalidad y patología preexistente.


ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the viral frequency and clinical-epidemiological characteristics in the episodes of acute respiratory infection in patients of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño San Borja in Lima, the information of the episodes of patients who required at least one direct Immunofluorescence test from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018 was analyzed. 1153 episodes were identified in 707 patients. The median age was 1 year and 55% were male. The viral frequency was 13.4%; respiratory syncytial virus was identified in 10.7% of the episodies. The viral frequency was higher in children under 1 year of age (16.2%); in those with congenital disease respiratory (38.9%) and during the autumn (24.2%). The most common symptoms were cough (70.3%) and fever (53.4%); and the main diagnoses, viral pneumonia (31.8) and bronchiolitis (23.4%). It is concluded that the respiratory viral frequency was related to age, seasonality and pre-existing pathology.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is semblable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) which causes respiratory infections typically characterized by cough, runny nose, fever, and nasal congestion but sometimes progressing to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Whereas, there is no corresponding drug to inhabit the virus. Studies of new compounds with potential anti-HMPV activity could produce clinical value. Chinese herbal medicine played a great role during COVID-19, therefore we choose some small molecular (JH001) extracted from botany to investigate therapeutic effect on hMPV and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS In this study, 16HBE cells were used as a model to explore in vitro antiviral effect. Cytotoxicity assays were performed before the antiviral tests, cell viability of 16HBE cells handled by different concentration of JH001 was estimated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Then RT-qPCR, immunofluores?cence, and flow cytometer were used to test the viral titer after cells infected with hMPV. Eventually, 6-8 weeks mice were infected intranasally with 60 μL of hMPV, the control group was treated with 0.9% saline water, other groups were administered with JH001 and ribavirin, then the lung virus titer and protective effect in lung were judged. RESULTS The obtained JH001 exhibited no cytotoxicity to 16HBE cells during 6.25 - 200 μmol · L-1. RT-QPCR demonstrated that JH001 showed obvious inhabitation to the viral replication and showed great significance compared with saline. And fluo?rescence exhibited distinct decrease of hMPV-N protein, flow cytometer results showed that MFI decrease evidently. Sig?nificant reduction of N-gene expression was observed in those mice treated with JH001 compared with saline group, which indicated that JH001 probably had protective and therapeutic effect on viral replication. CONCLUSION This study illustrated that JH001 might be a promising option for small molecular against hMPV and JH001 might be worthy of fur?ther development and used as a potential therapeutic strategy for other respiratory viruses in the future.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906635

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of bronchial asthma (BA) complicated with recurrent respiratory tract infection (RRTI) in children in Hebei District, Tianjin City, and to provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of children with BA complicated with RRTI. Methods The stratified cluster sampling method was adopted to randomly select 428 children with BA hospitalized in Hebei District of Tianjin as the study subjects. The routine deep sputum culture and etiological examination were carried out. The children with RRTI were included in the experimental group (n=84), and the children without RRTI (n=344) were included in the control group. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate gender, age, smoking proportion of family members, use of antibiotics 3 times or more a year, and family history of allergy. The risk factors of BA combined with RRTI were analyzed by logistic regression. Results RRTI occurred in 84 of 428 children with BA, and the incidence rate was 19.63% (84/428). The proportion of BA complicated with RRTI in children aged 6 months to 2 years was higher than that in other age groups (χ2=6.213, P0.05). The proportion of family smoking, the use of antibiotics 3 times or more a year, and the proportion of family allergy history in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that family smoking, antibiotic use 3 times or more a year and family history of allergy were independent risk factors for BA complicated with RRTI (P<0.05). Conclusion The incidence of BA complicated with RRTI in children in Hebei District, Tianjin City is high, and the age of high incidence is 6 months to 2 years old. The proportion of family smoking, the use of antibiotics three times or more a year, and the proportion of family allergy history are the high-risk factors for the occurrence of BA complicated with RRTI in children in Hebei District, Tianjin City.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862742

