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Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(1): 42-47, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441348


Abstract Objective To compare the clinical results between conservative (CS) and surgical treatment (CXS) of A3 and A4 fractures without neurological deficit. Methods Prospective observational study of patients with thoracolumbar fractures type A3 and A4. These patients were separated between the surgical and conservative groups, and evaluated sequentially through the numeric rating scale (NRS), Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) quality of life questionnaire, and Denis work scale (DWS) up to 2.5 years of follow-up. Results Both groups showed significant improvement, with no statistical difference in pain questionnaires (NRS: CXS 2.4 ± 2.6; CS 3.5 ± 2.6; p> 0.05), functionality (RMDQ: CS 7 ± 6.4; CXS 5.5 ± 5.2; p> 0.05), quality of life (EQ-5D), and return to work (DWS). Conclusion Both treatments are viable options with equivalent clinical results. There is a tendency toward better results in the surgical treatment of A4 fractures.

Resumo Objetivo Comparar os resultados clínicos entre os tratamentos conservador (CS) e cirúrgico (CXS) das fraturas A3 e A4 sem déficit neurológico. Métodos Estudo prospectivo observacional de paciente com fraturas toracolombares tipo A3 e A4. Esses pacientes foram separados entre os grupos cirúrgico e conservador e avaliados sequencialmente através da escala numérica de dor (NRS), do questionário de incapacidade de Roland-Morris (RMDQ), do EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) e da escala de trabalho de Denis (DWS) até 2,5 anos de acompanhamento. Resultados Ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora significante, sem diferença estatística nos questionários de dor (NRS: CXS 2,4 ± 2,6; CS 3,5 ± 2,6; p> 0,05), funcionalidade (RMDQ: CS 7 ± 6,4; CXS 5,5 ± 5,2; p> 0,05), qualidade de vida (EQ-5D) e retorno ao trabalho (DWS). Conclusão Ambos os tratamentos são opções viáveis e com resultados clínicos equivalentes. Há uma tendência a melhores resultados no tratamento cirúrgico das fraturas A4.

Humans , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Conservative Treatment , Fracture Fixation, Internal
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(1): 58-66, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441350


Abstract Objective To evaluate the spinopelvic alignment in patients with thoracolumbar burst fracture (TBF) without neurological deficit treated nonsurgically and surgically in a tertiary reference trauma hospital. Method Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with single level, type A3 and A4 AOSpine TBF only of the thoracolumbar region. Analysis of clinical data, low back pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), Denis Pain Scale, quality of life (SF-36), sagittal (TC, TLC, LL, SVA) and spinopelvic (IP, PV, SI, PI-LL) radiographic parameters of patients treated surgically and nonsurgically. Results A total of 50 individuals with an average age of 50 years old with a mean follow-up of 109 months (minimum of 19 and maximum of 306 months) were evaluated. There was a significant difference between treatments for the Denis Work Scale (p= 0.046) in favor of nonsurgical treatment. There was no significant difference between the treatments for lower back pain VAS and Denis Pain Scale (p= 0.468 and p= 0.623). There was no significant difference between treatments in any of the domains evaluated with the SF-36 (p> 0.05). Radiographic parameters were not different between the analyzed groups; however, all radiographic parameters showed significant difference between the population considered asymptomatic, except for pelvic incidence (p< 0.005). Conclusions The spinopelvic alignment was normal in patients with TBF without neurological deficit treated nonsurgically and surgically after a minimum follow-up of 19 months. However, they presented a higher mean pelvic version and discrepancy between lumbar lordosis and pelvic incidence when compared with the reference values of the Brazilian population.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o alinhamento espinopélvico em pacientes com fratura toracolombar do tipo explosão (FTE) sem déficit neurológico tratados de forma não operatória e operatória em um hospital terciário de referência em trauma. Método Estudo transversal retrospectivo de pacientes com FTE apenas da região toracolombar, de nível único, do tipo A3 e A4 AOSpine. Análise de dados clínicos, dor lombar (escala visual analógica [EVA]), Escala de Denis, qualidade de vida (SF-36), parâmetros radiográficos sagitais (cifose torácica [CT], cifose toracolombar [CTL], lordose lombar [LL] e eixo vertical sagital [EVS]) e espinopélvicos (incidência pélvica [IP], versão pélvica [VP], inclinação sacral [IS] e a discrepância entre incidência pélvica e lordose lombar [IP-LL]) de pacientes tratados de forma operatória e não operatória. Resultados O presente estudo avaliou um total de 50 indivíduos com uma média de 50 anos de idade com acompanhamento médio de 109 meses (mínimo de 19 e máximo de 306 meses). Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para Denis trabalho (p= 0,046) a favor do tratamento não operatório. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para EVA dor lombar e Denis dor (p= 0,468 e p= 0,623). Não houve diferença significante entre os tratamentos em nenhum dos domínios avaliados do SF-36 (p> 0,05). Parâmetros radiográficos não se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos analisados; contudo, todos os parâmetros radiográficos mostraram diferença significante entre a população considerada assintomática, com exceção da incidência pélvica (p< 0,005). Conclusões O alinhamento espinopélvico foi normal em pacientes com FTE sem déficit neurológico tratados de forma não operatória e operatória, após acompanhamento mínimo de 19 meses. Entretanto, estes pacientes apresentaram maior média de versão pélvica e de discrepância entre lordose lombar e incidência pélvica quando comparados com os valores de referência da população brasileira.

