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1.
International Eye Science ; (12): 758-761, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016591

ABSTRACT

Retinoblastoma is a kind of malignant eye tumor commonly seen in children, which is one of the main causes threatening children's vision and life. The diagnosis and evaluation of retinoblastoma has always been a hot topic in clinic. In the past few years, the application of artificial intelligence(AI)technology has made significant progress in the medical field, providing new opportunities and challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of retinoblastoma, for example, the use of AI algorithms to analyze massive clinical data, which can help doctors diagnose the disease more accurately and provide personalized treatment plans. In addition, AI technology also plays an important role in medical image analysis, genomics research and other aspects, which can help the development of new drugs and improve patient prognosis. This article reviews the application progress of AI in retinoblastoma.

2.
International Eye Science ; (12): 345-350, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011380

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA-HIF1A-AS1(lncRNA HIF1A-AS1)on the chemotherapy sensitivity of vincristine(VCR)-resistant in retinoblastoma(RB)cells by regulating the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α).METHODS: The human RB VCR-resistant cell line SO-RB50/VCR was established, expression of lncRNA HIF1A-AS1 in SO-RB50 and SO-RB50/VCR cells were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR(RT-qPCR); inhibition of lncRNA HIF1A-AS1 expression or simultaneous overexpression of HIF-1α in SO-RB50/VCR cells, and then median inhibitory concentration(IC50)of VCR and cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected in SO-RB50/VCR cells; the protein expressions of HIF-1α, multidrug resistance associate protein(MRP)and P-glycoprotein(P-gp)were measured by Western blot.RESULTS: Compared with SO-RB50 cells, the expression levels of lncRNA HIF1A-AS1 and HIF-1α protein in SO-RB50/VCR cells were increased(P<0.05); after inhibiting the expression of lncRNA HIF1A-AS1 in SO-RB50/VCR cells, the apoptosis rate was significantly increased(P<0.05), optical density(OD450), the IC50 value of VCR on cells and the expression levels of HIF-1α, MRP and P-gp proteins were significantly reduced(P<0.05); overexpression of HIF-1α attenuates the inhibitory effect of down-regulated lncRNA HIF1A-AS1 expression on drug resistance in SO-RB50/VCR cells.CONCLUSION: The lncRNA HIF1A-AS1 was highly expressed in SO-RB50/VCR cells, and inhibition of lncRNA HIF1A-AS1 expression reduced VCR resistance in SO-RB50/VCR cells by down-regulating HIF-1α expression.

3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(4): e20231358, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558880

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the methylation status of two pivotal genes, CDKN2A/p16INK4A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) and RB1 (retinoblastoma transcriptional corepressor 1), in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 15 women diagnosed with breast cancer and who underwent a total mastectomy. DNA was extracted from the tumor, non-tumor tissue, and peripheral blood (circulating cell-free DNA). The methylation pattern of cell-free DNA extracted from blood collected on the day of mastectomy was compared with the methylation pattern of cell-free DNA from blood collected 1 year post-surgery. The methylation analysis was carried out by sodium bisulfite conversion and polymerase chain reaction, followed by electrophoresis. RESULTS: Methylation of CDKN2A/p16INK4A was identified in 13 tumor samples and 12 non-tumor tissue samples. Two patients exhibited CDKN2A/p16INK4A methylation in the cell-free DNA of the first blood collection, while another showed methylation only in the cell-free DNA of the subsequent blood collection. Regarding RB1, 11 tumors and 8 non-tumor tissue samples presented methylation of the gene. CONCLUSION: This study presents a novel approach for monitoring breast cancer patients through the analysis of cell-free DNA methylation. This analysis can detect changes in methylation patterns before any visible sign of cancer appears in breast tissue and could help predict the recurrence of malignant breast tumors.

4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(2): e2021, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533794

