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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805302

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effect of a tobacco control intervention for college students under the advocate-promoting model, and to provide evidence for methods to improve smoking control and health decisions.@*Methods@#Four colleges were selected from the list of colleges that participated in a survey of college student tobacco use in Zhejiang Province in 2015, and we conducted a tobacco control intervention with them under the advocate-promoting model for two years. A total of 1 007 students were selected using a random sampling method and surveyed before intervention, and 991 students were selected using a random sampling method and surveyed after the intervention. A chi-square test was used to compare the differences between tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure, and tobacco knowledge among students before and after the intervention.@*Results@#After the tobacco control intervention, the attempted smoking rate among students in the four colleges dropped from 34.36% to 22.30%, the current smoking rate dropped from 12.12% to 7.87%, the second-hand smoke exposure rate decreased from 75.47% to 70.53%, the difference was statistically significant (χ2=37.73, 9.99, 6.18, P<0.05). After intervention, the proportion of students who had seen tobacco advertisements in the past 30 days decreased from 60.38% to 54.4%, the proportion of students who "saw smoking scenes in video media" decreased from 25.02% to 19.58%, and the proportion of students who "learned smoking control knowledge in class" increased from 14.20% to 18.16%, the difference was statistically significant (χ2=7.08, 8.55, 5.79, P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#The advocate-promoting model of "advocacy alliance" can help colleges to establish a smoke-free campus environment and improve college students’ tobacco knowledge and reduce their attempted and current smoking rates.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to predict the 10-year impacts of the introduction of pictorial warning labels (PWLs) on cigarette packaging in 2016 in Korea for adults using DYNAMO-HIA. METHODS: In total, four scenarios were constructed to better understand the potential health impacts of PWLs: two for PWLs and the other two for a hypothetical cigarette tax increase. In both policies, an optimistic and a conservative scenario were constructed. The reference scenario assumed the 2015 smoking rate would remain the same. Demographic data and epidemiological data were obtained from various sources. Differences in the predicted smoking prevalence and prevalence, incidence, and mortality from diseases were compared between the reference scenario and the four policy scenarios. RESULTS: It was predicted that the optimistic PWLs scenario (PWO) would lower the smoking rate by 4.79% in males and 0.66% in females compared to the reference scenario in 2017. However, the impact on the reduction of the smoking rate was expected to diminish over time. PWO will prevent 85 238 cases of diabetes, 67 948 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 31 526 of ischemic heart disease, 21 036 of lung cancer, and 3972 prevalent cases of oral cancer in total over the 10-year span due to the reductions in smoking prevalence. The impacts of PWO are expected to be between the impact of the optimistic and the conservative cigarette tax increase scenarios. The results were sensitive to the transition probability of smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of PWLs in 2016 in Korea is expected reduce smoking prevalence and disease cases for the next 10 years, but regular replacements of PWLs are needed for persistent impacts.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Mortality , Mouth Neoplasms , Myocardial Ischemia , Prevalence , Product Packaging , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Republic of Korea , Smoke , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Taxes , Tobacco Products
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(supl.3): e00121016, 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889819

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este estudo analisa a criação de uma agenda política de controle do tabaco no Brasil a partir da participação do país na Convenção-Quadro para o Controle do Tabaco da Organização Mundial da Saúde (CQCT-OMS). Tal processo se estendeu entre as negociações diplomáticas para a participação do Brasil nesse Tratado, em 2003, e a sua ratificação pelo Congresso Nacional, em 2005, e foi marcado por longas controvérsias que colocaram frente a frente atores da saúde pública, que são os responsáveis pelas atividades de controle do tabaco, o alto escalão da diplomacia brasileira, os emissários da indústria tabaqueira, os representantes dos pequenos plantadores de fumo da Região Sul do país, deputados, senadores e ministros. O estudo toma como base as contribuições de John W. Kingdon sobre o processo de configuração de agenda no âmbito da formulação de políticas públicas. Sua construção baseou-se em bibliografia secundária, fontes legislativas e institucionais no período de 1995 a 2005. Conclui-se que a convergência da capacidade técnica da burocracia da saúde e suas ações para o controle do tabaco, o envolvimento do alto escalão do Ministério das Relações Exteriores (fluxo de políticas), a iniciativa de criação do CQCT_oms (fluxo de problemas) e a existência de um ambiente favorável, tanto no Executivo quanto no Legislativo (fluxo político), possibilitaram a abertura de uma janela de oportunidade para a ratificação da CQCT-OMS e sua ascensão à agenda de decisão governamental.