Humans , Spinal Curvatures , Spinal Injuries , Tertiary Healthcare , Spinal Fractures
Acta méd. peru ; 40(1)ene. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439124


Introducción : El complejo C0-C1-C2 es responsable de la transición de la carga axial, con función biomecánica única, siendo afectada por múltiples patologías, que por lo general la literatura no las considera como un solo ítem, sino que lo desarrolla según su etiología, pero en nuestro estudio se ha considerado en 5 grupos: traumática, congénita, inflamatoria reumática, neoplásica y degenerativa. Objetivo : Determinar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y del tratamiento en la patología cervical alta. Materiales y métodos : Se incluyeron a todos los pacientes con diagnóstico clínico radiológico de alguna patología cervical alta que hayan sido sometidos a tratamiento quirúrgico entre 2016 y 2021 en el Hospital Almenara. Se usó el test "t" de student y de chi cuadrado. Se dividió a los pacientes en alguno de los 5 grupos antes mencionados. Resultados : Se consideraron 31 pacientes, con una edad media de 51.16 años. La patología cervical alta más frecuente fue la traumática con el 35.48%. El déficit motor se presentó en el 51.61% y el déficit sensitivo se presentó en el 54.84%. La cirugía más frecuente fue la fijación cervical alta con el 43.89%. La tasa de complicaciones fue del 16.13% con una mortalidad del 0%. Conclusiones : La patología cervical alta es rara, siendo la del tipo traumática la más frecuente, pero un manejo oportuno y adecuado permite un mejor pronóstico funcional del paciente.

Introduction : The C0-C1-C2 complex is responsible of axial load transition, and its biomechanical function is unique, it is affected by multiple pathological conditions; and generally speaking, the literature does not consider these conditions as a single item, it describes them according to etiology. For our study we considered five groups: trauma-related, congenital, rheumatic-inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative. Objective : To determine epidemiological, clinical, and therapy-related characteristics in upper cervical pathological conditions. Materials and methods : All patients with a clinical-radiological diagnosis of any upper cervical pathological condition that had undergone surgery between 2016 and 2021 in Guillermo Almenara Hospital were included. Student's t test and chi square methods were used. patients were divided into one of the five aforementioned groups. Results : Thirty-one patients were included in the study; their mean age was 51.16 years. The most frequent upper cervical pathological condition was trauma-related, with 35.48%. Motor deficit occurred in 51.61% of all patients, and sensitive deficit occurred in 54.84%. The most frequently surgical procedure performed was upper cervical fixation, in 43.89% of all patients. Complication rate was 16.13%, and mortality was 0%. Conclusions : Upper cervical pathological conditions are rare, trauma-related conditions are most frequent, but timely and adequate management allow us to achieve better functional prognosis for these patients.

Acta ortop. bras ; 31(spe1): e259041, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429580


ABSTRACT Objectives: Investigate the effect of closed reduction and per- cutaneous pedicle screw fixation in treating thoracolumbar fractures. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 12 cases of single-segment thoracolumbar spine fractures without spinal cord and nerve injury at our department from March 2016 to September 2017. Patients were treated with closed reduction, percutaneous reduction, and internal fixation with solid pedicle screws. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, anterior vertebral body height ratio (AVHR), Cobb angle (CA) of sagittal kyphosis, and VAS of back pain were determined and statistically compared. Results: The average operation time was 147.2 ± 45.6 min, and the average intraoperative bleeding was 67.8 ± 34.2 mL. All fractured vertebrae were completely reduced, their height was restored, and kyphosis was corrected. The average follow-up period was 10.6 ± 2.7 months, with significant improvements seen in the AVHR, CA of sagittal kyphosis, and VAS score (P < 0.01). One case had a broken rod after three months, and another had a postoperative infection. All the patients achieved bony healing. Conclusion: The treatment of thoracolumbar fractures by closed reduction and internal fixation with a percutaneous solid pedicle screw is simple, effective, and economical. Level of Evidence VI; Therapeutic Study, Case Series.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar o efeito da redução incruenta e da fixação com parafuso de pedículo percutâneo no tratamento das fraturas toraco- lombares. Métodos: Este estudo retrospectivo analisou 12 casos de fraturas toracolombares com segmento único sem lesão medular ou neural, encontrados no departamento dentro do período de março de 2016 a setembro de 2017. Os pacientes foram tratados com redução fechada e fixação interna com parafusos de pedículo percutâneo. O tempo de operação, a perda sanguínea intra-operatória, a relação da altura do corpo vertebral anterior (AVHR), o ângulo de Cobb (CA) da cifose sagital e a EVA relativa à dor nas costas foram determinados e comparados estatisticamente. Resultados: O tempo médio da operação foi de 147,2±45,6 min, com sangramento intraoperatório médio de 67,8±34,2 mL. Todas as vértebras fraturadas foram com- pletamente reduzidas, suas alturas foram restauradas e a cifose foi corrigida. O período médio de acompanhamento foi de 10,6±2,7 meses, apresentando melhorias significativas observadas no AVHR, CA da cifose sagital e pontuação VAS (P <0,01). Um caso teve uma haste quebrada após 3 meses, e outro paciente apresentou uma infecção pós-operatória. Todos os pacientes alcançaram a recuperação óssea. Conclusão: O tratamento das fraturas toracolombares por redução fechada com fixação interna pelo parafuso de pedículo percutâneo é simples, eficaz e econômico. Nível de Evidência IV; Estudos Terapêuticos, Série de Casos

