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1.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(5): 507-516, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403766

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of brief counseling on patient readiness for behavioral change and cessation/reduction of tobacco and alcohol use. Methods: This clinical trial randomized patients in blocks, stratified by risk factor. Adult smokers or at-risk drinkers undergoing surgical or diagnostic procedures were recruited. Outcome assessments and analyses were blinded. Brief counseling was compared with educational materials for the outcomes progress in stage of change and smoking/alcohol cessation/reduction. Results: Overall, 222 participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 218 to the control group. Among them, 28 and 18 patients were lost to follow-up, respectively. Progress in change stage was 94.1% at 1 month in both groups (RR = 1.00; 95%CI 0.95-1.05) and 94.8 vs. 90.5% at 3 months (RR = 1.05; 95%CI 0.99-1.11) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Smoking cessation and alcohol reduction rates at 3 months were 57.2 vs. 41% (RR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.14-1.71) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Only brief counseling led to significant differences in smoking cessation (51.4 vs. 35.1%; RR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.12-1.92). Conclusions: Brief counseling and educational materials improved patient motivation for behavioral change, but brief counseling had a greater effect on smoking cessation. Clinical trial registration: NCT03521622

2.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(291): 8378-8393, ago.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1392118

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar como a prevenção do tabagismo tem sido conduzida em crianças e adolescentes em fase escolar. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases de dados Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed, BVS, Web of Science, CINAHL e SCOPUS. A busca dos estudos foi realizada entre junho e outubro de 2020, considerando estudos de 01/01/2008 até o ano de 2019. Resultado: Foram selecionados 20 artigos para a análise, dos quais emergiram duas categorias: Eficácia das intervenções de prevenção ao tabagismo nas escolas do Brasil e Eficácia das intervenções de prevenção ao tabagismo nas escolas internacionais. Conclusão: Os programas de educação em saúde no combate ao tabagismo desenvolvidos nas escolas obtiveram impacto positivo, ressaltando a importância da temática, a necessidade de pesquisas adicionais que investiguem e trabalhem a prevenção da iniciação tabágica em escolares, além de reforçar a relevância do desenvolvimento de políticas públicas direcionadas a esse público.(AU)


Objective: To identify how smoking prevention has been conducted in school-aged children and adolescents. Method: This is an integrative literature review, carried out in Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed, BVS, Web of Science, CINAHL and SCOPUS databases. The search for studies was carried out between June and October 2020, considering studies from 01/01/2008 to the year 2019. Result: 20 articles were selected for analysis, from which two categories emerged: Effectiveness of smoking prevention interventions in Brazilian schools and Effectiveness of tobacco prevention interventions in international schools. Conclusion: The health education programs to combat smoking developed in schools had a positive impact, highlighting the importance of the theme, the need for additional research to investigate and work on the prevention of smoking initiation in schoolchildren, in addition to reinforcing the relevance of the development of public policies aimed at this audience.(AU)


Objetivo: Identificar cómo se ha realizado la prevención del tabaquismo en niños y adolescentes en edad escolar. Método: Se trata de una revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada en las bases de datos Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed, BVS, Web of Science, CINAHL y SCOPUS. La búsqueda de estudios se realizó entre junio y octubre de 2020, considerando estudios del 01/01/2008 al año 2019. Resultado: 20 artículos fueron seleccionados para análisis, de los cuales surgieron dos categorías: Eficacia de las intervenciones de prevención del tabaquismo en escuelas brasileñas y Eficacia de las intervenciones de prevención del tabaquismo en escuelas internacionales. Conclusión: Los programas de educación en salud para combatir el tabaquismo desarrollados en las escuelas tuvieron un impacto positivo, destacando la importancia del tema, la necesidad de investigaciones adicionales para investigar y trabajar en la prevención de la iniciación al tabaquismo en escolares, además de reforzar la pertinencia de la desarrollo de políticas públicas dirigidas a este público.(AU)


Subject(s)
Schools , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Smoking Prevention
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(4): 79-86, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1394096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the host response against invading pathogens. In addition to their direct antimicrobial activity, they can also participate in the immune system modulation. However, the role of AMPs in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease and the risk factors that may influence their expression in the oral cavity are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of smoking on beta-defensin (hBD) 1 and 2 levels analyzing samples from periodontitis patients. Fifty patients with periodontitis, 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers, and 20 periodontally healthy patients were recruited. After periodontal clinical evaluation, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from healthy sites of patients without periodontal disease and from healthy and diseased sites of patients with periodontitis. Peptides quantification was performed by sandwich ELISA technique. Smokers showed reduced GCF hBD 1 levels and increased hBD 2 levels compared to non-smokers in diseased sites (p <0.05). Higher levels of hBD 1 were observed in healthy sites of patients without periodontal disease than in healthy sites of patients with periodontitis (p<0.0001). Diseased sites of non-smokers presented higher levels of hBD 2 than healthy sites (p <0.05). These results reveal that protein levels of hBDs 1 and 2 can be impaired by cigarette smoking in the presence of periodontal disease.


Resumo Peptídeos antimicrobianos (PAMs) são componentes importantes da resposta do hospedeiro contra patógenos invasores. Além de sua atividade antimicrobiana direta, eles também podem participar da modulação do sistema imunológico. No entanto, o papel dos PAMs na etiopatogenia da doença periodontal e os fatores de risco que podem influenciar a sua expressão na cavidade oral não são totalmente compreendidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o impacto do tabagismo nos níveis de beta-defensina (hBD) 1 e 2 analisando amostras de pacientes com periodontite. Cinquenta pacientes com periodontite, 25 fumantes e 25 não fumantes e 20 pacientes periodontalmente saudáveis foram recrutados. Após avaliação clínica periodontal, amostras de fluido crevicular gengival (FCG) foram coletadas de sítios saudáveis de pacientes sem doença periodontal e de sítios saudáveis e doentes de pacientes com periodontite. A quantificação dos peptídeos foi realizada pela técnica de ELISA sanduíche. Fumantes apresentaram níveis reduzidos de hBD 1 no FCG e níveis aumentados de hBD 2 em comparação com não fumantes em locais doentes (p <0,05). Níveis mais elevados de hBD 1 foram observados em sítios saudáveis de pacientes sem doença periodontal do que em sítios saudáveis de pacientes com periodontite (p<0,0001). Os sítios doentes de não fumantes apresentaram níveis mais elevados de hBD 2 do que os sítios saudáveis (p<0,05). Esses resultados revelam que os níveis das hBDs 1 e 2 podem ser prejudicados pelo tabagismo na presença de doença periodontal.

