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1.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 36(4): 390-396, out.-dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365584

ABSTRACT

■ RESUMO Introdução: A mastectomia masculinizadora é geralmente o primeiro, o mais importante e muitas vezes o único procedimento cirúrgico na readequação de gênero em transexuais masculinos. O objetivo é descrever e sistematizar os passos da técnica utilizada pelo autor da mastectomia com dupla incisão associado ao enxerto livre de complexo areolopapilar. Métodos: Revisão retrospectiva de 26 pacientes submetidos a mastectomias masculinizadoras (total de 52 mamas), realizadas pela técnica utilizada pelo autor, entre novembro de 2013 e janeiro de 2018. Resultados: 84,6% dos pacientes sofreram a cirurgia com cicatriz final horizontal no sulco inframamário e 15,4% evoluíram com cicatriz final em "T" invertido. A taxa de complicações maiores foi de 3,8%. Houve uma reoperação (3,8%) no período de acompanhamento. O peso médio das mamas foi de 1.136 gramas, a idade média de 27 anos e 9 meses, índice de massa corporal médio de 26,6kg/m2 e 73% dos pacientes receberam terapia com hormônio masculino previamente à cirurgia. Conclusão: A mastectomia masculinizadora é um procedimento seguro, com boa reprodutibilidade e traz resultados estéticos satisfatórios.


■ ABSTRACT Introduction: Masculinizing mastectomy is generally the first, most important and often the only surgical procedure for gender reassignment in male transsexuals. The objective is to describe and systematize the steps of the technique used by the author of the double-incision mastectomy associated with a free graft from the nipple-areola complex. Methods: Retrospective review of 26 patients who underwent masculinizing mastectomies (total of 52 breasts), performed using the technique used by the author, between November 2013 and January 2018. Results: 84.6% of patients had surgery with a final horizontal scar in the inframammary fold, and 15.4% evolved with a final inverted "T" scar. The rate of major complications was 3.8%. There was one reoperation (3.8%) in the follow-up period. Mean breast weight was 1,136 grams, mean age was 27 years and nine months, mean body mass index was 26.6 kg/m2, and 73% of patients received male hormone therapy before surgery. Conclusion: Mastectomy is a safe procedure, with good reproducibility and brings satisfactory aesthetic results.

2.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(2): e282, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347399

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La práctica de la cirugía genital es frecuente en infantes y adolescentes diagnosticados de intersexualidad. Una de sus principales consecuencias se refleja en la personalidad del paciente. Existen numerosos estudios en población adulta, pero son escasos en edades pediátricas. El dibujo constituye un instrumento valioso para la exploración psicológica en edades tempranas. Objetivo: Identificar las características psicológicas de infantes y adolescentes con tratamiento quirúrgico de los genitales, y de su desarrollo psicológico en el momento de la valoración. Métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo y metodología cualitativa. La muestra la integraron 15 participantes entre 6 y 12 años, con hiperplasia adrenal congénita y cirugía genital. De ellos, 4 con asignación al sexo masculino y 11 con asignación femenina. Todos residentes en La Habana, Cuba y captados de las consultas de seguimiento de los servicios de Endocrinología del Instituto de Endocrinología y hospitales pediátricos. Se aplicaron las técnicas psicográficas (dibujo espontáneo, dibujo temático de la familia y dibujo temático "Así soy yo"). Resultados: El desarrollo psicológico se correspondió con la edad cronológica. El 100 por ciento presentó un pensamiento coherente y estructurado. El 50 por ciento presentó indicadores emocionales que aluden a insatisfacción con el propio yo, angustia (40 por ciento), y falta de aceptación del propio cuerpo (70 por ciento); además, expresaron dificultades en la comunicación familiar (60 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los indicadores globales relevantes de los dibujos denotaron daño emocional, dificultades en la aceptación, percepción y representación del esquema corporal y también en la comunicación social y familiar. Resulta impostergable intervenir en las causas del malestar y los problemas psicológicos de los sujetos estudiados para evitar que se desarrollen enfermedades psiquiátricas en la edad adulta(AU)


