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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256486, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364500

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study explores the antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the extracts of four locally available weeds plants namely Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua and Phalaris minor with different solvents. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined via various in-vitro methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA), reducing power (RP), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening was performed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined through Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Methanol-chloroform solvent showed the presence of a high amount of TPC in milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW) in the extracts of all weeds. Their descending sequence was Avena fatua (74.09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65.66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64.04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61.905), while, chloroform solvent found to be best solvent for the extraction of TFC. Methanol-chloroform solvent was also found to be best solvent for TAA (Total antioxidant activity assay) which showed values in milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of AAE /g of DW), for DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power (antioxidant activity) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in these weeds.


Resumo Este estudo investiga a atividade antioxidante, a triagem fitoquímica, os teores de fenólicos totais e de flavonoides nos extratos de quatro plantas daninhas disponíveis localmente, quais sejam, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua e Phalaris minor com diferentes solventes. As atividades antioxidantes desses extratos foram determinadas por meio de vários métodos in vitro, tais como atividade antioxidante total (TAA), poder redutor (RP), sequestro de radicais livres DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-Picril-hidrazil) e ensaios de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica foi realizada tanto qualitativamente quanto quantitativamente. O teor de fenólicos totais (TPC) e o teor de flavonoides totais (TFC) foram determinados pelos métodos do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e do cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio mostrou a presença de elevada quantidade de TPC em miligramas de ácido gálico equivalente por grama de peso seco (mg de GAE/g de DW) nos extratos de todas as plantas daninhas. Sua sequência descendente foi Avena fatua (74,09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65,66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64,04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61,905), enquanto o solvente clorofórmio foi o melhor solvente para a extração de TFC. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio também foi considerado o melhor solvente para AAT (ensaio de atividade antioxidante total), que apresentou valores em miligramas de equivalente de ácido ascórbico por grama de peso seco (mg de AAE/g de DW), para atividade sequestrante de DPPH, RP (atividade antioxidante) e atividade de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de polifenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, alcaloides e glicosídeos nessas plantas daninhas.

2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 118-121, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363788

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo en el Hospital Garrahan, cuyos objetivos fueron conocer la portación asintomática del coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés) en niños oncológicos y/o en sus cuidadores al hospitalizarse para realizar quimioterapia, y describir el impacto en la continuación del tratamiento en aquellos con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2 o con síntomas compatibles con la infección por el virus durante la internación. Se incluyeron los pacientes con enfermedad oncohematológica y sus cuidadores, a quienes se les realizó una prueba de detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa. Se analizaron 733 hospitalizaciones. La tasa de positividad para SARS-CoV-2 fue del 2,2 % (IC95%: 1,35-3,52). Todos los pacientes con prueba detectable completaron la quimioterapia. El 7,7 % de los pacientes presentó síntomas compatibles de caso sospechoso con prueba no detectable y el 77 % de ellos pudo continuar su tratamiento.


An observational, prospective study was carried out at Hospital Garrahan. Its objectives were to establishtherateofasymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children with cancer and/or their caregivers during hospitalization for chemotherapy, and describe the impact of ongoing treatment among those positive for SARS-CoV-2 or with symptoms compatible with infection during hospitalization. Patients with onco-hematological disease and their caregivers were included. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was done. A total of 733 hospitalizations were analyzed. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 2.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.35-3.52). All patients with a detectable test result completed chemotherapy. Also, 7.7% of patients developed symptoms compatible with a suspected case although they had an undetectable test result, and 77% of them were able to continue treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1097-1106, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364675

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Denver II tem como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de crianças entre 0 e 6 anos de idade. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores, validade concorrente, sensibilidade e especificidade da versão brasileira do Denver II. Estudo metodológico transversal. Participaram 254 crianças, entre 0 e 72 meses, com risco para atraso no desenvolvimento. Dois examinadores verificaram a confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores do Denver II. Validade concorrente, sensibilidade e especificidade foram verificadas com relação à versão brasileira do Ages & Stages Questionnaires como teste de critério. Análise estatística utilizou o Intraclass Correlation Coeficiente, Teste de Correlação de Spearman e Tabela de Contingência, nível de significância α=0.05. Os resultados identificaram que a confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores foi excelente em toda a amostra. A validade concorrente apresentou índices moderados a muito fortes entre 13 e 60 meses. Índices de sensibilidade e especificidade variaram de 73-99% e 58-92%, respectivamente. A versão brasileira do Denver II apresenta bons índices de propriedades psicométricas sendo um instrumento confiável e válido para ser aplicado em crianças brasileiras sob risco de atraso no desenvolvimento.