4.
Rev. APS ; 25(Supl. 2): 160-181, 16/08/2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393282

ABSTRACT

No Brasil, a prevalência de tabagismo ainda é elevada em pessoas portadoras de Condições Crônicas não Transmissíveis (CCNT). A compreensão dos modelos de atenção ao tabagista é essencial para se reduzir o abandono do tratamento. Objetivos: identificar as características sociodemográficas e de saúde dos indivíduos que buscaram o Programa Nacional de Controle do Tabaco (PNCT) em duas Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) do município de Campinas, estimar o percentual de abandono do tratamento e elencar os fatores associados a esse desfecho. Metodologia: coorte histórico cujos dados foram obtidos, entre 2016 e 2019, em grupos de tratamento do PNCT. Para a realização da análise exploratória, a pesquisa incluiu 276 participantes, dos quais foram registradas suas variáveis sociodemográficas, condições de saúde, formas de uso do tabaco e participação no programa. Foram estimados o índice de abandono do tratamento e as possíveis relações com as variáveis significativas através de regressão múltipla. Resultados: a média de idade foi de 50,7 anos, com 60% do sexo feminino, 57,7% brancos, 52,2% com companheiro, 84,7% com filhos, 52,5% com ensino fundamental, 64% com renda entre um e dois salários, 40,1% trabalhando em setor de serviços e 58% católicos. O percentual de abandono do tratamento foi de 31%. A hipertensão se relacionou com o abandono do tratamento (p=0,030), reduzindo-o. Conclusão: o perfil dos indivíduos foi semelhante ao encontrado em outras pesquisas; indivíduos não hipertensos apresentaram maioríndice de abandono. São necessários outros estudos que avaliem fatores associados ao abandono do tratamento


In Brazil, there is still a high prevalence of smoking among people with chronic diseases. The understanding of smoking treatments is essential to a reduction in treatment dropout. Objectives: to identify epidemiological and health aspects of smokers, estimate the dropout rates, and list the factorsassociated with treatment dropouts. Data from PNCT (National Program of Tobacco Control) treatment groups was obtained from a historical cohort between 2016 and 2019. The research included 276 participants with different sociodemographic realities, healthconditions, forms of tobacco use, and participation in the program to conduct an exploratory analysis. The treatment dropout rate and possible relations with significant variables were estimated through multiple regression. Results: The mean age was 50.7 years; 60% female; 57.7% white; 52.2% with a partner; 84.7% with children; 52.5% studied until elementary school; 64% received between one and two salaries; 40.1% worked in the service sector; 58% were Catholic. The percentage of treatment dropouts was 31%. Hypertension was related to treatment dropout (p = 0.030), reducing it. Conclusion: The profiles of individuals were similar to those in other surveys. Non-hypertensive individuals had a higher dropout rate. Further studies are needed to assess the factors associated with treatment dropout.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patient Dropouts/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Smoking Prevention , Health Status , Risk Factors , Sociodemographic Factors
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(6): 2349-2362, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374991

ABSTRACT

Resumo Aos jovens é atribuída especial atenção no que tange ao tabagismo por se tratar de um período da vida em que o uso dessa e outras substâncias geralmente inicia e se consolida. Não há estudos sobre fatores de risco associados aos adultos jovens, com amostra representativa do Brasil e que consideram aspectos individuais e contextuais. O objetivo foi identificar fatores associados ao tabagismo em adultos jovens brasileiros de 18 a 24 anos, considerando a influência conjunta de fatores individuais e contextual avaliado por meio do Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (IDHM). Estudo transversal, de base populacional, que utilizou dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2019. Por meio do modelo multinível de Poisson com variâncias robustas para estimação da Razão de Prevalência, foram analisadas variáveis individuais, e como variável contextual, o IDHM em cada Unidade Federativa. Além de fatores individuais, o IDHM também se mostrou associado ao tabagismo dos jovens, com aumento da prevalência de consumo de tabaco entre os jovens à medida que se aumenta o IDHM do estado (p<0,001), indicando que residir em UF com melhores condições socioeconômicas segundo o IDHM está associado a maior probabilidade de o jovem fumar se comparados com aqueles que residem nos demais estados.


Abstract Young people receive special attention regarding smoking as it is a period of life in which the use of this and other substances generally starts and is consolidated. There are no studies on risk factors associated with young adults with a representative sample from Brazil that take into consideration individual and contextual aspects. The objective was to identify factors associated with smoking among young Brazilian adults aged 18 to 24 years, considering the combined influence of individual and contextual factors assessed through the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI). It involved a cross-sectional, population-based study that used data from the 2019 National Health Survey. Using the Poisson multilevel model with robust variance for estimating the Prevalence Ratio, individual variables were analyzed, and the MHDI as a contextual variable in each Federative Unit. In addition to individual factors, the MHDI was also associated with smoking among young people, with an increase in the prevalence of tobacco consumption among young people as the state's MHDI increases (p<0.001), indicating that living in a state with better conditions according to the MHDI, socioeconomic status is associated with a higher probability of young people smoking when compared to those residing in other states.

