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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2364-2374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999134

ABSTRACT

The main sources of natural drugs include various biological species such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. The accurate identification of these species is the bedrock of natural drug development. We propose a novel method of species identification in this paper: analysis of whole-genome (AGE), a molecular diagnostic method used to identify species by finding species-specific sequences from the whole genome and precisely recognizing the specific target sequences. We elaborate that the principle for species identification based on AGE is that the genome sequences of diverse species must differ and divide the implementation strategy of the method into two levels of research and application. Based on our analysis of its characteristics, the method would have the potential advantages of reliable principle, high specificity, and wide applicability. Moreover, three crucial concerns related to building method systems including genome acquisition, bioinformatics analysis, and database construction, are further discussed. In summary, we offer theoretical underpinnings and methodological guidance for the development of bioinformatics software and commercial kits, indicating AGE has great application potential in objects, subjects, and industries.

2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2940-2948, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981426

ABSTRACT

Ligustrum lucidum is a woody perennial plant of genus Ligustrum in family Oleaceae. Its dried fruit has high medicinal value. In this study, the authors evaluated the variability and species identification efficiency of three specific DAN barcodes(rbcL-accD, ycf1a, ycf1b) and four general DAN barcodes(matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, ITS2) for a rapid and accurate molecular identification of Ligustrum species. The results revealed that matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, ITS2 and ycf1a were inefficient for identifying the Ligustrum species, and a large number of insertions and deletions were observed in rbcL-accD sequence, which was thus unsuitable for development as specific barcode. The ycf1b-2 barcode had DNA barcoding gap and high success rate of PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, which was the most suitable DNA barcode for L. lucidum identification and achieved an accurate result. In addition, to optimize the DNA extraction experiment, the authors extracted and analyzed the DNA of the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp and seed of L. lucidum fruit. It was found that seed was the most effective part for DNA extraction, where DNAs of high concentration and quality were obtained, meeting the needs of species identification. In this study, the experimental method for DNA extraction of L. lucidum was optimized, and the seed was determined as the optimal part for DNA extraction and ycf1b-2 was the specific DNA barcode for L. lucidum identification. This study laid a foundation for the market regulation of L. lucidum.


Subject(s)
Ligustrum/genetics , Seeds , Fruit , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Research Design
3.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 413-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979702

ABSTRACT

@#As one of the species of soil-transmitted helminths (STH), hookworm infection is widely prevalent in tropical and subtropical developing countries. Hookworm is harmful to human health mainly including anemia, digestive tract symptoms, female infection can also cause menopause, abortion, infection in infants and young children can lead growth retardation. With the development of economy and implementation of mass drug administration strategies, the infection of hookworm in human body has decreased continuously, but there are still a large number of mild infection cases which clinical symptoms are not obvious, easy to cause missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Several zoonotic hookworm species can cause large-scale infections in cats, dogs and other animals, so as to increase the risk of human hookworm infection. Therefore, it is important to find a highly sensitive and rapid detection techniques to identify hookworm species. In this paper, the existing detection techniques of hookworm were reviewed and their application were prospected to provide ideas for hookworm detection at present situation.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1880-1893, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978661

ABSTRACT

In this study, untargeted metabolomics technology based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to analyze and identify the overall chemical components of Juniperri Caulis et Folium. Chemical markers for the identification of different Juniperri Caulis et Folium species were screened by integrated principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. A total of 58 chemical components were detected and 46 of them were identified, including 26 flavonoids, 8 organic acids and their derivatives, 4 phenylpropanoids, 3 terpenoids, and 5 other components. Among them, methylsyringin and ekersenin were identified for the first time. In the positive ion mode, 12 markers were screened, and in the negative ion mode, 13 markers were screened for species identification. In summary, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS metabonomics technology combined with chemometrics method can effectively reveal the chemical composition differences of different Juniperri Caulis et Folium species, and provide reference for its species identification and quality control.

5.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 279-281, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978516

ABSTRACT

Detection and identification standard of hookworm—Hookworm larvae coproculture techniques (WS/T 791—2021) is the first recommended technical standard for hookworm detection and species identification using the hookworm larvae coproculture technique in China. This standard was issued on November 23, 2021, and had been in effect since May 1, 2022. This article provides a detailed interpretation pertaining to the background, drafting process, main contents, and dos and don’ts for better understanding and application of this standard among professionals working in disease control and prevention institutions and medical institutions.