Introduction: The practice of genital surgery is frequent in infants and adolescents diagnosed with intersex. One of the main consequences is reflected in the patient´s personality. There are numerous studies in the adult population; however, they are rare in pediatric ages. Drawing is a valuable tool for psychological exploration in early ages. Objective: Identify the psychological characteristics of infants and adolescents with surgical treatment of the genitalia, and to characterize their psychological development. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study and qualitative methodology. The sample was made up of 15 infants and adolescents between 6 and 12 years old with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and genital surgery. 4 of them with male sex assignment and 11 with female assignment, coming from the primary care level, residents in Havana, Cuba, recruited in the follow-up consultations of the endocrinology services of the Institute of Endocrinology and pediatric hospitals. The psychographic techniques (spontaneous drawing, thematic drawing of the family and thematic drawing called "I am like this" were applied). The study complied with the basic ethical aspects of scientific research. Results: Psychological development corresponded with chronological age. 100 percent of the patients presented a coherent and structured thinking. 50 percent presented emotional indicators that allude to dissatisfaction with one's own self, anguish (40 percent), and lack of acceptance of one's own body (70 percent); in addition, they expressed difficulties in family communication (60 percent). Conclusions: The relevant global indicators of the drawings denoted emotional damage, difficulties in the acceptance, perception and representation of the body scheme and also in social and family communication. It cannot be postponed an intervention in the discomfort causes and psychological problems of the patients studied, in order to avoid that psychiatric diseases can be developed in adults ages(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Primary Health Care , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/psychology , Sex Reassignment Surgery/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Psychological Techniques
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 263-273, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154477

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vaginoplasty is a commonly performed surgery for the transfeminine patient. In this review, we discuss how to achieve satisfactory surgical outcomes, and highlight solutions to common complications involved with the surgery, including: wound separation, vaginal stenosis, hematoma, and rectovaginal fistula. Pre-operative evaluation and standard technique are outlined. Goal outcomes regarding aesthetics, creation of a neocavity, urethral management, labial appearance, vaginal packing and clitoral sizing are all described. Peritoneal vaginoplasty technique and visceral interposition technique are detailed as alternatives to the penile inversion technique in case they are needed to be used. Post-operative patient satisfaction, patient care plans, and solutions to common complications are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transsexualism , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Penis/surgery , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Vagina/surgery
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41: e228578, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1346780

ABSTRACT

A intersexualidade ainda é considerada uma deformidade patológica, bem como é alvo de intervenções cirúrgicas corretivas que visam enquadrar pessoas intersexos nos padrões binários de sexo, gênero e orientação sexual socialmente aceitos. Desse modo, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os sentidos produzidos por intersexos às intervenções cirúrgicas de designação sexual e suas consequências, ainda que não tenham realizado procedimentos cirúrgicos. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa de corte transversal cujos dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário online para intersexos e interessados de uma rede social-virtual. Oito intersexos participaram da pesquisa e as informações obtidas foram organizadas a partir de uma análise de conteúdo temática em quatro categorias: a) violação de direitos sobre a autodeterminação de sexo-gênero; b) tentativas de invisibilização da experiência de intersexos; c) despreparo da equipe de saúde de referência; e d) centralidade dos ativismos intersexos. Os resultados destacam que: as cirurgias são realizadas sem o consentimento dos intersexos e impactam sua subjetividade e relações sociais; há a reprodução de expectativas pelo intersexo, sua família e pelos profissionais da saúde em torno dos binarismos de sexo-gênero; há a necessidade dos ativismos políticos responderem às demandas dessa população. As constituições de sexo e de gênero ilustradas pelas cirurgias de designação sexual são produtos culturais pautados num sistema normativo binário e cisheterossexual que reproduz e perpetua discriminações, estigmas e violências. Assim, é papel da Psicologia contribuir para a compreensão dessa temática e para a incrementação de políticas públicas na saúde, educação e em assistência social para essa população.(AU)


Intersexuality is still considered a pathological deformity, requiring corrective surgical interventions to fit intersex persons into socially determined binary patterns of sex, gender, and sexual orientation. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the meanings attributed to surgical interventions for sex reassignment and their consequences according to intersex persons who underwent or not the procedure. This qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted with data collected by means of an online questionnaire for intersex and interested people, made available in a social network. Eight intersexes participated in the survey. The collected data underwent thematic content analysis and were organized into four categories: a) violations to sex/gender self-determination rights; b) attempts to invisibilize the experiences of intersex persons; c) unpreparedness of healthcare team; and d) intersexes activism. The results highlight the performance of these surgeries without intersex persons' consent, as well as their impacts on subjectivity and social relations; the reproduction of expectations around sex/gender binarism on the part of these individuals themselves, their families, and health professionals; and the need for political activism to respond to their demands. The constitutions of sex and gender illustrated by sexual designation surgeries are cultural products based on a binary and cishetero-normative system that reproduces discrimination, stigma, and violence. In this scenario, Psychology plays a key role in contributing to the understanding of this issue, advancing public policies aimed at promoting health, education, and social assistance to this population.(AU)


