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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876705

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the conversion of serum antibodies against Schistosoma japonicum in humans and livestock detected by immunological tests following treatment with praziquantel. Methods The studies pertaining to serological tests of schistosomiasis japonica published from 1991 to 2020 were retrieved in electronic databases, including Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Data, PubMed and ScienceDirect. Data were extracted from included studies. The publication bias was assessed with funnel plots using the software RevMan version 5.3, and the conversion of antibodies against S. japonicum was evaluated through meta-analysis. Results A total of 40 publications were included in the final meta-analysis, consisting of 33 Chinese publications and 7 English publications, and all immunological tests were performed with indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pooled analysis showed that the negative rates of serum anti-S. japonicum antibody were 45.36% [95% confidential interval (CI): (43.96%, 46.76%)] and 20.83% [95% CI: (19.69%, 21.97%)] detected by ELISA and IHA within 6 months post praziquantel treatment, 62.95% [95% CI: (61.59%, 64.31%)] and 55.61% [95% CI: (54.21%, 57.01%)] within 6 to 12 months after treatment and 85.92% [95% CI: (84.94%, 86.90%)] and 86.90% [95% CI: (85.95%, 87.85%)] over 12 months after treatment, respectively. Conclusions The negative rate of the serum anti-S. japonicum antibody by IHA and ELISA increased with the time of post-treatment with praziquantel. The overall negative rates of anti-S. japonicum antibody detected by IHA and ELISA are low within 12 months post praziquantel treatment. However, a high negative rate of anti-S. japonicum antibody is detected if there is no new contact with infested water after 12 months of praziquantel treatment.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812930

ABSTRACT

Objective To quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic value of variable-temperature and isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques in the detection of schistosomiasis japonica using a meta-analysis. Methods The publications pertaining to the nucleic acid detection of schistosomiasis japonica were searched in electronic databases, including Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the compilations and proceedings of schistosomiasis were manually searched. In addition, the citations of publications associated with the nucleic acid detection of schistosomiasis japonica were traced using a document tracing method. The retrieved literatures were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data were extracted from the included literatures. The quality of the included literatures was assessed using the software RevMan version 5.3, and a meta-analysis was performed using the software MetaDiSc version 1.4. Results A total of 19 publications covering 24 groups of studies were enrolled, including 5 Chinese publications and 14 English publications. There were 17 groups of studies reporting the comparison between the variable-temperature nucleic acid amplification technique and the golden standard, and 7 groups of studies showing the comparison between the isothermal nucleic acid amplification technique and the golden standard. Assessment of the literature quality indicated a minor overall bias of the included literatures, and the Deek funnel plot showed a possible publication bias in the documents reports variable-temperature nucleic acid amplification techniques. There was a heterogeneity caused by non-threshold effect among the studies associated with the variable-temperature amplification technique, and the random effects model was therefore used to combine the effects. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the variable-temperature amplification technique were 0.81 (0.79 to 0.83) and 0.73 (0.71 to 0.74) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and area under the SROC curve was 0.944 3. There was no heterogeneity among the studies associated with the isothermal amplification technique, and the fixed effects model was therefore used to combine the effects. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the isothermal amplification technique were 0.96 (0.94 to 0.98) and 0.95 (0.94 to 0.97) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and area under the SROC curve was 0.989 9. Conclusions Both variable-temperature and isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have a high efficiency for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and the isothermal amplification technique shows a relatively higher accuracy than the variable-temperature amplification technique.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818927

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the approaches used for the assessment of disability adjust life years (DALYs) for advanced schistosomiasis japonica, so as to provide scientific evidence for accurate assessment of the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Methods The patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica receiving treatment and assistance programs in Hunan Province in 2017 were enrolled, and the years lived with disability (YLD) for the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica was calculated using the common global burden of disease (GBD) estimation method, the modified GBD method with addition of common syndromes of advanced schistosomiasis japonica, and the quality of life assessment method. Results The YLDs of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, the mean YLDs per capita, and the percentages of YLD were 673.94, 728.77 person-years and 1 761.99 person-years; 0.181, 0.196 person-years and 0.474 person-years; and 10.61, 11.48 person-years per 100 thousand persons and 27.75 person-years per 100 thousand persons with the common GBD method, modified GBD method and the quality of life method, respectively. The YLDs of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province estimated with the modified GBD method and the quality of life method were 8.14% and 2.61 times higher than that with the common GBD method. Of the major symptoms included in the calculation, the 5 symptoms with the greatest contribution to the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica included ascites, moderate anemia, severe anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. Conclusion The quality of life method may more comprehensively assess the YLDs in patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica than the common and modified GBD methods.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818475

