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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 546-551, Jul.-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to understand the perceptions of orthopedists and traumatologists regarding the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation in fluoroscopy procedures. Methods An objective, structured, self-administered questionnaire with sociodemographic, professional, and occupational variables was developed, available through an invitation sent to orthopedist physicians whose contacts were made publicly available. Results A total of 141 questionnaires were answered and analyzed. Most respondents (99%) use fluoroscopy in their surgeries, and only 34.8% of the participants feel safe with the use of the equipment. It was observed that the knowledge about ionizing radiation is inadequate, because 22.6% of the participants are unaware of the type of radiation emitted in fluoroscopy and its biological effects. In addition, 52% of the participants did not know or do not understand the principles of radiological protection and their relationship with surgical practices. Conclusion We concluded that the radiological protection of most orthopedists in surgical procedures is inadequate, and initial and continued training programs of professionals are necessary, bringing health benefits to orthopedists and their patients.


Resumo Objetivo Este estudo visa compreender as percepções dos médicos ortopedistas e traumatologistas em relação ao risco da exposição à radiação ionizante nos procedimentos de fluoroscopia. Métodos Desenvolveu-se um questionário objetivo, estruturado, autoaplicável e com variáveis sociodemográficas, profissionais e ocupacionais, disponibilizado através de convite enviado a médicos ortopedistas cujos contatos estavam disponibilizados publicamente. Resultados Foram respondidos e analisados 141 questionários. A maioria dos respondentes (99%) utilizam a fluoroscopia em suas cirurgias, e apenas 34,8% dos participantes se sentem seguros com o uso do equipamento. Observou-se que o conhecimento sobre radiação ionizante é inadequado, pois 22,6% dos respondentes desconhecem o tipo de radiação emitida na fluoroscopia e seus efeitos biológicos. Além disso, 52% dos respondentes não conhecem ou não compreendem os princípios de proteção radiológica e suas relações com as práticas cirúrgicas. Conclusão Conclui-se que a proteção radiológica da maioria dos ortopedistas nos procedimentos cirúrgicos é inadequada e são necessários programas de formação inicial e continuada dos profissionais, trazendo benefícios para a saúde dos ortopedistas e de seus pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation, Ionizing , X-Rays , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Assessment , Radiation Exposure
2.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-12, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393169

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic situation made the pharmaceutical companies develop the vaccine with different formulations in a short period. Objectives: The main objective of the review is to focus on different types of vaccine formulations available globally and the importance of technology transfer in vaccine development associated with potential risks. Results: Research on vaccine development led to various types of vaccines, such as Inactivated vaccines, Live Attenuated vaccines, Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and Protein Subunit Vaccines for COVID-19. But the process of vaccine development and technology transfer is lined with various risks and challenges. Through risk assessment, we found some major potential risks involved in product development; this leads to a smoother and more efficient method to develop safe vaccines available for public health. Conclusions: This review will explain the significance of technology collaboration for the faster development of various formulations of vaccines globally


Antecedentes: La situación de pandemia de COVID-19 hizo que las empresas farmacéuticas desarrollaran la vacuna con diferentes formulaciones en un corto período. Objetivos: El objetivo principal de la revisión es centrarse en los diferentes tipos de formulaciones de vacunas disponibles a nivel mundial y la importancia de la transferencia de tecnología en el desarrollo de vacunas asociado con los riesgos potenciales. Resultados: La investigación sobre el desarrollo de vacunas condujo al desarrollo de varios tipos de vacunas, como vacunas inactivadas, vacunas vivas atenuadas, vacunas de ácido ribonucleico (ARN) y ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN), vacunas de vectores virales y vacunas de subunidades de proteínas para COVID-19. Pero el proceso de desarrollo de vacunas y transferencia de tecnología está lleno de varios riesgos y desafíos. A través de la evaluación de riesgos, encontramos algunos riesgos potenciales importantes involucrados en el desarrollo de productos, lo que conduce a un método más fluido y eficiente para desarrollar vacunas seguras disponibles para la salud pública. Conclusiones: Esta revisión dará una idea de la importancia de la colaboración tecnológica para el desarrollo más rápido de varias formulaciones de vacunas a nivel mundial


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology Transfer , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccine Development , Risk Assessment
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(4): 680-691, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374350