La intersexualidad todavía se considera como una deformación patológica, así como está sujeta a intervenciones quirúrgicas correctivas que tienen por objeto encajar a los individuos intersexuales en los patrones binarios de sexo, género y orientación sexual. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los significados que tienen para los intersexuales las intervenciones quirúrgicas de reasignación sexual y sus consecuencias, incluso para aquellos que no las habían realizado. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, transversal, realizada por medio de un cuestionario destinado a un grupo de intersexuales e interesados en una red social en internet. Ocho intersexuales participaron, y los dados se organizaron a partir del análisis de contenido temático en categorías: a) violación de los derechos sobre la autodeterminación de sexo-género; b) intentos de hacer invisible la experiencia intersexual; c) falta de preparación del equipo sanitario; y d) centralidad del activismo intersexual. Los principales resultados apuntaron la realización de estas cirugías sin el consentimiento de los intersexuales y que estas tienen repercusiones negativas en la subjetividad y las relaciones sociales de ellos; la reproducción de las expectativas personales, familiares y de los profesionales de la salud en torno a los binarismos de género; la necesidad de un activismo colectivo para responder a las demandas de esta población. Las constituciones de sexo y género ilustradas por las cirugías de reasignación sexual de intersexuales son productos culturales con base en un sistema normativo binario y cisheterosexual que reproduce discriminación, estigmas y violencia. Es el papel de la Psicología contribuir a la comprensión de esta cuestión para animar las políticas públicas de salud, educación y asistencia social a esta población.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sexuality , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Gender Identity , Intersex Persons , Social Support , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Congenital Abnormalities , Sex Characteristics , Gender Binarism , Genitalia , Health Policy
6.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 10(2): 288-300, Maio 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223722

ABSTRACT

Este relato de caso de uma mulher transexual, 48 anos de idade, com 15 anos de pós cirurgia de redesignação sexual (CRS) sem queixas. Durante a avaliação inicial foram coletados os dados sociodemográficos, avaliação da dor através da escala visual analógica visual (EVA), a qualidade de vida pelo SF-36, a função sexual pelo QS-F. Foi realizada a avaliação do assoalho pélvico (AP) inspeção, palpação e força seguindo o esquema PERFECT. Após a avaliação foram identificadas estenose vaginal, falta de consciência perineal, fraqueza dos músculos do assoalho pélvico e relatou dor durante a relação sexual. INTERVENÇÃO: Foi sugerido um programa de exercícios através dos dilatadores vaginais, terapia comportamental, treino dos músculos do AP. O programa tinha por objetivo 10 sessões com 40 minutos de duração cada, duas vezes na semana. Ao final do programa foram coletadas a EVA, SF-36 e a avaliação do AP seguindo o esquema PERFECT. Entretanto, o QS-F não foi aplicado ao final do programa proposto devido a inatividade sexual da paciente por 3 meses, inclusive durante o tempo do programa. RESULTADOS: Após a avalição final a paciente apresentou melhora da consciência perineal, penetração via vaginal sem desconforto, entretanto, não houve melhora da força dos músculos do AP. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: A CRS promove alteração anatômica, podendo ocasionar disfunções urogenitais e/ou sexuais. Neste estudo, a fisioterapia promoveu melhora da conscientização perineal e da estenose vaginal. Com tudo, são necessários mais estudos sobre a fisioterapia nesta população, garantindo assistência e acompanhamento de forma adequada durante este processo, reduzindo suas possíveis complicações tardias.


This case report of a transsexual woman, 48 years old, with 15 years after sex reassignment surgery (SRS) without complaints. During the initial assessment, socio-demographic data, pain assessment using the visual analog visual scale (VAS), quality of life by SF-36, sexual function by QS-F were collected. The pelvic floor (PF) assessment was performed for inspection, palpation and strength following the PERFECT scheme. After the evaluation, vaginal stenosis, lack of perineal awareness, weakness of the pelvic floor muscles were identified and pain was reported during intercourse. INTERVENTION: An exercise program through vaginal dilators, behavioral therapy, and PF muscle training was suggested. The program aimed at 10 sessions of 40 minutes each, twice a week. At the end of the program, VAS, SF-36 and PF evaluation were collected following the PERFECT scheme. However, the QS-F was not applied at the end of the proposed program due to the patient's sexual inactivity for 3 months, including during the program period. RESULTS: After the final evaluation, the patient showed improvement in perineal awareness, vaginal penetration without discomfort, however, there was no improvement in the strength of the AP muscles. FINAL REMARKS: The SRS promotes anatomical alteration, which can cause urogenital and / or sexual dysfunctions. In this study, physiotherapy promoted improvement in perineal awareness and vaginal stenosis. However, more studies on physiotherapy are needed in this population, ensuring assistance and adequate followup during this process, reducing possible late complications.


