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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 226-235, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006288

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory pathological process in which lipid and/or fibrous substances are deposited in the intima of arteries, and it is one of the pathological bases of many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a protective mechanism of cell adaptation. Moderate ERS can reduce abnormal protein aggregation and increase the degradation of misfolded proteins to repair and stabilize the internal environment, while excessive ERS can cause unfolded protein reaction, activate inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and other downstream pathways, and lead to cell damage, or even apoptosis. A large number of studies have shown that ERS mediates a variety of pathological processes related to AS, affects endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell components closely related to its occurrence and development, influences the progress of AS by regulating cell function, and promotes the formation of AS plaque, the transformation of stable plaque to unstable plaque, and the rupture of unstable plaque. Regulation of ERS may be a key target for the prevention and treatment of AS, and it is a research hotspot at present. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) believes that the origin of AS is the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the disharmony of Zangfu organs, and the abnormal operation of Qi, blood, and body fluid, which leads to the accumulation of phlegm, blood stasis, and other pathological products in the pulse channels, making the blood flow blocked or misfunction and causing the disease, which belongs to the syndrome of deficiency in origin and excess in superficiality. As the pathogenesis of AS is complex, and the symptoms are diverse, TCM has significant advantages in treating AS because of its multiple targets, multiple pathways, stable efficacy, strong individualization, and high safety. This paper systematically elaborated on the role of ERS in the occurrence and development of AS and summarized the mechanism research on the regulation and control of ERS by Chinese herbal monomer, Chinese herbal extract, Chinese herbal compound, and proprietary medicine, so as to provide a theoretical basis for clinical research and drug development in the prevention and treatment of AS.

2.
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ; (12): 22-28, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003440

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To study the effect of low concentrations of sodium fluoride on the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) in vitro.@*Methods@#This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee. hDPCs were cultured using a modified tissue explant technique in vitro. The effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride on the proliferation of hDPCs were measured by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Appropriate concentrations were added to the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation induction medium, and the cells were induced in vitro. Alizarin red S staining was used to detect the osteoblastic/odontogenic differentiation ability of the cells, and the mRNA expression of the key differentiation factors was detected by RT-qPCR. Moreover, the expression of key molecules of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. The data were analyzed with the SPSS 18.0 software package.@*Results@#Low concentration of NaF (0.1 mmol/L) could stimulate cell proliferation in vitro, while a high concentration (5-10 mmol/L) could inhibit cell proliferation (P<0.05). According to the literature and the experimental data, 0.1 mmol/L NaF was selected as the following experimental concentration. The levels of alizarin red S staining were increased after NaF induction of mixed osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation in vitro. The mRNA expression levels of key molecules for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), were increased (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of ERS markers (splicing x-box binding protein-1 (sXBP1), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and activating transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) were increased in NaF-treated cells. The protein expression levels of key ER stress molecules (phosphorylated RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER-resident kinase (p-PERK), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (p-eIF2α) and ATF4) were higher in NaF-treated cells.@*Conclusion@#A low concentration of NaF promotes the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs and increases the level of ER stress.

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 26-36, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003405

