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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909600

ABSTRACT

Schisandra Chinensis Fructus (SCF) is the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., a perennial vine. It was first recorded in Shen Nong's herbal classic and has a long application history. Studies have shown that SCF has anti-inflammatory, protective liver, antioxidant, antibacterial and other pharmacological effects. Ancient prescriptions are commonly used in the treatment of chronic diarrhea and other intestinal diseases and diabetes. Modern clinical phar?macology features of SCF polysaccharide (SCFP) in diabetes, liver diseases, enteritis and other aspects have achieved excellent results. Gut is an important digestive organ of human body, but intestinal diseases are varied, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, intestinal flora imbalance, etc.. It is a chronic and non-specific inflammatory disease. The disease is persisted for a long time and the incidence rate is expected to rise. Most of the symptoms are recurrent diarrhea, bloody stool and abdominal pain. It is considered by the World Health Organization as a refractory disease. At present, there is little possibility of complete cure, which is closely related to complex environmental factors, eating hab?its and heredity. In recent years, clinical studies have found that SCFP has a variety of pharmacological effects on intes?tinal protection.①Reduce inflammatory factors:intestinal mucositis is a common adverse reaction in patients with chemo?therapy. The development of mucositis is related to pro-inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, Interferon-γ(IFN-γ). SCFP can significantly reduce IL-6 TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8, as well as the accumulation of T cells in the process of resisting apoptosis, reduce the inflammatory reaction and protect the dam?age to villi and crypts, improve the symptoms of small intestinal mucositis caused by weight loss and diarrhea. ② Pro?mote immunoglobulin A secretion: intestinal mucosal immunity is the first line of defense of the body's immune system. Its main antibody is secretory immunoglobulin A, which can destroy and phagocytize microorganisms, bacteria and viruses. SCFP can improve intestinal immunity by increasing the number and activity of T lymphocytes, promoting the secre?tion of secretory immunoglobulin A, and affecting the activity of a variety of cytokines. ③ Regulation of intestinal flora:the flora in the intestine has the functions of auxiliary nutrient absorption, biological antagonism and immune regulation, and can form a natural barrier for the host's intestine. When the human intestinal flora is disordered, probiotics will be greatly reduced, harmful bacteria will proliferate and destroy the intestinal environment. Under these conditions, the intake of SCFP significantly increased the number of beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacillus, and sig?nificantly decreased the number of conditional pathogens such as enterococcus and escherichia coli, indicating that SCFP can indeed regulate the intestinal disorder caused by lincomycin hydrochloride to a certain extent. This may be because beneficial bacteria in the intestine metabolize polysaccharides produce short chain fatty acids such as lactic acid and acetic acid, which reduces the pH value in the intestine and inhibits the growth of enterococcus and Escherichia coli. In conclusion, SCFP can treat and protect intestinal diseases to a certain extent, which provides a favorable basis for the treatment of intestinal diseases.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3008-3013, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906782

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To establish the fingerprint of wine-processed Schisandra chinensis ,and to conduct cluster analysis and principal component analysis. METHODS :HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Diamonsil C 18(2) column with mobile phased consisted of methanol-water (gradient elution )at the flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 250 nm,and the column temperature was 30 ℃;the injection volume was 10 μL. With schisandrol A as the reference peak,HPLC fingerprints of 15 batches of samples were drawn and their similarity were evaluated with Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatographic Fingerprint (2012 edition). The common peaks were determined. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed by using SPSS 22.0 statistical software. RESULTS :There were 20 common peaks in 15 batches of samples ,and the similarities were 0.983-0.999;a total of 8 common peaks were identified ,namely 5-hydroxymethyl furfural,schisandrol A ,schisandrol B ,schisantherin A ,schisantherin B ,deoxyschizandrin,γ-schizandrin,pseudo-γ-schizandrin. The results of cluster analysis showed that 15 batches of wine-processed S. chinensis could be clustered into 4 categories. Among them,S1-S4 and S 14 were clustered into one category ,S9-S11 were clustered into one category ,S5,S7-S8,S12-S13 were clustered into one category ,and S 6 and S 15 were clustered into one category. The results of principal component analysis showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of first four principal component s was 85.381%;the classification results were basically consistent with the results of cluster analysis. Compared with S. chinensis ,5-hydroxymethyl furfural was newly found in S. chinensis after wine-processing ,with high content ;but there was no significant difference in the other chromatographic peaks. CONCLUSIONS:The established HPLC fingerprint is simple and easy to operate ,combined with cluster analysis and principal component analysis ,can be used for quality control of wine-processed S. chinensis decoction pieces.