Subject(s)
Gender Dysphoria , Rehabilitation , Sex Reassignment Surgery
7.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(1): 65-72, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-994547

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A cirurgia de adequação genital tem se mostrado uma opção segura e confiável, com redução drástica na disforia e melhora da qualidade de vida das pessoas transgênero. A técnica mais estudada e utilizada é a inversão peniana com suas modificações, com aparência estética e funcionalidade adequadas, porém sem padronização da técnica cirúrgica. Índices de até 38% de satisfação parcial e 15% de insatisfação podem levar até 66% dos casos a realizar procedimentos adicionais. O objetivo é sugerir refinamentos estéticos na aparência da vulva e comparar com algumas das técnicas descritas, buscando aumentar a satisfação estética e funcional pós-operatória. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com 7 pacientes submetidas à cirurgia de readequação sexual entre agosto de 2017 e fevereiro de 2018. O clitóris é feito com a glande em formato de tridente, utilizando a coroa para construir os corpos cavernosos do clitóris e aumentar a área de sensação erógena. Faixa de prepúcio é usada para aumentar a cobertura do clitóris e cobrir a face interna dos pequenos lábios, que são definidos com o uso de suturas. Resultados: Sensibilidade adequada e satisfação com o resultado e capacidade de orgasmo em todas as pacientes observadas. Não houve estenose, fístula ou necrose do clitóris com essa técnica. Somente 1 caso precisou de procedimento adicional para melhor definição estética. Conclusão: A técnica apresentada tem alta satisfação das pacientes e sensibilidade erógena, com algumas vantagens em relação a outras técnicas. Porém, estudos prospectivos com número maior de pacientes são necessários para definir a técnica cirúrgica mais efetiva.


Introduction: Sex reassignment surgery is a reliable and safe option, which has drastically reduced dysphoria and improved the quality of life of transgender individuals. The most studied and used technique is penile inversion with modifications, which results in appropriate esthetic appearance and functionality, but the surgical technique has not been standardized. Partial satisfaction rates up to 38% and dissatisfaction rates of 15% may cause up to 66% of cases to undergo additional procedures. The objective is to suggest esthetic refinements to the appearance of the vulva and compare some of the techniques described, seeking to increase the postoperative esthetic and functional satisfaction. Methods: A retrospective study with 7 patients undergoing sex reassignment surgery between August 2017 and February 2018 was conducted. The clitoris is constructed with the glans in the form of a trident, using the corona to build the corpus cavernosa of the clitoris and increase the area of erogenous sensation. A section of the prepuce is used to increase the coverage of the clitoris and cover the inner surface of the labia minora, which are defined with the use of sutures. Results: Adequate sensitivity and satisfaction with the result and capacity of orgasm in all patients were observed. There was no stenosis, fistula, or necrosis of the clitoris with this technique. Only 1 case needed an additional procedure for better esthetic definition. Conclusion: The technique presented leads to high patient satisfaction and erogenous sensitivity, with some advantages compared to other techniques. However, prospective studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to define a more effective surgical technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transsexualism/surgery , Vulva/surgery , Vulva/physiopathology , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Esthetics , Sex Reassignment Procedures/adverse effects , Sex Reassignment Procedures/methods , Sex Reassignment Surgery/adverse effects , Sex Reassignment Surgery/methods , Sex Reassignment Surgery/rehabilitation , Transgender Persons
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780706

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Mak nyahs are locally known male-to-female transgenders in Malaysia. In Western countries, medicalization of transgenderism allows strictly selected patients to undergo sex reassignment surgery. However, a standardized treatment system is not yet available in Malaysia. A number of mak nyahs underwent sex reassignment surgery at their own will. This study aimed to explore mak nyahs’ knowledge and perception on sex reassignment surgery. Materials and Methods: A qualitative research was carried out from 13th July 2016 till 31st August 2016 among 8 adult mak nyahs in Kuantan, Pahang. Snowball sampling was used. Participants who gave verbal consent were interviewed individually and in focus groups. Data obtained was transcribed and used as the primary data source. Results: All informants were Malays and Muslims. They generally had some knowledge about the standard procedures and risks in sex reassignment surgery. All informants expressed their desire to have the surgery, but chose not to. Reasons discouraging them from having the surgery were: i) religion, ii) forbiddance from family, iii) fear of regret, iv) death from surgery, and v) the lack of necessity. Factors driving them to have the surgery: i) more income from sex work, ii) pressure from sex clients, iii) securing a stable relationship, iv) self-satisfaction, and v) hope for a better future. Conclusion: Religion seemed to be the main reason refraining them from undertaking the surgery. Counselling mak nyahs should include the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reassignment surgery. Islamic religious preaching is very important to help reduce high risk behaviours, as well as teaching mak nyahs to cope with challenges in adult life. Further research is necessary to show association between religious knowledge and successful rehabilitation of the mak nyahs’ community.