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Yishen Tongluo prescription (YSTLP) on apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and explore the mechanism based on endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)/transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). MethodThe db/db mice were randomly divided into model group, valsartan group (10 mg·kg-1), and low, middle, high-dose YSTLP groups (1, 2.5, 5 g·kg-1). Samples were collected after eight weeks of drug intervention. In addition, db/m mice in the same litter served as the control group. Human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were cultured in vitro and divided into the control group, advanced glycated end-product (AGE) group, and AGE + low, middle, and high-dose YSTLP groups (100, 200, 400 mg·L-1). TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used to detect the apoptosis rate of HK-2 cells. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was conducted to detect the viability of HK-2 cells. Calcium fluorescence probe staining and luciferase reporter gene method were adopted to detect the luciferase activity of folded protein response element (UPRE) and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was carried out to measure the protein expressions of phosphorylated PKR (p-PERK), CHOP, and ATF4. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of CHOP and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression level of p-PERK, PERK, CHOP, ATF4, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved Caspase-3 in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. ResultIn the cellular assay, HK-2 cell viability was significantly reduced, and the apoptosis rate was elevated in the AGE group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of apoptosis-related factor Bcl-2 were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and those of Bax were significantly increased (P<0.01). The protein expression level of cleaved Caspase-3 was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the AGE group, YSTLP administration treatment resulted in elevated cell viability and reduced apoptosis rate (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were significantly elevated in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01), and those of Bax were significantly reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The protein expression level of cleaved Caspase-3 was significantly reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). The intracellular Ca2+ imbalance and UPRE luciferase fluorescence intensity were increased in the AGE group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors CHOP and XBP1 were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of p-PERK, CHOP, and ATF4 were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the AGE group, YSTLP effectively improved intracellular Ca2+ imbalance in HK-2 cells and decreased UPRE luciferase fluorescence intensity in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). It reduced the mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors CHOP and XBP1 (P<0.01) and the protein expression levels of intracellular p-PERK, CHOP, and ATF4 in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.01). In animal experiments, the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly reduced(P<0.01), and that of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax was significantly increased in the model group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The protein expression level of Bcl-2 was dose-dependently elevated, and that of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax was dose-dependently decreased in the YSTLP groups compared with the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression levels of CHOP and XBP1 were significantly elevated in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of p-PERK, CHOP, and ATF4 were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, YSTLP significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of CHOP and XBP1 (P<0.01) and the protein expression levels of p-PERK, CHOP, and ATF4 (P<0.01). ConclusionYSTLP can effectively inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress and improve apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the PERK/AFT4/CHOP pathway.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 269-278, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016656

ABSTRACT

Non-infectious chronic diseases in human including diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), atherosclerosis (AS), neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis, as well as malignant tumors may have some common pathogenic mechanisms such as non-resolved inflammation (NRI), gut microbiota dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondria dysfunction, and abnormality of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. These pathogenic mechanisms could be the basis for "homotherapy for heteropathy" in clinic. Some commonly used clinical drugs, such as metformin, berberine, aspirin, statins, and rapamycin may execute therapeutic effect on their targeted diseases,and also have the effect of "homotherapy for heteropathy". The mechanisms of the above drugs may include anti-inflammation, modulation of gut microbiota, suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress, improvement of mitochondria function, and inhibition of mTOR. For virus infectious diseases, as some viruses need certain commonly used replicases, the inhibitors of the replicases become examples of "homotherapy for heteropathy" for antiviral therapy in clinic (for example tenofovir for both AIDS and HBV infection). Especially, in case of outbreak of new emerging viruses, these viral enzyme inhibitors such as azvudine and sofibuvir, could be rapidly used in controlling viral epidemic or pandemic, based on the principle of "homotherapy for heteropathy". In this review article, we show the research progress of the biological basis for "homotherapy for heteropathy" and the possible mechanisms of some well-known drugs, in order to provide insights and new references for innovative drug R&D.

5.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 1-10, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014562

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the relationship between vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) injury, organelle stress response and autophagic cell death (autophagy) and ferroptosis induced by the chemical hypoxia inducer cobalt chloride (CoCl2) through the bioinformatics analysis and in vitro cell experimentation. METHODS: The dataset GSE119226 of VSMC treated with cobalt chloride was acquired from the gene expression database (GEO). The R language was used to investigate the relationship between CoCl2 treatment and organelle stress response (Golgi stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress) and two forms of cell death (ferroptosis and autophagic cell death). With primary cultured rat VSMC (rVSMC) and CoCl2-induced anoxia model, the changes in cell viability were detected by CCK-8 method, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using DCFH-DA method. The expression levels of HIF-1α (a key molecule in hypoxia), Golgi stress markers GM130 and p115, endoplasmic reticulum stress markers GRP78 and CHOP, autophagy markers LC3-II / LC3-I and Beclin1, and ferroptosis markers GPx4 and xCT were detected by Western blot. The effect of inducing or inhibiting organelle stress and cell death on the CoCl2-induced cell damage was also observed. RESULTS: Differentially expressed genes analysis of GSE119226 dataset showed that CoCl2 treatment of VSMCs had significant effects on organelle function and stress response, autophagy and ferroptosis-related genes, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, regulation of Golgi to plasma membrane protein transport, autophagy / autophagic cell death, and ferroptosis pathways were remarkably enriched. The results of in vitro experiment showed that compared with normal rVSMC, cell viability was significantly decreased after CoCl2 treatment, as well as HIF-1α protein expression and ROS levels in rVSMCs were increased. In rVSMC treated with Co-Cl2, the expression levels of Golgi structural proteins GM130 and p115 (reflecting the occurrence of Golgi stress) were decreased, while the markers GRP78 and CHOP (reflecting the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress) were increased. At the same time, CoCl2 treatment also reduced the expression of autophagy markers LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin1 (indicating the decrease levels of autophagy), while the expression of ferroptosis markers GPx4 and xCT were decreased (indicating the occurrence of ferroptosis). Compared with CoCl2 treatment group, induced Golgi stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or ferroptosis could further reduce cell viability, while inhibition of these processes could improve cell viability. On the other hand, increasing the level of autophagy can improve the cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia induced by cobalt chloride can lead to VSMC injury. Golgi stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, ferroptosis, and the reduction of autophagy level play an important role in it. Inhibition of organelle stress response and ferroptosis, or increase of autophagy level can improve VSMC injury caused by cobalt chloride.