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the association between magnetic resonance imaging apparent diffusion coefficient map value and histopathological differentiation in patients who underwent eye enucleation due to retinoblastomas. Methods: An observational chart review study of patients with retinoblastoma that had histopathology of the lesion and orbit magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient analysis at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between November 2013 and November 2016 was performed. The histopathology was reviewed after enucleation. To analyze the difference in apparent diffusion coefficient values between the two major histopathological prognostic groups, Student's t-test was used for the two groups. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.0 for Microsoft Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study without obtaining informed consent. Results: Thirteen children were evaluated, and only eight underwent eye enucleation and were included in the analysis. The others were treated with photocoagulation, embolization, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and were excluded due to the lack of histopathological results. When compared with histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated 100% accuracy in retinoblastoma diagnosis. Optic nerve invasion detection on magnetic resonance imaging showed a 66.6% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity. Positive and negative predictive values were 66.6% and 80.0%, respectively, with an accuracy of 75%. In addition, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient of the eight eyes was 0.615 × 103 mm2/s. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient value of poorly or undifferentiated retinoblastoma and differentiated tumors were 0.520 × 103 mm2/s and 0.774 × 103 mm2/s, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of retinoblastoma and detection of optic nerve infiltration, with a sensitivity of 66.6% and specificity of 80%. Our results also showed lower apparent diffusion coefficient values in poorly differentiated retinoblastomas with a mean of 0.520 × 103 mm2/s, whereas in well and moderately differentiated, the mean was 0.774 × 103 mm2/s.

5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(1): e2021, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527815

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The authors report full-field electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography findings of intravitreal melphalan retinal toxicity. An 18-month-old girl with unilateral group D retinoblastoma was evaluated with light-adapted 3 full-field electroretinogram protocol and optical coherence tomography (I-Stand optical coherence tomography, Optovue) after treatment with intravitreal melphalan for active vitreous seeds. After the third injection, the child developed retinal pigment epithelial changes near the injection site. The photopic response of the full-field electroretinogram standard flash cones showed a decrease in amplitude responses of waves a and b in the affected eye compared to the contralateral eye. Optical coherence tomography showed loss of photoreceptors and outer nuclear layers in the affected eye. Melphalan toxicity is dose-dependent, and despite its treatment benefits, it can affect vision. Our case shows an updated, in-depth retinal toxicity assessment of intravitreal melphalan in the human retina with optical coherence tomography and its correlation with electroretinogram changes.


RESUMO Os autores relatam os achados de eletrorretinograma de campo total e tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) da toxicidade retiniana ao melfalan intravítreo. Menina de 18 meses com retinoblastoma foi avaliada com fases fotópicas do eletrorretinograma de campo total e tomografia de coerência óptica após o tratamento com melfalan intravítreo. Após a terceira injeção, a criança desenvolveu alterações do epitélio pigmentar da retina próximo ao local da injeção. A resposta fotópica do eletrorretinograma de campo total mostrou diminuição da amplitude das respostas das ondas a e b no olho afetado comparado com o olho sadio. A tomografia de coerência óptica mostrou alterações significativas nas camadas retinianas externas no olho comprometido. A toxicidade do melfalan é dose dependente e, apesar dos benefícios terapêuticos, podem causar alterações retinianas significativas. Este caso demonstra uma avaliação atual e aprofundada da toxicidade retiniana do melfalan intravítreo na retina humana através da tomografia de coerência óptica e sua correlação com as alterações no eletrorretinograma.

6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Mar; 71(3): 977-982
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224909

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To develop a viable in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model to study the growth and invasion of patient?derived retinoblastoma (RB) and choroidal melanoma (CM) xenografts (PDXs). The study utilizes primary tumor samples instead of cancer cell lines, which provides a more authentic representation of tumors due to conserved morphology and heterogeneity. Methods: Fertilized chicken eggs were procured, windowed, and their CAM layers were dropped. On embryonic development day (EDD) 10, freshly cut patient?derived CM and RB tumors were implanted on the CAM layer and the setup was incubated for 7 days. The tumor?embedded CAM layer was harvested on EDD 17, and the extracted tumor samples were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the extent of tumor invasion. Results: Significant changes in the vascularity around the RB and CM PDXs were observed, indicating an angiogenic environment. The cross?sectional histological view of the tumor implant site revealed the invasion of both the tumors into the CAM mesoderm. Invasion of CM into CAM mesoderm was visualized in the form of pigmented nodules, and that of RB was indicated by synaptophysin and Ki?67 positivity in Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Conclusion: The CAM xenograft model was successfully able to support the growth of CM and RB PDXs and their invasion in CAM, thus presenting as a feasible alternative to mammalian models for studying tumorigenicity and invasiveness of ocular tumors. Moreover, this model can further be utilized to develop personalized medicine by inoculating patient?specific tumors for preclinical drug screening.