Resumen: Este estudio analiza la creación de una agenda política de control al tabaco en Brasil, a partir de la participación del país en el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco de la Organizaciòn Mundial de la Salud (CQCT-OMS por sus siglas en portugués). Tal proceso se extendió entre las negociaciones diplomáticas para la participación de Brasil en ese tratado, en 2003, y su ratificación por el Congreso Nacional, en 2005, que estuvo marcado por largas controversias que pusieron frente a frente a actores de la salud pública, quienes son responsables de las actividades de control al tabaco; el alto escalón de la diplomacia brasileña, los emisarios de la industria tabaquera, los representantes de los pequeños agricultores del tabaco de la región sur del país, diputados, senadores y ministros. El estudio toma como base las contribuciones de John W. Kingdon sobre el proceso de configuración de agenda en el ámbito de la formulación de políticas públicas. Su construcción se basó en bibliografía secundaria, fuentes legislativas e institucionales durante el período de 1995 a 2005. Se concluyó que la convergencia de la capacidad técnica de la burocracia de la salud y sus acciones para el control el tabaco, la participación del alto escalafón del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores (flujo de políticas), la iniciativa de creación del CQCT-OMS (flujo de problemas) y la existencia de un ambiente favorable, tanto en el Ejecutivo como en el Legislativo (flujo político), posibilitaron la apertura de una ventana de oportunidad para la ratificación del CQCT-OMS y su ascensión a la agenda de decisión gubernamental.


Abstract: This study analyses the development of a tobacco-control agenda in Brazil following the country's participation in the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). This process started with the diplomatic negotiations for the participation of Brazil in the treaty, in 2003, and its ratification by the National Congress, in 2005, and was marked by substantial controversies between public health players, who are accountable for tobacco-control actions, and the high echelon of Brazilian diplomacy, emissaries of the tobacco industry, representatives of small tobacco farmers from the Southern region of the country, congress representatives, senators and ministers. The study is based on the contributions of John W. Kingdon on the development of an agenda for the formulation of public policies. It took into account secondary references, legislative and institutional sources from the 1995 to 2005 period. It concluded that the association of tobacco-related healthcare actions by technically skilled officials, the involvement of the high echelon of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (policy flow), the initiative for the establishment of the WHO-FCTC (problem flow), and the existence of a favorable environment in both, executive and legislative (political flow), opened a window of opportunity for WHO-FCTC ratification and its inclusion in the government decision agenda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , World Health Organization , Brazil , Public Health/trends , Government Regulation , Health Policy/trends , National Health Programs
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26777

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to measure secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in personal computer (PC) rooms with the purpose of determining the strength of scientific evidence supporting the legislative ban on smoking in PC rooms located in the Republic of Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June to September 2012, particulate matter (PM2.5) and air nicotine concentration (ANC) were measured in the smoking and non-smoking areas of PC rooms in Goyang City, Korea. In 28 randomly sampled PC rooms, field investigators completed an observational questionnaire on building characteristics, smoking policies, and evidence of smoking. The geometric means (GM) of PM2.5 and ANC in smoking and non-smoking areas were compared. RESULTS: Evidence of smoking was identified in both the smoking and non-smoking areas of all PC rooms. The GMs of PM2.5 and ANC in both areas were high and did not differ significantly (174.77 μg/m3 and 48.95 μg/m3 in smoking areas; 93.38 μg/m3 and 41.30 μg/m3 in non-smoking areas). Overall PM2.5 concentrations were 5.5-fold higher than those listed in the World Health Organization guidelines. CONCLUSION: This study supported previous reports that a partial smoking ban did not protect individuals from SHS exposure. Furthermore, the results from our study suggest how research can support policy. Countries in which smoke-free policies are not yet comprehensive may find our results useful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Microcomputers , Nicotine , Particulate Matter , Republic of Korea , Research Personnel , Smoke , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , World Health Organization
5.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(5): 370-379, Nov. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-772132