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A espirometria é subutilizada na insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e não está claro o grau de associação de cada defeito com a capacidade de exercício e com o prognóstico desses pacientes. Objetivo Determinar a relação da %CVF prevista (ppCVF) e do VEF1/CVF contínuos com: 1) pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx), fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) e desempenho ao exercício; e 2) prognóstico, para o desfecho composto de morte cardiovascular, transplante cardíaco ou implante de dispositivo de assistência ventricular. Métodos Coorte de 111 participantes com IC (estágios AHA C/D) sem pneumopatia; foram submetidos a espirometria, manovacuometria e teste cardiopulmonar máximo. As magnitudes de associação foram verificadas por regressões lineares e de Cox (HR; IC 95%), ajustadas para idade/sexo, e p <0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados Com idade média 57±12 anos, 60% eram homens, 64% em NYHAIII. A cada aumento de 10% no VEF1/CVF [β 7% (IC 95%: 3-10)] e no ppCVF [4% (2-6)], foi associado à reserva ventilatória (VRes); no entanto, apenas o ppCVF associado à PImáx [3,8cmH2O (0,3-7,3)], à fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) [2,1% (0,5-3,8)] e ao VO2 pico [0,5mL/kg/min (0,1-1,0)], considerando idade/sexo. Em 2,2 anos (média), ocorreram 22 eventos; tanto FEV1/FVC (HR 1,44; IC 95%: 0,97-2,13) quanto ppCVF (HR 1,13; 0,89-1,43) não foram associados ao desfecho. Apenas no subgrupo FEVE ≤50% (n=87, 20 eventos), VEF1/CVF (HR 1,50; 1,01-2,23), mas não ppCVF, foi associado a risco. Conclusão Na IC crônica, ppCVF reduzido associou-se a menor PImáx, FEVE, VRes e VO2 pico, mas não distinguiu pior prognóstico em 2,2 anos de acompanhamento. Entretanto, VEF1/CVF associou-se apenas com VRes, e, em participantes com FEVE ≤50%, o VEF1/CVF reduzido mostrou pior prognóstico proporcional. Portanto, VEF1/CVF e ppFVC contribuem para melhor fenotipagem de pacientes com IC.


Abstract Background Spirometry is underused in heart failure (HF) and the extent to which each defect associates with exercise capacity and prognosis is unclear. Objective To determine the distinct relationship of continuous %predicted FVC (ppFVC) and FEV1/FVC with: 1) maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), exercise performance; and 2) prognosis for the composite of cardiovascular death, heart transplantation or left ventricular assist device implant. Methods A cohort of 111 HF participants (AHA stages C/D) without diagnosed pneumopathy, spirometry, manovacuometry and maximum cardiopulmonary test. The association magnitudes were verified by linear and Cox (HR; 95% CI) regressions, age/sex adjusted. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Results Age was 57±12 years, 60% men, 64% in NYHA III. Every 10%-point increase in FEV1/FVC [β 7% (95% CI: 3-10)] and ppFVC [4% (2-6)] associated with ventilatory reserve (VRes), however only ppFVC associated with MIP [3.8 cmH2O (0.3-7.3)], LVEF [2.1% (0.5-3.8)] and VO2peak [0.5 mL/kg/min (0.1-1.0)], accounting for age/sex. In 2.2 years (mean), 22 events occurred, and neither FEV1/FVC (HR 1.44; 95% CI: 0.97-2.13) nor ppFVC (HR 1.13; 0.89-1.43) was significantly associated with the outcome. Only in the LVEF ≤50% subgroup (n=87, 20 events), FEV1/FVC (HR 1.50; 1.01-2.23), but not ppFVC, was associated with greater risk. Conclusions In chronic HF, reduced ppFVC associated with lower MIP, LVEF, VRes and VO2peak, but no distinct poorer prognosis over 2.2 years of follow-up. Distinctively, FEV1/FVC was associated only with VRes, and, in participants with LVEF ≤50%, FEV1/FVC reduction proportionally worsened prognosis. Therefore, FEV1/FVC and ppFVC add supplementary information regarding HF phenotyping.

5.
J. Transcatheter Interv ; 3020220101. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399203

ABSTRACT

A embolia pulmonar, uma doença com risco de vida, é prevalente em todo o mundo, afetando grande porcentagem da população e representando uma das principais causas de morte cardiovascular. Para reduzir sua mortalidade e morbidade e melhorar os desfechos, é fundamental uma estratificação precoce do risco. Há uma ampla variação na gravidade de uma embolia pulmonar, desde leve até com risco de vida. Quando um paciente tem uma embolia pulmonar de alto risco e está em choque ou parada cardíaca, é razoável realizar trombólise sistêmica ou embolectomia de emergência, mas a anticoagulação isolada tem ótimos resultados na embolia pulmonar de baixo risco. Há várias estratégias para aproveitar os benefícios da trombólise e minimizar seus riscos, mas a experiência clínica com essas novas estratégias de intervenção é limitada. A equipe de resposta à embolia pulmonar, composta de cardiologista intervencionista, radiologista intervencionista, cirurgião cardíaco, radiologista especializado em imagem cardíaca e intensivista, pode ajudar a determinar o tipo de intervenção em um determinado paciente. Este artigo traz um esboço das terapias intervencionistas endovasculares atuais e seu contexto.