6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 20-30, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984091

ABSTRACT

Diatom detection is an important method for identifying drowning and throwing corpses after death and inferring the drowning sites in forensic examination of corpses in water. In recent years,high-throughput sequencing technology has achieved rapid development and has been widely used in research related to diatom taxonomic investigations. This paper reviews the research status and prospects of high-throughput sequencing technology and its application in forensic diatom detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadaver , Diatoms/genetics , Drowning/diagnosis , Forensic Pathology/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Lung , Technology
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06958, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360626

ABSTRACT

Bovine mastitis is the most common disease in dairy cattle and responsible for economic losses in the milk industry. The present study aimed to identify the main species and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from cow herds with mastitis in dairy farms from southern Brazil. A total of 107 milk samples were collected from different cow herds in one important dairy producing region in southern Brazil, including farms located in ten cities from the Northeast region in the Rio Grande do Sul state. Bacterial strains were isolated and submitted to presumptive identification by classical bacteriological methods. Bacterial species were also identified by MALDI-TOF MS and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with 12 antimicrobials commonly used in dairy farms. Fifty-one bacterial strains were isolated and the presumptive identification demonstrated the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. (82.3%), Bacillus spp. (3.9%), Klebsiella spp. (3.9%), Streptococcus spp. (3.9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) and Serratia sp. (2%). Forty-one isolates were successfully identified in the MALDI-TOF analysis, including 35 isolates from eleven different bacterial species. Importantly, there were eight different Staphylococcus species, with a high frequency of Staphylococcus chromogenes (48.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20%). Overall, bacterial isolates demonstrated resistance to penicillin (46.3%), tetracycline (39%), amoxicillin (36.6%), ampicillin (34.1%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (31.7%). Enrofloxacin was the unique antimicrobial that all isolates were susceptible. In addition, there were six multidrug resistant isolates (five S. chromogenes and one S. aureus). This study highlights that bacterial pathogens with resistance to several antimicrobials were identified in cows from dairy farms in a very important milk producing region located in southern Brazil. Microbial identification of the bovine mastitis pathogens and determination of the antimicrobial profile is necessary for the rational use of the medicines.(AU)


A mastite bovina é a doença mais comum em gado leiteiro e responsável por perdas econômicas na indústria de laticínios. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar as principais espécies e avaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados bacterianos de rebanhos bovinos com mastite em fazendas leiteiras no sul do Brasil. Um total de 107 amostras de leite foram coletadas em diferentes rebanhos bovinos em uma importante região produtora de leite do sul do Brasil, incluindo fazendas localizadas em 10 cidades da região Nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e submetidas à identificação presuntiva por métodos bacteriológicos clássicos. A identificação bacteriana foi confirmada por MALDI-TOF MS e o teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foi realizado com antimicrobianos comumente usados em fazendas leiteiras. Cinquenta e uma cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e a identificação presuntiva demonstrou a ocorrência de Staphylococcus spp. (82,3%), Bacillus spp. (3,9%), Klebsiella spp. (3,9%), Streptococcus spp. (3,9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) e Serratia sp. (2%). Os 41 isolados foram identificados com sucesso na análise MALDI-TOF, incluindo 35 isolados de onze espécies bacterianas diferentes. É importante ressaltar que houve a ocorrência de oito espécies diferentes de Staphylococcus, com alta frequência de Staphylococcus chromogenes (48,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (20%). No geral, os isolados bacterianos tiveram alta resistência à penicilina (46,3%), tetraciclina (39%), amoxicilina (36,6%), ampicilina (34,1%) e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima (31,7%). A enrofloxacina foi o único antimicrobiano que todos os isolados foram suscetíveis. Além disso, havia seis isolados multirresistentes (cinco S. chromogenes e um S. aureus). Este estudo destaca que os patógenos bacterianos com resistência aos antimicrobianos estão presentes em fazendas leiteiras de subsistência em uma importante região produtora no sul do Brasil. É necessário o monitoramento constante dos patógenos da mastite bovina e a determinação de seu perfil antimicrobiano para o uso racional dos medicamentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
8.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 392-395, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942364