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the approaches used for the assessment of disability adjust life years (DALYs) for advanced schistosomiasis japonica, so as to provide scientific evidence for accurate assessment of the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Methods The patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica receiving treatment and assistance programs in Hunan Province in 2017 were enrolled, and the years lived with disability (YLD) for the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica was calculated using the common global burden of disease (GBD) estimation method, the modified GBD method with addition of common syndromes of advanced schistosomiasis japonica, and the quality of life assessment method. Results The YLDs of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, the mean YLDs per capita, and the percentages of YLD were 673.94, 728.77 person-years and 1 761.99 person-years; 0.181, 0.196 person-years and 0.474 person-years; and 10.61, 11.48 person-years per 100 thousand persons and 27.75 person-years per 100 thousand persons with the common GBD method, modified GBD method and the quality of life method, respectively. The YLDs of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province estimated with the modified GBD method and the quality of life method were 8.14% and 2.61 times higher than that with the common GBD method. Of the major symptoms included in the calculation, the 5 symptoms with the greatest contribution to the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica included ascites, moderate anemia, severe anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. Conclusion The quality of life method may more comprehensively assess the YLDs in patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica than the common and modified GBD methods.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704241

ABSTRACT

Health education and health promotion are important measures for comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China,which can improve the compliance rate of residents involved in schistosomiasis control activities,reduce the water con-tact behavior of the target population,thus avoiding or decreasing the infection of schistosome in endemic areas.In recent years, the comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China has achieved remarkable results.China has reached the goal of transmis-sion control and is moving toward the transmission interruption or even elimination of schistosomiasis.This article analyzes the role of health education and health promotion in schistosomiasis control programme and the current challenges.Meanwhile,sug-gestions are also put forward on how to conduct health education and health promotionin the stage of schistosomiasis elimination.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704218

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes of serum anti-schistosome antibody titers in schistosomiasis japonica pa-tients after treatment,in order to provide the evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis surveillance program in marshland and lake regions.Methods Upon prospective cohort study,the stool examination positive schistosomiasis patients and blood exami-nation positive suspected patients(the titer was more than 1:80,including 1:80)were selected as the research objects in Jian-gling County in 2014,and they received the 2-day praziquantel therapy.Half year,one year and two years after the treatment, their blood samples and fecal samples were collected for IHA anti-schistosome antibody detections and schistosome egg and mira-cidium detections. Results In 2014,the stool examination positives were 251,and the majority of them were over 41 years old,accounting for 93.23%(234/251);581 cases of high antibody titers were detected by the IHA method,and the majority of them were over 41 years old,accounting for 89.16%(518/581).Half year,one year and two years after the treatment,among the stool examination positives,the negative conversion rates of stool positives were 99.60%(250/251),100%(239/239)and 100%(234/234)respectively and the negative conversion rates of antibody positives were 21.91%(55/251),64.11%(156/239)and 76.89%(193/234)respectively.In the high antibody titer positives,the negative conversion rates were 38.04%(221/581),64.11%(359/560),and 77.86%(429/551)respectively,Half year,one year and two years after the treatment.There were statistically significant differences among the antibody negative conversion rates by χ2test(χ2=77.538,183.412,25.469 respectively,all P<0.001).The geometric mean values of antibody titers of different durations between 2 groups were analyzed by 2-independent-samples T test,and the geometric mean values of antibody titers between the 2 groups were different before the treatment(t=23.576,P<0.01),but the geometric mean values of antibody titers between the 2 groups were not different 6 months,1 year and 2 years after the treatment(t=-0.046,1.165, -0.132,P=0.964, 0.245,0.895 respectively). Conclu-sions The levels of serum anti-schistosome antibody degrade slowly in schistosomiasis japonica patients after the treatment, and the results of IHA tests cannot distinguish the current schistosome infection from previous schistosome infection.Therefore, it is necessary to develop the specific diagnostic technology for schistosome infection in order to meet the need of monitoring.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50086