This life-threatening condition, known as pulmonary embolism, is prevalent throughout the world, affecting a large percentage of population and representing one of the leading causes of cardiovascular death. To reduce mortality and morbidity and improve outcomes, early risk stratification is critical. There is a wide range in the severity of a pulmonary embolism, from mild to life-threatening. When a patient has a high-risk pulmonary embolism and is in shock or cardiac arrest, emergency systemic thrombolysis or embolectomy is reasonable, but anticoagulation alone has great results in low-risk pulmonary embolism. Multiple strategies exist to capture the benefits of thrombolysis while minimizing its risks, but clinical experience with such novel intervention strategies is limited. The pulmonary embolism response team comprises interventional cardiologist, interventional radiologist, cardiac surgeon, cardiac radiologist, and critical care specialist, can help determine the type of intervention in a given patient. This article provides an outline of current endovascular interventional therapies and their context.

6.
Rev. SOBECC (Online) ; 27: 1-9, 01-01-2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1399720

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever a implantação da escala Munro de avaliação de risco de lesão por pressão em pacientes no período perioperatório no prontuário eletrônico. Método: Relato de experiência do processo de implantação em sistema eletrônico da escala Munro em um hospital filantrópico de grande porte localizado no município de São Paulo, com 40 enfermeiros. Resultados: Foi implantada a escala Munro no prontuário eletrônico, com visualização rápida do seu resultado em alertas de segurança em painel do mapa cirúrgico. Para utilizar a técnica, 40 enfermeiros foram treinados em duas etapas: na modalidade ensino a distância e presencialmente, quando acompanharam sua aplicação. Três desses profissionais necessitaram de mais um dia de acompanhamento e cinco apresentaram dúvidas quanto aos critérios de aplicabilidade após o treinamento. Conclusão: A implantação da escala Munro foi concluída na unidade primária proposta, a determinação de risco sistematizada e a implementação de medidas preventivas contribuiu para evitar lesões por pressão no perioperatório. O sistema eletrônico proporcionou agilidade para implantação, e os alertas e a visualização em mapa cirúrgico melhoraram a comunicação com a equipe na identificação do risco; poucas foram as dúvidas sobre o processo ou itens da escala.


Objective: To describe the implementation of the Munro scale in electronic medical records to assess the risk of pressure injury in patients in the perioperative period. Method: Experience report on the process of implementing the Munro scale electronic system in a large philanthropic hospital located in the city of São Paulo, with 40 nurses. Results: The Munro scale was implemented in the electronic medical record, with a quick view of its result in safety alerts on the surgical map panel. To use the technique, 40 nurses were trained in two stages: in the distance learning modality and in person, when they followed its application. Three of these professionals required one more day of follow-up and five had queries about the applicability criteria after training. Conclusion: The implementation of the Munro scale was completed in the proposed primary unit, and the systematic risk determination and implementation of preventive measures contributed to avoid perioperative pressure injuries. The electronic system provided agility for implementation, and the alerts and visualization on a surgical map improved communication with the team in the identification of risk; there were few queries about the process or any items of the scale.


Objetivo: Describir la implementación de la escala de evaluación de riesgo de lesión por presión de Munro para pacientes perioperatorios en la historia clínica electrónica. Método: Relato de experiencia del proceso de implementación del sistema electrónico escala Munro en un gran hospital filantrópico de la ciudad de São Paulo, con 40 enfermeros. Resultados: Inserción de la escala Munro en la historia clínica electrónica con visualización rápida del resultado de la escala en alertas de seguridad y panel de visualización del mapa quirúrgico. En el proceso de implementación de la escala se capacitaron 40 enfermeras en la modalidad a distancia y posterior seguimiento de la aplicación con capacitación presencial. De los 40 enfermeros, tres necesitaron undía más de seguimiento y cinco tenían dudas sobre los criterios después de la capacitación. Conclusión: Se completó la implementación de la escala de Munro en la unidad primaria propuesta. La determinación sistematizada del riesgo y la implementación de medidas preventivas contribuyen a la prevención de las lesiones por presión perioperatorias. El sistema electrónico proporcionó agilidad para la implementación, las alertas y la visualización en un mapa quirúrgico mejoran la comunicación con el equipo en la identificación del riesgo y se presentan pocas dudas sobre el proceso o los ítems de la escala. Palabras clave: Medición de riesgo. Enfermería perioperatoria. Úlcera por presión. Registros electrónicos de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wounds and Injuries , Equipment and Supplies , Nurses , Safety , Risk Assessment , Electronic Health Records
7.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20223125, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387213