6.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(2): 193-200, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395062

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las tendencias ocurridas en diferentes indicadores de tabaquismo en adolescentes peruanos. Asimismo, se evaluó las tendencias en dichos indicadores de acuerdo a sexo y en aquellos sin antecedente de tabaquismo previo. Materiales y métodos. El presente estudio usa la Encuesta Mundial sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2007, 2014, 2019). Tabaquismo activo se definió según el consumo de tabaco en los últimos 30 días. Tabaquismo pasivo se definió en función a exposición a tabaco dentro y fuera del hogar, tanto global como en forma diaria. Los análisis consideraron el diseño muestral. Resultados. Un total de 17 047 registros (9869 en el 2007, 3424 en el 2014, y 3754 en el 2019) fueron analizados; edad media 14 años y 49,9% mujeres. El 26,6% reportó antecedente de tabaquismo previo; dicha prevalencia cayó de 45,2% (2007), a 25,3% (2014), y a 19,4% (2019, p de tendencias < 0,001), mientras que el tabaquismo activo cayó de 17,1% (2007) a 8,7% (2014) y a 5,7% (2019). La prevalencia global de tabaquismo pasivo en el hogar cayó de 24,7%, a 12,9% y a 10,4% (p de tendencias <0,001), mientras que la prevalencia global de tabaquismo pasivo fuera del hogar se redujo de 46,3%, a 39,4%, y a 36,3% (p < 0,001) en ese lapso. La caída en los indicadores de tabaquismo se vio principalmente en mujeres que en varones. Conclusión. Se evidencia una reducción sostenida en los indicadores de tabaquismo en adolescentes peruanos. El tabaquismo pasivo fuera del hogar continúa siendo frecuente requiriendo el fortalecimiento de las actuales políticas de control de tabaco.


ABSTRACT Objective. This study aimed to assess the trends of different smoking indicators among Peruvian adolescents. Additionally, we evaluated whether such trends were different by sex or among those without previous smoking history. Materials and methods. We analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2007, 2014, 2019). Active smoking was defined according to smoking in the last 30 days. Passive smoking was assessed based on exposure to tobacco inside and outside the household, both overall and daily. Analyses considered the sample design. Results. A total of 17,047 records (9,869 in 2007, 3,424 in 2014, and 3,754 in 2019) were analyzed; the mean age was 14 years, and 49.9% were women. Previous smoking history was reported in 26.6% of the records; such prevalence fell from 45.2% (2007), to 25.3% (2014), and to 19.4% (2019, p-value for trend < 0.001), whereas active smoking fell from 17.1% (2007) to 8.7% (2014) and to 5.7% (2019). The overall prevalence of passive smoking inside the household fell from 24.7% to 12.9% and 10.4% (p-value <0.001), whereas the overall prevalence of passive smoking outside the household dropped from 46.3% to 39.4% and 36.3% (p-value <0.001) during the same period. The reduction of the smoking indicators was observed mainly among women than in men. Conclusion. There is evidence of a sustained reduction in smoking indicators in Peruvian adolescents. Passive smoking outside the household continues to be common, calling for strengthening current tobacco control policies.

7.
Rev. cienc. med. Pinar Rio ; 26(3): e5511, mayo.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407869

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el mundo enfrenta una nueva pandemia ante el brote de SARS-CoV-2 iniciado en Wuhan, China en diciembre de 2019. Las diferencias genéticas del hospedero y factores de riesgo como: antecedentes personales, estilos de vida y factores ambientales pueden contribuir a la marcada variabilidad clínica interindividual en la COVID-19. Objetivo: identificar los antecedentes patológicos personales (enfermedades crónicas y tabaquismo) asociados a la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: estudio observacional analítico de casos y controles en Pinar del Río en el período comprendido entre marzo de 2020 a marzo de 2021. Se exploraron antecedentes personales de enfermedades crónicas y el antecedente de tabaquismo como factor ambiental. Resultados: los antecedentes patológicos personales de alergia y asma constituyeron factores de riesgo para desarrollar síntomas. Se presenta el antecedente de fumador activo como un factor de riesgo para la infección. Conclusiones: se demuestra la contribución de los antecedentes patológicos personales (alergia y asma), y ambientales (fumador activo) a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y al desarrollo de síntomas en pacientes de COVID-19 en Pinar del Río.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the world deals with a new pandemic because of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak initiated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Host genetic differences and risk factors such as: personal history, lifestyles and environmental factors may contribute to the marked inter-individual clinical variability in COVID-19. Objective: to identify personal pathological history (chronic diseases and smoking) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: analytical, observational study of cases and controls in Pinar del Rio in the period from March 2020 to March 2021. Personal history of chronic diseases and smoking as an environmental factor were explored. Results: personal pathological history of allergies and asthma constituted risk factors to develop symptoms. History of active smoking is presented as a risk factor for infection. Conclusions: the contribution of personal pathological history (allergy and asthma) and environmental (active smoking) to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to the development of symptoms in COVID-19 patients in Pinar del Rio is confirmed.

8.
MedUNAB ; 25(1): 42-51, 202205.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372552

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial y el cese del consumo de tabaco es la medida más efectiva para disminuir la incidencia y su progresión. Esta medida es especialmente eficaz en personas envejecidas, en quienes las consecuencias son más agudas a causa de los cambios biopsicosociales, cambios que aumentan la probabilidad de infecciones, dependencia funcional y fragilidad. El objetivo de este reporte es describir los cambios en el hábito tabáquico de una persona mayor con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, tras ser incluida en un plan de cuidado organizado y según las etapas del proceso de Enfermería dirigido al cese del hábito tabáquico. Metodología. Reporte de caso de Enfermería bajo el Modelo de Promoción de la Salud de Nola Pender y el proceso de Enfermería, articulado con la taxonomía diagnóstica North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, la Clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería (Nursing Outcomes Classification) y la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería (Nursing Interventions Classification). Resultados. Tras el proceso de Enfermería se evidencia la cesación del hábito tabáquico en la persona mayor y se destaca en el proceso la participación del núcleo familiar y el reconocimiento de los riesgos en salud asociados. Conclusiones. Se reconoce el rol de Enfermería como preponderante en la prevención y el abandono del hábito tabáquico que, orientado por un proceso de cuidado organizado, con respaldo disciplinar y científico, ayuda a mejorar el estado de salud y manejo de los factores de riesgo.