3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2599-2604, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To stud y the effects of “green removing ”processing technology of fresh fruit of Schisandra chinensis after harvested on the quality of medicinal material ,and to provide new ideas for the scientific and rational processing of Chinese medicinal material. METHODS :Fifteen fresh fruits of S. chinensis were used as samples ,with 3 samples in each group. The sample were processed preliminarily by 5 methods,such as drying at 50 ℃,drying in the sun ,drying at 50 ℃ after“green removing”processing with microwave ,drying at 50 ℃ after“green removing ”processing with blanching ,drying at 50 ℃ after “green removing ”processing with steaming. HPLC fingerprints of 15 batches of dried S. chinensis products were established and similarity evaluation was conducted according to Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatographic Fingerprints (2012 edition). Cluster analysis was used to evaluate the similarity of dried S. chinensis products with different processing methods. At the same time ,HPLC method was adopted to determine the content changes of seven lignans in dried products ,such as schisandrol A , schisandrol B ,schisantherin A ,schisantherin B ,schizandrin A ,schisandrin B and schisandrin C. RESULTS :A total of 7 common peaks were obtained in the fingerprints of 15 batches of dried S. chinensis products. Except that the similarity between the chromatograms of dried samples in the sun and the control fingerprint was relatively low ,the similarities of chromatograms of dried products by other processing methods were greater than 0.900. Cluster analysis showed that 6 samples dried at 50 ℃ after“green removing”processing with microwave and dried at 50 ℃ after“green removing ”processing with blanching were grouped into the first category ;3 samples dried at 50 ℃ after“green removing”processing with steaming were grouped into the second category ;6 samples dried at 50 ℃ and dried in sun were grouped into the third category. The content determination results showed that there was no significant difference in the total content of seven lignans in the samples dried at 50 ℃ and dried in the sun (P>0.05). The total contents of seven lignans in the samples dried at 50 ℃ after“green moving ” processing with microwave ,blanching and steaming were significantly higher than those dried at 50 ℃ and dried in sun (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:The quality of S. chinensis samples dried after “green moving ”processing with microwave and blanching is better than those directly dried in sun and dried in oven.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921672

ABSTRACT

Dirigent(DIR) proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of lignin, lignans, and gossypol in plants and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. Based on the full-length transcriptome of Schisandra chinensis, bioinformatics methods were used to preliminarily identify the DIR gene family and analyze the physico-chemical properties, subcellular localization, conserved motifs, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the proteins. The results showed that a total of 34 DIR genes were screened and the encoded proteins were 156-387 aa. The physico-chemical properties of the proteins were different and the secondary structure was mainly random coil. Half of the DIR proteins were located in chloroplast, while the others in extracellular region, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm, etc. Phylogenetic analysis of DIR proteins from S. chinensis and the other 8 species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Glycine max demonstrated that all DIR proteins were clustered into 5 subfamilies and that DIR proteins from S. chinensis were in 4 subfamilies. DIR-a subfamily has the unique structure of 8 β-sheets, as verified by multiple sequence alignment. Finally, through the analysis of the transcriptome of S. chinensis fruit at different development stages, the expression pattern of DIR was clarified. Combined with the accumulation of lignans in fruits at different stages, DIR might be related to the synthesis of lignans in S. chinensis. This study lays a theoretical basis for exploring the biological functions of DIR genes and elucidating the biosynthesis pathway of lignans in S. chinensis.