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO:Traçar o panorama de adesão mundial à Convenção-Quadro para o Controle do Tabaco (CQCT) e descrever a implantação das medidas preconizadas pela CQCT em países latino-americanos. MÉTODOS: Este estudo descritivo baseou-se em análise de dados secundários para determinar o status de adesão, no ano de 2015, dos países das seis regiões definidas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) à CQCT. Depois disso, realizou-se um mapeamento da implantação, até o ano de 2012, das medidas preconizadas pela CQCT no total de Estados Partes e particularmente em 12 Estados Partes latino-americanos. Finalmente, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, México e Venezuela foram avaliados quanto ao grau de implantação da CQCT (incipiente, intermediária e avançada). Foram consideradas neste passo medidas englobadas por quatro eixos - redução da demanda por tabaco, redução da oferta de tabaco, redução dos danos ao ambiente e à saúde das pessoas causados pelo tabaco e apoio ao abandono do tabaco. RESULTADOS: Até agosto de 2015, 180 países haviam ingressado no rol de Estados Partes da CQCT. Considerando os 126 países que enviaram relatórios de progresso global da implantação no ciclo de 2012, as medidas mais prevalentes adotadas referiam-se à proteção contra a exposição à fumaça do tabaco (83,0% para o total de países e 100% para o conjunto de países latinoamericanos). Entre os cinco países selecionados para análise detalhada, as medidas destinadas à redução da demanda e da oferta do tabaco foram as mais frequentes. As medidas relacionadas à redução de danos ao ambiente foram raras. Brasil e México apresentaram a situação mais avançada de implantação entre os países estudados. CONCLUSÕES: A América Latina apresentou uma alta proporção de Estados Partes que implantaram as medidas preconizadas pela CQCT. A heterogeneidade da situação de implantação nos cinco países selecionados sugere que as políticas de controle de tabaco são condicionadas por particularidades nacionais.


OBJECTIVE: To draw an overview of the adherence of countries around the world to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) and to describe the establishment of WHO FCTC recommended measures in Latin American countries. METHODS: This descriptive study was based on analysis of documents and secondary data to determine the status of countries from the six WHO regions regarding adherence to the FCTC. After that, the establishment of recommended measures until the year 2012 was mapped in all States Parties and particularly in 12 Latin American States Parties. Finally, the degree to which FCTC measures had been established in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela was assessed (incipient, intermediate, or advanced). This step took into consideration the measures covered by four domains - reduction in the demand for tobacco, reduction in the offer of tobacco, reduction in damage to the environment and to the health of people caused by tobacco, and support for quitting the use of tobacco. RESULTS: Until August 2015, 180 countries had joined as States Parties to the FCTC. Considering the 126 countries that submitted global progress reports in the 2012 cycle, the most prevalent measures adopted referred to the protection against exposure to tobacco smoke (83.0% for all countries and 100% for the group of Latin American countries). Among the five countries selected for detailed analysis, the measures referring to the reduction of demand and offer of tobacco were the most frequent. Measures focused on reducing environmental damage were rare. Brazil and Mexico had the most advanced FCTC status among the studied countries. CONCLUSIONS: Latin America presented a high proportion of States Parties with established FCTC recommended measures. The heterogeneity of the FCTC status in the five selected countries suggests that the implementation of tobacco control policies depends on specific aspects of each country.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Endocannabinoids/physiology , Marijuana Abuse/physiopathology , Reward , Signal Transduction/physiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Brain/physiology , Brain/physiopathology , Endocannabinoids/genetics , Neural Pathways/physiopathology , Signal Transduction/genetics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180324

ABSTRACT

Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prevalence , Public Health , Republic of Korea , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking/economics , Smoking Cessation , Taxes , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-531821

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the current situation of smoke-free policies and the support for comprehensive smoke free policies in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou, and Yinchuan. Methods Data from Wave 1 of the ITC China Survey (April 2006-August 2008) were analyzed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design across 6 cities: Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou, and Yinchuan. Face to face interviews were conducted with a total of 4 815 smokers and 1 270 non-smokers across the 6 cities to examine their support for smoke free policies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke free policies. Results None of the six cities had implemented comprehensive smoke free policies. Support for comprehensive smoke free policies in workplaces, restaurants and bars was relatively lower compared to hospitals, schools, and public transport vehicles. Support for comprehensive smoke free policies in workplaces, restaurants and bars were associated with knowledge about the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke (for workplaces OR=1.27, 95%CI: 1.08~1.49; for restaurants and bars OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.17~2.05). Conclusion More comprehensive smoke free policies are needed in the 6 cities. To improve support for comprehensive smoke free policies, public knowledge about the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke needs to be strengthened.

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