Introduction. Quitting tobacco consumption is the most effective measure for reducing the incidence and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is a global public health issue. This measure is especially effective in seniors, in whom the consequences are more acute due to biopsychosocial changes, changes that increase the probability of infection, functional dependence and fragility. The objective of this report is to describe the changes in the tobacco habits of a senior with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after being included in an organized health care plan according to the Nursing process' stages for quitting tobacco habits. Methodology. A nursing case report under Nola Pender's Health Promotion Model and the Nursing process, articulated with the diagnostic taxonomy North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, Nursing Outcomes Classification and Nursing Interventions Classification. Results. It was evident the senior quit their tobacco habits after the Nursing process was carried out, and participation from family members and recognition of the associated health risks stood out in the process. Conclusions. The role of Nursing is pivotal in preventing and quitting tobacco habits, which, guided by an organized health care process with disciplinary and scientific support, helps improve health conditions and manage risk factors.


Introdução. A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é um problema de saúde pública global e a cessação do consumo de tabaco é a medida mais eficaz para reduzir sua incidência e progressão. Essa medida é especialmente eficaz em idosos, nos quais as consequências são mais agudas devido a alterações biopsicossociais, alterações que aumentam a probabilidade de infecções, dependência funcional e fragilidade. O objetivo deste relato é descrever as mudanças no hábito de fumar de um idoso com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, após a inclusão em um plano de cuidados organizado e de acordo com as etapas do processo de Enfermagem visando a cessação do tabagismo. Metodologia. Relato de caso de Enfermagem sob o Modelo de Promoção da Saúde de Nola Pender e o processo de Enfermagem, articulado com a taxonomia diagnóstica North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, a Classificação de Resultados de Enfermagem Nursing Outcomes Classification e a Classificação de Intervenções de Enfermagem Nursing Interventions Classification. Resultados. Após o processo de Enfermagem, evidencia-se a cessação do tabagismo no idoso e destaca-se a participação do núcleo familiar e o reconhecimento dos riscos à saúde associados no processo. Conclusões. O papel da Enfermagem é reconhecido como preponderante na prevenção e cessação do tabagismo, o que, pautado por um processo assistencial organizado, com respaldo disciplinar e científico, auxilia na melhoria do estado de saúde e no manejo dos fatores de risco.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Smoking Cessation , Evidence-Based Nursing , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Nursing Process
9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 49(2)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388593

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La población universitaria presenta cambios en su estilo de vida, que se refleja en su composición corporal, y alteraciones metabólicas. Los estudiantes del área de la salud son futuros promotores de estilos de vida saludables. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar la frecuencia del Síndrome metabólico (SM) y sus componentes en los estudiantes del programa de Nutrición y Dietética. Noventa estudiantes de 18 a 25 años, en quienes se evaluaron los componentes del SM, la actividad física por acelerometría, el consumo de alcohol mediante el cuestionario Audit, tabaquismo y horas de sueño por el método Pittsburgh. Las prevalencias encontradas fueron: SM 1,1%, circunferencia de cintura elevada 4,5%, triglicéridos altos 11%, HDL bajos 32%, presión arterial elevada 1,1%. Se encontró que 73% cumplían con las recomendaciones de actividad física recomendadas por la OMS. Sin embargo, el 100% de los estudiantes pasaron más de 9 horas sedentarias por día, el 6,7% presentaron un consumo de alcohol catalogado como perjudicial, 19% estuvieron expuestos al humo o eran fumadores, y el 63,3% se consideraron como malos dormidores. No hubo asociación entre las variables del estilo de vida con los componentes del SM. En conclusión, los triglicéridos altos y las HDL bajas, el sedentarismo y la baja calidad de sueño son variables importantes para tener en consideración en programas de intervención con la finalidad de ser nutricionistas coherentes con la profesión.


ABSTRACT Changes to body composition and metabolic functions occur in the university population due to lifestyle choices. Students in the health programs are expected to fulfill a fundamental role in promoting healthy lifestyles. The objective of this work was to identify the frequency of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its components among students of a Nutrition and Dietetics program. Ninety students between 18 and 21 years old were evaluated for each of the components of the MS, physical activity by accelerometry, alcohol consumption by Audit questionnaire, smoking, and hours of sleep by Pittsburgh method. The prevalence found were: MS 1.1%, high waist circumference 4.5%, high triglycerides 11%, low HDL 32%, high blood pressure 1.1%. Regarding variables related to lifestyle habits, 73% complied with physical activity recommendations recommended by the WHO. However, 100% of the students were sedentary more than 9 hours per day, 6.7% had alcohol consumption classified as harmful, 19% were exposed to smoke or were smokers, and 63.3% were considered bad sleepers. There was no association between lifestyle variables and the MS components. In conclusion, high triglycerides, low HDL, sedentary lifestyle, and low sleep quality are crucial variables to consider in intervention programs aimed at training nutritionist, in keeping with the profession.

10.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7628-7644, abr.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372580

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar as evidências científicas sobre o prognóstico de pacientes tabagistas que foram hospitalizados por COVID-19. Método: revisão integrativa baseada na estratégia PICO, realizada com 21 artigos indexados nas bases de dados Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs e SCOPUS, em maio de 2021. Resultados: foram identificados 798 estudos, e destes 21 compuseram a amostra. Os principais prognósticos identificados foram: risco aumentado de hospitalização, risco de gravidade da COVID-19 aumentado, maiores ocorrências de hospitalização e longa permanência em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, maiores chances de uso de ventilação contínua e maiores índices de mortalidade. Conclusões: evidenciou-se relação do tabagismo com maiores índices de hospitalização, agravamento da doença, maiores chances de admissão em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva, necessidade de ventilação mecânica e elevados índices de mortalidade. Ainda, fomenta a produção de estudos que visem estudar características desfavoráveis na evolução da COVID-19.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the scientific evidence on the prognosis of smokers who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Method: integrative review based on the PICO strategy, carried out with 21 articles indexed in Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and SCOPUS databases, in May 2021. Results: 798 studies were identified, and of these 21 made up the sample. The main prognoses identified were: increased risk of hospitalization, increased risk of COVID-19 severity, greater occurrences of hospitalization and long stay in the Intensive Care Unit, greater chances of using continuous ventilation and higher mortality rates. Conclusion: there was evidence of a relationship between smoking and higher rates of hospitalization, worsening of the disease, higher chances of admission to Intensive Care Units, need for mechanical ventilation and high mortality rates. It also encourages the production of studies aimed at studying unfavorable characteristics in the evolution of COVID-19.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar la evidencia científica sobre el pronóstico de fumadores hospitalizados por COVID-19. Método: revisión integradora basada en la estrategia PICO, realizada con 21 artículos indexados en las bases de datos Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs y SCOPUS, en mayo de 2021. Resultados: se identificaron 798 estudios, de los cuales 21 conformaron la muestra. Los principales pronósticos identificados fueron: mayor riesgo de hospitalización, mayor riesgo de severidad de la COVID-19, mayores ocurrencias de hospitalización y larga estancia en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, mayores posibilidades de uso de ventilación continua y mayores tasas de mortalidad. Conclusiones: el tabaquismo se asoció con mayores tasas de hospitalización, empeoramiento de la enfermedad, mayores posibilidades de ingreso a Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, necesidad de ventilación mecánica y altas tasas de mortalidad. También incentiva la producción de estudios que tengan como objetivo estudiar características desfavorables en la evolución del COVID-19(AU)