Acta ortop. bras ; 31(spe1): e258926, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429585


ABSTRACT Objective: Verify interobserver and intraobserver agreement of malignant compressive vertebral fractures (MCVF) diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: We retrospectively included a lumbar spine MRI of 63 patients with non-traumatic compressive vertebral fracture diagnoses. Each lumbar vertebra was classified as: without fracture, with fracture of benign characteristics, or with fracture of malignant characteristics. Two medical residents in radiology, one musculoskeletal radiologist fellow, one musculoskeletal radiologist, and two spine surgeons evaluated MRI exams, independently and blindly. Each observer performed two readings, with a 15-day interval between evaluations. A simple Kappa coefficient was used to calculate the intra and interobserver agreement. The reference standard classification was based on bone biopsy or clinical, and imaging follow-up of at least two years, for diagnostic performance analysis. Diagnostic performance was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: We observed substantial to perfect intraobserver agreement (kappa: 0.80 to 1.00) and substantial interobserver agreement (kappa 0.64 to 0.77). In general, the sensitivity for the detection of MCVF was moderate, except for the second-year radiology resident that achieved a lower sensitivity. The specificity, accuracy, and negative predictive value were high for all observers. Conclusion: MCVF diagnosis using MRI showed substantial interobserver agreement. The second-year medical resident achieved lower sensitivity but high specificity for MCVF. Regarding the seniors, there was no statistical significance between spine surgeons and the musculoskeletal radiologist. Level of Evidence III; Diagnostic.

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a concordância interobservador e intraobservador no diagnóstico de fraturas vertebrais compressivas malignas (MCVF) por meio de ressonância magnética (MRI). Métodos: Incluiu-se retrospectivamente a ressonância magnética da coluna lombar de 63 pacientes com diagnóstico de fratura vertebral compressiva não traumática. Cada vértebra lombar foi classificada da seguinte forma: sem fratura, com fratura de características benignas ou com fratura de características malignas. Dois médicos residentes em radiologia, um pesquisador radiologista musculoesquelético, um radiologista musculoesquelético e dois cirurgiões da coluna vertebral avaliaram os exames de ressonância magnética, independentemente e cegamente. Cada observador realizou duas leituras, com um intervalo de 15 dias entre as avaliações. O coeficiente Kappa simples foi utilizado para calcular o acordo intra e interobservador. A classificação padrão de referência foi baseada em biópsia óssea ou clínica, e acompanhamento por imagem de pelo menos dois anos, para análise de desempenho diagnóstico. O desempenho diagnóstico foi avaliado através do cálculo de sensibilidade, especificidade, precisão, valores preditivos positivos e negativos com um intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC). Resultados: Foi observada concordância substancial a perfeita intraobservador (kappa: 0,80 a 1,00) e concordância substancial interobservador (kappa 0,64 a 0,77). Em geral, a sensibilidade para a detecção de MCVF foi moderada, exceto para o segundo ano de residência radiológica que alcançou uma sensibilidade menor. A especificidade, precisão e valor preditivo negativo foram altos para todos os observadores. Conclusão: O diagnóstico de MCVF por ressonância magnética mostrou uma concordância substancial entre observadores. O residente médico do segundo ano alcançou uma sensibilidade menor, mas alta especificidade para MCVF. Com relação aos veteranos, não houve significância estatística entre os cirurgiões da coluna vertebral e o radiologista músculo-esquelético. Nível de Evidencia III; Diagnóstico.

Acta ortop. bras ; 31(4): e262943, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447096


ABSTRACT The progressive evolution of post-traumatic vertebral necrosis and consequent loss of structural integrity of the vertebral body along with neurological risk, makes it one of the most feared and unpredictable pathologies in spine traumatology. Several studies have addressed the role of vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, and corpectomy in its treatment; however, it remains a controversial concept without a defined therapeutic algorithm. The recent emergence of expandable intravertebral implants, which allow, by a percutaneous transpedicular application, the capacity for intrasomatic filling and maintenance of the height of the vertebral body, makes them a viable option, not only in the treatment of acute vertebral fractures, but also in non-union cases. In this study, we present a review of the current evidence on the application of expandable intravertebral implants in cases of post-traumatic vertebral necrosis. Based on the available scientific literature, including previous classifications of post-traumatic necrosis, and on the mechanical characteristics of the main expandable intravertebral implants currently available, we propose a simplified classification of this pathology, considering parameters that influence surgical therapeutic guidance, the morphology and the dynamics of the necrotic vertebra's mobility. According to its stages and based on authors' experience and on the scarce literature, we propose an initial therapeutic algorithm and suggest preventive strategies for this disease, considering its main risk factors, that is, fracture comminution and impairment of vertebral vascularity. Therefore, expandable intravertebral implants have a promising role in this condition; however, large prospective studies are needed to confirm their efficacy, to clarify the indications of each of these devices, and to validate the algorithm suggestion regarding treatment and prevention of post-traumatic vertebral necrosis. Level of Evidence III, Systematic Review/Actualization.