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: perioperative risk assessment is essential to mitigate surgical complications, which suggests individual and collective interest since the number of surgical procedures in Brazil has been expanding steadily. The aim of this study was to summarize and detail the main calculators, indexes and scores regarding perioperative pulmonary, renal, hepatobiliary, hematological and surgical site infection risks for general non-cardiac surgeries, which are dispersed in the literature. Method: a narrative review was performed based on manuscripts in English and Portuguese found in the electronic databases Pubmed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Results: the review included 11 tools related to the systems covered, for which the application method and its limitations are detailed. Conclusion: the non-cardiovascular perioperative risk estimation tools are beneficial when disturbances are identified in the preoperative clinical examination that justify a possible increased risk to the affected system, so the use of these tools provides palpable values to aid in the judgment of surgical risk and benefit as well as it identifies factors amenable to intervention to improve outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: a avaliação de risco perioperatório é essencial para mitigação das complicações cirúrgicas, o que aventa interesse individual e coletivo uma vez que o número de procedimentos cirúrgicos no Brasil vem se expandindo de maneira crescente. O objetivo deste estudo foi resumir e detalhar as principais calculadoras, índices e escores dos riscos perioperatórios pulmonar, renal, hepatobiliar, hematológico e de infecção de sítio cirúrgico para cirurgias gerais não cardíacas, os quais encontram-se dispersos na literatura. Método: foi realizada revisão narrativa a partir de manuscritos em inglês e português encontrados nas bases eletrônicas Pubmed/MEDLINE e EMBASE. Resultados: a revisão incluiu 11 ferramentas relativas aos sistemas abordados, para as quais detalha-se o método de aplicação e suas limitações. Conclusão: as ferramentas de estimativa de risco perioperatório não cardiovascular encontram benefício quando se identifica no exame clínico pré-operatório alterações que justifiquem possível risco aumentado ao sistema afetado, assim a utilização destas ferramentas fornece valores palpáveis para auxílio no julgamento de risco e benefício cirúrgico bem como identifica fatores passíveis de intervenção para melhoria dos desfechos.

8.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 9(1): 115-132, 20220000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1400937

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los factores psicosociales son condiciones presentes en el medio laboral y fuera de este que, al no ser identificados y controlados, afectan la integridad física y psicológica de los trabajadores, así como el rendimiento y la satisfacción laboral. Objetivo: Analizar y sintetizar información reportada en literatura científica sobre la aplicabilidad de diversos instrumentos que evalúan el riesgo psicosocial en trabajadores de diferentes sectores laborales. Metodología: Se desarrolló a través de revisión narrativa descriptiva con investigaciones originales, publicadas en las bases de datos Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Science Direct, Redalyc, SciELO, Dialnet, VirtualPro, escritas en idioma español, inglés y portugués, publicados entre 2007 y 2021, tomando como referente la fecha de implementación de la Batería de Riesgo Psicosocial en Colombia. Resultados: Se identificaron 27 investigaciones que emplearon instrumentos de medición y valoración de los factores de riesgo psicosocial. En el ámbito internacional se encontró la batería Unipsico, el Cuestionario Psicosocial de Conpenhagen, el Cuestionario de Evaluación de Factores Psicosociales, el Psychosocial Risk Management-Excellence Framework, el Cuestionario Naqre y la Batería MCMutual-UB; mientras que en Colombia se encontró la Batería de Instrumentos para la Evaluación de Factores de Riesgo Psicosocial, el Cuestionario Psicosocial de Conpenhagen, un instrumento de medición de riesgos psicosociales y cuestionarios elaborados. Conclusiones: Los instrumentos han sido adaptados transculturalmente y proporcionan una perspectiva abreviada de las herramientas de evaluación de los factores de riesgo psicosocial empleadas en personas que se encuentran activas laboralmente para identificar riesgos presentes en los ámbitos intralaboral y extralaboral.


Introduction: Psychosocial factors are conditions present in the work environment and outside it, which, when not identified and controlled, affect the physical and psychological integrity of workers, as well as performance and job satisfaction. Objective: To analyze and synthesize information reported in the literature on the applicability of various instruments that evaluate psychosocial risk in workers in different occupational sectors. Methodology: It was developed through a descriptive narrative review with original research published in the databases Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Science Direct, Redalyc, SciELO, Dialnet, VirtualPro, written in Spanish, English and Portuguese, published between 2007 and 2021, taking as reference the date of implementation of the Psycho Risk Battery. Social in Colombia. Results: 27 research projects were identified which used instruments to measure and assess psychosocial risk factors. The Unipsico battery, the Conpenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, the Psychoso- cial Factors Assessment Questionnaire, the Psychosocial Risk Management-Excellence Framework, the Naqre Questionnaire and the MCMutual Battery were found internationally. UB and at the national level the Toolkit for the Assessment of Psychosocial Risk Factors, the Conpenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, a psychosocial risk measurement tool and questionnaires developed. Conclusions: The instruments have been adapted cross-culturally and provide a shortened perspective of the tools for assessing psychosocial risk factors used in people who are active at work to identify risks present in the workplace and outside of the workplace.