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the etiological characteristics of children’s respiratory viruses in Hai’an City. Methods The clinical data of 6 810 children with acute respiratory infection in our hospital from January 2018 to May 2020 was retrospectively analyzed. The antigens of seven common respiratory viruses were detected by direct immunofluorescence assay. Results (1) Of the 6 810 specimens tested, 957 were positive, with a total positive rate of 14.05%. Among them, the number of RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) positive cases was the largest, with a total of 524 cases, followed by ADV (adenovirus), PIVⅢ (parainfluenza virus Ⅲ), PIVⅠ (parainfluenza virus Ⅰ), IFA (influenza A), IFB (influenza B), and PIVⅡ (parainfluenza virus Ⅱ), accounting for 154 cases (16.09%), 80 cases (8.36%), 65 cases (6.69%), 58 cases (6.60%), 55 cases (5.75%), and 21 cases (2.19%), respectively. (2) There was no statistically significant difference in respiratory virus infection between different genders (χ2=3.218, P>0.05). (3) The positive rate of antigen detection in children aged 11 days to 1 year old (19.24%) was the highest, with the viral infection rate decreasing with age. (4) The positive rates of viruses were different in different diseases, of which the highest was upper respiratory tract infection (27.53%), followed by pneumonia (16.90%), and bronchiolitis (7.19%), and the lowest was asthmatic bronchitis (6.18%). RSV was the main virus in each disease. Conclusion RSV is the main virus of respiratory tract infection in children in Hai’an City. The positive rate of viral infection in children aged 11 days to 1 year old is the highest, mainly with upper respiratory tract infection.

9.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(4): e2020997, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356210

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Descrever as recomendações, características físicas, métodos de desinfecção e eficácia de uso de máscaras caseiras na redução da transmissão da COVID-19. Métodos Realizou-se busca nas bases de dados MEDLINE, SciELO e Google Scholar, além das recomendações oficiais de uso. Resultados Foram incluídas 31 referências. A capacidade de filtração de tecidos variou entre 5% e 98%. Tecidos 100% algodão em duas ou três camadas apresentaram eficácia de filtração entre 70% e 99% em estudos in vitro. Máscaras caseiras, cirúrgicas e respiradores apresentaram respirabilidade entre 2,2 e 3,0 Pascal. A capacidade de redução da propagação de microrganismos por pessoas usando máscaras caseiras foi três vezes menor do que usando máscaras cirúrgicas, embora tenha sido superior ao não uso de máscaras. Conclusão A respirabilidade de máscaras caseiras mostrou-se adequada, enquanto a capacidade de filtração parece ser inferior à das máscaras cirúrgicas, mas superior a não se usar máscara. Não há evidências que respaldem a eficácia e efetividade das máscaras caseiras.


Resumen Objetivo Describir las recomendaciones, características físicas, métodos de desinfección y efectividad de mascarillas caseras para reducir la transmisión de COVID-19. Métodos La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y Google Scholar, además de las recomendaciones oficiales de uso. Resultados Se incluyeron 31 referencias. La capacidad de filtración de los tejidos varió entre 5% y 98%. Los tejidos al 100% de algodón, en dos o tres capas, mostraron eficiencia de filtración entre 70% y 99%, en estudios in vitro. Mascarillas caseras, quirúrgicas y de respiradores mostraron respirabilidad entre 2,2 y 3,0 Pascal. La capacidad de reducir la propagación de microorganismos por personas que usan máscarillas caseras fue tres veces menor que cuando usaban mascarillas quirúrgicas, pero superior a no usarlas. Conclusión La respirabilidad de las mascarillas caseras puede ser adecuada, mientras que la eficiencia de filtración parece ser inferior a la de las mascarillas quirúrgicas, pero superior a no utilizar mascarilla. No hay evidencia que respalde su eficacia y efectividad.