Subject(s)
Fruit/genetics , Lignans/analysis , Phylogeny , Schisandra , Sequence Alignment
5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1453-1459, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To establ ish characteristic pattern of vinegar-processed product of Schisandra chinensis formula granules from different habitats ,and to determine the contents of 5 components. METHODS :HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Agilent ZORBAX SB-C 18 column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (gradient elution)at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was set at 30 ℃,and detection wavelength was set at 220 nm. The sample size was 10 µL. Using schisandrin as reference ,HPLC characteristic pattern of 19 batches of vinegar-processed S. chinensis formula granules was drawn. The similarity evaluation was performed with Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatographic Fingerprints (2012 edition),and common peaks were confirmed. The contents of schisandrin ,schisandrol, angeloylgomisin H ,schizandrin and deoxyschizandrin were determined by same method. RESULTS :There were 8 common peaks in 19 batches of vinegar-processed S. chinensis formula granules ,and the similarities were all above 0.996;five of them were identified as schisandrin ,schisandrol,angeloylgomisin H ,schizandrin and deoxyschizandrin ,respectively. The linear range of schisandrin,schisandrol,angeloylgomisin H ,schizandrin and deoxyschizandrin were 0.030-0.380,0.016-0.195,0.009-0.115, 0.006-0.078 and 0.011-0.138 μg(r>0.999),respectively. RSDs of precision ,stability(24 h)and reproducibility tests were all lower than 2%. Average recoveries were 99.84%,99.54%,99.28%,100.03%,100.27%(RSD<1.4%,n=9). Average contents of five components in 19 batches of samples were in the range of 0.15%-0.36%,0.02%-0.16%,0.02%-0.06%,0.02%-0.08% and 0.08%-0.17%,respectively;among them ,total contents of five components in sample S 18 and S 19 from Hebei province were relatively high ,while those were relatively low in sample S 16 and S 17(RSD=42%);RSD of total content in other samples (S1-S15)was 12%,and was lower than that of Hebei province ;total content of five components were higher in sample from Jilin province. CONCLUSIONS : Established characteristic pattern and method for the content determination are specific and reproducible,and can be used for the quality evaluation of vinegar-processed S. chinensis formula granules. The total content fluctuation of vinegar-processed product of S. chinensis formula granules from Liaoning ,Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces is lower than that in Hebei province ,and the quality of vinegar-processed Δ 基金项目:国家中药标准化项目(No.ZYB2H-Y-GD-13) *主管中药师 ,硕士 。研究方向 :中药质量标准 。E-mail: S. chinensis formula granules from Jilin province is the best. lzz332@126.com

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846407

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis fructus is the dried ripe fruit of S. chinensis from magnoliaceae, produced mainly in the three provinces in the northeast of China. This research systematically summarized the active constituent and pharmacological activity of S. chinensis fructus in recent years, and predicted the Q-marker of S. chinensis fructus in terms of component specificity, constituent validity, component measurability and component absorbed into blood based on the concept of the Q-marker of traditional Chinese medicine. The result suggested the component of lignans in diphenyl cyclooctene as the Q-marker of S. chinensis fructus to conduct the qualitative and quantitative analysis, which provides the scientific basis for establishing and improving the quality evaluation standard of S. chinensis fructus.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846182