ABSTRACT

China still has more than 30,000 patients of advanced schistosomiasis while new cases being reported consistently. D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product. As ascites being the dominating symptom in advanced schistosomiasis, the present study aimed to explore a prediction model of ascites with D-dimer and other clinical easy-achievable indicators. A case-control study nested in a prospective cohort was conducted in schistosomiasis-endemic area of southern China. A total of 291 patients of advanced schistosomiasis were first investigated in 2013 and further followed in 2014. Information on clinical history, physical examination, and abdominal ultrasonography, including the symptom of ascites was repeatedly collected. Result showed 44 patients having ascites. Most of the patients' ascites were confined in the kidney area with median area of 20 mm². The level of plasma D-dimer and pertinent liver function indicators were measured at the initial investigation in 2013. Compared with those without ascites, cases with ascites had significantly higher levels of D-dimer (0.71±2.44 μg/L vs 0.48±2.12 μg/L, P=0.005), as well ALB (44.5 vs 46.2, g/L) and Type IV collagen (50.04 vs 44.50 μg/L). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated a moderate predictive value of D-dimer by its own area under curve (AUC) of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54–0.73) and the cutoff value as 0.81 μg/L. Dichotomized by the cutoff level, D-dimer along with other categorical variables generated a prediction model with AUC of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.68–0.89). Risks of patients with specific characteristics in the prediction model were summarized. Our study suggests that the plasma D-dimer level is a reliable predictor for incident ascites in advanced schistosomiasis japonica patients.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Ascites , Case-Control Studies , China , Cohort Studies , Collagen Type IV , Fibrin , Humans , Kidney , Liver , Physical Examination , Plasma , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Schistosoma japonicum , Schistosomiasis japonica , Schistosomiasis , Ultrasonography
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285260

ABSTRACT

Infection of schistosomiasis japonica may eventually lead to liver fibrosis, and no effective antifibrotic therapies are available but liver transplantation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway has been involved in the process and is a promising target for treating liver fibrosis. This study aimed to explore the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on liver fibrosis induced by schistosoma japonicum infection by inhibiting the HH signaling pathway. Phorbol12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) was used to induce human acute mononuclear leukemia cells THP-1 to differentiate into macrophages. The THP-1-derived macrophages were stimulated by soluble egg antigen (SEA), and the culture supernatants were collected for detection of activation of macrophages. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the cytotoxicity of the culture supernatant and PTX on the LX-2 cells. The LX-2 cells were administered with activated culture supernatant from macrophages and(or) PTX to detect the transforming growth factor-β gene expression. The mRNA expression of shh and gli-1, key parts in HH signaling pathway, was detected. The mRNA expression of shh and gli-1 was increased in LX-2 cells treated with activated macrophages-derived culture supernatant, suggesting HH signaling pathway may play a key role in the activation process of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The expression of these genes decreased in LX-2 cells co-cultured with both activated macrophages-derived culture supernatant and PTX, indicating PTX could suppress the activation process of HSCs. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that PTX prevents liver fibrogenesis in vitro by the suppression of HH signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Helminth , Pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Culture Media, Conditioned , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Hedgehog Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolism , Parasitology , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Models, Biological , Monocytes , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Pentoxifylline , Pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Schistosoma japonicum , Chemistry , Signal Transduction , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate , Pharmacology , Zinc Finger Protein GLI1 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Zygote , Chemistry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493696