Abstract Objective To describe the recommendations, physical characteristics, disinfection methods and efficacy of the use of homemade face masks to reduce COVID-19 transmission. Methods We searched MEDLINE, SciELO, and Google Scholar, in addition to the official recommendations for the use of masks. Results Thirty-one references were included. Fabric filtration efficiency ranged from 5% to 98%. The filtration efficacy of three layered 100% cotton fabric face masks ranged from 70% and 99% in vitro studies. Homemade, surgical, and respirator masks showed breathability between 2.2 and 3.0 Pascal. The capacity to reduce the spread of microorganisms by people wearing homemade face masks was three times lower when compared to those wearing surgical masks, although this capacity was higher when compared to those who did not wear masks. Conclusion The breathability of homemade masks proved to be adequate, while the filtration ability seemed to be lower than that of surgical masks, but it was better than not wearing any masks at all. There is no evidence to support the efficacy and effectiveness of homemade masks.

10.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 161-163, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362084

ABSTRACT

La contaminación ambiental afecta a más del 90% de la población mundial, y es considerado un factor de morbi-mortalidad respiratoria desde mediados de 1900. Sin embargo, al día de hoy las políticas públicas no han logrado mejorar en forma sustancial la calidad del aire. Siendo causante de más de 3.7 millones de muertes anuales según datos OMS. Los niños son los principales afectados debido a diferencias anatómicas, fisiológicas y de estilos de vida. Dentro de las complicaciones más frecuentes se encuentran las infecciones respiratorias, pero además puede verse afectado el desarrollo neurológico, patologías oncológicas, enfermedades crónicas (diabetes y asma), alteraciones cardiovasculares, malformaciones congénitas y salud mental entre otros. En el siguiente artículo se revisará la evidencia científica en relación a la contaminación ambiental, como afecta al sistema inmune y el microbioma, generando un aumento en las infecciones respiratorias de los niños.


Environmental pollution affects more than 90% of the world population, and is considered a factor of respiratory morbidity and mortality since the mid-1900s. However, to date public policies have not substantially improved air quality. Being the cause of more than 3.7 million deaths annually according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), children are more susceptible due to anatomical, physiological and lifestyle differences with adults. Respiratory infections are among the most frequent complications, but neurological development, oncological pathologies, chronic diseases (diabetes and asthma), cardiovascular disorders, congenital malformations and mental health, can be attributed to pollution. The following article will review the scientific evidence of environmental pollution, how it affects the immune system and the microbiome, generating an increase in respiratory infections in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology
11.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 37-42, dic.2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117898

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento que poseen las madres sobre los signos de alarma de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) en niños menores de 5 años que asistieron al Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga durante el mes de noviembre 2019, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 37 madres las cuales se caracterizaron por un promedio de edad de 29,2 ± 7,3 años, solteras (43,2%), con secundaria completa (27%) y empleadas (40,5%). El promedio de edad de los pacientes fue de 15,3 ± 6,2 meses, con predominio del sexo masculino (54%); durante el último año, 45,9% registraron entre 2-3 episodios de IRA. Sobre el nivel de conocimiento global de las madres en relación a los signos de alarma de las IRA se evidenció que en el 56,7% de las madres el nivel era regular. El nivel de conocimiento para las causas de las IRA fue insuficiente en el 48,6% de los casos. En relación a los signos de alarma de IRA identificadas por parte de las madres fueron, en orden de frecuencia, dificultad para respirar (91,8%), fiebre (81%), rechazo al alimento (78,3%) y respiración ruidosa (75,6%). En conclusión, es evidente que la mayoría de las madres conoce los principales signos de alarma de las IRA sin embargo se deben establecer estrategias de intervención destinadas a mejorar su conocimiento con el fin de que las madres reconozcan tempranamente los signos de alarma y por ende busquen atención en el momento oportuno(AU)


With the objective of determining the level of knowledge that mothers have about warning signs of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under 5 years of age who attended the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga (November, 2019), a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out with 37 mothers with an average age of 29.2 ± 7.3 years, 43.2% were single, with completed secondary school (27%) and employed (40.5%). Average age of patients was 15.3 ± 6.2 months with male predominance (54%); during the previous year, 45.9% had between 2-3 episodes of ARI. Level of knowledge of mothers about global warning signs of ARI was regular in 56.76% of cases. Regarding causes of ARI, level of knowledge was insufficient in 48.6% of mothers. Warning signs of ARI identified by the mothers were, in order of frequency, difficulty in breathing (91.8%), fever (81%), food rejection (78.3%) and loud breathing loud (75.6%). In conclusion, it is clear that most mothers know the main warning signs of ARI however intervention strategies should be established to improve knowledge in order for mothers to recognize early warning signs and therefore seek attention in a timely manner(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Signs and Symptoms , Hospitals, Pediatric , Pediatrics , Acute Disease , Fever
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1478-1481, Nov. 2020.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143624