7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(1): 81-90, mar. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441188

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rhodococcus is a pathogen that is known to cause infections in animals and humans, mainly in cases of immunocompromised patients. A case of a pediatric cancer patient suffering from a bloodstream infection caused by Rhodococcus corynebacterioides was described in this work. Gram positive rods were isolated from blood cultures. The target bacterium was identified using a combination of biochemical tests, the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry technique, and the analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence. Moreover, an antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the E-test. The isolated bacterium was identified as R. corynebacterioides. The 3-year-old patient was successfully treated with vancomycin and meropenem. This is the first published report of R. corynebacterioides in a pediatric patient diagnosed with retinoblastoma that developed a bloodstream infection. R. corynebacterioides should be considered among the opportunistic infectious agents affecting pediatric cancer patients.


Resumen Rhodococcus es un patógeno conocido por causar infecciones en animales y humanos, principalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. En este trabajo se describe el caso de un paciente pediátrico con cáncer que presentó una infección del torrente sanguíneo causada por Rhodococcus corynebacterioides. A partir de hemocultivos, se aislaron bacilos gram positivos. La bacteria diana fue identificada usando una combinación de pruebas bioquímicas, por espectrometría de masas MALDI-TOF y por el análisis de la secuencia del gen 16S ARNr. Además, se realizó una prueba de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos utilizando E-test. La cepa bacteriana se identificó como R. corynebacterioides. El paciente, de 3 años, fue tratado con vancomicina y meropenem, exitosamente. Este es el primer reporte de R. corynebacterioides como agente causal de una infección del torrente sanguíneo en un paciente pediátrico con retinoblastoma. R. corynebacterioides debe considerarse entre los agentes infecciosos oportunistas que afectan a los pacientes pediátricos con cáncer.

8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Feb; 71(2): 436-443
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224825

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of secondary and salvage intra?arterial chemotherapy (IAC) as a globe salvage treatment modality in advanced and refractory intraocular retinoblastoma. Methods: A retrospective chart review of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma (groups D and E International Classification of Retinoblastoma [ICRB] classification) patients refractory to intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) and undergoing IAC as the secondary and salvage treatment modality between December 2018 and June 2021 was carried out. All patients underwent the IAC procedure by super?selective ophthalmic artery catheterization and with triple?drug chemotherapeutic agents of melphalan, topotecan, and carboplatin. Data were collected about tumor regression, eye salvage, metastasis, and survival outcome at follow?up. Results: Out of 13 patients, 12 patients received secondary IAC after being primarily treated with IVC and focal therapies and one patient received rescue IAC after recurrence following primary IAC. Mean number of IAC cycles administered was 2. Overall, globe salvage rate was 53.84%, with a mean follow?up of 17.53 months (range 6–37 months), three patients had enucleation for residual tumor or tumor recurrence. One patient developed metastasis post enucleation and two patients who were lost to follow?up after enucleation advice for residual tumor developed orbital tumor extension and eventually died of metastasis. Conclusion: Secondary triple?drug IAC following failure of IVC, along with other adjunct treatment modalities might a be a cost?effective option for eye salvage in advanced intraocular retinoblastoma patients who refuse enucleation, with a globe salvage rate of 53.84%. It can also be an effective approach to improve treatment compliance and can help in addressing the barrier of treatment refusal when enucleation is advised.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Feb; 71(2): 424-430
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224824

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study was done to explore the utility of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning in the diagnosis and grouping of intraocular retinoblastoma (iRB). Methods: It was a retrospective observational study using AI and Machine learning, Computer Vision (OpenCV). Results: Of 771 fundus images of 109 eyes, 181 images had no tumor and 590 images displayed iRB based on review by two independent ocular oncologists (with an interobserver variability of <1%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the trained AI model were 85%, 99%, 99.6%, and 67%, respectively. Of 109 eyes, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detection of RB by AI model were 96%, 94%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Of these, the eyes were normal (n = 31) or belonged to groupA (n=1), B (n=22), C (n=8), D (n=23),and E (n=24) RB based on review by two independent ocular oncologists (with an interobserver variability of 0%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the trained AI model were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% for group A; 82%, 20 21 98%, 90%, and 96% for group B; 63%, 99%, 83%, and 97% for group C; 78%, 98%, 90%, and 94% for group D, and 92%, 91%, 73%, and 98% for group E, respectively. Conclusion: Based on our study, we conclude that the AI model for iRB is highly sensitive in the detection of RB with high specificity for the classification of iRB

10.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 968-973, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997688