Abstract The scope of the Denver II Developmental Screening Test is to assess the development of children between 0 and 6 years of age. The aim of this study was to verify evidence of intra- and inter-examiner reliability, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Brazilian version of Denver II. It involved a cross-sectional methodological study. A total of 254 children, between 0 and 72 months with risk of developmental delay, participated in the study. Two examiners verified the Denver II intra- and inter-examiner reliability. Concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity were checked against the Brazilian version of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires as a criterion-referenced test. Statistical analysis used the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Spearman's Correlation Test and Contingency Table, the level of significance being α=0.05. The results identified that intra and inter examiner reliability was excellent in all age groups. Concurrent validity showed moderate to very strong rates in the 13-to-60-month age group. The sensitivity and specificity indices ranged from 73-99% and 58-92%, respectively. The Brazilian version of Denver II has good rates of psychometric properties and is a reliable and valid instrument to be applied to Brazilian children at risk of developmental delay.

4.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 26(1): 125-131, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364917

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction All patients with a new head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) undergo diagnostic panendoscopy as part of the screening for synchronous second primary tumors. It includes a pharyngolaryngoscopy (PLS), a tracheobronchoscopy and esophagoscopy, and a stomatoscopy. Rigid techniques are risky, with long learning curves. Objective We propose a precise description of the panendoscopy protocol. We include an optimization of the PLS technique that completes the flexible esophagoscopy when rigid esophagoscopy isn't performed. Methods The present retrospective observational study includes 122 consecutive patients with a new primary HNSCC who underwent traditional panendoscopy and the new PLS technique between January 2014 and December 2016. A two-step procedure using a Macintosh laryngoscope and a 30° telescope first exposes panoramically the larynx, the upper trachea, and the oropharynx; then, in a second step, the hypopharynx is exposed down to the upper esophageal sphincter. Broncho-esophagoscopy is performed with a rigid and flexible scope. Results In total, 6 (5%) patients presented synchronous tumors (3 in the esophagus, 2 in the oral cavity, and 1 in the larynx 1). Rigid endoscopy was complicated by 2 (1,6%) dental lesions, and had to be completed with a flexible scope in 38 (33%) cases for exposition reasons. The two-step PLS offered a wide-angle view of the larynx, upper trachea, and oroand hypopharynx down to the sphincter of the upper esophagus. The procedure was easy, reliable, safe, repeatable, and effectively completed the flexible endoscopies. Conclusion Rigid esophagoscopy remains a difficult procedure. Two-step PLS combined with flexible broncho-esophagoscopy offers good optical control.

5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(1): 81-90, feb. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365132

ABSTRACT

Resumen La retinopatía diabética es uno de los grandes problemas que enfrenta la salud pública en el siglo XXI. La prevalencia mundial se encuentra en constante aumento; sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la frecuencia de esta enfermedad en la Argentina. Los programas de tele-oftalmología han ayudado a combatir y a comprender mejor esta enfermedad, principalmente en áreas rurales. El objetivo del siguiente tra bajo fue estimar la prevalencia de la retinopatía diabética en la provincia de La Pampa. Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal, evaluando las características de la población asistida por un programa de tele-oftalmología en la zona rural de la provincia. Se evaluaron imágenes de retina obtenidas con un retinógrafo no midriático, la presión intraocular y características generales de la población. Se estimó una prevalencia del 21.5% y un 14.1% de estas personas tenían una amenaza visual grave. Además, se observó que el 5.0% tenían glaucoma, 63.4% hipertensión arterial y 42.6% dislipemia. Estos resultados son similares a los presentados en otros países del mundo. Son datos fundamentales para comprender detalles de la situación epidemiológica en esta región y poder armar estrategias sanitarias para enfrentar a esta enfermedad.


Abstract Diabetic retinopathy is one of the major problems public health is facing in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence is increasing; however, little is known about the frequency of this disease in Argentina. Tele-ophthalmology programs have helped to face and to better understand this disease, mainly in rural areas. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the province of La Pampa. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out, evaluating the characteristics of the population assisted by a tele-ophthalmology program in a rural area of the province. The images, taken with a non-mydriatic retinal camera, the intraocular pressure and general characteristics of the population were evaluated. A disease prevalence of 21.5% was estimated and 14.1% of them had a vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. In addition, it was observed that 5.0% had glaucoma, 63.4% hypertension and 42.6% dyslipidemia. These findings are similar to those reported in other countries around the world. These data are fundamental to understand the details of the epidemiological situation in this region and to be able to develop health strategies to deal with this disease.

6.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 13-16, Jan.-Mar. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364907

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Soon after the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, viral screening by nasopharyngeal swab became mandatory for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donor eligibility. Methods We described our monocenter experience with allogeneic HSC donors from February 1 to the October 31, 2020 to verify whether the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 screening altered the donor eligibility and/or entailed a prolongation of the evaluation process. Results A total of 21 allogeneic HSC donors were screened during the above-mentioned period upon request by the local transplant physicians or by the Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry; among the HSC donors (n = 17) who completed the eligibility process and further received the nasopharyngeal swab, all but one were negative for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. The positive donor remained asymptomatic for the whole duration of the infection, which lasted six weeks. However, he was temporarily excluded from donation. The median duration of the evaluation process was not significantly different, compared to the same period of 2019 (p-value = 0.11). Conclusion The mandatory SARS-CoV-2 screening in allogeneic HSC donors allowed for the detection of 6% positivity in this monocenter series over a 9-month period. Despite the inconvenience of this unexpected non-eligibility, the exclusion of a SARS-CoV-2 positive donor represented an important safety measure for the donor, with respect to a new and still partially unknown virus. The screening did not alter the length of the donor evaluation and thus, did not cause a delay in the eligibility process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , Mass Screening
7.
Adv Rheumatol ; 62: 1, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355589