ABSTRACT

Objective: To obtain more information for further researches on mechanism of pinoresinol lariciresinol reductases (PLR) gene, which is the key enzyme gene involved with lignans synthesis in Schisandra chinensis, ScPLR gene and its promoter were cloned and analyzed, and the expression pattern of ScPLR gene at fruit development stages was also illustrated. Methods: On the basis of PLR gene sequence obtained by transcriptome sequencing, specific primers were designed, the open reading frame (ORF) of ScPLR gene was then cloned, and the bioinformation of ScPLR gene was analyzed through online software. Meanwhile, the promoter of ScPLR gene was amplified by TAIL-PCR method and analyzed. The expression patterns of ScPLR from fruits at different development stages were analyzed preliminarily. Results: The length of ScPLR gene ORF was 837 bp, which encoded 278 amino acids residues with molecular weight of 31419.85 and theoretical pI of 8.97; ScPLR consisted of a membrane structure, which was a hydrophobic stable protein without signal peptide, and mainly composed of α-helix and random curl; Subcellular localization prediction result showed that ScPLR protein is mainly located in cytoplasm; The results of phylogenetic analysis revealed that ScPLR is closest related to Ricinus communis PLR. The length of ScPLR gene promoter was 994 bp, which had regulatory elements including TATA-box, CAAT-box, also cis-regulatory elements related to light regulation, auxin response, anaerobic induction, defense and stress response, the presence of various cis-acting elements fully reflected the high efficiency and complexity of promoter regulation on gene expression at the transcriptional level. qRT-PCR results showed that ScPLR expression level displayed obvious up-regulation at fruit swelling stage, then down-regulation at fruit coloring period. Conclusion: The ScPLR gene and its promoter were cloned and analyzed, the trend of high expression level of ScPLR before fruit coloring period was consistent with the dynamic change of lignans accumulation in S. chinensis, which will lay foundation for the further research on function and expression regulation of ScPLR gene in lignans biosynthesis pathway.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3007-3012, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the internal mechanism of Schisandra sphenanthera and Schisandra chinensis in determining quality by color (“color discrimination grading ”)of medicinal materials ,and to construct a qualitative identification model based on color quantization value. METHODS :HPLC method was used to determine the contents of 6 active components from 39 batches of samples. The colorimeter was used to determine 3-color spatial value [lightness value (ΔL*),red-green value (Δa*),yellow-blue value (Δb*)]. SPSS 24.0 statistical software was used to analyze the correlation between the contents of 6 active components and 3-color spatial values. Principal component analysis (PCA)was performed by using SIMCA-P 14.1 software. RESULTS:The linear range of schizandrol A ,schizandrol B ,schisandrin A ,schisandrin B ,schisandrin C ,schisantherin A were 0.204 8-2.560 0,0.049 3-0.616 3,0.098 4- 1.230 0,0.046 3-0.578 8,0.010 6-0.132 0,0.100 0-1.500 0 μg(r>0.999 0);RSDs of precision ,stability(12 h)and repeatability tests were all less than 3%. The recoveries were 98.14%-101.53%(RSD=1.08%, n=6),97.16%-101.05%(RSD=1.54%,n=6),98.29%-101.41%(RSD=1.29%,n=6),97.17%-100.36%(RSD=1.20%,n= 6),97.32%-102.43%(RSD=1.77%,n=6)and 98.02%-100.40%(RSD=0.84%,n=6),respectively. Among 39 batches of components were 3.25-7.39,0.96-1.98,0.46-4.74,1.62-2.60, 0.06-0.58,0.48-6.11 mg/g,respectively. Average S. chinensis was - 80.79-- 70.54, average Δ a * was qq.com # 通 2.54-5.34,average Δb* was 5.20-12.83,average ΔE* was 71.13-81.23;average ΔL* of S. sphe nanthera was -75.90- -69.16,average Δa* was 3.77-7.82,average Δb* was 8.59-17.23,average ΔE* was 69.99-77.92. The results of relationship analysis showed that the contents of schizandrol A ,schizandrol B ,schisandrin A ,schisandrin B and schisantherin A were significantly correlated with ΔL*,Δa*,ΔE*(P<0.01),with no significant correlation with Δb*(P>0.05). There was a negative correlation of the content of schisandrin C with ΔL* and Δa*(P<0.05),and there was no significant correlation with Δb* and ΔE* (P>0.05). Results of PCA showed that accumulative variance contribution rate of primary 2 main components was 89.8%,and S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis could be identified significantly. CONCLUSIONS :The content of schizandrol A in S. chinensis is high relatively ,and content of schisantherin A in S. sphenanthera is high relatively. Schizandrol A ,schizandrol B and schisandrin B were not detected in S. sphenanthera . The 3-color spatial value of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis are different ,that is ,the brightness of S. chinensis is small and the color is slant black ,while the color of S. sphenanthera is slant red and yellow. The contents of active components of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis is related to the surface 3-color spatial values ,that is ,the darker the color is ,the weaker the red degree is ,and the higher the contents of schizandrol A ,schizandrol B ,schisandrin B and schisandrin C are ;the brighter the surface color is ,the stronger the red degree is ,and the higher the contents of schisandrin A and schisantherin A are. The established content determination method is precise and stable ,and can be used for the content determination of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis . The color qualitative identification model can be used for the identification of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis .

9.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 247-256, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-842008

ABSTRACT

Objective: Schisandra sphenanthera and S. chinensis are the two important medicinal plants that have long been used under the names of “Nan-Wuweizi” and “Wuweizi”, respectively. The misuse of “Nan-Wuweizi” and “Wuweizi” in herbal medical products calls for an accurate method to distinguish these herbs. Chloroplast (cp) genomes have been widely used in species delimitation and phylogeny due to their uniparental inheritance and lower substitution rates than that of the nuclear genomes. To develop more efficient DNA markers for distinguishing S. sphenanthera, S. chinensis, and the related species, we sequenced the cp genome of S. sphenanthera and compared it to that of S. chinensis. Methods: The cp genome of S. sphenanthera was sequenced at the Illumina HiSeq platform, and the reference-guided mapping of contigs was obtained with a de novo assembly procedure. Then, comparative analyses of the cp genomes of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis were carried out. Results: The cp genome of S. sphenanthera was 146 853 bp in length and consisted of a large single copy (LSC) region of 95 627 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18 292 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 16 467 bp. GC content was 39.6%. A total of 126 functional genes were predicted, of which 113 genes were unique, including 79 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and four ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Five tRNA, four protein-coding genes, and all rRNA were duplicated in the IR regions. There were 18 intron-containing genes, including six tRNA genes and 12 protein-coding genes. In addition, 45 SSRs were detected. The whole cp genome of S. sphenanthera was 123 bp longer than that of S. chinensis. A total of 474 SNPs and 97 InDels were identified. Five genetic regions with high levels of variation (Pi > 0.015), trnS-trnG, ccsA-ndhD, psbI-trnS, trnT-psbD and ndhF-rpl32 were revealed. Conclusion: We reported the cp genome of S. sphenanthera and revealed the SNPs and InDels between the cp genomes of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis. This study shed light on the species identification and further phylogenetic study within the genus of Schisandra.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-841580

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effect of Schisandra Chinensis polysaccharide (SCP) on the serum inflammatory factors in the rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ), and to explore its underlying mechanism in the treatment of T2DM. Methods: The male Wistar rats were given high-fat diet and introperieoneally injected with low dose of STZ (30 mg · kg-1) in one time to establish the rat T2DM models. The successful model rats were randomly divided into model group, low dose (25 mg · kg-1)of SCP group, middle dose (50 mg · kg-1) of SCP group and high dose (100 mg · kg-1) of SCP group; there were 10 rats in each group. Another 10 healthy rats were used as normal control group. Eight weeks after the intragastric administration of SCP, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in the rats of various groups. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (INS) levels were detected by glucose oxidase method and radioimmunoassay method, respectively, and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-lβ (IL-lβ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in serum of the rats were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. HE staining was used to observe the pathomorphology of pancreas tissue of the rats. Results: Compared with normal control group, the serum FBG level of the rats in model group was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the area under the curve (AUC) of blood glucose of the rats was significantly increased, the serum INS level and the ISI were significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01); the levels of IL-6, CRP, IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB in serum were all significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with model group, the serum FBG levels of the rats in different doses of SCP groups were markedly decreased (P<0.05), the AUC of blood glucose of the rats were significantly decreased, the INS and the ISI levels were significantly elevated (P<0.05); the levels of IL-6, CRP, IL-1β, TNF-α and NF-κB in serum were significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with low dose of SCP group, the FBG levels of the rats in middle and high doses of SCP groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05), the serum INS level of the rats in high dose of SCP group was significantly increased (P<0.05). The HE staining results showed that compared with normal control group, the islets were atrophied, the number of cells in islets was decreased and the boundary was irregular in model group; compared with model group, the islet boundary in different doses of SCP groups became clear, the areas were increased, and the number cells was increased significantly. Conclusion: SCP can decrease the FBG level, increase the INS level and improve insulin resistance (IR) in the T2DM rats induced by high-fat diet combined with low dose of STZ, and its mechanism might be related to its inhibiting inflammation response.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828388

ABSTRACT

Schisandra is the mature fruit of Schisandra chinensis(known as "north Schisandra") or S. shenanthera(known as "south Schisandra"). S. chinensis contains a variety of lignans, volatile oils, polysaccharides, organic acids and other chemical constituents; among them, lignans are recognized as the characteristic active components. Clinical studies have found that Schisandra and Schisandra-related products have a better effect in the prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, liver cirrhosis, liver failure and other liver diseases. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Schisandra has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anticancer, regulation of nuclear receptor, antivirus, regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme, inhibition of liver cell apoptosis and promotion of liver regeneration. This paper reviews the studies about the applications and mechanism of Schisandra in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, in the expectation of providing guidance for the development of hepatoprotective drugs from Schisandra and the clinical applications of Schisandra-related products.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Chemistry , Humans , Lignans , Protective Agents , Schisandra
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827788

