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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254174, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360213

ABSTRACT

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis is a vine species native to Brazil that is considered an unconventional food plant and a medicinal species whose phenolic compounds exert antioxidant activity. Since the production of metabolites is determined by environmental factors and leaf maturity, it is important to track these changes in order to determine the best time to harvest. This study aimed to verify whether leaf phenology and seasonality cause variations in the amount of phenolic compounds and in the antioxidant activity of this species. The leaves were collected in different seasons between September 2018 and April 2019, and separated according to maturity: young, mature, and senescent. Daily atmospheric temperature and rainfall data were used to characterize the collection period. The total phenolic content (TPC), determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was significantly higher in the young leaves collected in winter, a season of lower temperatures. These leaves showed 54.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (mg GAE 100 g-1DM). Other results averaged 25.6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. The highest antioxidant activity, assessed via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, regardless of leaf phenology, was observed in leaves harvested in autumn (73.7%) and winter (71.1%), seasons with lower rainfall. Leaves harvested in summer and spring had lower antioxidant action rates (54.3 e 37.5%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Thus, the phenolic composition of A. cordifolia, and consequently its activity on free radicals, varies seasonally in response to temperature and rainfall, and may or may not interact with the age of the leaves.


Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis é uma trepadeira nativa do Brasil considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional e uma espécie medicinal, cujos compostos fenólicos exercem ação antioxidante. Como a produção de metabólitos é determinada por fatores ambientais e pela maturidade das folhas, é importante acompanhar essas mudanças a fim de determinar a época de colheita. Neste estudo objetivou-se verificar se a fenologia foliar e a sazonalidade ocasionam variação na quantidade de compostos fenólicos e na ação antioxidante dessa espécie. As folhas foram coletadas em diferentes estações, entre setembro de 2018 e abril de 2019, e separadas conforme a maturidade: jovens, maduras e senescentes. Os dados diários de temperatura atmosférica e pluviosidade foram usados para caracterizar o período de coleta. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais (TPC), determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, foi significativamente maior nas folhas jovens coletadas no inverno, período caracterizado por temperaturas mais baixas. Estas folhas apresentaram 54,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico por 100 g de matéria seca (mg GAE 100 g-1DM) . A média dos outros resultados foi de 25,6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. A maior ação antioxidante, avaliada pelo método do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), foi observada em folhas colhidas no outono (73,7%) e inverno (71,1%), independentemente da fenologia foliar. Nestes períodos a pluviosidade foi menor. Folhas colhidas no verão e na primavera apresentaram menores percentuais de ação antioxidante (54,3 e 37,5%, respectivamente). Não houve correlação significativa entre o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Conclui-se que a composição fenólica de A. cordifolia e, consequentemente, sua ação sobre radicais livres, varia sazonalmente em resposta à temperatura e pluviosidade, podendo ou não interagir com a idade das folhas.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Seasons , Phenolic Compounds , Antioxidants
2.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382288

ABSTRACT

Guatemala es un país de gran diversidad biológica, la que ha permitido a diferentes investigadores de productos naturales, obtener resultados de interés y relevancia científica, principalmente sobre propiedades farmacológicas, sin embargo, hasta el momento se desconoce la estructura molecular, conformaciones y configuraciones exactas de muchos de los metabolitos secundarios responsables de dichas propiedades. Por lo tanto, en esta investigación se planteó como objetivo aislar y elucidar la estructura de un fenilpropanoide obtenido en las hojas de Piper patulum. El aislamiento se realizó por extracciones líquido-líquido y técnicas cromatográficas (cromatografía en columna -CC-), obteniendo .092 g del compuesto de interés. La elucidación se realizó por espectroscopía de masas, espectroscopia infrarroja -IR- y experimentos de resonancia magnética nuclear -RMN-, dando como resultado la estructura correspondiente a (E)-1,3,5-trimetoxi-2-(prop-1- enil) benceno. Posteriormente el fenilpropanoide presentó actividad antioxidante mediante la prueba cualitativa con 2,2- difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo -DPPH-.