RESUMO A evolução progressiva da necrose vertebral pós-traumática e consequente perda da integridade estrutural do corpo vertebral, juntamente com o risco neurológico, a torna uma das patologias mais temidas e imprevisíveis na traumatologia da coluna. Vários estudos têm abordado o papel da vertebroplastia, cifoplastia e corpectomia no tratamento da necrose vertebral, no entanto, o tratamento ainda é controverso sem um algoritmo terapêutico definido. O recente surgimento dos implantes intravertebrais expansíveis, que permitem através duma aplicaçao transpedicular percutânea a capacidade de preenchimento intrassomático e de manutenção da altura do corpo vertebral, torna-os uma opção viável não só no tratamento das fraturas vertebrais agudas, mas também em situações de não consolidação óssea. Neste estudo, apresentamos uma revisão das evidências atuais sobre a aplicação de implantes intravertebrais expansíveis em casos de necrose vertebral pós-traumática. Com base na literatura científica disponível, incluindo classificações prévias de necrose vertebral pós-traumática, e nas características mecânicas dos principais implantes intravertebrais expansíveis disponíveis, propomos uma classificação simplificada desta patologia, considerando parâmetros que influenciam a orientação terapêutica cirúrgica, a morfologia e a dinâmica da mobilidade da vértebra. De acordo com seus estágios e com base na experiência dos autores e na escassa literatura, propomos um algoritmo terapêutico inicial e sugerimos estratégias preventivas para esta doença, considerando seus principais fatores de risco, ou seja, cominução da fratura e lesão da vascularização vertebral. Portanto, os implantes intravertebrais expansíveis têm um papel promissor nessa condição; no entanto, estudos prospectivos de grande dimensão são necessários para confirmar sua eficácia, esclarecer as indicações de cada um desses dispositivos e validar a presente proposta do algoritmo de tratamento e prevenção da necrose vertebral pós-traumática. Nível de Evidência III, Revisão Sistemática/Atualização.

Coluna/Columna ; 22(1): e262485, 2023. graf, il. color
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430247


ABSTRACT Objectives: Evaluate the evolution of pain, functional capacity, and vitamin D levels in conservatively treated patients with low-energy spinal fractures. Methods: Between January 2017 and March 2021, patients older than 40 years old affected by these fractures were selected and treated conservatively for six months. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores and Cobb angle were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Serum vitamin D levels were also measured at the first outpatient visit, and it was investigated whether the patient had a previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or previous fractures. Results: A total of 105 patients were analyzed, 70.5% of whom were women, with a mean age of 73.1 years. The average vitamin D level was 25.3 ng/mL, and hypovitaminosis was found in 75% of patients. Eight patients (7.62%) had a previous diagnosis of osteoporosis, and ten (9.52%) reported the occurrence of previous fractures. Regarding the VAS score, there was a mean reduction of 5.5 points of pain; for ODI, there was an average increase of 1 percentage point and an average increase of 4.3º of kyphosis in the fractured segment between pre- and post-treatment. Conclusion: The treatment improved pain, and patients maintained their functional capacity. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with more complex fractures. Level of evidence III; Retrospective Study.

Resumo: Objetivos: Avaliar a evolução da dor, capacidade funcional e níveis de vitamina D em pacientes com fraturas toracolombares por trauma de baixa energia tratados conservadoramente. Métodos: No período de janeiro de 2017 a março de 2021, pacientes com mais de 40 anos acometidos por estas fraturas foram selecionados e tratados conservadoramente durante 6 meses. As pontuações da Escala Visual Analógica (VAS), do Índice de Incapacidade de Oswestry (ODI) e o ângulo de Cobb foram avaliados no pré e pós tratamento. Dosagem sérica de vitamina D no primeiro retorno ambulatorial também foi realizada e o paciente foi questionado se tinha diagnóstico prévio de osteoporose ou fraturas prévias. Resultados: Foram avaliados 105 pacientes, sendo 70,5% mulheres, cuja idade média foi de 73,1 anos. O nível sérico médio de vitamina D foi de 25,3 ng/mL, sendo que uma hipovitaminose foi encontrada em 75% dos pacientes. Oito pacientes (7,62%) tinham diagnóstico prévio de osteoporose e dez (9,52%) relataram a ocorrência de fraturas prévias. Em relação à pontuação de VAS, observou-se uma redução média de 5,5 pontos da dor, para ODI houve um aumento médio de 1 ponto percentual e um aumento médio de 4,3º de cifose no segmento fraturado entre o pré e pós tratamento. Conclusão: O tratamento se mostrou eficaz na melhora da dor e os pacientes mantiveram sua capacidade funcional. Baixos níveis de vitamina D estavam associados a fraturas mais complexas. Nível de evidência III; Estudo Retrospectivo.

Resumen: Objetivos: Evaluar la evolución del dolor, capacidad funcional y los niveles de vitamina D en los pacientes con fracturas toracolumbares por trauma de baja energía tratados conservadoramente. Métodos: Entre enero de 2017 y marzo de 2021, los pacientes con más de 40 años afectados por estas fracturas fueran seleccionados y tratados de forma conservadora por 6 meses. Las puntuaciones de la escala analógica visual (VAS), el índice de discapacidad de Oswestry (ODI) y el ángulo de Cobb antes y después del tratamiento fueron evaluados. También se realizó la determinación del nivel sérico de vitamina D en la primera consulta y se preguntó al paciente si tenía diagnóstico previo para la osteoporosis o fracturas previas. Resultados: 105 pacientes fueran evaluados, de los cuales 70,5% eran mujeres, con edad promedio de 73,1 años. La media del nivel sérico de vitamina D fue de 25,3 ng/mL y la hipovitaminosis fue encontrada en 75% de los pacientes. Ocho pacientes (7,62%) tenían diagnóstico previo de osteoporosis y diez (9.52%) reportaron la ocurrencia de fracturas previas. Cuanto a la puntuación VAS, hubo una reducción promedio de 5,5 puntos en el dolor, para ODI hubo un aumento promedio de 1 punto porcentual y un aumento promedio de 4,3º de cifosis en el segmento fracturado entre pre y post tratamiento. Conclusión: El tratamiento demostró ser efectivo para mejorar el dolor y los pacientes mantuvieron su capacidad funcional. Los niveles bajos de vitamina D se asociaron con fracturas más complejas. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio Retrospectivo.