Introdução: Os fatores psicossociais são condições presentes dentro e fora do ambiente de trabalho que, quando não identificadas e controladas, afetam a integridade física e psicológica dos trabalha- dores, bem como o desempenho e a satisfação no trabalho. Objetivo: Analisar e sintetizar a informação relatada na literatura científica sobre a aplicabilidade de vários instrumentos que avaliam o risco psicossocial em trabalhadores de diferentes sectores de trabalho. Metodologia: Foi desenvolvida através de uma revisão narrativa descritiva com pesquisas originais, publicada nas bases de dados Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Science Direct, Redalyc, SciELO, Dialnet, VirtualPro, escrita em espanhol, inglês e português, publicada entre 2007 e 2021, tomando como referência a data de implementação do questionário de Risco Psicossocial na Colômbia. Resultados: Foram identificados 27 estudos de investigação que utilizaram instrumentos para medir e avaliar fatores de risco psicossocial. A nível internacional, foram encontrados o Questionário Unip- sico, o Questionário Psicossocial Conpenhagen, o Questionário de Avaliação de Fatores Psicossociais, o Quadro de Gestão de Risco Psicossocial-Excelência, o Questionário Naqre e o Questionário MCMutual-UB; enquanto na Colômbia foram encontrados os Instrumentos para a Avaliação de Fatores de Risco Psicossociais, o Questionário Psicossocial Conpenhagen, um instrumento de medição de risco psicossocial e questionários elaborados. Conclusões: Os instrumentos foram adaptados de forma inter-cultural e fornecem uma visão geral abreviada dos instrumentos de avaliação do fator de risco psicossocial utilizados em pessoas ativas no trabalho para identificar riscos presentes nos domínios intra e extra-ocupacionais.


Subject(s)
Psychosocial Impact , Risk , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
9.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 171 f p. tab, fig.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396965

ABSTRACT

A Categorização dos serviços de alimentação com foco no risco sanitário de Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos no Brasil foi uma experiência pontual e exitosa com o Projeto de Categorização da Copa do Mundo FIFA® de 2014. Devido a Lei Federal de liberdade econômica nº13.874 de 20 de setembro de 2019, que classifica os serviços de alimentação como atividades de baixo risco, as Vigilâncias Sanitárias devem rever o planejamento de suas ações. O objetivo geral desse trabalho foi formular uma proposta para implantar o sistema de Categorização dos serviços de alimentação no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa aplicada com análise documental que derivou o desenvolvimento de produtos tecnológicos e inovadores. Elaborou-se um roteiro para auxiliar na escrita do ato normativo da Categorização de serviços de alimentação; uma planilha para facilitar o cálculo do risco sanitário; um guia e um vídeo orientativo para auxiliar o processo de implantação da Categorização dos serviços de alimentação. Os produtos desenvolvidos podem ser utilizados para a autoavaliação do serviço de alimentação e pelas Vigilâncias Sanitárias nas inspeções com foco no risco de Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos. O resultado da Categorização será comunicado ao público consumidor informando a qualidade sanitária dos serviços de alimentação categorizados. A elaboração dessa proposta subsidia os estados e municípios para o processo de implantação da Categorização, bem como auxilia na mensuração do risco sanitário dos serviços de alimentação, planejamento das ações de Vigilância Sanitária com base no risco, valorização dos serviços de alimentação que investem nas Boas Práticas de Manipulação de Alimentos e comunicação da categoria ao consumidor para que faça uma escolha consciente.


Categorization of food services with a focus on the health risk of Foodborne Diseases was a sharp and successful experience during the 2014 FIFA® World Cup in Brazil. Due to the Federal Economic Freedom Act nº 13.874 of September 20, 2019, which classifies food actions by the Health Public Surveillance. The main idea of this project was to formulate a proposal to install The Categorization of food services in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Technological research was carried out with an analysis that resulted in the development of technological and innovative products. A script was created for the surveillance inspector to assist in the writing of the normative act of The Categorization for food services; a spreadsheet to make the calculation of Foodborne Diseases health risks easier; a guide and an orientation video were made on the process of installing The Categorization for food services and establishing the inspection score parameters. The developed products can be used for the self-evaluation of food services and by the Health Surveillance agents in their inspections, always focusing on the risk of Foodborne Diseases. The score of the Sanitary Inspection will be communicated to the consumer audience, informing the sanitary quality of the food service. This proposal sponsors the states and counties for the implementation process of The Categorization, as well as in the measurement of the sanitary risks of food services. The Sanitary Surveillance plan is based on health risks from Foodborne Diseases and the appreciation of food services that invest in Proper Food Handling Practices and the communication from the grade received on the sanitary inspection to the consumer so that they make an informed and smart decision about where they eat.


Subject(s)
Health Surveillance , Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases , Food Services/standards , Risk Evaluation and Mitigation , Brazil
10.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(2): 117-123, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1358374