Guatemala is a country of great biological diversity, which has led natural product researchers to obtain results of great interest and scientific relevance, mainly in pharmacological properties; However, the molecular structure, conformations, and configurations of many secondary metabolites responsible for these properties are unknown. In this research, the objective was to isolate and elucidate the structure of a phenylpropanoid obtained from in the leaves of Piper patulum. The isolation was carried out by liquid-liquid extractions and chromatographic techniques (Column Chromatography -CC-), obtaining .092 g. The elucidation was performed by mass spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy -IR- and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments-NMR-, the data obtained indicates the corresponding (E) -1,3,5-trimethoxy-2- (prop-1-enyl) benzene. Subsequently, the phenylpropanoid presented antioxidant activity through the qualitative test with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-DPPH

3.
rev. udca actual. divulg. cient ; 25(1): e1690, ene.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395197

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las plantas medicinales son de interés farmacéutico, debido a que tienen diferentes propiedades biológicas, entre las que se destaca, la actividad antioxidante y, de la cual, se conoce que existe una relación con la concentración de los compuestos fenólicos, por su capacidad de reducir los radicales libres. Es así, que se propuso evaluar la actividad antioxidante y la cuantificación de fenoles y flavonoides totales, de 11 extractos etanólicos de plantas, empleadas en la medicina tradicional, para el tratamiento de infecciones urinarias (IU). Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante, por los métodos de DPPH y FRAP y se cuantificó el contenido fenólico y de flavonoides, por el método Folin-Ciocalteu y tricloruro de aluminio, respectivamente. Se encontró que, de los 11 extractos evaluados, los que presentaron el mayor contenido de estos metabolitos y de potencial antioxidante fueron: Uncaria tomentosa, Sedum praealtum y Kohleria hirsuta. Este trabajo permitió contribuir al conocimiento fitoquímico y antioxidante de plantas, usadas para tratar IU y se sugiere que U. tomentosa, S. praealtum y K. hirsuta sean objeto de futuros estudios biodirigidos, así como la evaluación de otras actividades biológicas.


ABSTRACT Medicinal plants are of pharmaceutical interest because they possess different biological properties, among which their antioxidant activity stands out, and therefore it is known that there is a relationship with the concentration of phenolic compounds due to their ability to reduce free radicals. Therefore, it was proposed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and the quantification of phenols and flavonoids of 11 ethanolic extracts of plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of urinary infections (UI). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH and FRAP methods and the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum trichloride method, respectively. It was found that of the 11 extracts evaluated, those with the highest content of these metabolites and antioxidant potential were three: Uncaria tomentosa, Sedum praealtum and Kohleria hirsuta. This work made it possible to contribute to the phytochemical and antioxidant knowledge of the plants used for the treatment of UI and it is suggested that U. tomentosa, S. praealtum and K. hirsuta be the object of future bio-directed studies, as well as the evaluation of other activities biological.

4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 65: e22210200, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364470

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Tissue culture technique is one of the best methods to reproduce salvia plant Therefore, the aim of this research was to enhance the in-vitro callus proliferation and production of secondary metabolites of S. moorcroftiana using different combinations of auxin, cytokinin and melatonin. Initially, callus induction was optimized using indole acetic acid (IAA), 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) applied at different concentrations in combination with 1 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The results indicates that earliest days to callus induction (14.67 days) was occurred in the media fortified with 2, 4-D+BAP (2.0+1.0 mgL-1). Whereas the highest callus initiation (100%) was induced on MS medium incorporated with 2,4-D+BAP (1+1mgL-1). Furthermore, maximum fresh weight was obtained when 2,4- D + BAP at the rate of (1+ 1mg L-1) was incorporated and dry weight was attained when 2,4- D + BAP at the rate of (2+1 mg L-1) was added to MS media. The maximum fresh and dry weight was obtained when melatonin at rate of 1.5 mg L-1 was supplemented with MS media including 2,4-D + BAP (1+1mg L-1), moreover the maximum DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content was noted when supplemented with melatonin at rate of 1.5 mg L-1. In conclusion, among various concentrations of plant growth regulators, 2,4- D + BAP at the rate of (1+ 1mg L-1) along with 1.5 g L-1 melatonin was the best for callus growth and production of secondary metabolites of S. moorcroftiana.