Subject(s)
Prognosis , Tobacco Use Disorder , Nursing , COVID-19 , Hospitalization
11.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 26(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405610

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El hábito de fumar está asociado a una gran variedad de cambios perjudiciales en la cavidad bucal, pues altera su microambiente y lo predispone para que se presenten diversas afecciones. Objetivo: Determinar la posible relación del hábito de fumar con las afecciones bucales en adolescentes. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional en adolescentes del Centro Mixto «Pepito Tey» de San Diego del Valle, Cifuentes, en el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2016 y octubre de 2018. La población de estudio, conformada por 208 adolescentes, se organizó en dos estratos: grupo estudio y grupo control. Se seleccionaron dos muestras probabilísticas por muestreo aleatorio simple (60 adolescentes en cada grupo). Resultados: Predominaron adolescentes de 12 años, fumadores leves, del sexo masculino, con inicio del hábito entre 14-15 años y práctica de este hábito de menos de 6 meses. Se asociaron al hábito de fumar: la caries dental, la enfermedad periodontal, las manchas dentales, las lesiones de la mucosa bucal y la halitosis. Conclusiones: Predominaron adolescentes fumadores masculinos de 12 años. La gran mayoría de los fumadores fueron clasificados como leves, con inicio del hábito entre los 14-15 años de edad, y con práctica desde hace menos de seis meses. Existió asociación significativa entre el hábito de fumar y las afecciones bucales (enfermedad periodontal, caries dental, mancha dental, halitosis y lesión de la mucosa bucal).


ABSTRACT Introduction: smoking is associated with a wide variety of harmful changes in the oral cavity, since it alters its microenvironment and predisposes it to the occurrence of various conditions. Objective: to determine the possible relationship between smoking and oral conditions in adolescents. Method: an observational study was carried out in adolescents from "Pepito Tey" Mixed Center, in San Diego del Valle, Cifuentes between September 2016 and October 2018. The study population, made up of 208 adolescents, was organized into two strata: study group and control ones. Two probabilistic samples were selected by simple random sampling (60 adolescents in each group). Results: 12-year-old male light smokers, who started smoking between 14 and 15 years of age and practiced this habit for less than 6 months, predominated. Dental caries, periodontal disease, dental stains, oral mucosal lesions and halitosis were associated with smoking. Conclusions: 12-year-old male adolescent smokers predominated. Most smokers were classified as light, started smoking between 14 and 15 years of age and practiced this habit for less than 6 months. There was a significant association between smoking and oral conditions (periodontal disease, dental caries, dental stains, halitosis and oral mucosal lesions).

12.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 51(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408789

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Con la propagación del coronavirus tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), han emergido interrogantes sobre los factores de riesgo que influyen en la enfermedad que este origina: la COVID-19. Una cuestión ampliamente debatida ha sido el efecto potencial del tabaquismo en las tasas de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y en las consecuencias clínicas de la COVID-19. Objetivo: Dilucidar las implicaciones del tabaquismo en el contexto de la COVID-19. Desarrollo: En la literatura consultada fueron identificados varios mecanismos fisiopatológicos que fundamentan el efecto deletéreo del tabaquismo en el contexto de la COVID-19: la regulación al alza de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2; el aumento de la expresión/actividad de la serina proteasa celular de transmembrana 2, la catepsina B/L y la furina; la inmunoinflamación e inmunosupresión; la regulación al alza de la fosfodiesterasa 4; las alteraciones hemovasculares encefálicas; y las modificaciones morfofuncionales del parénquima pulmonar. Conclusiones: El tabaquismo desempeña un efecto deletéreo en pacientes con la COVID-19. En esta nociva asociación concursan mecanismos fisiopatológicos que pudiesen hacer que los fumadores -activos o pasivos- posean mayor vulnerabilidad ante la infección por SARS-CoV-2 o que expongan una evolución desfavorable una vez hayan desarrollado la COVID-19.


ABSTRACT Introduction: With the spread of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), questions about the risk factors that influence the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have emerged. A widely debated issue has been the potential effect of smoking on SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and the clinical consequences of COVID-19. Objective: To elucidate the implications of smoking in the context of COVID-19. Development: In the literature consulted, several pathophysiological mechanisms that support the deleterious effect of smoking in the context of COVID-19 were identified: upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; increased expression/activity of transmembrane serine protease 2, cathepsin B/L and furin; immunoinflammation and immunosuppression; upregulation of phosphodiesterase 4; encephalic hemovascular alterations; and morphofunctional modifications of the lung parenchyma. Conclusions: Smoking has a deleterious effect on patients bearing COVID-19. In this harmful association, there are pathophysiological mechanisms that may make smokers -active or passive ones- more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection or more likely to present with an unfavorable evolution once they have developed COVID-19.