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) as a screening tool for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients in a rheumatology-screening program. Patients and methods: To raise awareness for rheumatic diseases, a mobile rheumatology office was deployed in different cities of Germany ("Rheuma-Truck"). Standardized questionnaire assessment, testing for rheumatoid factor and citrullinated peptide antibodies and medical student driven MSUS of the clinically dominant hand/foot including wrist, MCP-II, -III, -V, PIP-II, -III, MTP-II and -V were offered free of charge to the population. In case of suspicious results, a rheumatologist was consulted. Results: In MSUS, 192 of 560 selected volunteers (aged 18-89, mean 52.7 years; 72.9% female) had suspicious findings including synovitis or erosions primarily affecting the MTP-II (11.8%), dorsal wrist (8.9%), and MCP-II (7%). 354 of the 560 volunteers further visited a rheumatologist of whom 76 were diagnosed with RA. According to the 'US7 Score', a sum scores ≥ 5 was significantly predictive for RA (odds ratio (OR) 5.06; confidence interval (CI) 0.83-35.32). 313 volunteers displayed signs of OA including osteophytes, while MCP-II (36.2%), MCP-III (14.8%), and the wrist (10.5%) were mostly affected. Diagnosis of RA was favoured over OA if the wrist (OR 4.2; CI 1.28-13.95), MTP-II (OR 1.62; CI 1.0-2.6), and MCP-V (OR 2.0; CI 1.0-3.8) were involved. Conclusion: Medical student driven MSUS by the 'US7 Score' can facilitate diagnosis of RA in rheumatology-screening programs due to the level of the score and the affected joints. A high rate of unknown OA signs was detected by MSUS. A mobile rheumatology office displays an opportunity to screen patients for RA and OA.

8.
CoDAS ; 34(2): e20200331, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356146

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo visa conhecer o cenário atual da atuação fonoaudiológica em serviços de TAN no Brasil, identificando seus obstáculos e perspectivas, bem como verificar a adequação dos Programas de TAN nacionais aos indicadores de qualidade pré-estabelecidos. Método Estudo observacional analítico, realizado com fonoaudiólogos no exercício da TAN no Brasil, entre agosto de 2018 e agosto de 2019, por meio de um questionário online estruturado. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e correlacionais dos dados no programa SPSS versão 22.0. Resultados A prática efetiva da TAN entre os profissionais não foi condizente, na sua totalidade, com os protocolos oficiais. 48,5% dos fonoaudiólogos afirmaram interrupção da TAN em algum momento nos locais de trabalho, principalmente pela necessidade de reparo do equipamento (64,7%). Quanto aos registros do fluxo e dados de atendimento, que contemplam os indicadores de qualidade, houve maior controle do número total de neonatos que realizaram a TAN (87,9%) e menor controle quanto aos resultados falsos positivos (21,2%). 81,8% dos fonoaudiólogos afirmaram ter disponibilidade para utilizar um sistema para registro e controle de dados da TAN. Conclusão Apesar de as práticas dos profissionais estarem em geral condizentes com protocolos oficiais, a não linearidade do processo e a falta de controle dos dados constituem obstáculos importantes para a qualidade dos serviços de TAN. A maioria dos programas de TAN nacionais apresentados não cumprem os indicadores de qualidade pré-estabelecidos. Considera-se que a informatização dos registros poderá beneficiar os profissionais e potencializar a implementação da TAN como prevista na legislação e políticas públicas nacionais.


ABSTRACT Purpose This study aims to know the current scenario of speech audiology therapy activities at NHS in Brazil, identifying its obstacles and perspectives, as well as verifying the adequacy of national NHS Programs to the pre-established quality indicators. Methods Analytical observational study, carried out with speech therapists in the exercise of NHS in Brazil, between August 2018 and August 2019, through a structured online questionnaire. Descriptive and correlational analyzes of the data were performed using the SPSS version 22.0 program. Results The effective practice of NHS was not entirely consistent with official protocols. 48.5% of speech therapists stated that NHS interruption at some point in the workplace, especially due to the need to repair the equipment (64.7%). As for the flow records and care-related data, which include quality indicators there was greater control over the total number of neonates who underwent NHS (87.9%) and less control over false-positive results (21.2%). 81.8% of speech-language-hearing therapists said they were available to use a system for recording and controlling NHS data. Conclusion Although professionals' practices are generally consistent with official protocols, the non-linearity of the process and the lack of data control are important obstacles to the quality of NHS services. Most of the national NHS programs presented do not meet the pre-established quality indicators. It is considered that the computerization of records can benefit professionals and enhance the implementation of NHS provided for in Brazilian laws and public policies.