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the independent risk factors affecting prognosis of patients with retinoblastoma (RB) and construct a nomogram to predict prognosis of patients with RB. Methods Data of 759 RB patients were collected from the SEER database. Patients were randomly assigned to the training group and validation group in a 7:3 ratio. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to determine the independent prognostic factors, based on which a nomogram was constructed. C index, calibration curve, and ROC curve were used to evaluate the predictive efficiency and calibration degree of the nomogram. Results Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors associated with overall survival, namely, T stage and SEER stage. The C-index of SEER training set was 0.765 (95%CI: 0.744-0.786), the calibration curve was drawn, and the observed and predicted values overlapped well, indicating good consistency. The ROC curve showed that the nomogram could accurately predict three-year (AUC=0.743), five-year (AUC=0.734) and 10-year (AUC=0.720) survival rates of RB patients. Conclusion T stage and SEER stage are independent risk factors related to prognosis of RB patients, and the nomogram can accurately predict the three-year, five-year, and 10-year overall survival rates of patients.

11.
Chinese Journal of Ocular Fundus Diseases ; (6): 5-10, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995587

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the consistency of clinical imaging and clinicopathological finds of retinoblastoma (RB) optic nerve invasion.Methods:A retrospective case study. Fifteen children with 15 eyes who were diagnosed with RB and underwent enucleation at the Eye Center of Beijing Tongren Hospital from November 2017 to January 2022 were included in the study. Among them, there were 9 males with 9 eyes and 6 females with 6 eyes. The mean age was 1.75±1.61 years. All affected eyes were designated International Classification of Retinoblastoma group E. There were 7 cases with secondary neovascularization glaucoma, 2 cases with closed funnel-shaped detachment of the retina and tumor touching the posterior capsule of the crystal, and 6 cases with tumor touching the back surface of the crystal and posterior chamber of the 15 children. All children underwent CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among them, CT examination was performed in 4 cases, MRI examination in 4 cases, and MRI and CT examination in 7 cases. All the children underwent eyeball enucleation, paraffin sections were taken from the eyeball, and sagittal section of the eyeball with optic nerve tissue was taken for pathological examination. Imaging diagnosis was based on optic nerve thickening and/or enhancement. The pathological diagnosis was based on the growth of RB tumor cells across the post-laminar of optic nerve. The pathological diagnosis was based on the growth of RB tumor cells across the sieve plate. The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic ability of imaging examination. The sensitivity, PPV and 95% confidence interval ( CI) of imaging examination were obtained based on the confusion matrix. With pathology as the gold standard, intragroup correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test the consistency of imaging and pathology. Results:All the 15 cases were diagnosed with RB by pathological examination. Of the 15 cases, 7 cases were diagnosed with RB optic nerve invasion by imaging and 8 cases without nerve invasion; 12 cases of RB optic nerve invasion were diagnosed by pathology after operation. Three cases without nerve invasion. Among them, 4 cases had identical imaging and pathological findings. The sensitivity and PPV of MRI and CT were 0.33 (95% CI 0.11-0.64) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.20-0.88), respectively. The value of AUC (the area under the curve) in the ROC curve of MRI and CT were 0.51 (95% CI 0.24-0.77) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.25-0.78), respectively. The AUC values of both were 0.5-0.7, indicating low diagnostic accuracy. ICC test evaluated the consistency of MRI and CT with pathological examination, 0.61 (95% CI 0.97-0.87) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.12-0.88) for MRI and CT, respectively. Therefore, the consistency of MRI, CT and pathology was moderate. Conclusion:Compared with the pathological findings, the sensitivity and accuracy of MRI and CT in the diagnosis of RB optic nerve post-laminar invasion are lower, and the consistency between MRI and CT with pathology is only moderate.

12.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1653-1657, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987885

ABSTRACT

Retinoblastoma(RB)is the most common intraocular malignant tumor of children. Chemotherapy is a preferred method in RB treatment, which includes intravenous chemotherapy, intra-arterial chemotherapy and intravitreal chemotherapy. However, the occurrence of chemotherapy resistance often leads to the failure of eye-preserving treatment in RB patients. Therefore, exploring the mechanism of the occurrence of chemotherapy resistance and searching for new strategies and combined medicines for RB treatment are of great clinical significance. This article reviews that RB cells obtain chemotherapy resistance through ATP binding cassette protein(ABC transporter), non-coding RNA, epigenetics modification, autophagy, epithelial mesenchymal transformation, extracellular matrix changes and other ways, and the potential therapeutic targets for chemotherapy resistance are also summarized, in the hope of providing some references for further research on chemotherapy resistance of RB.