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY We watch a variety of news on the Coronavirus daily. Some are reliable and others just instill more fear into the population. This article reflects on the possible consequences of this virus, which goes beyond the organic disease and the symptoms and signs mentioned daily in the media. Seeking a reflection on the effects caused indirectly by the virus. Since isolation precedes the disease, total isolation during the disease and isolation after the disease worsens, in some cases resulting in abrupt grief.


RESUMO Observamos diariamente uma variedade de notícias sobre o Coronavirus. Algumas confiáveis e outras apenas para causar mais temor para a população. Este artigo realiza uma reflexão sobre possíveis consequências desse vírus, que vai além da doença orgânica e dos sintomas e sinais referidos diariamente nos meios de comunicação. Buscando uma reflexão sobre efeitos ocasionados indiretamente pelo vírus. Sendo o isolamento antecedente a doença, isolamento total durante a doença e isolamento posterior a agudização da doença, em alguns casos resultando em luto abrupto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Social Isolation , Grief , Cicatrix , Betacoronavirus
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 498-506, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131136

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The effects of vitamin D on the musculoskeletal system are well established. Its deficiency causes osteomalacia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an increased risk for fractures and falls. However, clinical and experimental evidence points to extra-skeletal actions of vitamin D, including on immune and respiratory systems. Thus, during this COVID-19 pandemic, a possible deleterious role of vitamin D deficiency has been questioned. This paper aims to present a brief review of the literature and discuss, based on evidence, the role of vitamin D in the lung function and in the prevention of respiratory infections. Relevant articles were searched in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO/LILACS. The mechanisms of vitamin D action in the immune system response will be discussed. Clinical data from systematic reviews and meta-analyses show benefits in the prevention of respiratory infections and improvement of pulmonary function when vitamin D-deficient patients are supplemented. At the time of writing this paper, no published data on vitamin D supplementation for patients with COVID-19 have been found. Vitamin D supplementation is recommended during this period of social isolation to avoid any deficiency, especially in the context of bone outcomes, aiming to achieve normal values of 25(OH)D. The prevention of respiratory infections and improvement of pulmonary function are additional benefits observed when vitamin D deficiency is treated. Thus far, any protective effect of vitamin D specifically against severe COVID-19 remains unclear. We also emphasize avoiding bolus or extremely high doses of vitamin D, which can increase the risk of intoxication without evidence of benefits.

14.
Rev. Finlay ; 10(3): 250-258, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143816

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: el asma bronquial es una de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles más prevalentes en la infancia, en su evolución presenta crisis desencadenadas por múltiples factores, relacionados al huésped y a factores ambientales. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y terapéuticas de las crisis de asma bronquial en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario Paquito González Cueto de Cienfuegos, durante los años 2015 y 2016. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y correlacional sobre una serie de casos en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario Paquito González Cueto de Cienfuegos en el periodo comprendido desde el 1ero de enero 2015 hasta el 31 diciembre del 2016 en el que fueron incluidos los pacientes que egresaron con el diagnóstico de crisis de asma bronquial. Los datos fueron obtenidos de la historia clínica de los pacientes. Se analizaron las variables: edad, sexo, color de la piel, clasificación de la enfermedad asmática, severidad de la crisis en el ingreso y forma de distribución del medicamento. Se aplicaron los procedimientos de la estadística descriptiva como son la determinación de la frecuencia de ocurrencia y los porcientos. Resultados: el grupo etáreo más afectado fue el menor de 3 años (35,8 %), con ligero predominio del sexo masculino (55 %) y el color de piel blanca (57 %), el mayor número de ingreso correspondió a los meses de alza epidémica, predominó la forma leve persistente (53,6 %) y las crisis moderadas (94,6 %), 64,4 % no tenía tratamiento de control. Conclusiones: la mayor parte de los pacientes recibieron un tratamiento inadecuado para la crisis en cuerpo de guardia y la sala, además el tratamiento de control fue inadecuado en casi la mitad de los pacientes o inexistente.