Humans , Female , Aged , Lumbosacral Region
Coluna/Columna ; 22(1): e262409, 2023. tab, graf, il
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421317


ABSTRACT Objectives: Evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of the kyphosis measurement in thoracolumbar spine traumatic fractures by different assessment methods in different types of fractures. Methods: Fifteen fractures of the thoracolumbar spine, previously classified into types A, B, and C according to Magerl's classification, were evaluated. The value of kyphosis was measured using five different methods: (1) Cobb angle; (2) Gardner's method; (3) back wall method; (4) angle of adjacent endplates; and (5) wedge angle. The measurements were performed by five independent observers and repeated five times with a minimum interval of two weeks between each evaluation. Results: Intraobserver reliability was excellent among the five observers, evidencing good reproducibility of the methods. The five methods used also showed great intraobserver reliability in the global analysis, with methods one and four being more consistent. Conclusion: Although there is no universal agreement on measuring kyphosis in thoracolumbar fractures, our study concluded that method 1 (Cobb angle) and method 4 (adjacent endplate angle) presented the best interobserver reliabilities. Furthermore, the use of digitized radiographs and a simple computer program allowed the performance of highly reliable and reproducible measurements by all methods, given the high intraobserver reliability. Level of Evidence II; Comparative study.

Resumo: Objetivos: Avaliar a confiabilidade e reprodutibilidade da mensuração da cifose nas fraturas traumáticas da coluna toracolombar por diferentes métodos de avaliação nos diferentes tipos de fraturas. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 15 fraturas na coluna toracolombar previamente classificadas em tipo A, B e C de acordo com a classificação de Magerl. Em cada caso, foi medido o valor da cifose através de cinco diferentes métodos: (1) ângulo de Cobb; (2) método de Gardner; (3) método das paredes posteriores; (4) ângulo das placas terminais adjacentes; e (5) ângulo de cunha. As mensurações foram realizadas por cinco avaliadores independentes e repetidas cinco vezes com intervalo mínimo de duas semanas entre cada avaliação. Resultados: A confiabilidade intraobservador mostrou-se excelente entre os cinco avaliadores, evidenciando boa reprodutibilidade dos métodos. Os cinco métodos utilizados também apresentaram grande confiabilidade intraobservador na análise global, sendo mais consistentes o método 1 e o método 4. Conclusão: Apesar de não haver concordância universal em como medir a cifose nas fraturas toracolombares, nosso estudo concluiu que o método 1 (ângulo de Cobb) e o método 4 (ângulo das placas terminais adjacentes) apresentaram as melhores confiabilidades interobservadores. Além disso, o uso de radiografias digitalizadas e um programa computadorizado simples permitiram a realização de medidas altamente confiáveis e reprodutíveis por todos os métodos, visto pela elevada confiabilidade intraobservador. Nível de evidência II; Estudo Comparativo.

Resumen: Objetivos: Evaluar la fiabilidad y reproducibilidad de mensuración de cifosis en fracturas traumáticas de la columna toracolumbar por diferentes métodos de valoración en diferentes tipos de fracturas. Métodos: Se evaluaron quince fracturas de columna toracolumbar, previamente clasificadas en los tipos A, B y C según la clasificación de Magerl. En cada caso, el valor de la cifosis se midió utilizando cinco métodos diferentes: (1) ángulo de Cobb; (2) método de Gardner; (3) método de la pared posterior; (4) ángulo de placas de extremo adyacentes; y (5) ángulo de cuña. Las mediciones fueron realizadas por cinco evaluadores independientes y repetidas cinco veces con un intervalo mínimo de dos semanas entre cada evaluación. Resultados: La confiabilidad intraobservador fue excelente entre los cinco evaluadores, evidenciando una buena reproducibilidad de los métodos. Los cinco métodos utilizados también mostraron una gran fiabilidad intraobservador en el análisis global, siendo el método 1 y el método 4 más consistentes. Conclusión: Aunque no existe un acuerdo universal sobre cómo medir la cifosis en las fracturas toracolumbares, nuestro estudio concluyó que el método 1 (ángulo de Cobb) y el método 4 (ángulo de la placa terminal adyacente) presentaron las mejores confiabilidades entre observadores. Además, el uso de radiografías digitalizadas y un programa informático simple permitieron realizar mediciones altamente fiables y reproducibles por todos los métodos, dada la alta fiabilidad intraobservador. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio Comparativo.