6.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Practice ; (6): 121-126, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012792

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect and mechanism of the thapsigargin combined with gefitinib on the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma gefitinib resistance cell line PC9/GR. Methods The cell viability of PC9/GR treated with gefitinib alone or gefitinib combined with thapsigargin was evaluated by CCK8 assay. The flow cytometry was used to analyze the PC9/GR cell apoptosis indued by the two group drugs. The ATF-6 and IRE1α protein expression of PC9/GR cells treated with the two group drugs were detected by Western blotting. Results The group of drug combination exhibited enhanced ability to inhibit cell proliferation, promote cell apoptosis and upregulate the ATF-6 and IRE1α protein expression of the PC9/GR compared with the group gefitinib used alone. Conclusion The sensitivity of PC9/GR to gefitinib was increased when the cells were treated by thapsigargin, which may be related with the state of endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS) induced by thapsigargin.

7.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 220-228, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012492

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of mouse renal tubular epithelial cells and unravel underlying mechanism. Methods Mouse renal tubular epithelial cells were divided into adenovirus negative control group (Ad-shNC group), targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus group (Ad-shXBP1s group), Ad-shNC+H/R group and Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group. The apoptosis level, mitochondrial reactive oxygen activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial calcium ion level were detected in each group. Chromatin immunocoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) was employed to analyze the binding sites of XBP1s in regulating the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) family. The expression levels of XBP1s and ITPR family messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were determined in each group. Results Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the apoptosis level was higher, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level was increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and mitochondrial calcium ion level was elevated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, the apoptosis level was lower, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level was decreased, mitochondrial membrane potential was elevated, and mitochondrial calcium ion level was decreased in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 mRNAs and proteins were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 proteins were up-regulated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). ChIP-seq results showed that XBP1s could bind to the promoter and exon of ITPR1, the exon of ITPR2, and the exon of ITPR3. Conclusions XBP1s may affect mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane structure and function by directly regulating ITPR transcription and translation. Down-regulating XBP1s may inhibit ITPR expression and mitigate mitochondrial damage.

8.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 140-146, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011512

ABSTRACT

The biosynthesis and maturation of proteins are primarily regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum in its physiological state. Thus, the disruption of physiological homeostasis initiates the buildup of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and unfolded protein response (UPR). One of the important pathways by which UPR maintains intracellular homeostasis under ERS is activating protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). The activation of the PERK pathway stimulates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit-α (eIF2α) phosphorylation and the selective translation of active transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and PERK induces cell apoptosis by directly binding to the promoter of pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). This signaling pathway is also one of the important mechanisms by which UPR participates in the regulation of hematological malignancies and immune cells in a tumor microenvironment. This article provides an overview of advancements in research into the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway in hematological malignancies and the potential therapeutic benefits of targeting this signaling pathway.