5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1267-1294, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927780

ABSTRACT

This article summarized the reviews and research articles published in Chinese Journal of Biotechnology in the field of biomanufacturing in 2021. The article covered major chassis cells such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, filamentous fungi, non-model bacteria and non-conventional yeasts. Moreover, this article summarized the advances in the production of amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, higher alcohols, natural compounds (terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids), antibiotics, enzymes and enzyme-catalyzed products, biopolymers, as well as the utilization of biomass and one-carbon materials. The key technologies used in the construction of cell factories, such as regulation, evolution, and high-throughput screening, were also included. This article may help the readers better understand the R & D trend in biomanufacturing driven by engineered microbes.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Biotechnology , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241863, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278488

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the classic studies of Alexander Flemming, Penicillium strains have been known as a rich source of antimicrobial substances. Recent studies have identified novel metabolites produced by Penicillium sclerotiorum that have antibacterial, antifouling and pharmaceutical activities. Here, we report the isolation of a P. sclerotiorum (LM 5679) from Amazonian soil and carry out a culture-based study to determine whether it can produce any novel secondary metabolite(s) that are not thus-far reported for this genus. Using a submerged culture system, secondary metabolites were recovered by solvent extract followed by thin-layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. One novel secondary metabolite was isolated from P. sclerotiorum (LM 5679); the phenolic compound 5-pentadecyl resorcinol widely known as an antifungal, that is produced by diverse plant species. This metabolite was not reported previously in any Penicillium species and was only found once before in fungi (that time, in a Fusarium). Here, we discuss the known activities of 5-pentadecyl resorcinol in the context of its mode-of-action as a hydrophobic (chaotropicity-mediated) stressor.


Resumo Desde os estudos clássicos de Alexander Flemming, as cepas de Penicillium são conhecidas como uma fonte rica em substâncias antimicrobianas. Estudos recentes identificaram novos metabólitos produzidos pela espécie Penicillium sclerotiorum com atividades antibacteriana, anti-incrustante e farmacêutica. Aqui, relatamos o isolamento de uma colônia de P. sclerotiorum (LM 5679) do solo amazônico e relatamos também o estudo baseado em cultura para determinar se ele pode produzir qualquer novo metabólito (s) secundário (s) que não foram relatados até agora para este gênero. Usando um sistema de cultura submerso, os metabólitos secundários foram recuperados por extrato de solvente seguido por cromatografia em camada delgada, ressonância magnética nuclear e espectroscopia de massa. Um novo metabólito secundário foi isolado de P. sclerotiorum (LM 5679); o composto fenólico 5-pentadecil resorcinol que é amplamente conhecido como um antifúngico que é produzido por diversas espécies de plantas. Este metabólito não foi relatado anteriormente em nenhuma espécie de Penicillium, e foi encontrado apenas uma vez em fungos (Fusarium). Aqui, discutimos as atividades conhecidas do 5-pentadecil resorcinol no contexto de seu modo de ação como um estressor hidrofóbico (mediado pela caotropicidade).


Subject(s)
Penicillium , Resorcinols , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents
7.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 22(spe): e20221343, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394010

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a survey of projects that have been funded by FAPESP under the BIOTA-Microorganisms program. These projects generated a wide variety of results, including the identification of novel antibacterial-producing microorganisms, the characterization of novel microbial enzymes for industrial applications, taxonomic classification of novel microorganisms in several environments, investigation of the soil and mangrove microbial ecosystems and its influence on endangered plant species, and the sequencing of novel metagenome-assembled genomes. The results surveyed demonstrate the importance of microorganisms in environments that play important roles in human activities as well as the potential that many of these microorganisms have in contributing to biotechnological applications crucial for human survival in the 21st century.


Resumo Apresentamos um levantamento comentado de projetos financiados pelo programa BIOTA-Micro-organismos. Estes projetos geraram uma variada gama de resultados, incluindo a identificação de novos micro-organismos produtores de compostos antibacterianos, a caracterização de novas enzimas microbianas para usos industriais, classificação taxonômica de novos micro-organismos presentes em diversos ambientes, investigação de ecossistemas microbianos em solos e mangues e sua influência sobre plantas ameaçadas, e o sequenciamento de vários novos genomas microbianos derivados de metagenomas. Os resultados descritos demonstram o papel-chave de micro-organismos em ecossistemas importantes para atividades humanas, assim como o potencial que vários desses micro-organismos tem de contribuir para aplicações biotecnológicas cruciais para a sobrevivência humana no século 21.