9.
Acta de Otorrinolaringología Cir. Cabeza cuello. ; 50(1): 51-57, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363384

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la hipoacusia neonatal (HN) constituye un problema de salud relevante por su alta frecuencia de presentación y los efectos que esta puede tener en el desarrollo mental y psicológico del paciente. El tamizaje auditivo neonatal (TAN) es fundamental para la identificación de pacientes en riesgo de HN. Objetivo: caracterización de los pacientes con resultados anormales en las pruebas de TAN en el Hospital Universitario Clínica San Rafael. Diseño: estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal. Materiales y métodos: se identificaron características biológicas y clínicas en pacientes con emisiones otoacústicas o potenciales evocados auditivos anormales realizados entre 2018 y 2020. Los pacientes incluidos se dividieron en 2 grupos, según la presencia de los factores de riesgo para HN. Resultados: 9027 pacientes se tamizaron, 223 (24,7 %) tuvieron resultados anormales y 19 pacientes se excluyeron. En total, 204 pacientes se incluyeron, de los cuales 46 (22,5 %) fueron de alto riesgo (AR) y 158 (77,5 %) de bajo riesgo (BR). El TAN en pacientes BR se realizó antes del primer mes de vida en 78,5 % de los casos y en 21,4 % de los AR. Las características más frecuentes fueron la ventilación mecánica (45,6 %), la hospitalización en cuidados intensivos (43,5 %), la anormalidad craneofacial (15,2 %) y la hiperbilirrubinemia mayor de 20 mg/dL (10,8 %). Conclusiones: se deben optimizar los esfuerzos y recursos para realizar las pruebas de tamizaje auditivo antes del primer mes de vida al 100% de pacientes. Se deben realizar estudios complementarios para identificar los diagnósticos auditivos finales de los pacientes con resultados anormales, así como el tipo de tratamiento y la rehabilitación auditiva recibida.


Introduction: Neonatal hearing loss (NHL) is a relevant health problem due to its high incidence and the effects it may have both on the mental and psychological development of the patient. Neonatal hearing screening (NHS) is essential for the identification of patients at risk of NHL. Objective: To identify the characteristics of patients with abnormal NHS test results at the Hospital Universitario Clínica San Rafael. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive observational study. Materials and methods: Biological and clinical characteristics were identified in patients with abnormal otoacoustic emissions and/or auditory evoked potentials (AEP) performed between 2018 and 2020. Patients involved were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of risk factors for NHL. Results: 9027 patients were screened, 223 (24.7%) had abnormal results, but 19 patients were excluded. 204 patients were included in total, 46 (22.5%) of which were high risk (HR) and 158 (77.5%) were low risk (LR). NHS in LR patients was performed before the first month of life on 78.5% of cases and 21.4% of HR patients. The most frequent characteristics were mechanical ventilation (45.6%), intensive care unit admission (43.5%), craniofacial abnormality (15.2%) and hyperbilirubinemia greater than 20 mg/dL (10.8%). Conclusion: Efforts and resources should be optimized as means to perform hearing screening tests before the first month of life on 100% of patients. Complementary studies should be performed with the aim to identify the final auditory diagnoses of patients with abnormal results, as well as the type of treatment and auditory rehabilitation offered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hearing Loss , Neonatal Screening , Evoked Potentials, Auditory
10.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 10: e20210024, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365066

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a correctable inborn error of metabolism which causes lethal intellectual delay and neurobehavioral anomalies. A screening package, especially for early recognition can support to regulate the PKU process of most patients. New-born screening program in any country focuses at the earliest detection of inheritance deficiency disorders in order to avoid the most severe repercussion by appropriate medication. This screening program needs a concomitant diagnosis and involves additional clinical research. Strategies from developed countries recommend that new-born screening should be done as soon as possible after birth before hospital/clinic discharge because if detected later, it conveys to significantly increase in disability as well as morbidity. Although exact protocol differs among different countries, testing procedures for PKU should be followed universally recognized in the developed world. Unfortunately, new-born screening program in Bangladesh is in lying-in room or possibly in pilot study in particular hospital, because the health-care system is classically targeted mortality (like childbirth complications) and transmittable morbidities (such as COVID-19) but not inborn frailties. Although policies and management of childbirth complications have been successfully lowered infant and mother mortality rates, the number of disabled babies increased tremendously. The study aims to investigate the current status of new-born screening (NBS) program of PKU in the Rajshahi Division Bangladesh, and focus on future plans to manage with life-long treatment. The primary challenges such as financial support for newborn screening, publicity, should be identified and implemented for national PKU-NBS policy as a role model of Bangladesh for developing countries.