ABSTRACT Background: bronchial asthma is the prevalent chronic non-communicable disease in childhood, in its evolution it presents crises triggered by multiple factors, related to the host and the environment. Objective: to describe the clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic characteristics of bronchial asthma crises at the Paquito González Cueto University Pediatric Hospital in Cienfuegos, during 2015 and 2016. Method: a descriptive, and correlational study was carried out on a series of cases at the Paquito González Cueto University Pediatric Hospital in Cienfuegos in the period from January 1st, 2015 to December 31st 2016, in which were included the patients who leave with the diagnosis of a bronchial asthma crisis. The data were obtained from the clinical history of the patients. The variables were analyzed: age, sex, skin color, classification of the asthmatic disease, severity of the crisis on admission, and form of drug distribution. Descriptive statistics procedures were applied, such as the determination of the frequency of occurrence and the percentages. Results: the most affected age group was under 3 years old (35.8 %), with a slight predominance of males (55 %) and white skin color (57 %), the highest number of admission corresponded to the months of epidemic rise, the minor persistent form (53.6 %) and the moderate seizures (94.6 %) predominated, the 64.4 % had no control treatment. Conclusions: most of the patients received inadequate treatment for the crisis in the emergency room and the ward; in addition, the control treatment was inadequate or non-existent in almost half of the patients.

15.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 263-269, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249909

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of mortality in children younger than five years, with 150.7 million episodes per year. Human orthopneumovirus (hOPV) and metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the first and second causes of bronchiolitis; type 2 human orthorubulavirus (hORUV) has been associated with pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Objective: To define hOPV, hMPV and hORUV geographical distribution and circulation patterns. Method: An observational, prospective cross-sectional pilot study was carried out. Two-hundred viral strains obtained from pediatric patients were genotyped by endpoint reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: One-hundred and eighty-six positive samples were typed: 84 hOPV, 43 hMPV, two hORUV and 57 co-infection specimens. Geographical distribution was plotted. hMPV, hOPV, and hORUV cumulative incidences were 0.215, 0.42, and 0.01, respectively. Cumulative incidence of hMPV-hORUV and hMPV-hOPV coinfection was 0.015 and 0.23; for hOPV-hMPV-hORUV, 0.035; and for hORUV-hOPV, 0.005. The largest number of positive cases of circulating or co-circulating viruses occurred between January and March. Conclusions: This study successfully identified circulation and geographical distribution patterns of the different viruses, as well as of viral co-infections.


Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones respiratorias agudas constituyen la segunda causa de mortalidad en los niños menores de cinco años, con 150.7 millones de episodios anuales. Entre los principales agentes etiológicos están Orthopneumovirus (hOPV) y metapneumovirus (hMPV) humanos como primera y segunda causa de bronquiolitis, respectivamente; Orthorubulavirus humano tipo 2 (hORUV) se ha asociado a neumonía en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivo: Definir patrones de distribución geográfica y de circulación de hOPV, hMPV y hORUV. Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio piloto transversal prospectivo observacional. Se genotipificaron 200 aislamientos virales de pacientes pediátricos mediante transcripción inversa seguida de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en punto final (RT-PCR). Resultados: Se tipificaron 186 muestras positivas: 84 de hOPV, 43 de hMPV, dos de hORUV y 57 de coinfecciones. Se trazó la distribución geográfica. Las incidencias acumuladas de hMPV, hOPV y hORUV fueron de 0.215, 0.42 y 0.01, respectivamente. Las incidencias acumuladas de la coinfección de hMPV-hORUV y hMPV-hOPV fueron de 0.015 y 0.23; de hOPV-hMPV-hORUV, de 0.035; y de hORUV-hOPV, de 0.005. El mayor número de casos positivos de virus circulantes o cocirculantes se presentó entre enero y marzo. Conclusiones: Fue posible identificar patrones de circulación y distribución geográfica de los diferentes virus, así como de las coinfecciones virales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Pneumovirus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Pilot Projects , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Pneumovirus Infections/virology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Rubulavirus Infections/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Genotype
16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204683