13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 321-329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990850

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) lung cancer associated transcript 1 (LUCAT1) targeting microRNA (miR)-502-5p on the proliferation, migration and invasion of human retinoblastoma (RB) cells.Methods:RB tissue samples were collected from 27 RB patients who underwent eyeball enucleation in Henan Eye Hospital from May 2019 to January 2021.Another 27 normal retinal tissue specimens were collected from 12 patients with eyeball rupture, 7 with eyeball atrophy, and 8 with eyeball penetrating injury combined with pigment film incarceration who underwent the eyeball enucleation in Henan Eye Hospital during the same period.The expressions of LncRNA LUCAT1 and miR-502-5p in RB tissues, cell lines (Y-79, WERI-Rb-1, HXo-RB44) and human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR.Y-79 RB cell was divided into control group, small interfering RNA (si)-LncRNA LUCAT1 group, si-control (con) group, pcDNA group, pcDNA-LncRNA LUCAT1 group, miR-con group, miR-502-5p group, si-LncRNA LUCAT1+ anti-miR-con group and si-LncRNA LUCAT1+ anti-miR-502-5p group, and cells in different groups were transfected with corresponding reagents.The expressions of MMP2 and MMP9 proteins were detected by Western blot.Cell proliferation activity was assayed by cell counting kit 8.Cell proliferation capability was detected by colony formation assay.Cell migration and invasion ability were determined by Transwell assay.The targeting regulation of LncRNA LUCAT1 against miR-502-5p was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay and real-time quantitative PCR.The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Henan Eye Hospital (No.HNEECKY-2021[32]). Written informed consent was obtained from guardians of subjects.Results:LncRNA LUCAT1 expression level in RB tissue was 2.73±0.34, which was significantly higher than 1.00±0.15 in normal retinal tissue ( t=24.190, P<0.001). The miR-502-5p expression level in RB tissues was 0.42±0.06, which was significantly lower than 1.00±0.13 in normal retinal tissue ( t=21.049, P<0.001). LncRNA LUCAT1 expression level was significantly higher and the miR-502-5p expression level was significantly lower in human RB cell lines Y-79, WERI-Rb-1 and HXO-RB44 than those in ARPE-19 cells, with statistically significant differences (all at P<0.05). The LncRNA LUCAT1 expression, the relative expressions of MMP2 and MMP9 proteins, the absorbance ( A) value, and the number of proliferated, migrating and invading Y-79 cells in si-LncRNA LUCAT1 group were significantly reduced in comparison with control group, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.05). The miR-502-5p expression level was higher, and the relative expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9, A value, as well as the number of proliferated, migrating and invading Y-79 cells were lower in miR-502-5p group than in miR-con group, showing statistically significant differences ( t=20.274, 14.884, 14.181, 12.692, 17.749, 20.889, 21.913; all at P<0.001). The miR-502-5p expression level was lower and the relative expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9, A value as well as the number of proliferated, migrating and invading Y-79 cells were higher in si-LncRNA LUCAT1+ anti-miR-502-5p group than in si-LncRNA LUCAT1+ anti-miR-con group, showing statistically significant differences ( t=14.097, 15.839, 15.757, 11.860, 16.235, 16.565, 16.487; all at P<0.001). When co-transfected with LncRNA LUCAT1-wild type, the relative luciferase activity of miR-502-5p group was lower than that of miR-con group, and the difference was statistically significant ( t=16.379, P<0.001). The LncRNA LUCAT1 expression level was higher and the miR-502-5p expression level was lower in pcDNA-LncRNA LUCAT1 group than in pcDNA group, and the differences were statistically significant (both at P<0.05). The LncRNA LUCAT1 expression level was lower and the miR-502-5p expression level was higher in si-LncRNA LUCAT1 group than in si-con group, and the differences were statistically significant (both at P<0.05). Conclusions:Inhibition of LncRNA LUCAT1 can attenuate the proliferation, migration and invasion ability of human RB cells by the targeting up-regulation of miR-502-5p.