11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210402, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365147

ABSTRACT

Diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites affect millions of people mainly living in developing countries. Novel drugs are highly needed since there are no vaccines and available treatment has several limitations, such as resistance, low efficacy, and high toxicity. The drug discovery process is often analogous to finding a needle in the haystack. In the last decades a so-called rational drug design paradigm, heavily dependent on computational approaches, has promised to deliver new drugs in a more cost-effective way. Paradoxically however, the mainstay of these computational methods is data-driven, meaning they need activity data for new compounds to be generated and available in databases. Therefore, high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds still is a much-needed exercise in drug discovery to fuel other rational approaches. In trypanosomatids, due to the scarcity of validated molecular targets and biological complexity of these parasites, phenotypic screening has become an essential tool for the discovery of new bioactive compounds. In this article we discuss the perspectives of phenotypic HTS for trypanosomatid drug discovery with emphasis on the role of image-based, high-content methods. We also propose an ideal cascade of assays for the identification of new drug candidates for clinical development using leishmaniasis as an example.

12.
CoDAS ; 34(3): e20200380, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the accuracy of smartphone apps to identify hearing loss. Research strategies A systematic review followed the PRISMA-DATA checklist. The search strategies were applied across four databases (Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) and grey literature (Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis). Selection criteria The acronym PIRD was used in review. This included populations of any gender and all age groups. The Index test is the smartphone-based hearing screening test; the Reference test is the pure-tone audiometry, which is considered the gold reference for hearing diagnostics; the diagnosis was performed via validity data (sensitivity and specificity) to identify hearing loss and diagnostic studies. Data analysis Two reviewers selected the studies in a two-step process. The risk of bias was assessed according to the criteria of the QUADAS-2. Results Of 1395 articles, 104 articles were eligible for full-text reading and 17 were included. Only four met all criteria for methodological quality. All of the included studies were published in English between 2015 and 2020. The applications Digits-in noise Test (5 articles), uHear (4 articles), HearScreen (2 articles), hearTest (2 articles) and Hearing Test (2 articles) were the most studied. All this application showed sensitivity and specificity values between 75 and 100%. The other applications were EarScale, uHearing Test, Free field hearing (FFH) and Free Hearing Test. Conclusion uHear, Digit-in-Noise Test, HearTest and HearScreen have shown significant values of sensitivity and specificity and can be considered as the most accurate methods for screening of hearing impairment.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a acurácia dos aplicativos de smartphone para identificar a perda auditiva. Estratégias de pesquisa Uma revisão sistemática seguiu o checklist PRISMA-DATA. As estratégias de busca foram aplicadas nos bancos de dados Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus e Web of Science e na literatura cinzenta (Google Scholar, OpenGrey e ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis). Critérios de seleção O anacrônimo PIRD foi usado na revisão. Incluiu populações de qualquer gênero e todas as faixas etárias. O teste Index foi o de triagem auditiva baseado em smartphone; o teste de referência foi a audiometria tonal; o diagnóstico foi realizado por meio de dados de validade (sensibilidade e especificidade) para identificação da perda auditiva e estudos diagnósticos. Análise de dados Dois revisores selecionaram os estudos em um processo de duas etapas. O risco de viés foi avaliado de acordo com os critérios do QUADAS-2. Resultados De 1395 artigos, 104 artigos foram elegíveis para leitura de texto completo e 17 foram incluídos. Apenas quatro preencheram todos os critérios de qualidade metodológica. Todos os estudos incluídos foram publicados em inglês entre 2015 e 2020. Os aplicativos mais estudados foram: Digits-in-noise (5 artigos), uHear (4 artigos), HearScreen (2 artigos), hearTest (2 artigos) e Hearing Test (2 artigos). Todos apresentaram valores de sensibilidade e especificidade entre 75 e 100%. Os outros aplicativos foram EarScale, uHearing, Free Field Hearing e teste Free Hearing. Conclusão uHear, Digit-in-Noise Test, HearTest e HearScreen apresentaram valores significativos de sensibilidade e especificidade e podem ser considerados os métodos mais precisos para rastreamento de deficiência auditiva.

13.
CoDAS ; 34(4): e20200403, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360364

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar as etapas de um programa de saúde auditiva, da triagem ao encaminhamento para reabilitação, segundo os indicadores de qualidade de programas de triagem neonatal. Método Trata-se de um estudo de coorte, observacional e retrospectivo, constituído por todos os neonatos inscritos no Sistema de Informação Municipal de Mogi Mirim/SP, de 2010 a 2016. Além dos dados que constam no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos, foram analisados idade do neonato no primeiro teste, resultado dos testes, do diagnóstico e encaminhamento para reabilitação. A análise dos dados foi feita segundo os critérios de indicadores de qualidade das diretrizes de atenção à triagem auditiva neonatal, por meio de programa estatístico. Resultados Participaram 7.800 neonatos e com relação à análise dos indicadores de qualidade do programa foram obtidos os seguintes resultados: 1) Etapa da TAN: 97% de cobertura do primeiro teste; 91% dos neonatos com até 30 dias de vida; 2) Etapa do Diagnóstico: 0,24% encaminhados após falharem no segundo teste; 94,73% de adesão; 13,66% concluíram até os três meses de idade e 3) Etapa da Reabilitação: 100% iniciaram terapia fonoaudiológica imediatamente após o diagnóstico; 20% receberam o aparelho de amplificação sonora individual com até um mês do diagnóstico. Conclusão O programa, realizado em nível ambulatorial, atingiu as recomendações das Diretrizes do Ministério da Saúde com relação à cobertura e idade do primeiro exame, idade da triagem até um mês de vida, encaminhamento para diagnóstico e início da intervenção. Tais resultados só puderam ser obtidos com o apoio institucional do município.


ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze the stages of a hearing health program, from screening to referral for rehabilitation, based on the quality indicators for neonatal screening programs. Methods This is a cohort, observational, retrospective study encompassing all newborns included in the Municipal Information System of Mogi Mirim, São Paulo, from 2010 to 2016. Besides the data present in the Information System on Live Newborns, the newborn's age at the first test, test and diagnosis results, and referrals for rehabilitation were analyzed, based on the quality indicator criteria recommended by the Neonatal Hearing Screening Care Guidelines, with a statistical program. Results A total of 7,800 newborns participated. The following results were obtained in the analysis of the program quality indicators: 1) Neonatal hearing screening stage: 97% coverage in the first test; 91% of newborns by 30 days old; 2) Diagnosis stage: 0.24% referred after failing the second test; 94.73% adherence; 13.66% confirmed diagnosis by 3 months old; 3) Rehabilitation stage: 100% began speech-language-hearing therapy immediately after the diagnosis; 20% received the hearing aid within 1 month from diagnosis. Conclusion The program, conducted in an outpatient setting, met the recommendations of the guidelines presented by the Ministry of Health concerning the coverage and age at first examination, age at screening up to 1 month old, referral for diagnosis, and beginning the intervention. These results were obtained thanks to institutional support from the municipality.

14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(1): e20210371, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360543

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Lung cancer screening (LCS) programs are increasing worldwide. Incidental findings (IFs) on LCS are defined as low-dose CT findings unrelated to the primary purpose of identifying lung cancer. Most IFs on LCS are benign and clinically insignificant but are being increasingly recognized, and some require urgent referral for further diagnostic workup. Other findings are expected and are known as smoking-related comorbidities, including COPD, cardiovascular disease, emphysema, and interstitial lung disease, and their diagnosis can have a significant impact on patient prognosis. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the most common IFs on LCS, organized by organ. We will discuss the current literature on IFs on LCS, focusing on their prevalence, appropriate communication, and triggering of clinical pathway systems.


RESUMO Os programas de rastreamento de câncer de pulmão (RCP) estão aumentando em todo o mundo. Achados incidentais (AI) no RCP são achados de TC de baixa dose sem relação com o propósito principal de identificar câncer de pulmão. A maioria dos AI no RCP é benigna e clinicamente insignificante, mas os AI estão sendo cada vez mais reconhecidos, e alguns requerem encaminhamento urgente para investigação diagnóstica adicional. Outros achados são esperados e conhecidos como comorbidades relacionadas ao tabagismo, tais como DPOC, doença cardiovascular, enfisema e doença pulmonar intersticial, e seu diagnóstico pode ter um impacto significativo no prognóstico do paciente. O propósito deste ensaio pictórico é ilustrar os AI mais comuns no RCP, organizados por órgão/sistema. Discutiremos a literatura atual a respeito de AI no RCP, com foco em sua prevalência, comunicação apropriada e desencadeamento de procedimentos clínicos.

15.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 10: e20210033, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360545

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fabry disease is a metabolic alteration linked to an enzymatic deficiency of Alpha-Galactosidase A, this disorder compromises the sphingolipid metabolism, leading to an accumulation of lysosomal globotriaosylceramide and is inherited in an X-linked recessive way. The diagnostic of this disease, in general, requires the confirmation of below-normal levels of Alpha-Galactosidase A obtained from dried blood spot (DBS) samples, followed by an assessment of the enzyme in leukocytes. We aimed to report the Alpha-Galactosidase A values obtained in Colombian males with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) screened using dried blood spot samples during ten years. This screening was performed with samples sent to the analysis center from 6156 patients between 2006- 2016. All patients with low levels in enzyme activity (compared to the control population) were sent to confirmation through enzyme analysis in isolated leukocytes. 26 males (0.42%) with low levels of Alpha-Galactosidase A were identified (Range 0.0 - 1.14 nmol/ml/hour, cut-off: 1.15), 22 patients were subsequently measured in isolated leukocytes having a confirmation of Fabry disease in 5 patients (0.08% of total male population) (Range: 0.3 -4.7 nmol/mg prot/h). These results are similar to those reported in studies with comparable characteristics being this the first reporting frequency of Fabry disease among Colombian males with end-stage renal disease.