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect and mechanism of CD4+CD25+Tregs(Tregs)on the protective efficacy of glutha?tione?S?transferase(GST)against Schistosoma japonicum in mice. Methods Female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into five groups:a normal control group,an infected control group,an anti?CD25mAb group,a GST immunization group and a com?bination group with GST immunization and anti?CD25 mAb. The GST group and combination group were injected percutaneously with GST 50μg each mouse,the other two groups were injected with equal volume PBS. The immunization was performed for 3 times for two?week interval,and 2 weeks after the last immunization,each mouse was challenged with 40 S. japonicum cercaria. Two weeks post?infection,the combination group and anti?CD25 mAb group were injected intraperitoneally with 300μg anti?CD25 mAb each mouse. The mice were succumbed 2 weeks,3 weeks,4 weeks and 5 weeks post?infection respectively. The per?centages of CD4+CD25+Tregs in splenocytes of mice were measured with flow cytometer. The levels of IFN?γ,IL?2,IL?4,IL?5 and TGF?βin cell cultural supernatants were determined by sandwich?ELISA after stimulation with Con A. The liver sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results The worm burden in the combination group(15.80 ± 2.74)was significantly lower than those of the infected control group(27.78 ± 3.15),anti?CD25 mAb group(21.50 ± 4.21),and GST group(20.84 ± 6.46). Compared to those of the infected control group,the percentages of CD4+CD25+Tregs were significantly higher in the GST group,while the percentages of CD4+CD25+Tregs were significantly lower post?anti?CD25 mAb?administration. Regardless of GST administration,the levels of IFN?γ,IL?2,IL?4 and IL?5 after anti?CD25 mAb were significantly higher than those of the in?fected control groups. There were no significant differences of egg granuloma and the level of TGF?βbetween each group. Con?clusion CD4+CD25+Tregs could be partially blocked by anti?CD25 mAb while Th1 and Th2 type immunization response could be enhanced,which plays a role in improving the protective efficacy of GST against of S. japonicum.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-491850

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the impact of Qionghai Lake wetland ecological protection construction on the preva?lence of schistosomiasis,so as to provide the evidence for formulating the strategies for schistosomiasis control and prevention. Methods A retrospective survey of the construction of Qionghai Lake wetland was performed,and eleven villages around the wetland were surveyed for schistosomiasis endemic situation. The influence of the wetland project on the schistosomiasis preva?lence and Oncomelania hupensis snail status were investigated. Results Before the construction of Qionghai Lake wetland,the snail elimination and extended chemotherapy for residents was performed. After the project was finished,the roads and ditches were hardened. From 2009 to 2014,the schistosome infection rate of residents declined from 0.37% to 0. No schistosome infect?ed snails were found and in recent 2 years,no snails were found. No mice were infected in the sentinel tests. Conclusions The construction of Qionghai Lake wetland effectively eliminates snails,and interrupts the transmission of schistosomiasis. Howev?er,the environment of the wetland is more suitable for snail breeding,and therefore,the surveillance still should be strength?ened.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605925

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the cut?off value of the indirect haemagglutination test(IHA)method for schistosomiasis japonica diagnosis in different endemic areas. Methods Totally 55 nature villages of the lake?type endemic counties,Yugan and Xinzi,in Poyang Lake Region of Jiangxi Province were chosen as the study fields,and all the villagers over 5 years old were parallelly examined by Kato?Katz method+miracidial hatching test and IHA method. The detection data were analyzed by the correlation analysis,and the threshold values of the IHA method in different endemic areas were decided by the receiver operat?ing characteristic(ROC)curve. Results The positive rate of stool examinations of the villagers was correlated with the distribu?tion trend of the antibody level of whole population(r=0.588,P0.05). The antibody level of stool?negative population during the period of 2008 to 2011 detect?ed by IHA method dropped year by year,and the annual difference was statistically significant(F=3.650,P0.05). When the positive rates were5%,the specificity of diagnosis could be improved when 1∶80,1∶20 and 1∶10 were used as the cut?off val? ues of IHA correspondingly. Conclusion The different threshold values for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica should be con?sidered while using IHA method to screen out patients in different endemic areas.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605430

ABSTRACT

This review describes the major species,number,breeding pattern,ratio of fenced to freely grazed goat,suscepti?bility to Schistosoma japonicum,pattern of S. japonicum infection,infection rate,intensity of infection,fecal contamination of goat that were bred in 5 marshland and lake provinces of Hunan,Hubei,Jiangxi,Anhui and Jiangsu,and two mountainous provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan,and demonstrates the associations of infected goat distribution with the distribution of infect?ed Oncomelania hupensis snails and humans. Considering the huge number of goat which were predominantly grazed freely in marshland and lake endemic regions of China,the high infection rate,numerous environmental pollution by goat feces,as well as the close correlation between the infected goat distribution and infected snail distribution,goat is considered as a major infec?tious source for schistosomiasis japonica in China,and to play a critical role in the transmission of the disease. Since the control of schistosomiasis in animals is critical to schistosomiasis interruption and elimination,it is suggested that the integrated man?agement of goat schistosomiasis should be included in the national schistosomiasis control program of China.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605423