8.
Rev. colomb. quím. (Bogotá) ; 50(3): 10-15, Sep.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388982

ABSTRACT

Abstract Campomanesia sessiliflora O. Berg is a medicinal plant that is object of very few studies in the literature. In this context, the antioxidant activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and toxicity in Artemiasalina Leachs were analysed, as well as the contents of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins in aqueous extracts prepared by infusion and maceration of C. sessiliflora leaves. Maceration showed higher levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids regarding infusion and the two samples had the same tannin content. The LD50 was similar for the extracts, both were considered as low toxicity in the test with A. salina. Infusion presented a SPF of 9.98, while maceration presented a SPF of 6.74. Maceration presented better contents of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity and infusion presented a better SPF. The extracts have the potential of incorporation into multifunctional products.


Resumen Campomanesia sessiliflora O. Berg es una planta medicinal que tiene pocos estudios en la literatura. En este contexto, se analizó la actividad antioxidante, factor de protección solar (FPS) y toxicidad en lixiviados de Artemia salina, así como el contenido de compuestos fenólicos, flavonoides y taninos en extractos acuosos preparados por infusión y maceración de hojas de C. sessiliflora. La maceración mostró niveles más altos de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides, en relación con la infusión, y las dos muestras tuvieron el mismo contenido de taninos. La DL50 fue similar para los extractos, considerándose ambas muestras de baja toxicidad en el ensayo con A. salina. La infusión presentó un FPS de 9,98, mientras que la maceración tuvo un FPS de 6,74. La maceración mostró niveles más altos de metabolitos secundarios y actividad antioxidante y la infusión mostró un mejor FPS. Los extractos muestran potencial para incorporarse a productos multifuncionales.


Resumo Campomanesia sessiliflora O. Berg é uma planta medicinal que apresenta poucos estudos na literatura. Neste contexto, foram analisados a atividade antioxidante, fator de proteção solar (FPS) e toxicidade em Artemia salina Leachs, assim como os teores de compostos fenólicos, flavonoides e taninos dos extratos aquosos preparados por infusão e maceração das folhas de C. sessiliflora. A maceração apresentou maior teores de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides em relação a infusão e as duas amostras apresentaram o mesmo teor de taninos. O DL50 foi semelhante para os extratos, ambas amostras sendo consideradas como baixa toxicidade no ensaio com A. salina. A infusão apresentou FPS de 9,98, enquanto que a maceração o FPS foi de 6,74. A maceração apresentou maiores teores de metabólitos secundários e atividade antioxidante e a infusão apresentou melhor FPS. Os extratos apresentam potencial para a incorporação em produtos multifuncionais.

9.
CienciaUAT ; 15(2): 169-185, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285900

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las cabras habitan regiones áridas como resultado de su adaptación a condiciones extremas. La selección de la dieta es una de las estrategias conductuales que les han permitido evitar deficiencias nutricionales o intoxicaciones aun en condiciones de baja disponibilidad de alimento. Así mismo, el ramoneo, como conducta ingestiva de la especie, les permite seleccionar y obtener plantas con adecuados valores de proteína cruda que favorezcan su desarrollo y supervivencia. También, las cabras se adaptan a las características químicas de las plantas, las cuales desarrollan compuestos bioactivos para evitar ser consumidas. Estos metabolitos secundarios pueden tener efectos antinutricionales y tóxicos así como medicinales o curativos, dependiendo del consumo que tenga el animal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la selección y hábitos de las cabras en el consumo de plantas nativas, para determinar cómo favorecen la supervivencia y productividad de la especie, bajo las condiciones de adversidad ambiental que caracterizan a las regiones áridas. Dicho conocimiento permitirá establecer estrategias para el manejo adecuado del agostadero y conocer el efecto que los compuestos del metabolismo secundario de las plantas puedan tener en los procesos reproductivos, nutricionales, sanitarios, así como en los productos derivados de la leche o carne de estos animales.