9.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 39(10): 545-551, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-898832

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To assess the clinical characteristics of subjects with gender dysphoria (GD). Method A cross-sectional study of adults with GD. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Sociodemographic data, clinical data and life habits were recorded. Results Total of 44 subjects participated in the study: 36 (82%) trans women and 8 (18%) trans men. Forty-three (98%) of the GD patients had anxiety (36 [100%] trans women and 7 [87.5%] trans men), and 36 (82%) had depression (29 [80.5%] trans women and 7 [87.5%] trans men). Suicide had been attempted by 32 (73%) subjects. The rates of depression were lower among the subjects living with partners, parents, or other people than among those living alone (p = 0.03), and it was also lower among the subjects who were married compared to those who were dating or single (p = 0.03). Conclusion Improving the relationship status may reduce the prevalence of depressive symptoms in GD patients. There was a high rate of attempted suicide in this sample.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar as características clínicas de indivíduos com disforia de gênero (DG). Método Estudo transversal com pessoas transexuais. Os sintomas de ansiedade e depressão foram medidos usando a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão. Os dados sociodemográficos, os dados clínicos, e os hábitos de vida foram registrados por meio de um questionário. Resultados Um total de 44 indivíduos participou do estudo: 36 (82%)mulheres trans, e 8 (18%) homens trans. Quarenta e três (98%) destes apresentaram ansiedade, sendo 36 (100%) mulheres trans e 7 (87,5%) homens trans, e 36 (82%) apresentaram depressão, sendo 29 (80,5%) mulheres trans, e 7 (87,5%) homens trans. Um total de 32 (73%) indivíduos já haviam tentado suicídio. Os indivíduos que vivem comparceiros, pais ou outras pessoas tiveramuma menor taxa de depressão do que aqueles que vivem sozinhos (p = 0,03), e os indivíduos que eram casados tiveram uma menor taxa de depressão do que aqueles que estavam namorando ou solteiros (p = 0,03). Conclusão A melhoria do status de relacionamento pode reduzir a prevalência de sintomas depressivos empessoas transexuais. Encontrou-se uma alta taxa de tentativas de suicídio nessa amostra.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Transsexualism/diagnosis , Gender Dysphoria/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Transsexualism/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Gender Dysphoria/complications
10.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(1): 43-47, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846398

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Transsexualism (ICD-10) is a condition characterized by a strong and persistent dissociation with one's assigned gender. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and hormone therapy provide a means of allowing transsexual individuals to feel more congruent with their gender and have played a major role in treatment over the past 70 years. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to play a key role in recovery from acute surgical trauma and environmentally mediated vulnerability to psychopathology. We hypothesize that BDNF may be a biomarker of alleviation of gender incongruence suffering. Objectives: To measure preoperative and postoperative serum BDNF levels in transsexual individuals as a biomarker of alleviation of stress related to gender incongruence after SRS. Methods: Thirty-two male-to-female transsexual people who underwent both surgery and hormonal treatment were selected from our initial sample. BDNF serum levels were assessed before and after SRS with sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The time elapsed between the pre-SRS and post-SRS blood collections was also measured. Results: No significant difference was found in pre-SRS or post-SRS BDNF levels or with relation to the time elapsed after SRS when BDNF levels were measured. Conclusion: Alleviation of the suffering related to gender incongruence after SRS cannot be assessed by BDNF alone. Surgical solutions may not provide a quick fix for psychological distress associated with transsexualism and SRS may serve as one step toward, rather than as the conclusion of, construction of a person's gender identity.


Resumo Introdução: O transexualismo (CID-10) é uma condição caracterizada por forte e persistente dissociação com o gênero atribuído. A cirurgia de redesignação sexual (CRS) e a terapia hormonal (TH) permitem que indivíduos transexuais se sintam mais congruentes com seu gênero e, por isso, têm desempenhado papel importante nos últimos 70 anos. O fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF) parece desempenhar um papel fundamental na recuperação do trauma cirúrgico agudo e vulnerabilidade ambiental à psicopatologia. Nós hipotetizamos que o BDNF pode ser um biomarcador de alívio do sofrimento de incongruência de gênero pós-CRS. Objetivos: Mensurar os níveis séricos de BDNF no pré e pós-operatório em indivíduos transexuais como biomarcador de alívio de estresse relacionado à incongruência de gênero após a CRS. Métodos: Trinta e duas pessoas transexuais masculino para feminino submetidas a cirurgia e tratamento hormonal foram selecionadas de nossa amostra inicial. O nível sérico de BDNF foi avaliado antes e depois da CRS pela técnica ELISA. O tempo decorrido entre as coletas de sangue pré e pós-CRS foi medido. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de BDNF pré e pós-CRS ou em relação ao tempo decorrido entre a CRS e a coleta. Conclusão: O alívio do sofrimento relacionado à incongruência de gênero pós-CRS não pode ser avaliado apenas pelo BDNF. Soluções cirúrgicas podem não fornecer uma solução rápida para o sofrimento associado ao transexualismo, e a CRS pode servir como um passo em direção à, em vez de conclusão da, construção da identidade de gênero de uma pessoa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Stress, Psychological/blood , Transsexualism/blood , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Gender Dysphoria/blood , Postoperative Period , Transsexualism/surgery , Transsexualism/psychology , Transsexualism/drug therapy , Blood Chemical Analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/blood , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Preoperative Period , Gender Dysphoria/surgery , Gender Dysphoria/psychology , Gender Dysphoria/drug therapy
11.
Rev. bras. psicodrama ; 24(2): 2-16, dez. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-844155