9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 34-41, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of asperuloside on cervical cancer based on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial pathway.@*METHODS@#Different doses (12.5-800 µg/mL) of asperuloside were used to treat cervical cancer cell lines Hela and CaSki to calculate the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of asperuloside. The cell proliferation was analyzed by clone formation assay. Cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by flow cytometry. The protein expressions of cleaved-caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-c, cleaved-caspase-4 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were analyzed by Western blot. And the inhibitor of ER stress, 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) was used to treat cervical cancer cells to further verify the role of ER stress in the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells induced by asperuloside.@*RESULTS@#Asperuloside of 325, 650, and 1300 µg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation and promoted apoptosis of Hela and CaSki cells (P<0.01). All doses of asperuloside significantly increased intracellular ROS levels, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, significantly reduced Bcl-2 protein expression level, and increased Bax, Cyt-c, GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-4 expressions (P<0.01). In addition, 10 mmol/L 4-PBA treatment significantly promoted cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis (P<0.05), and 650 µg/mL asperuloside could reverse 4-PBA-induced increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis and cleaved-caspase-3, -4 and GRP78 protein expressions (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Our study revealed the role of asperuloside in cervical cancer, suggesting that asperuloside promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells through ER stress-mitochondrial pathway.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , HeLa Cells , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Cell Line, Tumor
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 591-599, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440342

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity is commonly associated with chronic tissue inflammation and skeletal muscle dysfunction. The study aimed to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval training (HIIT) on myokines and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress of diet- induced obese (DIO) mice. Three-month-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a control (C) diet (n=20) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n=20) for 16 weeks. Then, half of the groups underwent HIIT (treadmill running) for an additional four weeks. HIIT increased calf muscles' contribution to BW (+24 %) and reduced weight gain in HF/HIIT than in HF (-120 %). Intramuscular fat accumulation was observed in HF and HF/ HIIT. Peak velocity was higher in HF/HIIT compared to HF (+26 %). Plasma insulin did not change, but glycemia was lower in HF/HIIT than in HF (-30 %). Fndc5 (+418 %) and Irisin (+72 %) were higher in HF/HIIT than in HF. Muscle Fgf21 was higher in HF/HIIT compared to HF (+30 %). In addition, NfKb (-53 %) and Tnfa (-63 %) were lower in HF/HIIT than in HF. However, Il1b (-86 %), Il6 (- 48 %), Il7 (-76 %), and Il15 (-21 %) were lower in HF/HIIT than in HF. Finally, HIIT reduced ER stress in HF/HIIT compared to HF: Atf4, -61 %; Chop, -61 %; Gadd45, -95 %. In conclusion, HIIT leads to weight loss and avoids muscle depletion. HIIT improves blood glucose, Irisin-Fndc5, and peak velocity. In addition, HIIT mitigates muscle inflammation and ER stress.


La obesidad es asociada comúnmente con inflamación tisular crónica y disfunción del músculo esquelético. El estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos del entrenamiento de intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT) en las mioquinas y el estrés del retículo endoplásmico (ER) de ratones obesos inducidos por dieta (DIO). Se alimentó a ratones macho C57BL/6 de tres meses de edad con una dieta control (C) (n=20) o una dieta rica en grasas (HF) (n=20) durante 16 semanas. Luego, la mitad de los grupos se sometieron a HIIT (carrera en una trotadora) durante cuatro semanas más. HIIT aumentó la contribución de los músculos de la pantorrilla al BW (+24 %) y redujo el aumento de peso en HF/HIIT en HF (-120 %). Se observó acumulación de grasa intramuscular en HF y HF/HIIT. La velocidad máxima fue mayor en HF/HIIT en comparación con HF (+26 %). La insulina plasmática no cambió, pero la glucemia fue menor en HF/HIIT que en HF (-30 %). Fndc5 (+418 %) e Irisin (+72 %) fueron mayores en HF/HIIT que en HF. El Fgf21 muscular fue mayor en HF/ HIIT en comparación con HF (+30 %). Además, NfKb (-53 %) y Tnfa (-63 %) fueron menores en HF/HIIT que en HF. Sin embar- go, Il1b (-86 %), Il6 (-48 %), Il7 (-76 %) e Il15 (-21 %) fueron más bajos en HF/HIIT que en HF. Finalmente, HIIT redujo el estrés de RE en HF/HIIT en comparación con HF: Atf4, -61 %; Picar, - 61 %; Gadd45, -95 %. En conclusión, HIIT conduce a la pérdida de peso y evita el agotamiento muscular. HIIT mejora la glucosa en sangre, Irisin-Fndc5 y la velocidad máxima. Además, HIIT mitiga la inflamación muscular y el estrés ER.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cytokines/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Obesity , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Biology
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(1): 51-60, mar. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533919