ABSTRACT

Objective To quantitatively estimate the range and area of environmental contamination by the feces of Schistoso?ma japonicum?infected that were freely grazed,so as to provide the theoretical evidence for the scientific assessment of the role of the freely grazed goat in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica and development of control strategy. Methods All the fecal samples excreted by the infected goat at daytime(12 h)were collected by using a self?made goat fecal collector,weighed and counted. The quantity and dispersal of the feces excreted by the freely grazed goat at daytime under a natural condition were investigated,and the walking route and speed of the freely grazed goat at daytime were recorded with a multifunction GPS data logger. The maximum range and area of the environment contaminated by the feces of the freely grazed goat at daytime were esti?mated,and the maximum range and area of the Oncomelania hupensis snails that may be infected by the schistosome miracidium released from the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely graze goat at daytime were calculated. Results During the walking along the marshland at daytime(12 h),the quantity of the feces execrated by the freely grazed infected goat was(232.8 ± 39.8) g per goat,and the fecal samples were composed of(819.2 ± 152.1)pellets. The goat had a mean walking speed of(0.522 7 ± 0.099 7)km/h,and the longest distance,largest radius and largest range of walking activity were(6.272 4 ± 1.195 8)km, 3.136 2 km and(3 191.113 0 ± 1 189.709 4)hm2at daytime,respectively. The area of the snails that may be infected by the mi?racidium released from the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely graze goat(range of key regions for infected snails detection and control)at daytime was estimated to be(3 210.717 5 ± 1 190.907 3)hm2. Conclusions The intensity of environmental contamination by the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely grazed goat is linked to the number of infected goat. The contamina?tion range caused by the feces of the freely grazed goat with fixed fences is relatively stably kept within the walking range at day?time,and the range and area of goat fecal contamination is associated with the number of households that breed goat and the dis?tribution of goat fence. The area of the snails that may be infected by the miracidium released from the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely graze goat is larger than the area of setting contaminated by the eggs in the goat feces ,indicating that the range of in?fected snail examination and control is larger than the range of goat feces detected.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-603925

ABSTRACT

Objective To comprehensively evaluate the effects of indirect hemagglutination test(IHA),enzyme?linked im?munosorbent assay(ELISA),and dipstick dye method(DDIA)in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica at different preva?lence by using Meta?analysis. Methods Through the literature review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,a data?base was established,and by using Meta?disc and R software,the Meta?analysis was performed including the threshold test,het?erogeneity test,weighted by the quantitative effect of merger,SROC curve fitting,etc. Results A total of 60 papers were in?cluded in the final analysis. The sensitivities of IHA were 0.84,0.76 and 0.94 in heavy,medium and low endemic areas,and specificities were 0.73,0.64 and 0.73 respectively;the sensitivities of ELISA were 0.88,0.80 and 0.93 in heavy,medium and low endemic areas,and the specificities were 0.59,0.59 and 0.62 respectively;the sensitivities of DDIA were 0.93,0.81 and 0.93 in the heavy,medium and low endemic areas,and specificities were 0.66,0.69 and 0.59 respectively. The weighted sensi?tivities of IHA,ELISA and DDIA were 0.83,0.87 and 0.90 respectively;the weighted specificities were 0.69,0.60 and 0.62 re?spectively. The areas under the curve of SROC were 0.89,0.96 and 0.92 in IHA,ELISA and DDIA respectively. Conclusions In different prevalence,the effectiveness of different methods for serological diagnosis of schistosomiasis is different. The sensi?tivity and specificity of all diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis need to further improve.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-502866