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.) is a plant species with fruits that have been well known in Far Eastern medicine for a long time. It has traditionally been used as a stimulating and fortifying agent in cases of physical exhaustion and to inhibit fatigue. The major bioactive compounds found in S. chinensis are lignans with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. S. chinensis is the ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of lignans, especially the dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton. Genomic information for this important herbal plant is unavailable. To better understand the lignan biosynthesis pathway, we generated transcriptome sequences from the fruit during ripening and performed de novo sequence assembly, yielding 136 843 unique transcripts with N50 of 1778 bp. Putative functions could be assigned to 41 824 transcripts (51.57%) based on BLAST searches against annotation databases including GO (Gene ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes). Furthermore, 22 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 15 candidate dirigent proteins genes that were most likely involved in the lignan biosynthesis pathway were discovered based on transcriptome sequencing of S. chinensis. The genomic data obtained from S. chinensis, especially the identification of putative genes involved in the lignan biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of lignan biosynthesis at the molecular level. The lignan metabolite profiles were analyzed by metabolomes, the accumulation patterns of 30 metabolites involved in the lignan pathway were studied. Co-expression network of lignan contents and transcriptional changes showed 355 strong correlations (correlation coefficient, R > 0.9) between 21 compounds and 153 transcripts. Furthermore, the comprehensive analysis and characterization of the genes involved in lignan pathways and the metabolite profiles of lignans are expected to provide better insight regarding the diversity of the chemical composition, synthetic characteristics, and regulatory mechanisms of this medical herb.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2226-2233, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825745

ABSTRACT

The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) gene is regarded as the key enzyme gene involved with aryl naphthalene lignan-podophyllotoxin synthesis. To study the expression pattern and function of the Sc2-ODD gene, a full-length cDNA of the gene was cloned. Bioinformatic analysis, the expression pattern, and prokaryotic expression and purification were implemented. The open reading frame of Sc2-ODD gene was 1 077 bp and encoded 358 amino acids with a molecular weight of 40.16 kD. The Sc2-ODD protein contained the conserved 2OG-FeII-oxy sequence of the 2-ODD protein. The results of phylogenetic analysis revealed that Sc2-ODD is most closely related to Corchorus olitorius 2-ODD. qRT-PCR results showed that Sc2-ODD expression displayed obvious up-regulation at the fruit-swelling stage, then down-regulation in the fruit-coloring period. The Sc2-ODD gene was cloned into the bacterial expression vector pGS21T, the recombinant Sc2-ODD protein was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) cells and the fusion protein was obtained and purified by GST fusion protein purification technology. This study will lay a foundation for further research on the function and expressional regulation of the Sc2-ODD gene in the aryl naphthalene lignans biosynthesis pathway, and also provides a scientific basis for improving the lignan content and the medicinal quality of Schisandra chinensis using plant genetic engineering.