ABSTRACT

Background. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is regarded as the most preventable cause of inpatient death in hospital settings globally. VTE can be prevented through the provision of non-pharmacological and/or pharmacological thromboprophylaxis following individualised risk screening. The Caprini risk assessment model (RAM) offers a validated and well-established approach for VTE risk assessment in medical inpatients. Literature findings describe a trend towards inappropriate and under-prescribing of thromboprophylaxis in this population. Together with concerns regarding clinicians' perceived importance of VTE risk assessment, the need to clarify these aspects of practice is evident. Objectives. To describe VTE risk assessment and prophylaxis practices of medical practitioners in public sector hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa (SA). Methods. A retrospective, cross-sectional study design was employed in the medical wards of two district hospitals and one regional hospital in the Cape Town metropole, Western Cape. Medical folders of adult medical inpatients admitted between January and July 2020 were reviewed to assess VTE risk using the Caprini RAM. Thromboprophylaxis therapy prescribed and contraindications to chemoprophylaxis were also evaluated. Results. Of 380 patients included in the review, 51.6% were female, and the average age was 52.1 years (range 18 - 96); 21.3% had their weight recorded, while none had their height documented. Infectious disease was the predominant diagnosis (49.2%) detected in the sample. Common VTE risk factors identified included bed rest/restricted mobility for <72 hours (76.3%) and serious infection (67.4%). A total of 97.1% of patients (n=369) were found to be at moderate or higher risk of VTE (Caprini score ≥2). Of this at-risk group, 24.1% were eligible to receive chemoprophylaxis, yet no prescription for thromboprophylaxis was identified. Seventy percent of patients (n=266) were prescribed chemoprophylaxis, with enoxaparin accounting for 98.5% of regimens. Contraindications to chemoprophylaxis were recorded in 13.4% of patients. Conclusions. Although rates of VTE prophylaxis in medical inpatients may be improving, thromboprophylaxis still remains critically underutilised in this population. This study highlighted a consequence of this trend, with inappropriate chemoprophylaxis prescribing becoming more evident. Mechanical prophylaxis prescribing in medical inpatients is lacking, despite the associated benefits. RAMs should be adapted for the SA setting, where infectious diseases are prevalent. Future research should assess RAM use by clinicians, as this could provide insight into improving RAM uptake and thromboprophylaxis prescribing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Therapeutics , Risk Assessment , Venous Thromboembolism , Inpatients
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the risk of reentry in HBV reactive blood donors and feasibility of HBV reentry strategy.@*METHODS@#HBsAg+ or HBV DNA+ donors who had been quarantined for more than 6 months in Jiangsu Province could propose for reentry application. Blood samples were routinely screened by dual-ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV Ab/Ag, and anti- Treponema pallidum and those non-reactive ones were tested by minipool nucleic acid testing (NAT) for three times. To identify occult HBV donors, samples of NAT non-reactive were further tested by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for HBV seromarkers (including HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb). Donors of only 4 ECLIA patterns were accepted to reentry, including all 5 HBV seromarkers negative, anti-HBs only but having history of hepatitis B vaccine injection, HBcAb only, HBsAb+ / HBcAb+ with HBsAb more than 200 IU/L. Additionally, the detection rate of HBV infection was compared between routine screening mode and ECLIA, as well as the reentry qualified rate of HBsAg+ and HBV DNA+ blood donors.@*RESULTS@#From Oct. 2016 to Aug. 2019, a total of 737 HBV reactive donors had applied for reentry, including 667 HBsAg+ reactive and 70 HBV DNA+ reactive donors. Among 3 screening methods, the highest HBV detection rate (43.15%, 318/737) was observed on ECLIA, while only 4.75% (35/737) on ELISA and 3.12% (23/737) on NAT, respectively. Among 4 qualified patterns of HBV serological markers, the highest proportion was found in the all negative group (22.90%, 155/677), followed by the group with HBsAb+ only and history of hepatitis B vaccine injection (19.35%, 131/677), and the median concentration of HBsAb was 237.7 IU/L. The unqualified rate of HBV DNA+ donors was 82.86%, which was significantly higher than 47.98% of HBsAg+ donors.@*CONCLUSION@#Routine screening tests merely based on ELISA and NAT could miss occult HBV donors and may not be sufficient for blood safety. HBsAb concentration and vaccine injection history should be included in the evaluation of HBV reactive donors who intend to apply for reentry. There is a relatively larger residual risk of occult HBV infection in blood donors quarantined for HBV DNA reactive.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of modified Caprini risk assessment model(Caprini MRAM) in predicting the risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).@*METHODS@#A case-control study was used to collect 43 patients with DVT after TKA in lower limb department of Sichuan Orthopedic Hospital from January 2016 to November 2020 in the positive group, and 172 patients without DVT after TKA in the same period according to the 1∶4 ratio between positive and control group were selected in the control group. Caprini MRAM was used to score and grade the risk of DVT. The clinical data, score and risk classification of the two groups were compared. The relationship between the risk of DVT in the patients after TKA and the risk factors in the risk ckassification and assessment of Caprini MRAM was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model.@*RESULTS@#The average score of caprini in DVT group was significantly higher than that in control group[(8.11±2.91) vs(4.07±2.12), P<0.001];DVT group was mainly at medium and high risk group(66.67%), while the control group was mainly at low risk (77.33%). There was a significant difference between the two groups in risk classification composition (P<0.001). BMI≥30 kg/m2, lower extremity edema (<1 month), severe pulmonary disease (<1 month), acute myocardial infarction (<1 month), bed rest (> 2 h), history of superficial or deep vein or pulmonary embolism and family history of thrombosis were the main risk factors for DVT in patients after TKA(all P<0.05). Preoperative D-dimer elevation (OR=4.380), BMI≥30 kg/m2(OR=2.518), lower extremity edema(<1 month)(OR=7.652), acute myocardial infarction (<1 month) (OR=1.994), bed rest (> 72 h)(OR=3.897), history of superficial or deep vein or pulmonary embolism (OR=13.517) and family history of blood embolism (OR=6.551) were independent risk factors for DVT in patients after TKA (all P<0.05). The risk of DVT was 13.457 and 2.739 times higher in high and moderate risk TKA patients with Caprini MRAM classification, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Caprini MRAM can be used to predict the risk of DVT in patients after TKA, especially for patients with high risk.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928074