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution of mosquito species and their associated viruses, and identify Culex pipiens subspecies in Hami City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Methods Mosquitoes were captured using mosquito trapping lamps method in Yizhou District, Yiwu County, and Balikun County of Hami City in mi-July, 2019 and 2020. The species and subspecies of all captured mosquitoes were characterized. In addition, the flavivirus, alphavirus, bunyavirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Liaoning virus, Tahyna virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and West Nile virus were detected using reverse-transcription PCR assay in captured mosquitoes. Results A total of 1 496 mosquitoes were captured from Yizhou District, Yiwu County, and Balikun County of Hami City, belonging to 3 genus and 3 species. Cx. pipiens was the dominant mosquito species (986 mosquitoes, 65.91%), followed by Aedes caspius (457 mosquitoes, 30.55%), while Culiseta alaskaensis had the lowest number (53 mosquitoes, 3.54%). All captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were identified as Cx. pipiens pipiens based on the terminalia of male mosquitoes. RT-PCR assay tested negative for flavivirus, alphavirus, bunyavirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Liaoning virus, Tahyna virus, tick-borne encephalitis or West Nile virus in captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. Conclusions There were 3 species of mosquitoes in Hami City from 2019 to 2020, including Cx. pipiens, Ae. Caspius and C. alaskaensis, with Cx. pipiens as the dominant mosquito species, and all captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens pipiens; however, no arboviruses were detected.

9.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 814-822, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939816

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of sanitation, the infection rate of hookworm is greatly reduced and the severe infected case is rarely reported. Combined morphological and molecular biological examinations, a severe hookworm infection patient was diagnosed in Department of Laboratorial Examination, Quanzhou First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. The morphological methods such as direct fecal smear microscopy, saturated brine flotation and hookworm larvae culture methods were used to identify the eggs and larvae from stool samples of the patient. There were a large number of hookworm eggs in patient's stool samples, and the average count was 60 840 per gram by modified Kato method, which belonged to severe hookworm infection. Meanwhile, to distinguish the hookworm species, the semi-nested RT-PCR assay was employed to detect hookworm internal transcribed spacer series from eggs in patient's stool samples, and the result showed that the hookworm species was confirmed to be Necator americanus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Ancylostomatoidea/genetics , Feces , Hookworm Infections/diagnosis , Necator americanus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1495-1505, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924740

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma is one of the most used medicinal materials in China. Its original species are Rheum palmatum, Rh. tanguticum, and Rh. officinale. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma derived from different original species are significantly different in their active ingredients and pharmacological effects. To develop an accurate, rapid, and specific identification method, we obtained the chloroplast genomes of the three original species by Illumina Novaseq sequencing. We designed specific DNA barcodes from the hypervariable regions, which can accurately identify the three original species. The experimental results showed that the total length of the chloroplast genomes of Rh. tanguticum, Rh. officinale and Rh. palmatum were 161 039 bp, 161 093 bp, and 161 136 bp, respectively. All the three genomes were represented as typical quadripartite structures. A total of 131 genes, including 86 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes were identified from each chloroplast genome. Five pairs of primers based on the hypervariable regions were designed to efficiently amplify 42 samples. Results confirmed that five hypervariable regions, rps16-trnQ, psaA-ycf3, psbE-petL, ndhF-rpl32, and trnT-trnL, can be used as specific DNA barcodes for the identification of Rh. tanguticum, Rh. officinale, and Rh. palmatum. These results provided genetic information for further species identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, and improve the safety of this clinical medication as well as standardize the market for Rhei Radix et Rhizoma.

11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 411-426, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927719

ABSTRACT

Adulteration in meat products is a widespread issue that could lead to serious threats to public health and religious violations. Technology that offers rapid, sensitive, accurate and reliable detection of meat species is the key to an effectual monitoring and control against meat adulteration. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing-based DNA metabarcoding technology has developed rapidly. With the characteristics of being high-throughput, highly precise and high-speed, this technology can simultaneously identify multiple species in complex samples, thus offering pronounced advantages in the surveillance of adulteration in meat and meat products. Starting with an introduction of the major developments in the high-throughput sequencing technology in the past two decades, this review provides an overview of the technical characteristics and research methods of DNA metabarcoding, summarizes the application of DNA metabarcoding technology in meat adulteration detection over the last few years, discusses the challenges of using DNA metabarcoding technology in the detection of meat adulteration, and provides future prospects on the development of this technology.