Humans , Spine , Radiographic Image Enhancement , Spinal Fractures
Coluna/Columna ; 22(1): e235863, 2023. tab, graf, il. color
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421319


ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the radiographic results of patients with cerebral palsy and Lonstein and Akbarnia type II scoliosis who underwent intraoperative halofemoral traction (IFAT) and correction with a 3rd provisional nail. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Were evaluated preoperative (PRE), traction (TR), immediate (POI), and late (POT) total spine radiographs. Were verified the angular value of the main curve (COBB), pelvic obliquity (OP), trunk balance in the coronal plane (CSVA), vertical sagittal alignment (SVA), curve flexibility, and percentage of correction in the final PO. Friedam and Wilcoxon tests were performed (p<0.05). Results: Twenty-one patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 16 (±4.13). There was a statistical difference when comparing COBB PRE with TRACTION to POI and POT (p=0.0001), OP in PRE with TRACTION, and between PRE and POT (p=0.0001). There was a statistical difference in coronal (CSVA) and sagittal (SVA) balance concerning PRE and POT. The percentage of correction for the main curve was 55.75% (± 11.11), and for the O P, 64.86% (± 18.04). Conclusion: The correction technique using the 3rd provisional nail technique and intraoperative traction presents a correction power of 55.75% of the proximal curve and 64% of the pelvic obliquity. In addition, it is easy to assemble, has a short surgical time, and causes little loss of correction during follow-up. Level of Evidence III B; I study a series of retrospective cases.

Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados radiográficos de pacientes com paralisia cerebral e escoliose tipo II de Lonstein e Akbarnia submetidos à tração halo-femoral intra-operatória (THFI) e correção com 3ª haste provisória. Métodos: Estudo série de casos retrospectivo. Foram avaliadas radiografias de coluna total pré-operatórias (PRÉ), sob tração (TR), pós-operatória imediata (POI) e tardia (POT). Verificou-se valor angular da curva principal (COBB), obliquidade pélvica (OP), equilíbrio do tronco no plano coronal (CSVA), alinhamento sagital vertical (SVA), flexibilidade da curva e percentual de correção no PO final. Foram realizados os testes de Friedam e Wilcoxon (p<0,05). Resultados: Vinte e um pacientes foram incluídos no estudo, com idade média de 16 (±4,13) anos. Houve diferença estatística quando se comparou: COBB PRÉ com TRAÇÃO em relação ao POI e POT (p=0,0001), OP no PRÉ com TRAÇÃO e entre o PRÉ e POT (p=0,0001). Houve diferença estatística em relação ao equilíbrio coronal (CSVA) e sagital (SVA) em relação ao PRE e POT. O percentual de correção da curva principal foi de 55,75% (± 11,11) e da OP de 64,86% (± 18,04). Conclusão: A técnica de correção utilizando a técnica da 3° haste provisória e tração intra-operatória apresenta poder de correção de 55,75% da curva proximal e 64% da obliquidade pélvica. Além disso, apresenta facilidade de montagem, tempo cirúrgico pequeno e pouca perda de correção ao longo do seguimento. Nível de Evidência III B; Estudo de série de casos retrospectivos.

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados radiográficos de pacientes con parálisis cerebral y escoliosis tipo II de Lonstein y Akbarnia a quienes se les realizó tracción halofemoral intraoperatoria (THFI) y corrección con una tercera barra provisoria. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de serie de casos. Se evaluaron radiografías totales de columna preoperatorias (PRE), de tracción (TR), post-operatorias inmediatas (POI) y tardías (POT). Se verificó el valor angular de la curva principal (COBB), la oblicuidad pélvica (OP), el equilibrio del tronco en el plano coronal (CSVA), la alineación sagital vertical (SVA), la flexibilidad de la curva y el porcentaje de corrección en el PO final. Se realizaron las pruebas de Friedam y Wilcoxon (p<0,05). Resultados: Se incluyeron en el estudio 21 pacientes, con una edad media de 16 (±4,13) años. Hubo diferencia estadística al comparar: COBB PRE con TRACCIÓN en relación a POI y POT (p=0,0001), OP en PRE con TRACCIÓN y entre PRE y POT (p=0,0001). Hubo diferencia estadística en relación al equilibrio coronal (CSVA) y sagital (SVA) en relación a PRE y POT. El porcentaje de corrección para la curva principal fue del 55,75% (± 11,11) y para la OP del 64,86% (± 18,04). Conclusión: La técnica de corrección mediante la técnica de la tercera barra provisoria y tracción intraoperatoria presenta un poder de corrección del 55,75% de la curva proximal y del 64% de la oblicuidad pélvica. Además, es de fácil montaje, tiene un tiempo quirúrgico corto y poca pérdida de corrección durante el seguimiento. Nivel de evidencia III B; Estudio una serie de casos retrospectivos.

Humans , Adolescent , Kyphosis , Spine , X-Rays
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218686