16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(1): e20201217, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341041

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the understanding of mothers about sickle cell disease and/or trait of the family from a diagnosed child. Methods: this is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview with 23 mothers, at a sickle cell disease outpatient clinic of a public institution, from October to December 2017. Analysis was thematic. Results: all participants had sickle cell trait as well as the parents of their children. Twenty children were diagnosed with sickle cell disease by Heel Prick Test, and three, after hospitalization due to the disease. Most did not know how to report the presence of the trait or disease in relatives other than nuclear. Final considerations: diagnosis cannot be restricted to the result of neonatal screening, requiring that preventive information on sickle cell crises be reinforced. It is recommended to search for other affected relatives to learn about their genetic condition, reflecting on their reproductive decisions.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el entendimiento de las madres sobre células y/o anemia falciformes de la familia del niño diagnosticado. Métodos: se trata de un estudio cualitativo, mediante entrevista semiestructurada a 23 madres, en el ambulatorio de anemia falciforme de una institución pública, de octubre a diciembre de 2017. El análisis fue temático. Resultados: todos los participantes tenían células falciformes, así como los padres de sus hijos. Veinte niños fueron diagnosticados con anemia de células falciformes mediante la prueba de punción del talón y tres, después de la hospitalización debido a la enfermedad. La mayoría no sabía cómo informar la presencia de células o anemia en miembros de la familia distintos del nuclear. Consideraciones finales: el diagnóstico no puede restringirse al resultado del cribado neonatal, requiriendo que se refuerce la información preventiva sobre las crisis drepanocíticas. Se recomienda buscar a otros familiares afectados para conocer su condición genética, reflexionando sobre sus decisiones reproductivas.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o entendimento de mães acerca da condição do traço e/ou doença falciforme da família a partir da criança diagnosticada. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, sendo utilizada entrevista semiestruturada, com 23 mães, no ambulatório de doença falciforme de uma instituição pública, no período de outubro a dezembro de 2017. A análise foi temática. Resultados: todos os participantes tinham traço falciforme, bem como os pais dos seus filhos. Vinte crianças foram diagnosticadas com doença falciforme pelo teste do pezinho, e três, após hospitalização decorrente da doença. A maioria não sabia informar a presença do traço ou doença em outros membros da família que não a nuclear. Considerações finais: o diagnóstico não pode ficar restrito ao resultado da triagem neonatal, necessitando que as informações preventivas de crises falcêmicas sejam reforçadas. Recomenda-se a busca de outros membros da família afetados para conhecimento da sua condição genética, refletindo sobre suas decisões reprodutivas.

17.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(3): e20210050, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to measure the frequency and compliance of breast cancer screening, according to the risk for this disease. Methods: a cross-sectional study with 950 female users of 38 public Primary Health Care services in São Paulo, between October and December 2013. According to UHS criteria, participants were grouped into high risk and standard risk, and frequency, association (p≤0.05), and screening compliance were measured. Results: 6.7% had high risk and 93.3% standard risk, respectively; in these groups, the frequency and compliance of clinical breast examination were 40.3% and 37.1%, and 43.5% and 43.0% (frequency p=0.631, compliance p=0.290). Mammograms were 67.7% and 35.5% for participants at high risk, and 57.4% and 25.4% for those at standard risk (frequency p=0.090, compliance p=0.000). Conclusions: in the groups, attendance and conformity of the clinical breast exam were similar; for mammography, it was higher in those at high risk, with assertiveness lower than the 70% set in UHS.


RESUMEN Objetivos: mensurar frecuencia y conformidad de rastreo del cáncer mamario, segundo riesgo para esa enfermedad. Métodos: estudio transversal con 950 usuarias de 38 servicios de Atención Primaria púbicos en São Paulo, entre octubre y diciembre de 2013. Segundo criterios del SUS, agruparon las participantes en riesgo elevado y riesgo-estándar, y mensurado frecuencia, relación (p≤0,05) y conformidad del rastreo. Resultados: 6,7% tenían riesgo elevado y 93,3% riesgo-estándar, respectivamente; en eses grupos, la frecuencia y conformidad del examen clínico mamario fueron de 40,3% y 37,1% y de 43,5% y 43,0% (frecuencia, p=0,631; conformidad, p=0,290). Realización de mamografía alcanzó porcentuales de 67,7% y 35,5% para participantes con riesgo elevado, y de 57,4% y 25,4% en con riesgo-estándar (frecuencia, p=0,090; conformidad, p=0,000). Conclusiones: En los grupos, la frecuencia y conformidad del examen clínico mamario fueron semejantes, para mamografía fue mayor en las con riesgo elevado, habiendo asertividad inferior a 70% pactados en el SUS.