14.
International Eye Science ; (12): 449-455, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964247

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the key genes and molecular markers involved in the retinoblastoma development through bioinformatics.METHODS: The mRNA microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO)database were obtained, and the differentially expressed gene(DEG)between retinoblastoma cell lines and normal retinal pigment epithelial(RPE)cell lines were analyzed through gene ontology(GO)and KEGG enrichment analysis. To screen key genes, establish protein-protein interaction(PPI)network, and use receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve to assess clinical diagnostic efficacy. The RNA expressions of key genes in retinoblastoma cell lines and normal RPE cell lines were compared by qRT-PCR.RESULTS: A total of 121 DEGs were obtained from the retinoblastoma dataset of GSE97508 and GSE110811. KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEG were enriched in phototransduction, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways. A total of 9 key genes, including MCM6, DTL, UBE2T, TOP2A, NUSAP1, CENPK, RRM2, RLBP1, and RHO, were obtained from the intersection of PPI network analysis and the top 30 DEG from each dataset. The differentially expressed 9 key genes were verified in GSE24673. ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve(AUC)for UBE2T, RRM2, and RHO was ≥80%, and there was a statistical significance(P>0.05). The mRNA level of UBE2T and RRM2 in retinoblastoma was significantly higher than APRE-19 cell line, while the mRNA level of RHO was significantly lower than that of ARPE-19 cell line.CONCLUSION: UBE2T, RRM2, and RHO may be served as potential molecular markers and potential therapeutic targets for retinoblastoma.

15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 230-237, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969829

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 on the proliferation and apoptosis of retinoblastoma cells and its possible mechanism. Methods: The tumor tissues of 31 patients with retinoblastoma admitted to Henan Provincial Eye Hospital from February to June 2020 and their corresponding normal tissues adjacent to the cancer were collected. The expression levels of lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 and miR-200b-5p in retinoblastoma tissues and normal adjacent tissues were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Human retinal epithelial cell ARPE-19, human retinoblastoma cell Y-79 and WERI-Rb-1 were cultured in vitro. The expression levels of lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 and miR-200b-5p were detected by qRT-PCR. Y-79 cells were randomly divided into si-con group, si-lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 group, miR con group, miR-200b-5p group, si-lncRNA ADPGK-AS1+ anti-miR con group, and si-lncRNA ADPGK-AS1+ anti-miR-200b-5p group. The proliferation, cloning and apoptosis of cells in each group were detected by tetramethylazol blue method, plate cloning test and flow cytometry, respectively. The targeting relationship between lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 and miR-200b-5p was detected by double luciferase report test, and the expression level of cleaved-caspase-3 protein was detected by western blot. Results: Compared with the adjacent tissues, the expression of lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 in retinoblastoma tissues was increased (P<0.05), while the expression of miR-200b-5p was decreased (P<0.05). Compared with ARPE-19 cells, the expression of lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 in Y-79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells was increased (P<0.05), while the expression of miR-200b-5p was decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the si-con group, the cell viability of the si-lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 group was reduced (1.06±0.09 vs 0.53±0.05, P<0.05), the number of cell clone formation was reduced (114.00±8.03 vs 57.00±4.13, P<0.05), while the apoptosis rate [(7.93±0.68)% vs (25.43±1.94)%] and the protein level of cleaved-caspase-3 were increased (P<0.05). Compared with the miR-con group, the cell viability of the miR-200b-5p group was decreased (1.05±0.08 vs 0.57±0.05, P<0.05), the number of cell clone formation was decreased (118.00±10.02 vs 64.00±5.13, P<0.05), while the apoptosis rate [(7.89±0.71)% vs (23.15±1.62)%] and the protein level of cleaved-caspase-3 were increased (P<0.05). lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 could target the expression of miR-200b-5p. Compared with the si-lncRNA ADPGK-AS1+ anti-miR-con group, cell viability of the si-lncRNA ADPGK-AS1+ anti-miR-200b-5p group was increased (0.53±0.04 vs 1.25±0.10, P<0.05), and the number of cell clones was increased (54.00±4.39 vs 125.00±10.03, P<0.05), while the rate of apoptosis [(25.38±1.53)% vs (9.76±0.71)%] and the protein level of cleaved-caspase-3 were decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Interfering with the expression of lncRNA ADPGK-AS1 could inhibit the proliferation and clone formation and induce apoptosis of retinoblastoma cells by targeting the expression of miR-200b-5p.


Subject(s)
Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Retinoblastoma/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Antagomirs/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis/genetics , Retinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement/genetics
16.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 80(supl.1): 53-57, 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513766