ABSTRACT

Lonicera Japonica Flos is the dried bud or nascent flower of Lonicera japonica(Caprifoliaceae). The plant suffers from various diseases and pests in the growth period and thus pesticides are often used. As a result, the resultant pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos have aroused great concern. This review summarized the investigation, detection methods, content analysis, and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos since 1996, and compared the maximum residue limits among different countries and regions. The results showed that the pesticide residues were detected in Lonicera Japonica Flos from different production areas, and only some exceeded the limits. The residual pesticides have changed from organochlorines to new types such as tebuconazole and nitenpyram. The detection method has upgraded from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most pesticide residues will not cause health risks, except carbofuran. Pesticide residues limit the development of Lonicera Japonica Flos industry in China. In practice, we should improve the drug registration of Lonicera Japonica Flos, promote ecological prevention and control technology, and formulate and promote pesticide residue limit standard of Lonicera Japonica Flos.


Subject(s)
Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928071

ABSTRACT

Panacis Quinquefolii Radix is the dry root of Panax quinquefolium, which is a perennial plant of Araliaceae. The plant has a long growth cycle and serious growth barrier problem, which leads to the use of pesticides. As a result, the pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix are arousing great concern. This paper reviews the research findings on the investigation, detection methods, content analysis and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix since 1993, and compares the pesticide residue limit standards of different countries and regions. The pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix have been changing from organochlorines with high toxicity to triazines and triazoles with low toxicity. The pesticide residues are generally low, while the pollution of pentachloronitrobenzene and other pesticides still exist. The detection method has evolved from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. There are no reports of health risks caused by pesticide residues of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. Pesticide residue is a major factor restricting the sound development of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix industry in China. Therefore, we suggest to improve the registration of pesticides applied to the plant, popularize mature ecological planting mode and supporting technology, and strengthen the research on the risk assessment and limit standard of pesticide residue in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ginsenosides/analysis , Mass Spectrometry , Panax/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927946

ABSTRACT

In this study, the content of five heavy metals(Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu) in 59 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos(LJF) medicinal materials and pieces were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The health risk assessment was processed using the maximum estimated daily intake(EDI), target hazard quotients(THQ), and carcinogenic risks(CR) assessment models. With reference to the limit standard for heavy metal content in LJF specified in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, five batches produced in Hebei were found to contain excessive Pb, and the remaining 54 batches met the specifications, with the unqualified rate of 8.47%. Comparative analysis of heavy metal content in LJF samples from three different producing areas, namely Shandong, Henan, and Hebei showed that the levels of Pb, As, and Hg in LJF from Hebei were significantly higher than those from Henan and Shandong. The samples produced in Shandong contained the highest content of Cd. The samples from Hebei contained the highest content of Cu while those from Shandong had the lowest content of Cu. As demonstrated by health risk assessment based on the EDI, THQ and CR models, these 59 batches of LJF samples did not cause significant health hazards for the exposed population, and there was no potential non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risk. In conclusion, a few of LJF samples contained excessive heavy metals, so some measures, including controlling production environment, cultivating management mode, and optimizing processing methods, should be taken for ensuring the medication safety of LJF.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Mercury/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Risk Assessment
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927263

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#This study aimed to investigate the ultrasonographic features of paediatric acute appendicitis and incorporate them into a scoring algorithm that will quantify the risk of complications and the strength of recommendation for surgical intervention.@*METHODS@#179 patients with suspected appendicitis who had undergone ultrasonographic examination were included in this study. Based on their medical evaluation and post-surgical histopathological results, patients were categorised into confirmed appendicitis (n = 101) and non-appendicitis (n = 78) groups.@*RESULTS@#In the appendicitis group, the appendix was visualised in 66 (65.3%) patients. In cases where the appendix was not visualised, we looked out for secondary inflammatory signs, which were present in 32 (31.7%) patients. Using stepwise logistic regression, Blumberg's sign, free fluid or collection, hyperaemia, non-compressible appendix and an appendix diameter > 7 mm were found to be significant predictive factors for appendicitis. A new scoring system called POPs was developed, combining inflammatory predictors and ultrasonography findings, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.958 (95% confidence interval 0.929-0.986).@*CONCLUSION@#The newly developed POPs-based diagnosis scheme proved a promising alternative to existing scoring systems such as the Alvarado score. Although further calibration would be beneficial, the proposed scoring scheme is simple and easy to understand, memorise and apply in the emergency room.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/surgery , Child , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography/methods
17.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924404