Subject(s)
DNA , Food Contamination/analysis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Meat/analysis , Meat Products , Technology
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06958, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487702

ABSTRACT

Bovine mastitis is the most common disease in dairy cattle and responsible for economic losses in the milk industry. The present study aimed to identify the main species and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from cow herds with mastitis in dairy farms from southern Brazil. A total of 107 milk samples were collected from different cow herds in one important dairy producing region in southern Brazil, including farms located in ten cities from the Northeast region in the Rio Grande do Sul state. Bacterial strains were isolated and submitted to presumptive identification by classical bacteriological methods. Bacterial species were also identified by MALDI-TOF MS and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with 12 antimicrobials commonly used in dairy farms. Fifty-one bacterial strains were isolated and the presumptive identification demonstrated the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. (82.3%), Bacillus spp. (3.9%), Klebsiella spp. (3.9%), Streptococcus spp. (3.9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) and Serratia sp. (2%). Forty-one isolates were successfully identified in the MALDI-TOF analysis, including 35 isolates from eleven different bacterial species. Importantly, there were eight different Staphylococcus species, with a high frequency of Staphylococcus chromogenes (48.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20%). Overall, bacterial isolates demonstrated resistance to penicillin (46.3%), tetracycline (39%), amoxicillin (36.6%), ampicillin (34.1%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (31.7%). Enrofloxacin was the unique antimicrobial that all isolates were susceptible. In addition, there were six multidrug resistant isolates (five S. chromogenes and one S. aureus). This study highlights that bacterial pathogens with resistance to several antimicrobials were identified in cows from dairy farms in a very important milk producing region located in southern Brazil. Microbial identification of the bovine mastitis pathogens and determination of the antimicrobial profile is necessary for the rational use of the medicines.


A mastite bovina é a doença mais comum em gado leiteiro e responsável por perdas econômicas na indústria de laticínios. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar as principais espécies e avaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados bacterianos de rebanhos bovinos com mastite em fazendas leiteiras no sul do Brasil. Um total de 107 amostras de leite foram coletadas em diferentes rebanhos bovinos em uma importante região produtora de leite do sul do Brasil, incluindo fazendas localizadas em 10 cidades da região Nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e submetidas à identificação presuntiva por métodos bacteriológicos clássicos. A identificação bacteriana foi confirmada por MALDI-TOF MS e o teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foi realizado com antimicrobianos comumente usados em fazendas leiteiras. Cinquenta e uma cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e a identificação presuntiva demonstrou a ocorrência de Staphylococcus spp. (82,3%), Bacillus spp. (3,9%), Klebsiella spp. (3,9%), Streptococcus spp. (3,9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) e Serratia sp. (2%). Os 41 isolados foram identificados com sucesso na análise MALDI-TOF, incluindo 35 isolados de onze espécies bacterianas diferentes. É importante ressaltar que houve a ocorrência de oito espécies diferentes de Staphylococcus, com alta frequência de Staphylococcus chromogenes (48,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (20%). No geral, os isolados bacterianos tiveram alta resistência à penicilina (46,3%), tetraciclina (39%), amoxicilina (36,6%), ampicilina (34,1%) e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima (31,7%). A enrofloxacina foi o único antimicrobiano que todos os isolados foram suscetíveis. Além disso, havia seis isolados multirresistentes (cinco S. chromogenes e um S. aureus). Este estudo destaca que os patógenos bacterianos com resistência aos antimicrobianos estão presentes em fazendas leiteiras de subsistência em uma importante região produtora no sul do Brasil. É necessário o monitoramento constante dos patógenos da mastite bovina e a determinação de seu perfil antimicrobiano para o uso racional dos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Cattle , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
13.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 305-307, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985219

ABSTRACT

Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) has always been one of the difficult problems for forensic scientists. It is especially hard to estimate the PMI of highly decomposed corpses in the wild or in secluded houses with conventional methods. Therefore, application of insect evidence at the scene is usually required for estimation. Sarcosaprophagous flies of different species have totally different developmental rates. In actual cases, direct measurement of the body length of the larvae, calculation of accumulated temperature and succession stages without species identification, or calculation based on incorrect species identification would often lead to a large deviation between the calculated results and the real PMI. This mistake would also mislead the case investigation. Therefore, accurate species identification should be implemented before any PMI estimation of decomposed corpses with forensic entomological methods. This article reviews the general and ultramicroscopic species identification and molecular biological species identification methods of different stages of sarcosaprophagous flies, in order to provide new ideas and methods for related research and practice, and provide reference for the application and promotion of forensic entomology in the front line of public security.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autopsy , Cadaver , Diptera , Entomology , Larva , Postmortem Changes
14.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 611-614, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To identify the common sarcosaprophagous flies in the Yangtze River Delta based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit Ⅰ(COⅠ) gene sequence and verify the reliability of this method.@*METHODS@#Seven common genetically stable sarcosaprophagous flies in three families and six genera were collected from large domestic pig carcasses placed in the field and cultured in the laboratory for many generations. The whole genome DNA was extracted and the COⅠ gene fragment was amplified. The forward and reverse sequencing was followed by splicing. The base composition of the amplified fragment and the rate of interspecific evolutionary divergence were analyzed by software such as Mega 7.0.26. The phylogenetic tree of COⅠ gene sequence of common necrophagous flies in the Yangtze River Delta was established by neighbor joining (NJ) method and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) method.@*RESULTS@#The average base composition of different flies was A(30.14%), T(38.23%), C(15.98%), G(15.65%). The rate of interspecific evolutionary divergence ranged from 2.2% to 15.3%, the lowest rate was between Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya pinguis, the highest rate was between Muscina stabulans and Boettcherisca peregrina.@*CONCLUSIONS@#COⅠ gene can be used to identify the common necrophagous flies in the Yangtze River Delta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cadaver , Diptera/genetics , Phylogeny , Reproducibility of Results , Rivers
15.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 338-343, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907238