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El retinoblastoma (RB) es el tumor maligno primario intraocular más frecuente en la infancia y debe ser la principal patología a descartar en los pacientes pediátricos con leucocoria. La persistencia de la vasculatura fetal (PVF) está dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de la leucocoria, un trastorno del vítreo que surge de un defecto en la involución de la vasculatura hialoidea en la etapa embrionaria que afecta al desarrollo ocular normal y comúnmente produce microoftalmia asociada. El diagnóstico temprano y tratamiento oportuno son cruciales para un buen pronóstico y mejor esperanza de vida del infante. Caso clínico: Presentamos un caso de coexistencia de retinoblastoma y PVF: paciente de sexo masculino de 2 años y 11 meses sin reflejo rojo y vasculatura y membrana blanco-amarillenta detrás del cristalino en el ojo derecho. La ecografía en modo B con desorganización de la cavidad vítrea con ecos de alta reflectividad sugestivos de calcificación. A la exploración se observó globo ocular agrandado, rubeosis iridis, vasculatura posterior, presión intraocular 28 mmHg. Tomografía computarizada con masa intraocular heterogénea con regiones hiperdensas. Con diagnóstico de probable retinoblastoma, se realizó la enucleación. La histopatología informó el hallazgo de retinoblastoma moderadamente diferenciado coexistente con PVF. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de estos dos diagnósticos en un mismo ojo es muy poco frecuente debido a la diferente fisiopatología.


Abstract Background: As retinoblastoma (RB) is the most frequent primary intraocular malignant tumor in childhood, it should be the main pathology to rule out in pediatric patients with leukocoria. Persistence of fetal vasculature (PFV) is within the differential diagnosis of leukocoria, a vitreous disorder arising from a defect in the involution of the hyaloid vasculature in the embryonic stage, which affects normal ocular development and commonly produces associated microophthalmia. An early diagnosis and timely treatment are crucial for a better prognosis and life expectancy of the child. Case report: We present a case of retinoblastoma and coexisting with PFV: a 2-years-and 11-months-old male with no red reflex, and vasculature and yellowish-white membrane behind the lens of the right eye. B-mode ultrasound with disorganization of the vitreous cavity with high reflectivity echoes suggestive of calcification. On examination we found an enlarged eyeball, rubeosis iridis, posterior vasculature, intraocular pressure 28 mmHg. Computed tomography with heterogeneous intraocular mass with hyperdense regions. With a diagnosis of probable retinoblastoma, enucleation was performed. Histopathology reported moderately differentiated retinoblastoma coexisting with PFV. Conclusions: The finding of these two diagnoses in the same eye is very rare due to the different pathophysiology.

17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 85(5): 450-458, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403446

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the antiproliferative effect of carboplatin-loaded surface-modified poly(lactide-co-glycolide) on retinoblastoma cells. Methods: Carboplatin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) with or without sodium alginate surface modification was prepared using sodium alginate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The zeta potential and carboplatin release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake of the released drug was observed in the retinoblastoma cell line Y79. The inhibitory effect of carboplatin-loaded nanoparticles against the Y79 cell line was evaluated using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and western blot. Native carboplatin and void nanoparticles without carboplatin loading were used as controls. Results: The zeta potential was -(26.1 ± 3.1) mV for carboplatin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and-(43.1 ± 8.1) mV for carboplatin-loaded sodium alginate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The burst release percentages of carboplatin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and sodium alginate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were (40.0% ± 8.2%) and (18.9% ± 4.3%) at 24 hours, respectively. A significant difference was identified regarding drug release between carboplatin-loaded sodium alginate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and carboplatin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide). Fluorescence detection revealed that intense uptake of carboplatin into the cytoplasm of the Y79 cell line that was exposed to carboplatin-loaded sodium alginate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide). Carboplatin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) or sodium alginate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) exposure inhibited proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in Y79 cells on day 3. Extension of exposure to day 5 revealed that the sodium alginate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) surface modification was superior to that of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) in terms of proliferating cell nuclear antigen inhibition. The cell viability test using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium revealed a similar inhibitory effect. Furthermore, the carboplatin-loaded nanoparticles of lower concentration inhibited cell viability more strongly than native carboplatin of higher concentration in methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Conclusions: Carboplatin-loaded sodium alginate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) inhibited retinoblastoma cell proliferation with superior effect as compared with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and native carboplatin. Sodium alginate surface modification offers a potential strategy for the sustained carboplatin release system.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar o efeito antiproliferativo de poli (lactídeo-coglicolídeo) com superfície modificada carregada com carboplatina contra células de retinoblastoma. Métodos: Preparou-se poli (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) carregado com carboplatina com ou sem alginato de sódio para modifição da superfície, poli com alginato de sódio (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) e poli (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo). O potencial zeta e o comportamento de liberação de carboplatina foram investigados. A captação celular do fármaco liberado foi observada na linha celular de retinoblastoma Y79. O efeito inibitório das nanopartículas carregadas com carboplatina contra a linha celular Y79 foi avaliado através do ensaio de metiltiazol tetrazólio e Western-blot. Carboplatina nativa e nanopartículas vazias sem carga de carboplatina serviram como controles. Resultados: O potencial zeta de poli carregado com carboplatina (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) foi - (26,1 ± 3,1) mV versus - (43,1 ± 8,1) mV em poli com alginato de sódio carregado com carboplatina (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo). A percentagem de libertação de explosão de poli carregado com carboplatina (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) e poli com alginato de sódio (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) foram (40,0 ± 8,2)% e (18,9 ± 4,3)% às 24 horas, respectivamente. Uma diferença significativa foi identificada em relação à liberação de fármaco entre poli com alginato de sódio carregado com carboplatina (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) e poli carregado com carboplatina (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo). A detecção de fluorescência revelou que a carboplatina foi assimilada intensamente no citoplasma da linha celular Y79 que foi exposta ao poli com alginato de sódio carregado com carboplatina (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo). A exposição de poli carregada com carboplatina (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) ou poli com alginato de sódio (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) inibiu a expressão de antígeno nuclear de proliferação celular em células Y79 no 3º dia. A extensão da exposição no 5º dia revelou que poli com alginato de sódio (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) para modificação da superfície foi superior a poli (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) em termos de inibição do antígeno nuclear de proliferação celular. O teste de viabilidade celular via metiltiazol tetrazólio mostrou um efeito inibitório semelhante. Além disso, as nanopartículas carregadas com carboplatina de concentração mais baixa inibiram a viabilidade celular mais fortemente em comparação com a carboplatina nativa de concentração mais alta no ensaio de metiltiazol tetrazólio. Conclusões: Poli com alginato de sódio carregado com carboplatina (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) inibiu a proliferação de células de retinoblastoma com efeito superior em contraste com poli (lactídeo-co-glicolídeo) e carboplatina nativa. O alginato de sódio para modificação da superfície oferece uma estratégia potencial para o sistema de liberação de carboplatina sustentada.