ABSTRACT

Objective: Frailty has been noticed as an important preoperative risk factor for cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of frailty on the rehabilitation process and walking ability after cardiac surgery. Methods: A total of 213 patients aged 65 years or older who underwent elective cardiac surgery at our hospital between August 2018 and October 2020 and who underwent a preoperative frailty assessment were included. The patients were divided into two groups: group F with frailty and group N without frailty, and the perioperative factors, postoperative course, and walking ability in both groups were examined. Results: Of all patients, 70 (33%) were diagnosed as frail. In the preoperative factors, gait speed and grip strength were significantly lower in group F, and there were more cases of sarcopenia and malnutrition. There was no significant difference in surgical factors between the two groups, except for a bias in the surgical category. In the postoperative course, there were no significant differences in intubation time, ICU stay, postoperative complications, or hospital stay between the two groups, but more patients in group F were transferred to another hospital. In the F group, the start of walking and the day of achieving 100 m walking were significantly delayed, and the number of patients who achieved 300 m walking was 52 (74%), which was significantly lower than 197 (89%) in the N group. The cutoff value of gait speed was 0.88 m/s. Conclusions: Frailty was associated with delayed rehabilitation and reduced walking ability after cardiac surgery, and increased hospital transfers. In addition, the preoperative gait speed was adopted as one of the factors related to the possibility of a 300 m walk after surgery. We believe that preoperative rehabilitation is a promising strategy to improve the condition of frail patients who require cardiac surgery.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924036

ABSTRACT

Objective To review the status of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits and the progress of risk assessment, and to provide data support for pesticide residue research, residents' dietary exposure risks and safety risk management. Methods Domestic and international literature and research data available are reviewed and analyzed. Results This article mainly reviews the literature on the investigation of current status of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. It also discusses several methods and models that have been widely employed in the dietary exposure risk assessment of pesticide residues worldwide. Conclusion Pesticide residues have been frequently reported in vegetables and fruits, mainly including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues. The relevant risk assessment results indicate that different groups of people, especially those with high exposure, have cumulative dietary exposure risks to pesticides in vegetables and fruits. Although most pesticide residues have been detected at low concentrations in vegetables and fruits, they have potential toxicity risks and require continuous attention.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924029

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the applicability of two different occupational health risk assessment methods for noise positions in a beer manufacturing enterprise. Methods An occupational health investigation along with the detection of occupational hazard factors were carried out in the workplace of a beer manufacturing enterprise in Wuhan. Workers with 8-hour working day equivalent sound level (LEX,8 h) ≥ 80 dB (A) were selected as research subjects. The “Guidelines for Noise Occupational Disease Risk Management” method and occupational hazard risk index method were used to assess the risk of noise jobs in the beer manufacturing company. The assessment results of the two methods were compared. Results The noise exposure level of the enterprise was between 81.2 and 91.2dB(A). The guideline method predicted that the risk of high-frequency hearing loss and noise deafness for wine bottling workers and labelers on the bottling production line was high after 35 years exposure to noise. Washing,inspection and boxing on the bottling production line and bottling up on the canning production line were at medium risk, and others were at low risk. The evaluation results of the occupational hazard risk index method showed that the bottlers, bottling workers, wine inspectors, labelers and boxers on the bottling production line were at medium risk, and other positions were at low risk. Conclusion The occupational hazard risk index method is more comprehensive to consider all the factors of health risk, and the evaluation results are close to the “Guidelines for Noise Occupational Disease Risk Management” method. The guideline method can quantitatively predict the risk of high-frequency hearing loss and noise deafness, and the risk of hearing loss increases with the extension of years of noise exposure.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923969

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize the distribution and assess the exposure to phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the indoor dust of Shanghai City. Methods Samples were collected from 33 sampling sites, including homes, hotels, offices and public places, in Shanghai in 2018, 2019, and 2020. The samples were pretreated by 100 sieves, extracted and concentrated, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion mode (SIM). Results Results on the characteristics of PAEs in indoor dust in different places showed that concentrations of PAEs were in a range of <0.01-2 464 mg·kg-1.The average concentration of 16 PAEs was 613 mg·kg-1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the main components of PAEs in indoor dust, accounting for approximately 99.5% of 16 PAEs. The intake of DEHP, DBP, DEP and BBP was lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) and reference doses (RfD) set by EU CSTEE and U.S. EPA. Conclusion Average daily dose (ADD) via indoor dust is estimated, and the order of intake through different pathways is hand-oral intake>skin contact>respiratory inhalation. Exposure risk of PAEs in children is greater than that in adults.

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