Abstract Goats dwell arid regions as a result of their adaptation to extreme conditions. Diet selection is one of the behavioral strategies that has allowed them to avoid nutritional deficiencies or poisonings, even under conditions of low food availability. Likewise, browsing as an ingestive behavior of the species allows them to select and obtain plants with adequate crude protein values, which favor their development and survival. Also, goats adapt to the chemical characteristics of plants, which develop bioactive compounds to avoid being consumed. These secondary metabolites can have antinutritional and toxic effects, as well as medicinal or curative effects, depending on the consumption that the animal has. The objective of this work was to review the selection and habits of goats in the consumption of native plants, to determine how they favor the survival and productivity of the species under the conditions of environmental adversity that characterize arid regions. This knowledge will allow to establish strategies for the proper management of the rangeland and to know the effect that the compounds of the secondary metabolism of the plants may have on the reproductive, nutritional, and health processes, as well as on the products derived from the milk or meat of these animals.

10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190253, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153292

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Essential oils from populations of B. dracunculifolia were investigated. β-pinene and (E)-nerolidol were the main compounds in B. dracunculifolia populations. The difference in the chemical profile of the essential oils is quantitative only. There is a negative correlation between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol.


Abstract Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. is a Brazilian native plant, presenting wide chemical diversity and numerous pharmaceutical and industrial applications. This research assessed the yield, antioxidant activity and the chemical similarity of essential oils from 10 populations of B. dracunculifolia in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The extraction of the volatile compounds was carried out by hydrodistillation, the chemical composition was determined by GC/FID and GC/MS and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH method. The essential oil yield of wild B. dracunculifolia populations ranged from 0.14 to 0.87%. The oils were predominantly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (34.16 - 51.01%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (18.02 - 46.17%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (9.60 - 17.70%). The major compounds found in all populations were β-pinene (7.65 - 29.8%) and (E)-nerolidol (9.11 - 21.68%). Essential oil solutions (20%) from different populations presented antioxidant capacity ranging from 27.78 to 91.67%. A negative correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol (r = -0.696). Multivariate analyses separated the populations into three groups: (1) low concentrations of α-pinene (2.02 - 2.06%), (2) high concentrations of α-pinene (4.17 - 4.61%) and β-pinene (22.54 - 29.80%), and (3) intermediate concentrations of α-pinene (2.38 - 3.31%), β-pinene (12.77 - 19.03%) and spathulenol (6.02 - 9.06%).


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Baccharis/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906496

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the difference in antibacterial mechanism between <italic>Coptis chinensis</italic> and<italic> </italic>its<italic> </italic>flower stalk based on secondary metabolites and network pharmacology. Method:Based on the ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) detection platform,the secondary metabolites database of <italic>C. chinensis</italic> and its flower stalk(MWDB) was built. The common database of metabolites information and the multivariate statistical analysis were used to study the differences of secondary metabolites between <italic>C. chinensis</italic> and its flower stalk and screen out 18 metabolites of<italic> </italic>the<italic> </italic>flower stalk and 11 metabolites of <italic>C. chinensis</italic> with a high content. BATMAN-TCM database was used to obtain the targets of component action,and their corresponding genes were inquired in the UniProt database. GeneCards was retrieved for antimicrobial genes,and the intersection genes of components and antimicrobials were obtained on Venny platform. Through DAVID gene ontology(GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis,the mechanism of its action was predicted,and the results were visualized through histogram and advanced bubble diagram drawn by GraphPad Prism software and OmicShare database. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed by STRING, database and the component-target-pathway network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.2 software. The antibacterial differences were compared based on the results of network pharmacology analysis. Result:Through network pharmacology,the antibacterial active components of <italic>C. chinensis</italic> were 5 fewer than that of the flower stalk,55 more antibacterial targets than that of the flower stalk; quercetin and berberine were predicted to be the common components of the antagonistic action of <italic>C. chinensis </italic>and the flower stalk. Key genes involved in antimicrobial action were p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14(MAPK14),catalase(CAT); malaria and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway were different key pathways involved in antimicrobial activity. Conclusion:<italic>C. chinensis </italic>and the flower stalk mainly exert the antibacterial effect in a multi-target and multi-pathway manner,which can offer new ideas and clues for the study of antibacterial mechanism of<italic> C. chinensis</italic> and the flower stalk,and provide a new development direction for the comprehensive development and rational application of the flower stalk resources.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921691