ABSTRACT

Indivíduos transexuais foram divididos em dois grupos, para o seguimento psicoterapêutico semanal, no Programa de Estudos em Sexualidade (ProSex) do Instituto de Psiquiatria (IPq) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP (HC-FMUSP), desde 2011; o primeiro grupo, constituído por mulheres transexuais (MTS) - sexo masculino e que se identificam com o gênero feminino, e o segundo por homens transexuais (HTS) - sexo feminino e que se identificam com o gênero masculino. Foram levantados dados clínicos e psicodinâmicos desses grupos. Verificou-se ao longo dos anos a relevância dessa abordagem para dirimir conflitos e sofrimento associados com essa condição, além de terem sido notadas particularidades, durante o manejo dos grupos, relacionadas ao gênero com o qual os indivíduos se identificam.


Transsexual individuals were divided into two groups to follow-up their weekly treatment at Program on Sexuality Studies (ProSex) of Psychiatry Department of University of São Paulo Medical School, since 2011. The first group is transsexual women (MTF) - persons of the male sex who identify themselves with the female gender, and the second group is transsexual men (FTM) - persons of the female sex who identify themselves with male gender. Clinical and psychodynamic data of these groups were collected. Over the years, it was observed that this approach is very relevant in order to settle conflicts and distress associated with this condition. Also some characteristics of the groups management was noted in relation to the gender with which the individuals identify themselves.


Personas transexuales han sido divididas en dos grupos para proceder al tratamiento psicoterápico semanal en el Programa de Estudios en Sexualidad (ProSex) del Instituto de Psiquiatría (IPq) del Hospital das Clínicas de la Faculdade de Medicina de la Universidad de São Paulo (HC-FMUSP) desde 2011; el primer grupo, compuesto por mujeres transexuales (MTS) - sexo masculino que se identifican con el género femenino, y el segundo grupo, compuesto por hombres transexuales (HTS) - sexo femenino que se identifican con el género masculino. Se levantaron datos clínicos y psicodinámicos de estos grupos. Durante los últimos años, fue comprobado la pertinencia de esto enfoque en dirimir los conflictos y el sufrimiento asociados a esta condición, además de notar las particularidades del manejo de los grupos relacionado con el género con lo que los individuos se identifican.

12.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 7(1): 3-19, jun. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-999369

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar a trajetória histórica do posicionamento oficial do Conselho Federal de Medicina (CFM) acerca dos procedimentos médicos associados às demandas do Processo Transexualizador (PrTr). Como objetivo específico, discutir as implicações das normatizações existentes, que regulam as intervenções médicas no campo da transgenitalização, para que se possa repensar a formação médica e de outros profissionais de saúde. O método utilizado consiste na análise documental, realizada a partir do banco de dados de pareceres, resoluções, notas técnicas, despachos e recomendações do CFM, com foco nos documentos oficiais de domínio público, que abordam o posicionamento dessa entidade representativa da classe médica em relação à realização de cirurgias de transgenitalização e prescrição da hormonioterapia para pessoas trans. Por meio dessa análise foi possível traçar, retrospectivamente, a evolução desse posicionamento e identificar quais foram os prováveis fatores que desencadearam progressivas mudanças da posição oficial assumida pelo CFM em relação à legalidade e aos aspectos éticos envolvidos nessas intervenções.


This study aimed to examine the historical trajectory of the official position of the Federal Medical Council (FMC) regarding medical procedures associated with the demands of the Transsexualizing Process (PrTr). As a specific objective, to discuss the implications of existing norms, which regulate medical interventions in the field of transgenitalization, in order to rethink the medical and other health professionals' training. The method used consists of the documentary analysis, based on the database of opinions, resolutions, technical notes, orders and recommendations of the FMC, focusing on official documents in the public domain, which deal with the positioning of this representative body of the medical profession in relation transgender surgery and prescription of hormone therapy for transgender people. Through this analysis, it was possible to trace, retrospectively, the evolution of this position and to identify which were the probable factors that triggered progressive changes of the official position assumed by the FMC in relation to the legality and the ethical aspects involved in these interventions.