13.
Ars méd ; 47(1): 9-15, mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380724

ABSTRACT

Introducción:la eritrocitosis excesiva afecta a los habitantes de grandes alturas como La Paz, Bolivia, a 3600 msnm. El objetivo del pre-sente trabajo es determinar la existencia de hipertensión arterial pulmonar en pacientes fumadores con eritrocitosis excesiva, residentes de la gran altura entre 20 y 60 años de edad, casos estudiados en el Instituto Boliviano de Biología de Altura (IBBA) a lo largo de tres décadas.Materiales y métodos:estudio retrospectivo en el que revisamos sistemáticamente expedientes clínicos del IBBA. Se hallan 540 expedientes clínicos de la unidad de fisiología y fisiopatología respiratoria, de los cuales el 7% (30) fueron incluidos. Se buscaron correlaciones lineales entre edad, tabaquismo, hemoglobina sérica, altitud de residencia, presión arterial pulmonar y pruebas de fun-ción pulmonar. Resultados: existe correlación entre presión arterial pulmonar sistólica y hemoglobina sérica con R=0,579 (p=0,005). El índice de Tiffeneau (TIFF.O) tiene una correlación con la presión arterial media sistémica (PAM) (p=0,006). Conclusión: en pacientes con eritrocitosis excesiva fumadores residentes de grandes alturas, existe una correlación positiva entre presión arterial pulmonar sistólica y concentración de hemoglobina sin existir correlación con valores espirométricos que sugieran patrones obstructivos.


Introduction: Excessive erythrocytosis affects some people that live at high altitudes, such as in La Paz ­ Bolivia, 3600 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to determine the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in smokers that were diagnosed with excessive erythrocytosis. These smokers live at high altitudes. The Bolivian Institute of Altitude Biology (IBBA ­ Instituto Boliviano de Bio-logía de Altura) has studied this population for three decades. Materials and methods: Retrospective study in which we systematically reviewed IBBA's clinical records. We found 540 clinical records from the respiratory physiology and pathophysiology unit, from which we included 30 (7%). We also sought correlations between serum hemoglobin, pulmonary arterial pressure, and respiratory function tests. Results: we found that the correlation between systolic pulmonary artery pressure and serum hemoglobin is R = 0.579 (p = 0.005). We also found a strong correlation between the Tiffeneau index (TIFF.O) and the mean systemic arterial pressure (p = 0.005). Conclusion: in smokers diagnosed with excessive erythrocytosis that live at high altitudes, there is a correlation between systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and hemoglobin concentration, without any of them correlating with spirometry values that suggest an obstructive pattern.

14.
Más Vita ; 4(1): 10-30, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1372058

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son las principales causas de muerte a nivel mundial, cada año mueren más personas por esta enfermedad que por otra causa. Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes: Subcentro de salud General Vernaza cantón Salitre. Materiales y métodos: Fue de enfoque cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo, no experimental y transversal, la población (N=200) pacientes, la muestra de 120 pacientes de 40 a 65 años de edad con problemas cardiovasculares, el instrumento fue una encuesta validada por juicio de expertos en salud. Resultados: Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más predominantes fueron el estrés (34,2%) y el sedentarismo (16,7%); consumen cigarrillo (48,3%); consumen alcohol (45,8%), se alimentan 3 veces al día los alimentos cotidianos (71,7%); no cuidan sus porciones alimenticias (39,2%); el nivel de colesterol más frecuente entre 100 y 129 mg/dL (38,3%), no evitan alimentos fritos empanizados y cremosos(55,8%); no realizan ejercicio físico (36,7%); el estado nutricional normal abarcó un (68,3%), se sirven sus alimentos cotidianos en casa (72,5%); consumen muy frecuente carnes y pescados (80%), huevos y lácteos (70,8%), frutas y verduras (50,8%), grasas (65,8%), alcohol y café (65%), horas sentados viendo TV, móvil o portátil (54,2%) de 4 a 8 horas; condición regular para realizar actividad física (38,3%), tiempo máximo de realizar ejercicio 10 a 30 minutos (40,8%), en un solo día a la semana (65%). Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares en pacientes fueron el estrés y sedentarismo, convirtiéndose en un problema de salud pública afectando el presupuesto familiar, hospitalario y del estado(AU)


Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide More people die each year from this disease than from any other cause. Objective:Determine the risk factors cardiovascular disease in patients: General Vernaza Health Subcenter Salitre canton. Materials and methods:Focus was quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-experimental and cross-sectional, the population (N=200) patients, the sample of 120 patients from 40 to 65 years of age with cardiovascular problems, the instrument was a survey validated by the judgment of health experts. Results:The cardiovascular risk factors more predominant were stress (34.2%) and sedentary lifestyle (16.7%); smoke cigarettes (48.3%); consume alcohol (45.8%), they eat daily food 3 times a day (71.7%); they don't watch their portions food (39.2%); the most frequent cholesterol level between 100 and 129 mg/dL (38.3%), they do not avoid food breaded and creamy fried foods (55.8%); do not perform physical exercise (36.7%); normal nutritional status encompassed one (68.3%), they serve their daily meals at home (72.5%); eat meatand fish very often (80%), eggs and dairy products (70.8%), fruits and vegetables (50.8%), fats (65.8%), alcohol and coffee (65%), hours sitting watching TV, mobile or laptop (54.2%) from 4 to 8 hours; regular condition for physical activity (38.3%), maximum time to exercise 10 to 30 minutes (40.8%), on a single day a week (65%). Conclusions:The cardiovascular risk factors in patients were stress and sedentary lifestyle, becoming in a public health problem affecting higher family, hospital and state out-of-pocket costs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stress, Physiological , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Sedentary Behavior , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Tobacco Use Disorder , Diabetes Mellitus , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Obesity
15.
Vigil. sanit. debate ; 10(1): 34-39, fev. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362143