RESUMO Objetivos: mensurar a frequência e conformidade de rastreio do câncer mamário segundo risco para esta doença. Métodos: estudo transversal em São Paulo, com 950 usuárias de 38 da atenção primária no SUS entre outubro a dezembro de 2013. Segundo critérios do SUS, as participantes foram agrupadas como risco elevado ou padrão e mensurou-se frequência, associação (p≤0,05) e conformidade do rastreio. Resultados: 6,7% tinha risco elevado e 93,3% risco padrão, respectivamente, nestes grupos a frequência e conformidade do exame clínico mamário foram de 40,3% e 37,1% e de 43,5% e 43,0% (frequência p=0,631, conformidade p=0,290). Realização de mamografia alcançou percentuais de 67,7 e 35,5 para as com risco elevado, e de 57,4 e 25,4 nas com risco padrão (frequência p=0,090, conformidade p=0,000). Conclusões: nos grupos, a frequência e conformidade do exame clínico mamário foram semelhantes, para mamografia foi maior nas com risco elevado, tendo assertividade inferior aos 70% pactuados no SUS.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907143

ABSTRACT

@#Along with the popularity of low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening, an increasing number of lung ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions are detected. The pathology of GGO could be benign, but persistent GGO indicates early-stage lung cancer. Distinct from traditional lung cancer, GGO-featured lung cancer is more common in the young, nonsmokers and females. GGO-featured lung cancer represents an indolent type of malignancy with a long time to intervene. However, there is still no consensus on the screening, pathology, surgical procedure, and postoperative surveillance of GGO-featured lung cancer. Therefore, we proposed a personalized treatment strategy for GGO-featured lung cancer. The screening for GGO-featured lung cancer should be conducted at young age and low frequency. Adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, lepidic, and non-lepidic growth patterns could present as GGO. The following issues should be taken into consideration while determining the treatment of GGO-featured lung cancer: avoiding treating benign disease as malignancies, avoiding treating early-stage disease as advanced-stage disease, avoiding treating indolent malignancy as aggressive malignancy, and choosing appropriate timing to receive surgery without affecting life tracks and career developments. Bronchoscope and bone scan are not necessary for preoperative examinations of GGO-featured lung adenocarcinoma. For selected patients, sublobar resection without mediastinal lymph node dissection might be sufficient. Intraoperative frozen section is an effective method to guide resection strategy. Given the excellent survival of GGO-featured lung cancer, a less intensive postoperative surveillance strategy may be sufficient.

19.
International Eye Science ; (12): 9-13, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906721

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To provide a scientific basis for the development of children's eye health measures in Binhu District of Wuxi City by understanding the visual development status of children aged 0-6 years old in the region.<p>METHODS: A total of 3 695 children of 0-6 years old from preschool children in Binhu District received quickly check of eye's refractive status by using the SureSight automatic screening refractor, and determine the results by referring to the refractive screening referral standard norm for each age groups offered by the US Welch Allyn company. All participating preschool children have completed a vision screening and a comprehensive eye examination. <p>RESULTS: The total of abnormal rate was 9.76%, suspicious rate was 5.40% in vision screened children, along with the age increase, the abnormal and suspicious detection rates had a tendency to rise, differences in vision screening results of each age group were statistically significant(χ<sup>2</sup>=15.913, <i>P</i>=0.014), and differences between boys and girls had no statistical significance(χ<sup>2</sup>=7.200, <i>P</i>=0.066). The highest proportion of abnormal vision was astigmatism(13.89%, 17.96%, 17.62%, 11.50%), followed by hyperopia(0.35%, 1.91%, 3.60%, 8.86%)and anisometropia(0.69%, 0.67%, 1.64%, 2.07%)in different age groups. Hyperopia(4.38%), myopia(0.82%), astigmatism(15.65%), anisometropia(1.42%)and any refractive(0.466%), these five types in the distribution of various age groups. The prevalence of astigmatism in preschool children in 0-3 years old were 6.94%(95%<i>CI</i>: 4.90%-9.00%)and the 3-4 years old were 8.98%(95%<i>CI</i>: 7.80%-10.20%), the 4-5 years old were 8.81%(95%<i>CI</i>: 7.70%-9.90%), the 5-6 years old were 5.75%(95%<i>CI</i>: 4.80%-6.70%). The prevalence of astigmatism in different age groups had no statistical difference(χ<sup>2</sup>=0.872, <i>P</i>=0.929).<p>CONCLUSION: Astigmatism was the most common type of ametropia in preschool children, followed by hyperopia and anisometropia. Although no myopia was found, it confirmed the previous research that myopia was not formed at early age. Preschool children vision screening and eye care should be implemented regularly.

20.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 515-520, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922944

ABSTRACT

Hepatobiliary tumor is a type of malignant tumor including primary liver cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder carcinoma. At present, hepatobiliary tumors have become the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, while the treatment methods for such tumors cannot effectively meet clinical needs. Therefore, it is a key scientific problem in this field to explore and develop the experimental technology of accurate drug screening for hepatobiliary tumors, find new strategies and methods for clinical treatment, and provide new ideas for early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of hepatobiliary tumors. This article introduces the latest research advances in the novel technologies for accurate drug screening for hepatobiliary tumor and their application potential by focusing on the construction of individualized pathological models of hepatobiliary tumor, drug screening technologies, the design and screening strategy of specific target drugs, and drug screening strategy based on artificial intelligence and big data analysis, as well as the directions for future development.

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