ABSTRACT

Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) contribute significantly in terms of hospital admission and mortality. Along with attempts to improve treatment modalities, it is imperative to identify risk factors that will aid in prevention of these infections.Methods: This was a case-control study done in tertiary care hospital, Cuttack, enrolling inpatients between 2 months to 5 years with symptoms suggestive of LRTI as cases. Those with tuberculosis, aspiration pneumonia, asthma and nosocomial infections were excluded. After obtaining consent, questionnaire was administered to parents, regarding their socio-demographic and other relevant details. Data analysis was done using statistical software Epi Info™, version 6 and association of each variable with LRTI assessed with chi-square test.Results: A total of 314 children were enrolled in the study, with 158 being cases. The case-fatality rate was 23% and 53.8% suffered from complications, the most common being respiratory failure. A significant association was seen between LRTI and social variables namely maternal literacy(p-value<0.005), socioeconomic status (p-value<0.001) and number of children (p-value<0.001), housing pattern (p-value<0.001), fuel used at home (p-value=0.003), ventilation adequacy (p-value=0.004), presence of separate kitchen at home (p-value=0.0009) and presence of overcrowding (p-value<0.001) and individual factors improper breastfeeding(p-value<0.005) and weaning(p-value=0.03), malnutrition (p-value<0.001), vitamin A deficiency(p-value=0.03) and history of respiratory infection in mother (p-value=0.025) or siblings(p-value=0.048).Conclusions: The burden of lower respiratory tract infections can be substantially reduced by prevention using the identification of risk factors such as housing patterns, education of parents and improved nutrition of the children, and measures to combat the same, at each level.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210176

ABSTRACT

The elderly are a growing proportion of the global population. They are more susceptible to non-communicable diseases and respiratory viral diseases like influenza and covid19, which may lead to increased levels of morbidity and mortality than those of a younger generation.It is also reported that co-morbidities, especially diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease contribute significantly to the prognosis with these types of infections. That the immune system operates in a less efficient way as an individual ages, is now well understood and likely contributes significantly to this situation. The role of certain micronutrients in maintaining a healthy immune system is well recognised and demonstrated to play an important role both in preventing and controlling infection. However, for a number of reasons many elderly individuals have a less than optimal intake of many of the micronutrients that support the immune system. This review examines the contributory roles an aging immune system, suboptimal intake of micronutrients, comorbidities and the impact of the intake of medications typically used to treat them can play in the outcome of viral respiratory infections. It identifies the need for supplementation, especially in the elderly to support the immune system

18.
Rev. Fac. Med. UNAM ; 63(3): 7-18, may.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155400

ABSTRACT

Resumen En el 2001, se identificó en Holanda al metapneumovirus humano (hMPV) como un "nuevo" agente etiológico causante de infecciones respiratorias agudas en infantes menores de 5 años; sin embargo, también se ha aislado en personas de la tercera edad e inmunocomprometidos. Este virus se considera como el segundo agente etiológico en enfermedades agudas del tracto respiratorio. En la actualidad, el costo estimado de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) en nuestro país es de 9,000 dólares estadounidenses por paciente hospitalizado. El hMPV es un miembro del género Metapneumovirus, familia Pneumoviridae, que pertenece al orden de los Mononegavirales, correspondiente a virus de ácido ribonucleico (RNA) monocatenario negativo, que consta de 8 genes en el orden 3'-N-P-M-F-M2-SH-G-L-5', y que codifica para 9 proteínas. De estas proteínas, la glicoproteína de fusión F está altamente conservada en el género Metapneumovirus y es el mayor determinante antigénico, y al no existir aún vacuna aprobada para este virus, se ha utilizado como un epítopo candidato para el diseño de una vacuna que confiera inmunidad al hospedero o como un blanco terapéutico en la creación de péptidos antivirales que inhiban la fusión del virus a su célula blanco y se evite la infección en sujetos de alto riesgo de contagio, ya que en la actualidad no se ha aprobado por la COFEPRIS ningún tratamiento profiláctico contra hMPV.


