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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1163-1185, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929376

ABSTRACT

Cancer immunotherapy has become a new generation of anti-tumor treatment, but its indications still focus on several types of tumors that are sensitive to the immune system. Therefore, effective strategies that can expand its indications and enhance its efficiency become the key element for the further development of cancer immunotherapy. Natural products are reported to have this effect on cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, immune-check points inhibitors, and adoptive immune-cells therapy. And the mechanism of that is mainly attributed to the remodeling of the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment, which is the key factor that assists tumor to avoid the recognition and attack from immune system and cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, this review summarizes and concludes the natural products that reportedly improve cancer immunotherapy and investigates the mechanism. And we found that saponins, polysaccharides, and flavonoids are mainly three categories of natural products, which reflected significant effects combined with cancer immunotherapy through reversing the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment. Besides, this review also collected the studies about nano-technology used to improve the disadvantages of natural products. All of these studies showed the great potential of natural products in cancer immunotherapy.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1254-1270, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929346

ABSTRACT

Molecular targeted therapy has become an emerging promising strategy in cancer treatment, and screening the agents targeting at cancer cell specific targets is very desirable for cancer treatment. Our previous study firstly found that a secretory peroxidase of class III derived from foxtail millet bran (FMBP) exhibited excellent targeting anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity in vivo and in vitro, whereas its underlying target remains unclear. The highlight of present study focuses on the finding that cell surface glucose-regulated protein 78 (csGRP78) abnormally located on CRC is positively correlated with the anti-CRC effects of FMBP, indicating it serves as a potential target of FMBP against CRC. Further, we demonstrated that the combination of FMBP with the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of csGRP78 interfered with the downstream activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in CRC cells, thus promoting the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell grown inhibition. These phenomena were further confirmed in nude mice tumor model. Collectively, our study highlights csGRP78 acts as an underlying target of FMBP against CRC, uncovering the clinical potential of FMBP as a targeted agent for CRC in the future.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1041-1053, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929344

ABSTRACT

The immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) targeting on PD-1/PD-L1 has shown remarkable promise in treating cancers. However, the low response rate and frequently observed severe side effects limit its broad benefits. It is partially due to less understanding of the biological regulation of PD-L1. Here, we systematically and comprehensively summarized the regulation of PD-L1 from nuclear chromatin reorganization to extracellular presentation. In PD-L1 and PD-L2 highly expressed cancer cells, a new TAD (topologically associating domain) (chr9: 5,400,000-5,600,000) around CD274 and CD273 was discovered, which includes a reported super-enhancer to drive synchronous transcription of PD-L1 and PD-L2. The re-shaped TAD allows transcription factors such as STAT3 and IRF1 recruit to PD-L1 locus in order to guide the expression of PD-L1. After transcription, the PD-L1 is tightly regulated by miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins via the long 3'UTR. At translational level, PD-L1 protein and its membrane presentation are tightly regulated by post-translational modification such as glycosylation and ubiquitination. In addition, PD-L1 can be secreted via exosome to systematically inhibit immune response. Therefore, fully dissecting the regulation of PD-L1/PD-L2 and thoroughly detecting PD-L1/PD-L2 as well as their regulatory networks will bring more insights in ICB and ICB-based combinational therapy.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2726-2737, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888884

ABSTRACT

Integrins are transmembrane receptors that have been implicated in the biology of various human physiological and pathological processes. These molecules facilitate cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions, and they have been implicated in fibrosis, inflammation, thrombosis, and tumor metastasis. The role of integrins in tumor progression makes them promising targets for cancer treatment, and certain integrin antagonists, such as antibodies and synthetic peptides, have been effectively utilized in the clinic for cancer therapy. Here, we discuss the evidence and knowledge on the contribution of integrins to cancer biology. Furthermore, we summarize the clinical attempts targeting this family in anti-cancer therapy development.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1148-1157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881190

ABSTRACT

As one of the most lethal diseases, pancreatic cancer shows a dismal overall prognosis and high resistance to most treatment modalities. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer escapes early detection during the curable period because early symptoms rarely emerge and specific markers for this disease have not been found. Although combinations of new drugs, multimodal therapies, and adjuvants prolong survival, most patients still relapse after surgery and eventually die. Consequently, the search for more effective treatments for pancreatic cancer is highly relevant and justified. As a newly re-discovered mediator of gasotransmission, hydrogen sulfide (H

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 763-780, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881168