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A pandemia do novo coronavírus teve repercussões no funcionamento dos sistemas de saúde do mundo inteiro. O tabagista foi um grupo diretamente afetado por essas mudanças. Objetivo: Mensurar esse impacto a partir da análise dos dados do Programa Estadual de Controle ao Tabagismo de Pernambuco. Método: Estudo descritivo transversal, utilizando como unidades de análise dados da estratégia de monitoramento do Programa Estadual de Controle ao Tabagismo da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Pernambuco (SES-PE), comparando os atendimentos no segundo quadrimestre dos anos de 2019 e 2020. Resultados: Entre maio e agosto de 2019, 3.282 pacientes tabagistas buscaram tratamento para cessação do tabagismo no SUS, em Pernambuco. Em período similar, entre os meses de maio e agosto do ano de 2020, o tratamento para cessação do tabagismo foi procurado por 680 usuários tabagistas, representando uma queda de 79,28%. Além disso, o número de municípios oferecendo tratamento para cessação do tabagismo no SUS caiu de 97 para 36 (62,89%) e o número de unidades de saúde da atenção básica realizando tratamento para cessação do tabagismo no SUS de 277 para 80 (71,11%). Conclusões: A diminuição da oferta do tratamento pelo Programa Estadual de Combate ao Tabagismo é preocupante. Ainda que a sua relação com a COVID-19 não esteja completamente elucidada, a cessação do uso do tabaco traz benefícios já bem estabelecidos. Dessa forma, é necessário incentivar a adoção de novas estratégias e tecnologias, aproveitando a janela de oportunidade que o temor da associação COVID-19/tabagismo criou.


Introduction: The new Coronavirus pandemic has had an impact on health systems worldwide. Smokers were directly affected by these changes. Objective: To measure the new Coronavirus pandemic impact on smoking cessation from the analysis of data from the Pernambuco State Tobacco Control Program. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study, using data from the monitoring strategy of the State Tobacco Control Program of the State Health Secretariat of Pernambuco (SES-PE) as the unit of analysis, comparing services in the second quarter of 2019 and 2020. Results: Between May and August 2019, 3.282 smoking patients sought treatment for smoking cessation in SUS, in Pernambuco. In a similar period, between the months of May and August of the year 2020, treatment for smoking cessation was sought by 680 smoking users, representing a drop of 79,28%. In addition, the number of municipalities offering treatment for smoking cessation in SUS dropped from 97 to 36 (62,89%) and the number of primary health care units providing treatment for smoking cessation in SUS went from 277 to 80 (71,11%). Conclusions: The decrease in the offer of treatment by the State Program to Combat Smoking is worrying. Although its relation with COVID-19 has not been fully elucidated, the cessation of tobacco use has already established benefts. Thus, it is necessary to encourage the adoption of new strategies and technologies, using the window of opportunity that the fear of COVID-19/smoking association created.

16.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 35(1): 1-9, 20220125.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390949

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a relação entre casos e óbitos por COVID-19 e o percentual de tabagistas nas capitais e regiões do Brasil. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo ecológico nas regiões brasileiras do número de casos e óbitos por COVID-19, de março a dezembro de 2020, e a prevalência de tabagismo em 2019, a partir dos bancos de dados do Painel Coronavírus da Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde e do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL ­ 2019). Com informações extraídas em janeiro de 2021, calcularam-se os coeficientes de incidência e mortalidade por COVID-19 por capital brasileira e região, bem como se utilizou a correlação de Pearson para verificar a relação entre as variáveis do estudo. Adotou-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Análises bivariadas mostraram correlações positivas entre tabagistas do sexo feminino e coeficiente de incidência de COVID-19 nas capitais da região do Centro-Oeste (r=0,957; p=0,043), e entre fumantes do sexo masculino e coeficiente de mortalidade de COVID-19 nas capitais do Nordeste (r=0,706; p=0,034). Conclusão: O tabagismo teve impacto na incidência de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 em diversas capitais brasileiras, alertando que o fumo pode ser fator de predisposição e agravamento do estado clínico dos pacientes.


Objective: To analyze the relationship between COVID-19 cases and deaths and the percentage of smokers in the capitals and regions of Brazil. Methods: An ecological study was carried out in the Brazilian regions to assess the number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 from March to December 2020 and the prevalence of smoking in 2019 based on the Coronavirus Panel databases of the Health Surveillance Secretariat and the System for Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone-based Survey (Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico - VIGITEL ­ 2019). With information extracted in January 2021, the COVID-19 incidence and mortality coefficients were calculated by Brazilian capital and region and Pearson's correlation was used to verify the relationship between the study variables. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Bivariate analyses showed positive correlations between female smokers and COVID-19 incidence coefficient in capitals of the Midwest region (r=0.957; p=0.043), and between male smokers and COVID-19 mortality coefficient in the capitals of the Northeast (r=0.706; p=0.034). Conclusion: Smoking had an impact on the incidence of COVID-19 cases and deaths in several Brazilian capitals, which warns that smoking can be a predisposing factor and worsen the clinical status of patients.


Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre casos y muertes por COVID-19 y el porcentaje de tabaquistas en las capitales y regiones del Brasil. Métodos: Fue realizado estudio ecológico en las regiones brasileñas del número de casos y muertes por COVID-19, de marzo a diciembre de 2020, y la prevalencia de tabaquismo en 2019, a partir de bases de datos del Panel Coronavirus de la Secretaria de Vigilancia en Salud y del Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas por Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL ­ 2019). Con informaciones extraídas en enero de 2021, se calcularon los coeficientes de incidencia y mortandad por COVID-19 por capital brasileña y región, también se utilizó la correlación de Pearson para verificar la relación entre las variables del estudio. Fue adoptado nivel de significancia de 5%. Resultados: Los análisis bivariados mostraron correlaciones positivas entre tabaquistas del sexo femenino y coeficiente de incidencia de COVID-19 en las capitales de la región del Centro-Oeste (r=0,957; p=0,043), y entre fumadores del sexo masculino y coeficiente de mortandad de COVID-19 en las capitales del Nordeste (r=0,706; p=0,034). Conclusión: El tabaquismo tuvo impacto en la incidencia de casos y muertes por COVID-19 en diversas capitales brasileñas, advirtiendo que el humo puede ser factor de predisposición y agravamiento del estado clínico de los pacientes.