14.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2224-2229, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To establish HPLC fingerprint of Schisandra sph enanthera and S. chinensis,and to analyze chemical pattern recognition. METHODS :HPLC method was adopted. Using schizandrin A as reference ,HPLC fingerprints of 10 batches of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis (N1-N10,S1-S10) were drawn. Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatographic Fingerprint(2012 edition)was adopted for similarity evaluation to determine the common peaks. SPSS 20.0 and SIMCA 14.1 software were used for HCA ,unsupervised madel of PCA ,supervised model of OPLS-DA. Using variable importance projection (VIP)value greater than 1 as the standard ,the differential markers that affected the quality of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis were screened. RESULTS :S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis were identified 32 and 33 common peaks ,respectively. The similarity of 10 batches of S. sphenanthera and 10 batches of S. chinensis were all higher than 0.9,and the similarity of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis was 0.05. A total of 19 characteristics peaks were identified ,among which five common peaks were identified as schisandraol A ,schisandraol B ,schisantherin A ,schizandrin A and schisandrin B by reference. HCA results showed that N 1-N10 were clustered into one category ,and S 1-S10 were clustered into one category ,of which N 1,N3,N8,and N 9 were clustered into one category ,and the rest were clustered into one category ;S1,S3,S6,and S 9 were grouped together ,and the rest were grouped together. The results unsupervised model of PCA showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first two principal component factors was 87.20%. Supervised model of OPLS-DA showed that schizandrin A ,schisandraol A ,schisantherin A and schisandrin B were the differential markers that affected 、the quality of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis (VIPs were 2.29,2.24,1.73,1.48,respectively). CONCLUSIONS :The established fingerprint is accurate ,scientific,simple and easy to use ,combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be 话:0395-3356116。E-mail:wangrui56116@163.com used to evaluate the quality of S. sphenantherae and S. chinensis. The components of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis were different ,schisanolrin A is differential marker.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1336-1341, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study the prepar ation technology of gastric floating tablets of Schisandra chinensis total lignans (SCTL),and evaluate the quality of prepared tablets. METHODS :Based on single factor test ,the orthogonal experiment was conducted to optimize the formulation of SCTL gastric floating tablets with the contents of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) K15M,NaHCO3 and microcrystalline cellulose as the factors ,using starting time ,holding time and cumulative release rate of gastric floating tablets as evaluation indexes. The properties ,weight difference ,floatability and accumulative release rate of the prepared SCTL gastric floating tablets were determined. The gastric floating tablets were qualitatively identified by TLC ,and the contents of schisandrin A and total lignans were determined by HPLC and UV spectrophotometry. RESULTS :The optimal formulation of SCTL gastric floating tablets was made up of 23% SCTL extract ,20% HPMC K 15M,40% microcrystalline cellulose,15% sodium bicarbonate ,1% octadecyl alcohol and 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone. The results of detection of this preparation were in line with the related provisions of “0101 tablet”stated in 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (part Ⅳ). TLC indicated that the chromatogram of the test sample showed the main spots of same color as the corresponding positions of the chromatogram of schizandrol A control ,Schisandra chinensis reference substance and raw material ,while the negative control has no interference. Content determination results shows that the average content of schizandrol A and total lignans in SCTL gastric floating tablets is 3.187,19.617 mg. It was preliminarily formulated that the content limitation of schizandrol A in one tablet should not be less than 2.50 mg,and the content of total lignans (calculated by schizandrol A )should not be less than 15.50 mg. CONCLUSIONS:The preparation technology of SCTL gastric floating tablets is stable ,feasible and controllable in quality.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 557-568, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792989

ABSTRACT

, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, was considered as central nervous system (CNS) drug for years. Both ethanol extracts (EES) and water extracts (WES) of it were applied clinically. Unfortunately, the difference of their efficacy and even effective material foundation of remains obscure. In this study, to explore the active constituents of , we compared pharmacodynamics and chemical profiles / of EES/WES for the first time using multiple chemical analysis, pharmacological and data processing approaches. It was proved that there was no significant difference in the anti-depressive effects between WES and EES. However, the contents of most components and in plasma were higher in EES than those in WES, which was unconvincing for their similar efficacy. Therefore, we further explored components of targeted onto brain and the results showed that 5 lignans were identified with definite absorptivity respectively both in EES and WES caused by the limitation of blood-brain barrier. Moreover, bioinformatic analysis predicted their anti-depressive action. Above all, the systematic strategy screened 5 brain-targeted effective substances of and it was suggested that exploring the components into nidi would promote the studies on herbs effective material basis.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802221

ABSTRACT

Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus is dry,mature fruits of magnolia plant Schisandra chinensis. In recent years,domestic and foreign scholars have made a lot of studies on active constituents of S. chinensis and pharmacological activities. This article systematically organizes the active constituents and pharmacological activities of S. chinensis. It was found that fruit,seeds,roots,stems and leaves of S. chinensis and other medicinal parts mainly contained lignans,volatile oils,triterpenoids,polysaccharides and flavonoids. And lignans were the main characteristic active ingredients of S. chinensis,triterpenoids,polysaccharides and volatile oils were the secondary active ingredients,and the activity of flavonoids had rarely been reported. According to the pharmacological study of S. chinensis,S. chinensis lignans had certain effects on the central nervous system,cardiovascular system,liver,kidney and reproductive system,with anti-oxidation,anti-tumor,anti-bacterial and anti-HIV effects. Other chemical components also had good pharmacological activities,but were less studied than lignans. With dual functions in medicine and food, it was widely used as a health product and medicine. This article systematically summarized the active constituents and pharmacological activities of S. chinensis,and provided an important reference and basis for the further development of the health product and medicine of S. chinensis in the future.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851250