Abstract In 2001 in the Netherlands, Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was identified as a "new" etiologic agent causing acute respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years old; however, it has also been isolated in the elderly and immunocompromised people. This virus is considered the second etiological agent in acute diseases of the respiratory tract. Currently, the estimated cost of IRAs in our country is of 9,000 USD per inpatient. hMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus, family Pneumoviridae, and it belongs to the order Mononegavirales that is part of the negative single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus, consisting of eight genes ordered: 3'-N-P-M-F-M2-SH-G-L-5 ', and which encodes for 9 proteins. Of these proteins, the F fusion glycoprotein is highly conserved in the genus Metapneumovirus, and is the major antigenic determinant, and because an approved vaccine doesn't exist, it has been used as a candidate epitope for the design of a vaccine that confers host immunity or as a therapeutic target in the creation of antiviral peptides that inhibit the fusion of the virus to its target cell and to avoid infection in subjects at high risk of contagion since there is currently none accepted by COFEPRIS as a prophylactic treatment against hMPV.

19.
Colomb. med ; 51(2): e4270, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124615

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The COVID-19 disease pandemic is a health emergency. Older people and those with chronic noncommunicable diseases are more likely to develop serious illnesses, require ventilatory support, and die from complications. Objective: To establish deaths from respiratory infections and some chronic non-communicable diseases that occurred in Cali, before the SARS-CoV-2 disease pandemic. Methods: During the 2003-2019 period, 207,261 deaths were registered according to the general mortality database of the Municipal Secretary of Health of Cali. Deaths were coded with the International Classification of Diseases and causes of death were grouped according to WHO guidelines. Rates were standardized by age and are expressed per 100,000 people-year. Results: A direct relationship was observed between aging and mortality from respiratory infections and chronic non-communicable diseases. Age-specific mortality rates were highest in those older than 80 years for all diseases evaluated. Seasonal variation was evident in respiratory diseases in the elderly. Comments: Estimates of mortality rates from respiratory infections and chronic non-communicable diseases in Cali provide the baseline that will serve as a comparison to estimate the excess mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Health authorities and decision makers should be guided by reliable estimates of mortality and of the proportion of infected people who die from SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.


Resumen Introducción: La pandemia de la enfermedad COVID-19 es una emergencia sanitaria. Las personas mayores y aquellos con enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles tienen más probabilidades de desarrollar enfermedades graves, requerir soporte ventilatorio y morir a causa de las complicaciones. Objetivo: Establecer las defunciones por infecciones respiratorias y por algunas enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles ocurridas en Cali, antes de la pandemia de la enfermedad por el SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: Durante el periodo 2003-2019, se registraron 207,261 defunciones información obtenida de la base de datos de mortalidad general de la Secretaria de Salud Municipal de Cali. Las defunciones se codificaron con la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades y las causas de muerte se agruparon según las guías de la OMS. Las tasas se estandarizaron por edad, son expresadas por 100,000 personas-año. Resultados: Se observó una relación directa entre envejecimiento y la mortalidad por infecciones respiratorias y enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles. Las tasas de mortalidad específicas por edad fueron más altas en los mayores de 80 años para todas las enfermedades evaluadas. En las enfermedades respiratorias fue evidente una variación estacional en los ancianos. Comentario: Las estimaciones de las tasas de mortalidad por infecciones respiratorias y enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles para Cali proporcionan la línea de base que servirá de comparación para estimar el exceso de mortalidad que ocasionará la pandemia de COVID-19. Las autoridades sanitarias y los tomadores de decisiones deben guiarse por estimaciones fiables de la mortalidad y de la proporción de infectados que mueren por la infección del virus SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Multimed (Granma) ; 24(3): 499-514, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125279