Este estudio tuvo por objeto examinar la trayectoria histórica del posicionamiento oficial del Consejo Federal de Medicina (CFM) acerca de los procedimientos médicos asociados a las demandas del Proceso Transexualizador (PrTr). Como objetivo específico, discutir las implicaciones de las normativas existentes, que regulan las intervenciones médicas en el campo de la transgenitalización, para que se pueda repensar la formación médica y de otros profesionales de salud. El método utilizado consiste en el análisis documental, realizado a partir del banco de datos de opiniones, resoluciones, notas técnicas, despachos y recomendaciones del CFM, con foco en los documentos oficiales de dominio público, que abordan el posicionamiento de esa entidad representativa de la clase médica con relación a la realización de cirugías de transgenitalización y prescripción de la terapia hormonal para personas transgénero. Por medio de este análisis fue posible trazar retrospectivamente la evolución de ese posicionamiento e identificar cuáles fueron los probables factores que desencadenaron progresivos cambios de la posición oficial asumida por el CFM en relación a la legalidad ya los aspectos éticos involucrados en esas intervenciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sex Differentiation , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Transgender Persons , Gender Identity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60228

ABSTRACT

It is believed that surgery on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is dangerous and should be avoided due to the possibility of postoperative infection of the patients or HIV occupational transmission to the medical staff. We discuss here the preparations and measures needed to conduct surgery safely on HIV-positive patients, based on our experience. We performed sex reassignment surgery on two HIV-positive patients from January 2013 to January 2015. Both of them were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and were asymptomatic, with a normal CD4 count (>500 cells/microL). The HIV-RNA was undetectable within the bloodstream. All the staff wore protective clothing, glasses, and three pairs of protective gloves in the operating room because of the possibility of transmission. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered to the patients, and antiviral therapy was performed during their perioperative course. Neither of the patients had postoperative complications, and none of the medical staff experienced accidental exposure. Both patients had satisfactory surgery outcomes without complications. HIV-positive patients can undergo surgery safely without increased risk of postoperative complications or HIV transmission to the staff through the proper use of antibiotics, active antiretroviral therapy, and supplemental protective measures with post-exposure prophylaxis for the staff in case of HIV exposure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Eyeglasses , Glass , Gloves, Protective , HIV , HIV Infections , Humans , Medical Staff , Operating Rooms , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Postoperative Complications , Protective Clothing , Sex Reassignment Surgery
14.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 20(3)21.12.2012.
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-664971

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo visa analisar os aspectos bioéticos relacionados às recentes práticas de genitoplastia em bebês do sexo feminino na Índia, levando em conta os principais aspectos que influenciam essa prática sob os pontos de vista psicológico, fisiológico, sociocultural e histórico. O método baseou-se na revisão bibliográfica de artigos publicados em base de dados como SciELO e Pubmed e na leitura de livros-texto referentes ao tema. Na discussão, foram analisados aspectos históricos e mitológicos que contribuíram para a construção da posição atual da mulher indiana na sociedade, reunindo conceitos de cultura e aspectos sociais associados ao tema. Entre os argumentos contrários à realização de genitoplastia se destacam os prejuízos à saúde da menina e, sobre tudo, o questionamento ético da atitude de pais e médicos. Mediante a análise de todos esses fatores, concluiu-se que o resultado dessa prática é nocivo à bebê e foram sugeridas medidas para a extinção do procedimento.


Este aroculo tiene como objetivo principal el análisis de los aspectos bioéticos relacionados a las recientes prácticas de Genitoplastia realizadas en bebés del sexo femenino en la India, teniendo en cuenta los princpales aspectos que influencian dicha práctica desde un punto de vista psicológico, fisiológico, sociocultural e histórico. El método utilizado se ha basado en el estudio bibliográfico de aroculos cienoficos sacados de páginas web, tal como SciELO y Pubmed, y en la lectura de libros de texto referentes al tema. En la discusión, se analizaron aspectos históricos y mitológicos que contribuyeron a la construcción de la posición de la mujer india en la sociedad, reuniendo conceptos acerca de la cultura y aspectos sociales relacionados al tema en cuestión. Entre los argumentos en contra de la realización de la Genitoplastia se destacan los daños causados a la salud de la niña y, sobre todo, el cuestionamiento ético de la actitud de los padres y de los médicos. Tras analizarse todos los factores concernientes, se llega a la conclusión de que el resultado de esta práctica es nocivo al bebé y fueron sugeridas algunas medidas para la extinción del procedimiento.


The objective of the present article is to discuss the bioethical aspects of recent genitoplasty practices in female babies in India, taking into consideration psychological, physiological, social, cultural and historical issues that influence such practice. The methodology was based on reviews of articles published in the databases of SciELO and Pubmed websites and on the reading of books which could validate our reasoning. In the discussion, historical and mythological aspects that have built the current position of the woman in the Indian society were addressed, by gathering culture concepts and social subjects related to the theme. Among arguments against the performance of genitoplasty, harms to the girl’s health were highlighted, and mainly the ethical questioning of parents and doctors attitude. Through the analysis of all these factors, it was concluded that the result is harmful to the infant and some measures for the extinction of the procedure were suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Bioethics , Child , Cultural Characteristics , Culture , Gender Identity , Review , Sex Reassignment Procedures , Women , Cultural Factors , Psychosocial Impact
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 38(3): 380-388, May-June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643037