17.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1003-1006, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the trends of smoking and drinking behaviors among adolescents in Shanghai from 2004 to 2019, and to provide theoretical evidence for effective tobacco and alcohol interventions among adolescents.@*Methods@#Data regarding smoking and drinking behaviors from adolescent health risk behavior surveillance program in Shanghai from 2004 to 2019 were collected, and the prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, ever drinking and current drinking were comparatively analyzed.@*Results@#The prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, ever drinking and current drinking among boys were significantly higher than those among girls in 2004 to 2019( χ 2=58.20-347.44, P <0.01). Except the prevalence of ever drinking in 2012, the prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, ever drinking and current drinking in vocational school students were the highest in each survey( χ 2=111.19-1 196.61, P <0.01). From 2004 to 2019, the standardized rates of smoking and drinking of boys and girls showed a downward trend ( APC =-6.20--1.80, P <0.05). The standardized ever smoking rate and the standardized ever drinking rate of both boys and girls declined significantly from 2004 to 2019( APC=-5.00, -1.80, P <0.05). The overall standardized rate of ever smoking decreased from 21.02% in 2004 to 12.23% in 2019, and that of ever drinking decreased from 60.52% in 2004 to 47.17 % in 2019). However, the overall standardized rates of current smoking and current drinking did not reach statistically significance( P >0.05).@*Conclusion@#From 2014 to 2019,the prevalence of ever smoking and ever drinking among adolescents in Shanghai over the observed period showed a declining trend by years, but there was no significant change in current smoking and current drinking among adolescents. Specific interventions targeting on smoking and drinking behaviors among adolescents need to be strengthened.

18.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 986-989, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936515

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the relationship between physical exercise and smoking behavior in adolescents aged 16-18,and to provide reference for promoting tobacco control among teenagers.@*Methods@#A total of 1 057 adolescents who took part in the 2018 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS 2018) were investigated for smoking and physical exercise. The Chi square test, Mann Whitney U test, Pearson correlation analysis and Logistic regression analysis were performed to explore the relationship between adolescent physical exercise and smoking behavior.@*Results@#There were 104 (9.8%) smokers among the adolescents. The age at starting smoking was (14.21±2.68) years old and the age of quitting smoking was (14.41±2.72) years old. Age ( χ 2=7.23), gender ( χ 2=83.01), school status ( χ 2=107.12), physical exercise ( Z =-2.20), subjective well being ( Z =-2.20) and life satisfaction ( Z =-2.93) were associated with adolescent smoking( P <0.05). Physical exercise was negatively correlated with adolescent smoking ( OR =0.92, P =0.03). After controlling demographic and psychosocial and cognitive variables, the negative correlation was not statistically significant ( OR =0.93, P =0.08). Further analysis showed that physical exercise was negatively correlated with boys smoking ( OR=0.91, P =0.04), but it was not statistically correlated with girls smoking ( OR=1.12, P =0.20).@*Conclusion@#Physical exercise is associated with lower rate of smoking among adolescents aged 16-18, but no similar association is found in girls.The findings warrants further longitudinal study.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There are only limited numbers of reviews on the association of maternal-child genetic polymorphisms and environmental and lifestyle-related chemical exposure during pregnancy with adverse fetal growth. Thus, this article aims to review: (1) the effect of associations between the above highlighted factors on adverse fetal growth and (2) recent birth cohort studies regarding environmental health risks.@*METHODS@#Based on a search of the PubMed database through August 2021, 68 epidemiological studies on gene-environment interactions, focusing on the association between environmental and lifestyle-related chemical exposure and adverse fetal growth was identified. Moreover, we also reviewed recent worldwide birth cohort studies regarding environmental health risks.@*RESULTS@#Thirty studies examined gene-smoking associations with adverse fetal growth. Sixteen maternal genes significantly modified the association between maternal smoking and adverse fetal growth. Two genes significantly related with this association were detected in infants. Moreover, the maternal genes that significantly interacted with maternal smoking during pregnancy were cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 3 (XRCC3), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha 1 (HLA-DQA1), HLA DQ beta 1 (HLA-DQB1), and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Fetal genes that had significant interactions with maternal smoking during pregnancy were glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO). Thirty-eight studies examined the association between chemical exposures and adverse fetal growth. In 62 of the 68 epidemiological studies (91.2%), a significant association was found with adverse fetal growth. Across the studies, there was a wide variation in the analytical methods used, especially with respect to the genetic polymorphisms of interest, environmental and lifestyle-related chemicals examined, and the study design used to estimate the gene-environment interactions. It was also found that a consistently increasing number of European and worldwide large-scale birth cohort studies on environmental health risks have been conducted since approximately 1996.@*CONCLUSION@#There is some evidence to suggest the importance of gene-environment interactions on adverse fetal growth. The current knowledge on gene-environment interactions will help guide future studies on the combined effects of maternal-child genetic polymorphisms and exposure to environmental and lifestyle-related chemicals during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO , Female , Fetal Development , Gene-Environment Interaction , Humans , Life Style , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Polymorphism, Genetic , Pregnancy
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920394

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics and changes of serum tumor markers in lung cancer patients with different smoking status in Hanzhong area. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 642 hospitalized lung cancer patients in Hanzhong area from March 2017 to March 2019. According to their smoking status, they were divided into observation group (smoking history, n=404) and control group (no smoking history, n=238). Age, sex, place of residence, basic information of the disease including pathological stage, pathological type, short-term efficacy, survival and serum tumor marker level were analyzed retrospectively. Results The proportion of male in observation group (67.08%) was significantly higher(57.56%) (χ2=5.855,P2=4.824 , P2=2.110 , P2=15.291, P 2=10.817,P2=2.051, P>0.05). The 1-year survival rate of the observation group (64.85%) was significantly lower than that of the control group (73.95%) (χ2=5.255, P<0.05). Conclusion Middle-aged and elderly male smokers in Hanzhong area have a high incidence of lung cancer, multiple stage Ⅲ squamous cell carcinoma, and the level of tumor markers in serum is higher than that of non-smokers. The prognosis is not good, so we should encourage patients to quit smoking, which can improve the survival rate of patients.

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