ABSTRACT

Insect samples found on human corpses can provide the information important to estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). A female cadaver, found in a deserted factory in Chongqing of China, was confirmed as a homicide case after the forensic investigation and autopsy. Determining the time of death was difficult due to the inconsistent degree of decomposition in different parts of the decedent. The insect specimens found on the cadaver were identified to be Chrysomya rufifacies (C. rufifacies, Macquart) by morphology and mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. The PMImin was estimated to be 452 h, based on the developmental rate of C. rufifacies. The PMImin was estimated suc-cessfully to be almost precise, which provided an important entomological evidence for case investiga-tion and suspect prosecution. In so doing, this highlights the usefulness of entomological evidence of specific species in the geographic area for PMI accurate estimation, especially in the case of advanceddecomposed corpses.

16.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 6-10, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875781

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To learn the prevalence and drug resistance of nontuberculous mycobacteria ( NTM ) in Zhejiang Province, so as to provide evidence for NTM prevention and control.@*Methods@#A total of 2 878 clinical mycobacterium isolates in Zhejiang Province were collected from the drug resistance surveillance in 2008-2009, 2013-2014 and 2018-2019, PNB/TCH growth tests were used to preliminarily identify the NTM in these mycobacterium-positive isolates. 16SrRNA, rpoB, ITS and hsp65 gene sequencing analysis were used to confirm strains initially identified as NTM. Proportional method was applied to detect drug susceptibility of NTM isolates.@*Results @# Finally, 135 strains were confirmed as NTM and the isolation rate was 4.69%. The isolation rates of NTM in 2008-2009, 2013-2014 and 2018-2019 were 1.85%, 4.56% and 7.84%, respectively, with an increasing trend ( P<0.05 ). Thirteen species were identified and the top two species were M. intracellulare ( 82, 60.74% ) and M. kansassi ( 18, 13.33% ). The NTM isolates showed the highest drug resistance rate to isoniazid ( 97.78% ), followed by p-aminosalicylic acid ( 94.87% ) and streptomycin ( 94.81% ).@*Conclusions@#The isolation rates of NTM showed an upward trend in the drug resistance surveillance in 2008-2019,2013-2014 and 2018-2019 in Zhejiang Province. M. intracellulare and M. kansassi were the main strains isolated. The NTM isolates showed high resistance against both first and second-line antituberculosis drugs.

17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1060-1066, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879004

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma is a kind of commonly used Chinese medicinal materials. Due to the overharvesting, the wild resource is endangering. Large market demand caused severely adulterant of commercial Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces. This manuscript reviewed the advances of the original species authentication in the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma during the latest decade, including characteristics and microscopic features, phytochemical analysis on anthraquinones, and molecular authentication based on DNA barcoding. Accordingly, an original species authentication route for the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was summarized:(1)the identification of seeds and seedlings by DNA barcoding;(2) the selection of high variable sites based on the chloroplast genome;(3)biomonitoring of the Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces by two-dimensional DNA barcode;(4)traceability of Chinese patent medicines by third-generation sequencing. In conclusion, the combination of molecular identification and traditional identification methods provides a new idea for the identification of the original species of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in the industrial chain and a essential guidance for the research of drug safety and efficacy of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5260-5269, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921671