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE:To assess the use of sigmoid colon in vaginal reconstruction of some patients with disorders of sex development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 31 patients with disorders of sex development of various causes. All were reared as females. Female gender was decided for all cases after complete medical assessment. All patients underwent sigmoid vaginoplasty. Assessment of surgical and functional outcomes was carried out in a follow up period of up to 6 years. RESULTS: The preoperative diagnoses included mullerian aplasia (16 cases), androgen insensitivity syndrome (12 cases) and previous failed vaginoplasty (3 cases). Associated surgical procedures were gonadectomy in 5 cases and gonadectomy combined with clitoroplasty and vulvoplasty in 7 cases. No intra-operative or early postoperative complications occurred. A cosmetic neovagina with adequate size was achieved in all cases. Long term follow up showed introital stenosis in 4 cases (12.9 %). Two of them responded to vaginal dilatation. The third one needed y-v plasty while the fourth one presented by acute abdomen secondary to ruptured vagina and was submitted to urgent laparotomy. Mucosal prolapse occurred in 1 case (3.2%). Reoperation rate was 9.6%. Sexual satisfaction was achieved among 9 sexually active cases. The subjective satisfaction score of the surgical outcome was 8.03. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with disorders of sex development of various etiologies, sigmoid vaginoplasty is the preferred technique for vaginal replacement. It is a safe technique that provides the patient with a cosmetic neovagina of adequate caliber and a satisfactory functional outcome.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , /surgery , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/surgery , Colon, Sigmoid/transplantation , Congenital Abnormalities/surgery , Vagina/abnormalities , Vagina/surgery , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Mullerian Ducts/abnormalities , Mullerian Ducts/surgery , Operative Time , Patient Satisfaction , Postoperative Period , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 38(1): 97-107, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-623321

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to thoroughly report on surgical outcomes from 332 patients who underwent male to female gender reassignment surgery (GRS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Records from 332 patients who underwent GRS from 1995 to 2008 were reviewed. All patients were submitted to penile inversion vaginoplasty with glans-derived sensate clitoroplasty. Mean age was 36.7 years (range 19-68 years). Surgical complications were stratified in 6 main groups: genital region, urinary tract, gastrointestinal events, wound healing disorders and unspecific events. RESULTS: Progressive obstructive voiding disorder due to meatal stenosis was the main complication observed in 40% of the patients, feasibly corrected during the second setting. Stricture recurrence was found in 15%. Stricture of vaginal introitus was observed in 15% of the cases followed by 12% and 8% of vaginal stenosis and lost of vaginal depth, respectively. Rectal injury was seen in 3% and minor wound healing disorders in 33% of the subjects. CONCLUSION: Regarding male to female GRS, a review of the current literature demonstrated scarce description of complications and their treatment options. These findings motivated a review of our surgical outcomes. Results showed a great number of adverse events, although functionality preserved. Comparision of our outcomes with recent publications additionally showed that treatment options provide satisfying results. Moreover, outcomes reaffirm penile inversion vaginoplasty in combination with glans-derived sensate clitoroplasty as a safe technique. Nevertheless, discussing and improving surgical techniques in order to reduce complications and their influence on patient's quality of life is still strongly necessary and theme of our future reports.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Genitalia, Male/surgery , Sex Reassignment Surgery/methods , Transsexualism/surgery , Follow-Up Studies , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Sex Reassignment Surgery/statistics & numerical data
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122670

ABSTRACT

Transsexualism is a variety and complexity of conditions to the desire for sex change and may require medical treatments over psychological evaluations in some patients. Consequently, there is a potential confusion in the determination of anatomical sex in transsexuals arising from administration of hormone and/or sex reassignment surgery. In this article, we represent a case of a 52-year-old "woman"found dead on the road-side. "She"was naked on the scene and supposed to be murdered by strangulation of he neck. Surprisingly, autopsy findings as well as DNA typing revealed that "she"was transsexual once a man. We discuss medicolegal problems posed by medico-surgical treatment in transsexuals.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , DNA Fingerprinting , Female , Homicide , Humans , Middle Aged , Neck , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Transsexualism
18.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 768-773, 1991.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57031

ABSTRACT

Trsnssexualism, one of the gender identity disorders, has been increasing and evokes a serious social problem. The role of sex reassignment surgery in these patients are still controversial but in properly selected patients sex reassignment surgery is the best way to normalize their lives. However. guidelines for the proper selection of the patients for surgery is not yet established in Korea So. we present our experiences of two male transsexuals treated with rectosigmoid vaginoplasty and introduce the prerequisites to sex reassienment surgery.


Subject(s)
Gender Identity , Humans , Korea , Male , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Social Problems , Transsexualism
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