18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Jul; 70(7): 2731-2732
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224498
19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Jul; 70(7): 2602-2605
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224439

ABSTRACT

Neurofibromtosis-1 (NF-1) is the commonest oculo-neuro-cutaneous syndrome with multiple ocular manifestations. Reporting three children who presented with unilateral glaucoma (buphthalmos), ipsilateral facial hemihypertrophy, and eyelid plexiform neurofibroma: completing the triad of François syndrome, a rare NF1 variant. Two presented with leukocoria and were referred to as retinoblastoma suspects. Histopathology showed ganglioneuroma, a benign choroidal tumor, associated with NF-1, which does not need treatment. Knowledge of this rare condition avoids misdiagnosis of retinoblastoma, prevents aggressive management, and the associated psychological impact.

20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2022 May; 70(5): 1703-1711
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224306

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) reported in various tumors play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and metastasis of retinoblastoma (Rb). Following the efforts to reduce, replace, and refine the use of mammalian models, we aimed to establish a short?term xenograft for Rb to evaluate the CSC properties of CD133? Rb Y79 cells, using the well?established chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CE?CAM) assay. Methods: Y79 cells were cultured, labeled with two different dyes (CM?Dil Y79 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)) and sorted for CD133? and CD133 + subsets. Two million cells from each of the labeled groups were transplanted onto the abraded CAM on embryonic day 7 (E7). On E14, the tumor nodule formation on CAM and spontaneous metastasis to the embryos were evaluated by confocal microscopy, in vivo imaging, and histology. Results: Y79 cells formed pink–white raised perivascular nodules with feeder vessels on the CAM with both the types of labeled CD133? cells. CD133? cells, when compared to CD133 + cells, demonstrated significantly larger tumor volume (40.45 ± 7.744 mm3 vs 3.478 ± 0.69 mm3, P = 0.0014) and higher fluorescence intensity (CM?Dil: AUF = 6.37 × 107 ± 7.7 × 106 vs 1.08 × 107 ± 1.6 × 106; P < 0.0001; eGFP: AUF = 13.94 × 104 ± 2.54 × 104 vs AUF = 1.39 × 104 ± 0.4 × 104; P = 0.0003). The metastatic potential of CD133? cells was also observed to be higher as noted by in vivo imaging and histopathology. Conclusion: This study highlights that CE?CAM is a feasible alternative nonmammalian model for evaluating tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of Y79 CSCs. Increased tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of CD133? subset of tumor cells substantiate their CSC properties

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