ABSTRACT

Hay muchos factores implicados en la incidencia de la enfermedad de Alzheimer que, en combinación, terminan por impedir o dificultar las funciones neuronales normales. Actualmente, poco se conoce sobre la regulación del calcio, antes de la enfermedad y durante la misma. La inestabilidad interna de los niveles de calcio se asocia a un mayor riesgo vascular, condición prevalente en un gran número de individuos ya comprometidos por la enfermedad de Alzheimer. Esta revisión proporciona una reevaluación de los mecanismos moleculares de la ATPasa dependiente de Ca2+ del retículo sarcoendoplásmico (SERC-A) en la enfermedad y analiza los aspectos más destacados de la función de los canales de calcio dependientes de voltaje; de esta manera, se podrán abrir nuevas alternativas de tratamiento. Estos mecanismos de regulación son clínicamente relevantes, ya que se ha implicado la función irregular de SERC-A en diversas alteraciones de la función cerebral.


There are many factors involved in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease that, in combination, impede or hinder normal neuronal functions. Little is currently known about calcium regulation before and during the disease. Internal instability of calcium levels is associated with increased vascular risk, a prevalent condition in a high number of individuals already compromised by Alzheimer's disease. This review provides a reevaluation of the molecular mechanism of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERC-A) in the disease and discusses salient aspects of voltage-gated calcium channel function; in these way new alternatives could be open for its treatment. These regulation mechanisms are clinically relevant since the irregular functions of SERC+A has been implicated in pathologies of brain function.


Subject(s)
Calcium Metabolism Disorders , Alzheimer Disease , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Endoplasmic Reticulum
12.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 866-872, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005767

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 Diabetic mice could show learning and memory dysfunction, and we aimed to investigate the effect of Sigma-1 receptor agonist, PRE-084, on neurons and cognitive impairment in mice with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). 【Methods】 Twenty mice with T1DM induced by streptozocin, aged 8-10 weeks, and 20 control mice (CON) were randomly divided into four groups (CON+Vehicle, CON+PRE-084, T1DM+Vehicle and T1DM+PRE-084). Mouse primary neurons were cultured in high glucose medium with PRE-084 and control solvent, respectively. The body weight, food and water intake, and fasting blood glucose level of mice in each group were detected and recorded. The learning and memory abilities of mice were detected by new object recognition experiment. The mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) structure of neurons in hippocampal CA1 area of mice was detected by transmission electron microscope. And the expression levels of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hippocampus of mice were detected by biochemical kit. Cell viability and ROS level of primary neurons were detected by CCK8 and cellular ROS kit. 【Results】 PRE-084 reduced the increase of body weight, food and water intake, and blood glucose caused by diabetes. PRE-084 significantly ameliorated the learning and memory impairment of the mice with T1DM, improved the changes of MAM structure in neurons of hippocampal CA1 area of diabetic mice, increased the level of ATP in hippocampus of diabetic mice, and decreased the increase of ROS expression in diabetic hippocampus and neurons under high glucose conditions. 【Conclusion】 Sigma-1 receptor agonist, PRE-084, could improve learning and memory impairment in the mice with T1DM, which might be related to the structural changes of MAM, the increase of ATP production, and the decrease of ROS production in hippocampal neurons.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3637-3643, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004658

ABSTRACT

Gut microbial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Decreased insulin sensitivity is a significant etiological factor of T2DM. Adipocytes, myocytes, and hepatocytes are the three major target cells for insulin. This study aims to investigate the effects and mechanisms of TMAO on the insulin sensitivity of these target cells. Research results indicate that in different ages of db/db diabetic mice, plasma TMAO levels were increased. TMAO significantly inhibits the insulin signaling pathways in these three major insulin target cells, reduces glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes and downregulates genes related to gluconeogenesis in primary mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, in mice with normal insulin sensitivity, elevating plasma TMAO levels to those seen in db/db mice using a minipump results in impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. All animal experiments were carried out with approval of the Experimental Animal Welfare Ethics Committee of the Institute of Materia Medica (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College). Mechanistic studies suggest that TMAO exposure increases the levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins in these three major insulin target cells. In summary, TMAO directly attenuates insulin sensitivity in insulin target cells, and its mechanism of action may involve enhancing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