Introduction: Lumbar spondylolisthesis is frequently found in adults as a result of spondylolysis or facet degeneration. The slipped segment produces abnormal positioning of the vertebrae in relation to each other along the spinal column and causes mechanical back pain and compression of neural structures. The initial treatment in most symptomatic patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis is nonoperative supportive care, which consists of a combination of pain medications, bracing, and physical therapy. Surgical intervention is indicated if the symptoms are disabling and they interfere with work despite supportive care, if there is progression of the slippage degree (SD) on serial radiologic examinations, or if there are overt neurological deficits 1,2. Pedicle screw placement is the most popular method in lumbar spinal instrumentation for achieving successful fusion. Recently, to reduce surgical damage to the normal muscular structures during pedicle screw placement, C-arm-guided percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSF) was introduced, and it has become increasingly popular in spinal surgery. Percutaneous transpedicular fixation systems have become more widely used in recent years mainly for the treatment of dorsal, dorsolumbar, and lumbar instability. Aim & Objectives: The present study is aimed at evaluating the functional outcome with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for spinal fractures& spinal instabilities by free hand technique in patients without neurological deficits. Materials & Methods: The present dissertation is a study of 25 consecutive cases of spinal fractures and spondylolisthesis who attended the orthopaedic emergency or outpatient department of Andhra medical college, Visakhapatnam from 2017 to 2019. All the cases were examined clinically fallowed by radiographic confirmation. Results: In total 25 patients spinal fractures 16 and instability 9, whose mean preoperative ODI scores is 81.04% and the mean postoperative score is 22.6 %. The total postoperative moderate disability patients are15 and minimal disability patients are 10. “PERCUTANEOUS CD FIXATION OF SPINE IN SPINAL FRACTURES/INSTABILITY BY FREEConclusion: HAND TECHNIQUE” is one of the better methods and is suggested for grade 1 & grade 2 spondylolisthesis and spinal fractures, also by which can reduce the morbidity and improve the function.

Coluna/Columna ; 21(1): e250506, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364776


ABSTRACT Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the safety of using the cortical path screw with transfixation of the second cortical bone in relation to the vascular structures. Methods: This retrospective observational study (level of evidence: III, study of non-consecutive patients) analyzed data from the medical records of patients who underwent computed angiotomography scans of the abdomen at Hospital Mater Dei, measuring, in millimeters, the distance between the point of the lumbar vertebra considered the anatomical reference for the transfixation of the second cortical bone and the vascular structures adjacent to the spine (abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, iliac vessels, segmental lumbar arteries). Results: Forty-eight patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 60 years (±8 years, 41-75), of whom 52% were male and 48% female. The measurements obtained between the pre-vertebral vessels and the possible screw exit points did not demonstrate contact in any of the vertebrae studied. Conclusions: The measurements obtained suggest the safety of using the cortical path screw transfixing the second cortical bone. Knowing the position of the vessels is essential to reduce intra- and postoperative complications related to spinal instrumentation. Level of evidence III; Study of non-consecutive patients.

RESUMO Introdução: Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a segurança do uso do parafuso de trajeto cortical com transfixação da segunda cortical óssea com relação às estruturas vasculares. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo (nível de evidência: III, estudo de pacientes não consecutivos) analisou dados de prontuários de pacientes submetidos ao exame de angiotomografia computadorizada do abdome no Hospital Mater Dei, realizando a medida, em milímetros, entre o ponto da vértebra lombar considerado a referência anatômica para a transfixação da segunda cortical óssea e as estruturas vasculares adjacentes à coluna (aorta abdominal, veia cava inferior, vasos ilíacos, artérias lombares segmentares). Resultados: Foram avaliados 48 pacientes, com média de idade de 60 anos (±8 anos, 41-75), sendo 52% do sexo masculino e 48% do feminino. As medidas obtidas entre os vasos pré-vertebrais e os pontos possíveis de saída do parafuso não demonstraram contato, em todas as vértebras estudadas. Conclusões: As medidas obtidas sugerem a segurança do uso do parafuso de trajeto cortical transfixando a segunda cortical óssea. Conhecer a posição dos vasos é essencial para reduzir as complicações intra e pós-operatórias relacionadas à instrumentação da coluna vertebral. Nível de evidência III; Estudo de pacientes não consecutivos.

RESUMEN Introducción: Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la seguridad del uso del tornillo de trayectoria cortical con transfijación de la segunda cortical ósea con respecto a las estructuras vasculares. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo (nivel de evidencia: III, estudio de pacientes no consecutivos) que analizó datos de registros médicos de pacientes sometidos a examen de angiografía por tomografía computarizada de abdomen en el Hospital Mater Dei, realizando la medición, en milímetros, entre el punto de la vértebra lumbar considerado la referencia anatómica para la transfijación de la segunda cortical ósea y las estructuras vasculares adyacentes a la columna (aorta abdominal, vena cava inferior, vasos ilíacos, arterias lumbares segmentarias). Resultados: Se evaluaron 48 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 60 años (±8 años, 41-75); 52% eran hombres y 48% mujeres. Las medidas obtenidas entre los vasos prevertebrales y los posibles puntos de salida del tornillo no demostraron contacto en todas las vértebras estudiadas. Conclusiones: Las medidas obtenidas sugieren la seguridad de utilizar el tornillo de trayectoria cortical transfijando la segunda cortical ósea. Conocer la posición de los vasos es fundamental para reducir las complicaciones intra y postoperatorias relacionadas con la instrumentación espinal. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio de pacientes no consecutivos.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Spinal Fusion , Orthopedic Procedures , Blood Circulation
Coluna/Columna ; 21(1): e240584, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364779