ABSTRACT

Intestinal toxicity induced by chemotherapeutics has become an important reason for the interruption of therapy and withdrawal of approved agents. In this study, we demonstrated that chemotherapeutics-induced intestinal damage were commonly characterized by the sharp upregulation of tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN)-kynurenic acid (KA) axis metabolism. Mechanistically, chemotherapy-induced intestinal damage triggered the formation of an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) positive feedback loop, which accelerated kynurenine pathway metabolism in gut. Besides, AHR and G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) negative feedback regulates intestinal damage and inflammation to maintain intestinal integrity and homeostasis through gradually sensing kynurenic acid level in gut and macrophage, respectively. Moreover, based on virtual screening and biological verification, vardenafil and linagliptin as GPR35 and AHR agonists respectively were discovered from 2388 approved drugs. Importantly, the results that vardenafil and linagliptin significantly alleviated chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 609-620, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881159

ABSTRACT

The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway plays important roles in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment (TME). Aberrant HH signaling activation may accelerate the growth of gastrointestinal tumors and lead to tumor immune tolerance and drug resistance. The interaction between HH signaling and the TME is intimately involved in these processes, for example, tumor growth, tumor immune tolerance, inflammation, and drug resistance. Evidence indicates that inflammatory factors in the TME, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon-

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 837-849, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828840

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a heterodimeric cytokine, plays a protective role in diabetes. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate food intake. The relationship between IL-27 and ghrelin is still unexplored. Here we investigated that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mediates the suppression of ghrelin induced by IL-27. Co-localization of interleukin 27 receptor subunit alpha (WSX-1) and ghrelin was observed in mouse and human gastric mucosa. Intracerebroventricular injection of IL-27 markedly suppressed ghrelin synthesis and secretion while stimulating STAT3-mTOR signaling in both C57BL/6J mice and high-fat diet-induced-obese mice. IL-27 inhibited the production of ghrelin in mHypoE-N42 cells. Inhibition of mTOR activity induced by siRNA or rapamycin blocked the suppression of ghrelin production induced by IL-27 in mHypoE-N42 cells. siRNA also abolished the inhibitory effect of IL-27 on ghrelin. IL-27 increased the interaction between STAT3 and mTOR in mHypoE-N42 cells. In conclusion, IL-27 suppresses ghrelin production through the STAT3-mTOR dependent mechanism.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 795-804, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690863

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia is beneficial for the differentiation of stem cells transplanted for myocardial injury, but mechanisms underlying this benefit remain unsolved. Here, we report the impact of hypoxia-induced Jagged1 expression in cardiomyocytes (CMs) for driving the differentiation of cardiac stem cells (CSCs). Forced hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) expression and physical hypoxia (5% O) treatment could induce Jagged1 expression in neonatal rat CMs. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1 by YC-1 attenuated hypoxia-promoted Jagged1 expression in CMs. An ERK inhibitor (PD98059), but not inhibitors of JNK (SP600125), Notch (DAPT), NF-B (PTDC), JAK (AG490), or STAT3 (Stattic) suppressed hypoxia-induced Jagged1 protein expression in CMs. c-Kit CSCs isolated from neonatal rat hearts using a magnetic-activated cell sorting method expressed GATA4, SM22 or vWF, but not Nkx2.5 and cTnI. Moreover, 87.3% of freshly isolated CSCs displayed Notch1 receptor expression. Direct co-culture of CMs with BrdU-labeled CSCs enhanced CSCs differentiation, as evidenced by an increased number of BrdU/Nkx2.5 cells, while intermittent hypoxia for 21 days promoted co-culture-triggered differentiation of CSCs into CM-like cells. Notably, YC-1 and DAPT attenuated hypoxia-induced differentiation. Our results suggest that hypoxia induces Jagged1 expression in CMs primarily through ERK signaling, and facilitates early cardiac lineage differentiation of CSCs in CM/CSC co-cultures HIF-1/Jagged1/Notch signaling.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 93-98, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329688

ABSTRACT

The liver is unique in regenerative potential, which could recover the lost mass and function after injury from ischemia and resection. The underlying molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration have been extensively studied in the past using the partial hepatectomy (PH) model in rodents, where 2/3 PH is carried out by removing two lobes. The whole process of liver regeneration is complicated, orchestrated event involving a network of connected interactions, which still remain fully elusive. Bile acids (BAs) are ligands of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor of ligand-activated transcription factor. FXR has been shown to be highly involved in liver regeneration. BAs and FXR not only interact with each other but also regulate various downstream targets independently during liver regeneration. Moreover, recent findings suggest that tissue-specific FXR also contributes to liver regeneration significantly. These novel findings suggest that FXR has much broader role than regulating BA, cholesterol, lipid and glucose metabolism. Therefore, these researches highlight FXR as an important pharmaceutical target for potential use of FXR ligands to regulate liver regeneration in clinic. This review focuses on the roles of BAs and FXR in liver regeneration and the current underlying molecular mechanisms which contribute to liver regeneration.

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