14.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2894-2900, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003281

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress genes in the prognosis of pancreatic cancer, and to establish a prognostic prediction model based on the prognostic markers for pancreatic cancer. MethodsTranscriptome sequencing data were downloaded from TCGA and GTEx databases, and MsigDB website was used to obtain endoplasmic reticulum stress genes. A univariate Cox regression analysis was performed to obtain the genes associated with the prognosis of pancreatic cancer, and a consensus clustering analysis was used to construct the molecular typing of pancreatic cancer, while the differentially expressed genes between the two subgroups were obtained. A Lasso regression analysis was used to obtain the core genes associated with the prognosis of pancreatic cancer, which were used to construct a prognostic prediction model for pancreatic cancer. Related datasets were obtained from the GEO database to validate the predictive performance of the model. The CIBERSORT analysis was used to investigate the correlation between risk score and immune infiltration. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of genes in pancreatic cancer tissue and cell lines. The independent-samples t test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Survival was compared using Log-rank test. The predictive value of the model was evaluated by evaluating the area under the ROC curve. ResultsThe endoplasmic reticulum stress genes CEBPB, MARCKS, PMAIP1, and UBXN10 were independent risk factors for the prognosis of pancreatic cancer, and based on the expression characteristics of these genes, the TCGA pancreatic cancer cohort was divided into two subgroups, i.e., cluster A and cluster B, while the cluster A patients had a significantly shorter overall survival time than the cluster B patients (P<0.01). The Lasso regression analysis obtained 5 core genes from the differentially expressed genes affecting the prognosis of pancreatic cancer, and the risk scoring system was established as risk score=0.156×CDA+0.135×AHNAK2+0.020×RHOV+0.095×LY6D+0.054×SPRR1B. The ROC curve analysis showed that this model had good overall predictive performance, with the area under the ROC curve of 0.731 at 1 year, 0.712 at 3 years, and 0.686 at 5 years, and the low-risk group based on this model had a significantly longer overall survival time than the high-risk group (χ2=11.733, P=0.001). The model showed good predictive performance in the external dataset GSE57495. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the expression levels of CDA, AHNAK2, RHOV, LY6D, and SPRR1B in 40 pancreatic cancer tissue samples were significantly upregulated compared with those in normal adjacent tissue samples (t=2.529, 2.458, 3.314, 3.583, and 5.082, all P<0.05). ConclusionThe expression characteristics of CDA, AHNAK2, RHOV, LY6D, and SPRR1B can be used to predict the prognosis of pancreatic cancer, and the high expression levels of these genes are associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients.

15.
Chinese Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ; (12): 1534-1542, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015665

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum is one of the most important organelles in maintaining cellular homeo⁃ stasis, mainly involved in intracellular lipid synthesis, protein folding and calcium ion homeostasis. Trau⁃ ma, ischemia and hypoxia and other pathological changes can cause protein folding dysfunction in the en⁃ doplasmic reticulum, triggering endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a com⁃ mon traumatic disease with anextremely high disability rate, which seriously affects the quality of life. There is no safe and effective clinical methods so far. Investigations have shown that ERS is one of the important pathological changes leading to cell death and neuronal dysfunction after SCI, and is closely as⁃ sociated with signaling pathways such as apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation in neurons after SCI; however, the molecular mechanisms between ERS and SCI have not yet been thoroughly investigated. A deeper understanding and exploration of the potential molecular mechanisms associated with ERS and SCI may be the future SCI therapeutics. In this paper, we first summarized the relationship between the chan⁃ ges of ERS⁃related genes and the pathological process of SCI, Then the interrelationships between ERS and the apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy signaling pathways after SCI were analyzed, starting from the three main modes of regulation, including unfolded protein response (UPR), endoplasmic reticulum⁃ associated degradation (ERAD), and endoplasmic reticulophagy (ER⁃phagy),Finally, we summarize the relevant drugs and application prospects of targeting ERS for SCI in recent years, which may provide a theoretical basis for targeting the ERS pathway for SCI and provide some ideas and insights for the de⁃ velopment of future therapeutic strategies after SCI.