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis is a Magnoliaceae plant, widely distributed in the southeastern part of China and the three northeastern provinces. The main active ingredients of S. chinensis are lignans, volatile oil, polysaccharide, fatty acid, et al. S. chinensis is often used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in clinical practice with remarkable curative effect. Accumulating studies showed that S. chinensis possess the pharmacological profiles of anti-insulin resistance, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidative stress, inhibition of vascular disease, and protection of vascular endothelium, which can improve diabetes and its complications. This paper reviews the research status of active ingredients and pharmacological effects of S. chinensis in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its complications in the past 40 years, which provides a theoretical reference for the rational clinical promotion and new drug development of S. chinensis as a therapeutic drug for diabetes.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-841771

ABSTRACT

Objective: To campare the differences of contents and relative effects of lignans from 4 strains of Schisandra chinensis, and to provide the experimental basis for the precise selection and application. Methods: The contents of 7 kinds of lignans from 4 strains of Schisandra chinensis were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant effects of 4 strains of Schisandra chinensis were compared by measuring the abilities of reduction, scavenging of DPPH free radical and inhibiting linoleic acid oxidation in vitro Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into normal control group, alcoholic liver injury model group (model group), Schisandra chinensis YH group, (YH group), Schisandra chinensis SH group (SH group), Schisandra chinensis 156-5-2 group 156-5-2 group) and Schisandra chinensis 50-1-5 group (50-1-5 group), 10 mice in each group. One hour after the last administration, the mice in normal control group were given the equal volume of distilled water, and those in the other groups were intragastrically given 50% alcohol 12 mL • k g- 1 ) . All the mice were fasted, but with free access to water for 12 h and executed, and the liver and serum were obtained. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum of the mice, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissue of the mice were determined. Results: The total content of lignan monomers in Schisandra chinensis YH was the highest, the second was Schisandra chinensis SH, and 156-5-2 and 50-1-5 were later. Except for 156-5-2, other 3 kinds of Schisandra chinensis had strong antioxidant effects, and the order of antioxidant activity was Y H > S H > 5 0 - l - 5 . Compared with model group, the ALT and AST levels in the serum and the levels of MDA and TG in the liver tissue of the mice in YH group were decreased significantly (P 0. 05); the ALT level in the serum of the mice in 156-5-2 group was decreased (P 0 . 05). Conclusion: In 4 strains of Schisandra chinensis, YH has the highest content of lignans, has the strongest antioxidant effect in vitro, and has the best protective effect on acute alcoholic liver injury.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-841770

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the immunomodulatory effect of Schisandra chinensis lignans (SCL) in the cyclophosphamide (Cyp) -induced immunosuppressive mice, and to elucidate its related mechanisms. Methods: A total of 75 male ICR mice were divided in control group, model group, and low, middle, high doses (50, 100, and 200 mg • kg- 1) of SCL groups, 15 mice in each group. The mice in control and model groups were administered with distilled water intragastrically and the mice in SCL groups were administered with different doses of SCL intragastrically once a day for 21 d. After the successive administration for 17d, the mice in model and SCL groups were intraperitoneally injected with Cyp (20 mg • kg- 1) once a day for 5 d The thymus and spleen indexes were determined and the morphology of thymus and spleen tissues were observed The phagocytic function of macrophages was estimated using carbon clearance test and the level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was measured by ELISA method. The spleen lymphocyte proliferation ability was measured by MTT method and the apoptotic rate of spleen lymphocyte was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with control group, the thymus and spleen indexes, the phagocytic function of macrophages, the IFN-y level, the spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity, and the early, late, total apoptotic rates of lymphocytes of the mice in model group were increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0 . 0 1) . Compared with model group, the thymus and spleen indexes, the phagocytic function of macrophages, the IFN-y levels, the spleen lymphocyte proliferation abilities, and the early, late, total apoptotic rates of lymphocytes of the mice in different doses of SCL groups were significantly decreased (P < 0 . 05 or P< 0. 01). Compared with control group, the number of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex of the mice in model group was reduced, the number of splenic corpuscles was reduced and their volumes were obviously reduced. Compared with model group, the reducing of lymphocyte number in the thymus cortex and splenic corpuscles and atrophy of the mice in different doses of SCL groups were obviously improved. Conclusion: SCL can protect the mice with Cyp-induced immunodeficiency by regulating the cellular, humoral and non-specific immune functions of the mice.

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