ABSTRACT

Gentiana is an important but complicated group in Gentianaceae. The genus covers numerous medicinal plants which are difficult to be identified. In the present study, several medicinal species in Gentiana from Yunnan province, including G. rigescens, G.rhodantha, and G. delavayi, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system. Three complete chloroplast genome sequences were obtained after assembly and annotation. According to several published genome sequences of G. crassicaulis, the DNA super-barcoding of species in Gentiana was preliminarily carried out. The results revealed that chloroplast genomes of the three species were conservative with short lengths(146 944, 148 992, and 148 796 bp, respectively). The genomes encoded 114 genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes, and 2 pseudogenes. Furthermore, these medicinal species in Yunnan province were identified using DNA super-barcoding based on chloroplast genomes. The results showed that the Gentiana species could be gathered into monophyletic branches with a high support value(100%). It indicated that DNA super-barcoding possessed obvious advantages in discriminating species in complicated genera. This study is expected to provide a scientific basis for the identification, utilization, and conservation of Gentiana species.


Subject(s)
China , DNA , Genome, Chloroplast/genetics , Gentiana/genetics , Phylogeny
19.
J Biosci ; 2020 Jul; : 1-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214262

ABSTRACT

The families Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae comprise several closely related species that possess high morphological synapomorphic traits. Hence, there is a tendency of species misidentification using only the morphological characters. Herein, we evaluated the discriminatory power of the universal DNA barcodes (matKand rbcL) for 53 species spanning the two families. Using these markers, we inferred phylogenetic relationships and conducted species delimitation analysis using four delimitation methods: Automated Barcode GapDiscovery (ABGD), TaxonDNA, Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) and General Mixed Yule Coalescent(GMYC). The phylogenetic reconstruction based on the matK gene resolved the relationships between thefamilies and further suggested the expansion of the Lamiaceae to include some core Verbanaceae genus, e.g.,Gmelina. The rbcL marker using the TaxonDNA method displayed high species delimitation resolutions, whilethe ABGD, GMYC, and bPTP generated different number of Operational Taxonomic Units/genetic clusters.Our results underscored the efficiency of the matK and rbcL genes as reliable markers for resolving phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation of both families, respectively. The current study provides insightsinto the DNA barcode applications in these families, at the same time contributing to the current understandingof genetic divergence patterns in angiosperms.

20.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 139-148, abr.-jun 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144944

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la Amazonia Peruana los caracoles dulceacuícolas de la familia Ampullariidae son conocidos como churos y originalmente han sido descritas para Perú alrededor de 20 especies. Aunque son muy usadas para alimentación, medicina tradicional y objeto de muchos estudios para su cultivo e industrialización, solamente es mencionada en la literatura la especie Pomacea maculata. Se llevó a cabo la identificación molecular sobre la base del marcador mitocondrial COI, de individuos de churos negros (Pomacea) comercializados en los mercados de Iquitos, así como los usados en platos a la carta en la ciudad de Lima, contrastados con otros individuos de procedencia de su hábitat natural. Se encontró que estos especímenes expendidos corresponden a la especie Pomacea nobilis (Reeve, 1856). El análisis filogenético molecular mostró que P. nobilis es especie hermana de P. guyanensis, en el grupo de P. glauca, distantemente relacionada de P. maculata. Las distancias no corregidas encontradas entre ellas, para el marcador mitocondrial COI, fueron de 11.33% a 13.17%, mientras que con P. maculata fueron de 13.67% a 15.33%. Estos resultados demostraron la eficacia del código de barras de ADN para la identificación y autenticación de la especie, lo que le da un valor agregado para su eventual comercio de exportación.


Abstract In the Peruvian Amazon, freshwater snails of the Ampullariidae family are known as churos, and around 20 species have originally been described for Peru. Although they are widely used for food, traditional medicine and the object of many studies for their cultivation and industrialization, only the species Pomacea maculata is mentioned in the literature. Molecular identification was carried out based on the mitochondrial marker COI of individuals of "churo negro" apple snails (Pomacea) commercialized in the markets of Iquitos, as well as those used in restaurant dishes in the city of Lima, and contrasted with specimens from their natural habitat. It was found that these specimens, correspond to the species Pomacea nobilis (Reeve, 1856). The molecular phylogenetic analysis showed P. nobilis as the sister species of P. guyanensis, in the P. glauca group, distantly related to P. maculata. The uncorrected distances found between them, for the mitochondrial marker COI, were from 11.33% to 13.17%, while with P. maculate were from 13.67% to 15.33%. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the DNA barcode for the identification and authentication of the species, which gives it added value for its eventual export trade.

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