16.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 926-936, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014612

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the regulatory mechanism of Angelica polysaccharide on hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic KK-Ay mice. MEHTODS: Forty diabetic KK-Ay mice were randomly divided into model group, metformin group, and angelica polysaccharide high, medium, and low dose groups, with 8 mice in each group. 8 C57BL/6J mice were used as blank control group. The mice were gavaged with 400 mg/kg, 200 mg/ kg and 100 mg/kg of angelica polysaccharide in the high, medium and low dose groups, respectively, and 200 mg/kg of metformin hydrochloride in the metformin group, while the normal and model groups were gavaged with equal volume of saline, and fasting blood glucose and body weight were measured weekly. After 4 weeks of gavage, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were measured in mice serum; RT-PCR was performed to observe the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK) and phosphorylated α-subunit eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-Eif2α) in liver tissues. mRNA expression; Western blot, immunohistochemistry to detect the protein expression of GRP78, p-PERK, p-Eif2α in mouse liver tissues. HE staining: to observe the histopathological changes in the liver. RESULT: Compared with the blank group, the levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly increased (P<0.01) and the levels of HDL-C were significantly decreased (P<0.01) in the model group; compared with the model group, the levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly decreased (P <0.05, P<0.01) and the levels of HDL-C were significantly increased in the metformin group, angelica polysaccharide high and medium dose groups. Compared with the blank group, the expression of GRP78, p-PERK and p-Eif2α in the model group was significantly upregulated (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78, p-PERK and p-Eif2α in the angelica polysaccharide high, medium and low dose groups was significantly downregulated (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the high dose group had the best effect compared with the model group. Compared with the model group, the mice in the angelica polysaccharide group showed dense liver tissue, reduced vacuole-like degeneration, reduced liver steatosis, gradually aligned hepatocytes, and clear hepatic sinusoidal structure, and the effect was dose-dependent. CONCLUSION: Angelica polysaccharide significantly improved liver injury in diabetic KK-Ay mice, and its mechanism of action may be related to the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins and factors GRP78, p-PERK and p-Eif2α expression by Angelica polysaccharide and improvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

17.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 896-902, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013915

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the effects of total flavonoids from Rosa rugosa (TFR) on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats, and to investigate whether TFR inhibited neuronal apoptosis by regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathways. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, low-dose group (50 mg · kg

18.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 859-868, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013911

ABSTRACT

Aim To explore the mechanism of the effect of anthraquinone modifier KA-4c on breast cancer cells, and determine its action target by drug affinity reaction target stability technique (DARTS). Methods The cell viability was detected by MTT method. The effect of KA-4c on the morphology of breast cancer cells was studied by HE staining, ER-Tracker Red and electron microscope. The apoptosis rate of breast cancer cells induced by KA-4c was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptotic protein was detected by Western blotting. DARTS and CETSA were used to determine the target of KA-4c. Results KA-4c had the most significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells, and could cause endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial vacuolation to damage the cells. The apoptosis rate and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins CHOP and caspase-7 increased with the increase of KA-4c concentration. DARTS results showed that KA-4c could activate endoplasmic reticulum protein processing signaling pathway, in which KA-4c bound to ATF6 protein and was resistant to protease hydrolysis. The results of CETSA experiments showed that KA-4c could enhance the expression of ATF6 protein in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions KA-4 triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. ATF6 may be one of the targets of KA-4c.

19.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 723-730, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013903

ABSTRACT

Aim To explore the mechanism by which calpain-1 promotes hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension pulmonary artery endothelial cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and calpain-1 gene knockout mice (KO) were reared in a hypoxic chamber (10% O

20.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1149-1156, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013791

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate the alleviating effect of NMDA receptor blocking on learning and memory impairment induced by gp120 in rats and its mechanism. Methods: (1 ) Thirty-two SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham operation group, gpl20 group, and gp120 + Memantine group. Except for the control group, the other groups underwent a bilateral hippocampal injection to establish the model of learning and memory impairment in rats. Memantine (10 mg • kg

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