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the growth and development of Schistosoma japonicum in goat and the intensity and tem?poral distribution of eggs excreted by goat feces,so as to provide baseline data for the control and elimination of the role of goat in the transmission of schistosomiasis. Methods The goat animal models of schistosomiasis were established,and stool sam?ples were collected for parasitological examinations. The number of adult worms recovered,variation of schistosomes in goat at different time points post?infection,number of eggs in schistosomes,variation in number and temporal profiles of eggs excreted from goat feces were observed. Results Of the 6 schistosome?infected goat,415 adult worms were recovered,with a mean adult worm recovery of 34.58%(range,23.00%to 45.50%). Among the 5 goat infected with 200 cercariae each,47,93,77, 74 and 73 adult worms were recovered 2,5,8,11 and 14 months post?infection,respectively. There were(200.00 ± 42.33), (226.20±45.88),(168.20±25.85),(183.80±55.13)and(190.80±53.53)eggs detected in female schistosomes. The mean pre?patent period of eggs excreted by 10 infected goat was(37.7±3.02)d. From 2 to 14 months post?infection,7 batches of goat fe?ces were hatched,and there were 30,23,14,1 and 2 times for miracidium intensity of“++++”,“+++”,“++”,“+”and“-”, respectively,with 42.86%,32.86%,20.00%,1.43%and 2.86%constituent ratios of miracidium intensity. Conclusions Ap?proximately 1/3 S. japonicum cercariae may develop to adults in goats post?infection,and the prepatent period of eggs is(37.7± 3.02)d. There is no remarkable decrease seen in the number of adult worms,eggs in female schistosomes and eggs in goat feces within 14 months post?infection. Our findings suggest a long duration for infected goat in the transmission of schistosomiasis ,and there is no evidence to prove the“self?cure”phenomenon in goat,indicating that goat is an important source of infection for schistosomiasis japonica.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-502844

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop a simple,feasible goat feces collector to improve the collection accuracy and integrity of goat fecal samples without pollution,and to modify the miracidium hatching test with a plastic tube to achieve simple,standard and comparative procedures,so as to provide technical support for pathogenic diagnosis and scientific research of goat schistoso?miasis japonica. Methods According to the body features of goat in marshland regions,a goat fecal collector,which was made of coarse fabric cottons,was devised,which was able to be fixed onto the goat buttocks and avoid urine pollution. Prior to mira?cidium hatching test,the goat fecal samples were pieced by using a mechanical method instead of the conventional artificial piec? ing method,and the effect of mechanical piecing treatment on miracidium hatching was evaluated. A filter membrane was added between the tube and rubbery ring to block the floater in fecal residues into the tube. The effects on miracidium hatching by us?ing thin fat?free cotton,thick fat?free cotton,nylon gauze at 100 pores/25.4 mm2 and 150 pores/25.4 mm2 were compared. Re?sults The goat feces collector was composed of foreleg fixing garment,hindleg fixing garment and stool bag. The functions of the fixing garment were as a fixed collector to allow non?shift and tolerance of weight during goat activity ,while the major func?tion of stool bag was in storage of stool. The goat activity was not influenced by the use of collector ,and all fecal samples were ex?creted to the bag. This collector was easy to perform and could avoid urine pollution,which was reusable after cleaning. Prior to miracidium hatching,the goat fecal samples,together with water,were pieced at 18 000 to 23 000 r/min for successive three times in a cooking machine,of 10 s each time at an interval of 5 s. Mechanical piecing had no clear?cut effect on miracidium hatching of eggs in fecal samples. A total of 541,620,344 and 211 miracidia were detected by using the miracidium hatching test with nylon gauze at 100 pores/25.4 mm2 and 150 pores/25.4 mm2,thin fat?free cotton and thick fat?free cotton respectively, indicating a better detection efficacy by using nylon gauze at 100 pores/25.4 mm2 and 150 pores/25.4 mm2. Conclusions The goat fecal collector is an easy?to?perform,accurate,unpolluted and reusable device to collect goat feces,which is suitable for pathogenic diagnosis of goat schistosomiasis. Mechanical piecing and use of nylon gauze at 150 pores/25.4 mm2 allow a simple, accurate and stable technique for parasitological diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica,which provides a reliable tool for schisto?somiasis control and research.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-502843