ABSTRACT

Mecicinal plants boast abundant natural compounds with significant pharmacological activity, and such compounds, featuring diversified and complex structures, can be used for research and development of drugs. At present, these natural compounds are directly extracted from herbs which, however, suffer from damaged wild resources and shortage of planting resources attributing to the increasing demand. Moreover, the low content in medicinal plants and complex structures are another challenge to the research and development of drugs. Heterologous synthesis with synthetic biology methods is a solution that has attracted wide attention. Synthetic bio-logy for the production of natural active compounds in Chinese medicinal plants involves the exploration of key enzymes in compound bio-synthetic pathways from plants, analysis of enzyme functions and mechanisms, and reconstruction and optimization of biosynthetic pathways in microorganisms for efficient synthesis of compounds. This study briefed the development process of synthetic biology and the biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, and summarized the related strategies of synthetic biology such as the reconstruction and optimization of metabolic pathways, regulation of fermentation process, and strain improvement, and the latest applications of heterogeneous synthetic biology in the production of natural compounds from Chinese medicinals. This study is expected to serve as a reference for the efficient production of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and other active compounds from Chinese medicinal plants with strategies of synthetic biology.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Biosynthetic Pathways , China , Plants, Medicinal , Synthetic Biology
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1740-1766, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888833

ABSTRACT

The phytoecdysteroids (PEs) comprise a large group of biologically-active plant steroids, which have structures similar to those of insect-molting hormones. PEs are distributed in plants as secondary metabolites that offer protection against phytophagus (plant-eating) insects. When insects consume the plants containing these chemicals, they promptly molt and undergo metabolic destruction; the insects eventually die. Chemically, ecdysteroids are a group of polyhydroxylated ketosteroids that are structurally similar to androgens. The carbon skeleton of ecdysteroids is termed as cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene with a

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887957

ABSTRACT

A new phenolic acid ester, 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl 4,8(R)-dihydroxyphenylpropionate(1), was isolated from an endophytic fungus Colletotrichum capsici of Paeonia lactiflora roots, along with eight known phenolic derivatives, tyrosol(2), 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl acetate(3), methyl p-hydroxyphenylacetate(4), methyl m-hydroxyphenylacetate(5), 4-(4-hydroxyphene-thoxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid(6), 4-hydroxyphenethyl methyl succinate(7), trichodenol B(8) and 4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate(9). Their structures were identified by a combination of high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HR-ESI-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet(UV) spectroscopy and electronic circular dichroism(ECD) spectroscopy. Compounds 2-9 were isolated from this fungus for the first time.


Subject(s)
Colletotrichum , Esters , Hydroxybenzoates , Paeonia
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879133

ABSTRACT

Nine secondary metabolites(S)-5-hydroxy-4-methylchroman-2-one(1), 4-methoxynaphthalene-1,5-diol(2), 8-methoxynaphthalene-1,7-diol(3), 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene(4),(2R,4S)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol(5),(2R,4R)-3,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-2-methyl-2H-1-benzopyran-5-ol(6), 7-O-α-D-ribosyl-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-chromen-4-one(7),(R)-3-methoxyl-1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-butan-1-one(8) and helicascolide A(9) were isolated from endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. JJM22 by using column chromatographies of silica gel and ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were analyzed on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical data, especially NMR and MS. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by examining the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide(NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Compounds 2-4 showed inhibitory activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzopyrans , Cladosporium , Fungi , Mice , Molecular Structure , Rhizophoraceae
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879110