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La bronquiolitis se considera como el primer episodio agudo de sibilancias en el contexto de un cuadro respiratorio de origen viral que afecta a niños menores de 24 meses que se acompaña de dificultad respiratoria de diversos grados. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar a los pacientes con bronquiolitis aguda grave en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial Hermanos Cordové durante el periodo enero del 2014 a diciembre del 2018. Para lograr el objetivo planteado se realizó un estudio retrospectivo observacional descriptivo transversal con fases analíticas. El universo estuvo constituido por 72 pacientes, recolectando la información a partir de las historias clínicas y registro de control hospitalario. Se procesó la información utilizándose medidas expresadas en números absolutos, desviación estándar, media aritmética, porcentajes y tasas. Se demostró que la edad de aparición de la bronquiolitis aguda grave se presenta en menores de 6 meses de edad, resultando la estadía predominante de más de 48 horas. Se relaciona directamente la enfermedad con factores de riesgo como la no lactancia materna exclusiva y la malnutrición proteico-energética, requiriendo estos pacientes, al ingreso, oxígeno suplementario y aspiración de secreciones como terapéutica fundamental. Se presentaron complicaciones frecuentes como la neumonía e insuficiencia respiratoria aguda. Podemos concluir diciendo que se necesitan políticas bien definidas y protocolos de actuación actualizados para el manejo integral del lactante con bronquiolitis aguda grave, evitando así la aparición de complicaciones que pudieran llevar a la muerte del paciente.


ABSTRACT Bronchiolitis is considered to be the first acute episode of wheezing in the context of a respiratory picture of viral origin that affects children younger than 24 months accompanied by respiratory distress of various degrees. This study aims to characterize patients with severe acute bronchiolitis in the intensive care unit of the Hermanos Cordové Provincial Pediatric Hospital during the period from January 2014 to December 2018. To achieve the stated objective, a retrospective observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with analytical phases. The universe consisted of 72 patients, collecting the information from the medical records and the hospital control registry. The information was processed using measures expressed in absolute numbers, standard deviation, arithmetic mean, percentages and rates. It was demonstrated that the age of onset of severe acute bronchiolitis occurs in children under 6 months of age, resulting in the predominant stay of more than 48 hours. The disease is directly related to risk factors such as exclusive non-breastfeeding and protein-energy malnutrition, requiring these patients, upon admission, supplemental oxygen and secretion aspiration as fundamental therapy. Frequent complications such as pneumonia and acute respiratory failure occurred. We can conclude by saying that well-defined policies and updated action protocols are needed for the comprehensive management of the infant with severe acute bronchiolitis, thus avoiding the appearance of complications that could lead to the death of the patient.


RESUMO A bronquiolite é considerada o primeiro episódio agudo de sibilância no contexto de um quadro respiratório de origem viral que afeta crianças menores de 24 meses acompanhadas de dificuldade respiratória de vários graus. Este estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar pacientes com bronquiolite aguda grave na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Hermanos Cordové, no período de janeiro de 2014 a dezembro de 2018. Para atingir o objetivo declarado, foi realizado um estudo transversal observacional descritivo retrospectivo com fases analíticas. O universo foi constituído por 72 pacientes, coletando as informações dos prontuários e do registro de controle hospitalar. As informações foram processadas utilizando medidas expressas em números absolutos, desvio padrão, média aritmética, porcentagens e taxas. Foi demonstrado que a idade de início da bronquiolite aguda grave ocorre em crianças menores de 6 meses de idade, resultando em permanência predominante de mais de 48 horas. A doença está diretamente relacionada a fatores de risco, como a não amamentação exclusiva e a desnutrição energético-protéica, exigindo desses pacientes, na admissão, oxigênio suplementar e aspiração de secreção como terapia fundamental. Ocorreram complicações frequentes, como pneumonia e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Podemos concluir dizendo que são necessárias políticas bem definidas e protocolos de ação atualizados para o manejo abrangente da criança com bronquiolite aguda grave, evitando o aparecimento de complicações que podem levar à morte do paciente.

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