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the survival of Schistosoma japonicum eggs in goat feces in natural marshlands and the factors affecting its survival,so as to provide evidences for understanding of the role of eggs in goat feces in the transmission of schistosomiasis and the development of the interventions pertaining to disease control and elimination. Methods The goat ani?mals of schistosomiasis japonica were modeled in laboratory,and the feces of infected goat were collected. In laboratory,the ef?fects of environmental temperature and water content in goat feces on egg hatching were evaluated,and in the field,the effect of duration of goat feces on marshland on egg hatching and the effect of direct sunshine on egg survival were evaluated. Results At 25℃in laboratory,the hatching rate of eggs in goat feces was high?positively correlated with the water content in goat feces (r=0.87). If the water content reduced to 7.6%in goat feces,the eggs in goat feces lost the ability to hatch. Under the same wa?ter content in goat feces,the hatching rate of eggs gradually decreased with the extension of the duration of exposure of goat feces to-5℃,which reduced to 0 following 5 h exposure. At 5,15 and 25℃,the hatching rates of eggs gradually decreased with the extension of the duration of exposure of goat feces,and the miracidium hatching rates of eggs were 2.3%,5%and 0.9%respec?tively following the exposure for 52 d. At 35℃,the hatching rate of eggs gradually decreased with the extension of the duration of exposure,which reduced to 0 following 13 d exposure. In winter(-2?10℃),the hatching rate of eggs gradually decreased with the extension of the duration of exposure of goat feces on marshlands,which reduced to 0 after 21 d of exposure,and in spring(16?19℃),the hatching rate of eggs gradually decreased with the extension of the duration of exposure of goat feces on marshlands,which reduced to 0.9%after 5 d of exposure. At the same time point on the same marshland,the hatching rate of eggs in goat feces exposed to marshlands with direct sunshine was lower than that without direct sunshine. Conclusion The sur?vival of S. japonicum eggs in goat feces is associated with environmental temperature and water content(humidity)in goat feces, and the temperature and humidity are major natural factors affecting egg hatching.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-495746

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the value of indirect hemagglutination test(IHA)in schistosomiasis diagnosis. Meth?ods The literature concerned schistosomiasis diagnosis with IHA in the databases of Medline,CNKI,VIP and Wanfang Data from 1982 to 2014 was collected and evaluated. Results Totally 21 articles which were satisfied with the research criteria were analyzed with the Meta?analysis method. The IHA method had high value in schistosomiasis diagnosis,the AUCSROC of IHA in laboratory evaluation was 0.990 6,while in filed evaluation was 0.832 9,and the difference between them was significant(Z=4.50,P<0.05). Conclusion The diagnosis value of IHA in field evaluation is less than that in laboratory. In the process of the elimination of schistosomiasis,developing a new and higher sensitive reagent in schistosomiasis diagnosis is needed.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-463784

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease which is socioeconomically devastating and a significant cause of morbidity in endemic countries or regions. Some countries and regions have brought down the prevalence of schistosomiasis through positive prevention and control programs. However in the past few years with the social and economic development and globalization re?emergence and spread of schistosomiasis led to a growing concern that new endemic areas may occur. This article analyzes the epidemiological situation and the strategies to control schistosomiasis in China and African countries.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-467974

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of ditching for drain on the control of the breed of Oncomelania hupensis snails in beaches of Dongting Lake. Methods From November,2009 to November,2012,an O. hupensis snail infested beach of the Yueyang jail and an O. hupensis snail infested beach of Junshan District were selected as research fields in the eastern Dongting Lake area,and the former,as the intervention field,was performed with the ditching for drain by excavators and the latter,as the control field,was not. Results Before the project implemented,the average soil moisture contents on the beaches in dry seasons of the two fields were both about 35.56%. After the project implemented,in the intervention field,the average soil mois?ture content was 26.53%which was significantly lower than that(35.56%)in the control field(F=6.53,P0.05),and after the project implemented(in 2012),no adult and young snails were found in the interventional field,but in the control field,the average densities of living snails and young snails were 29.37 snails/0.1 m2 and 213±108.45 snails/0.1 m2 respectively. Conclusion The intervention of ditching for drain can decrease the soil moisture contents quickly and change the ecological condition,therefore,can control the breed of O. hupensis snails in the beaches of Dongting Lake.

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