ABSTRACT

The ecological environment is closely related to the growth and quality of authentic medicinal materials. Ginseng is very strict with its natural environment and grows mostly in the damp valleys of forests, and the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng under different growth environments are very different. This article reviews the effects of different ecological factors(including light, temperature, altitude, moisture, soil factors, etc.)on the appearance and chemical composition(mainly ginsenosides) of ginseng. Through systematic review, it is found that soil physical factors are the most important ecological factors that affect the appea-rance of ginseng, and soil bulk density plays a key role; temperature affects ginsenosides in ginseng medicinal materials The dominant ecological factors for the accumulation of chemical ingredents; strong light, high altitude, high soil moisture, low soil nutrient and strong acid soil can influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in ginseng. Environmental stress can also stimulate the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Appropriate low temperature stress, high or low water stress, acid or alkali stress can also promote the accumulation of ginsenosides. This article systematically reviews the ecological factors that affect the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng, and clarifies the dominant ecological factors and limiting factors for the formation of ginseng's appearance and quality, as well as beneficial environmental stress factors, in order to provide a theoretical basis for ginseng ecological planting and ginseng quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Forests , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879106

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fertilizers , Materia Medica , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878910

ABSTRACT

ATP-binding cassette(ABC) transporters are one of the largest protein families in organisms, with important effects in regulating plant growth and development, root morphology, transportation of secondary metabolites and resistance of stress. Environmental stress promotes the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites, which determines the quality of medicinal plants. Therefore, how to improve the accumulation of secondary metabolites has been a hotspot in studying medicinal plants. Many studies have showed that ABC transporters are extremely related to the transportation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. Recently, with the great development of genomics and transcriptomic sequencing technology, the regulatory mechanisms of ABC transporters on secondary metabolites have attached great attentions in medicinal plants. This paper reviewed the mechanisms of different groups of ABC transporters in transporting secondary metabolites through cell membranes. This paper provided key theoretical basis and technical supports in studying the mechanisms of ABC transporters in medicinal plant, and promoting the accumulation of secondary metabolites, in order to improve the quality of medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Biological Transport , Plant Development , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
19.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e0762019, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348963

ABSTRACT

Maize (Zea mays L.) is among the most cultivated crops in the world and can be affected by several diseases, especially those transmitted by seeds. The study of alternatives to fungicides used for seed treatment has a promising field in essential oils. Thus, this study determined the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract from Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan and to evaluate its antifungal activity on the sanitary and physiological quality of maize seeds. The seeds used were of the Jaboatão cultivar, which were submitted to the following treatments: control (untreated seeds), commercial fungicide (dicarboximide) and A. colubrina extract at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 ppm. The seeds were subjected to sanitary and germination tests in a completely randomized experimental design. Phytochemical prospecting of A. colubrina extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, as well as the major compounds lupeol, gallic acid, ferulic acid, catechin and quercetin. The A. colubrina extract reduced the incidence of Aspergillus spp., including Aspergillus niger, Alternaria spp., Curvularia spp. and Fusarium spp. at all concentrations. The highest concentrations (800 and 1,000 ppm) of the A. colubrina extract reduced the incidence of Penicillium spp. and yielded an effective control of Rhizoctonia spp. The extract of A. colubrina did not present phytotoxic effect, guaranteeing the viability and vigor of maize seeds.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Zea mays , Penicillium , Aspergillus niger , Rhizoctonia , Oils, Volatile , Agricultural Pests , Alkaloids , Phytochemicals
20.
J Biosci ; 2020 Oct; : 1-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214225

ABSTRACT

Modeling a protein functional network in concerned species is an efficient approach for identifying novel genesin certain biological pathways. Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is an important commercial crop abundant innumerous characteristic secondary metabolites (e.g., polyphenols, alkaloids, alkaloids) that confer tea qualityand health benefits. Decoding novel genes responsible for tea characteristic components is an important basisfor applied genetic improvement and metabolic engineering. Herein, a high-quality protein functional networkfor tea plant (TeaPoN) was predicted using cross-species protein functional associations transferring andintegration combined with a stringent biological network criterion control. TeaPoN contained 31,273 nonredundant functional interactions among 6,634 tea proteins (or genes), with general network topologicalproperties such as scale-free and small-world. We revealed the modular organization of genes related to themajor three tea characteristic components (theanine, caffeine, catechin) in TeaPoN, which served as strongevidence for the utility of TeaPoN in novel gene mining. Importantly, several case studies regarding geneidentification for tea characteristic components were presented. To aid in the use of TeaPoN, a concise webinterface for data deposit and novel gene screening was developed (http://teapon.wchoda.com). We believe thatTeaPoN will serve as a useful platform for functional genomics studies associated with characteristic secondarymetabolites in tea plant.

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