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the anatomic influence of the ribs related to the severity of thoracic spine burst fractures. Methods: A retrospective review of 28 patients with thoracic spine burst fractures hospitalized by the Spine Group of the Hospital Ortopédico de Passo Fundo between January 2002 and December 2016 was conducted. The kyphosis, vertebral collapse, and narrowing of the vertebral canal measurements were compared between patients who had fractures at the true and false rib levels (T1 to T10) and those with fractures at the floating rib levels (T11 to T12). Results: The kyphosis, vertebral collapse, and narrowing of the vertebral canal values, measured only for vertebrae pertaining to the rib cage, were low. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between the measurements of the group of patients with fractures at the level of the true and false ribs (T1 to T10) and the group of patients whose fractures were at the level of the floating ribs (T11 and T12). Conclusion: The differences between the traumatic structural changes in the vertebrae with true and false ribs (T1 to T10) and the vertebrae with floating ribs (T11 and T12) were not significant in the present study. Level of Evidence II; Retrospective study.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a influência anatômica das costelas sobre a gravidade das fraturas da coluna torácica tipo explosão. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão retrospectiva de 28 pacientes com fratura tipo explosão na coluna torácica, internados no período compreendido entre janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2016 pelo Grupo de Coluna do Hospital Ortopédico de Passo Fundo . As mensurações de cifose, colapso vertebral e estreitamento do canal vertebral foram comparadas entre os pacientes que apresentavam fraturas no nível das costelas verdadeiras ou falsas (T1 a T10) e aqueles com fraturas no nível das costelas flutuantes (T11 a T12). Resultados: Os valores da cifose, colapso vertebral e estreitamento do canal vertebral, mensurados apenas nas vértebras pertencentes à caixa torácica, mostraram-se baixos. Além disso, as mensurações não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas significativas quando foram comparados os grupos de pacientes que apresentavam fraturas no nível das costelas verdadeiras ou falsas (T1 a T10) com aqueles cujas fraturas eram no nível das costelas flutuantes (T11 e T12). Conclusões: As diferenças entre as alterações estruturais traumáticas nas vértebras com costelas verdadeiras e falsas (T1 a T10) e as vértebras com costelas flutuantes (T11 e T12) não foram significativas no presente estudo. Nível de Evidência II; Estudo retrospectivo.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la influencia anatómica de las costillas con respecto a la gravedad de las fracturas de la columna torácica por estallido. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de 28 pacientes con fractura de columna torácica por estallido, ingresados en el período comprendido entre enero de 2002 y diciembre de 2016 por el Grupo de Columna del Hospital Ortopédico de Passo Fundo. Se compararon las medidas de cifosis, colapso vertebral y estrechamiento del conducto vertebral entre los pacientes que presentaban fracturas a nivel de las costillas verdaderas o falsas (T1 a T10) y aquellos con fracturas a nivel de las costillas flotantes (T11 a T12). Resultados: Los valores de cifosis, colapso vertebral y estrechamiento del conducto vertebral, medidos solamente en las vértebras pertenecientes a la caja torácica, se mostraron bajos. Además, las mediciones no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar los grupos de pacientes que presentaban fracturas a nivel de las costillas verdaderas o falsas (T1 a T10) con aquellos cuyas fracturas estaban a nivel de las costillas flotantes (T11 a T12). Conclusiones: Las diferencias entre los cambios estructurales traumáticos en las vértebras con costillas verdaderas y falsas (T1 a T10) y las vértebras con costillas flotantes (T11 y T12) no fueron significativas en el presente estudio. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudio retrospectivo.

Humans , Spinal Fractures
Coluna/Columna ; 21(4): e265776, 2022. tab, il
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404413


ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the surgical indications, epidemiological data, radiographic outcomes, and postoperative complications of 16 cases of aged complex sacral fractures treated using bilateral spinopelvic fixation (PEF) or triangular osteosynthesis (OT) techniques in a case referral service. Traumatology and orthopedics complexes. Methods: A longitudinal study based on a retrospective review of patients' medical records with complex sacral fractures admitted between 2014 and 2020. All patients over 18 years of age whose time of evolution between the trauma and the surgical procedure was greater than or equal to three weeks were included. Results: The mean age was 39.8 years (18 to 71). Anterior pelvic ring injuries represented the most common association, present in 12 (75%) cases. In 8 (50%) cases, there was no neurological injury, 1 (6.2%) individual evolved with paresthesia, 2 (12.5%) with paresis in the lower limbs, and 5 (31.3%) with sphincter dysfunctions. Among the patients with neurological impairment, 4 (50%) evolved with complete improvement, 2 (25%) showed partial improvement, and 2 (25%) cases remained with the deficit. The mean surgical time was 3.6 hours for OT and 4.9 hours for FEP. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 (44.4%) patients who underwent PEF, and there were no postoperative complications in the OT group. Conclusions: The surgical management of these lesions using OT and FEP proved safe and effective. The minimum follow-up was 12 months, and all the individuals analyzed showed good evolution. Level of evidence IV; case series.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as indicações cirúrgicas, dados epidemiológicos, desfechos radiográficos e complicações pós operatórias de uma série de 16 casos de fraturas complexas envelhecidas do sacro tratadas através das técnicas de fixação espinopélvica bilateral (FEP) ou osteossíntese triangular (OT) em um serviço de referência de casos complexos de traumatologia e ortopedia. Métodos: estudo longitudinal, baseado na revisão retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes com fraturas complexas do sacro, admitidos entre 2014 e 2020. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes acima de 18 anos cujo tempo de evolução entre o trauma e o procedimento cirúrgico foi maior ou igual a três semanas. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 39,8 anos (18 a 71 anos). As lesões do anel pélvico anterior representaram a associação mais comum, presentes em 12 (75%) casos. Em 8 (50%) casos não ocorreu lesão neurológica, 1 (6,2%) indivíduo evoluiu com parestesia, 2 (12,5%) com paresia nos membros inferiores e 5 (31,3%) com disfunções esfincterianas. Entre os pacientes com comprometimento neurológico, 4 (50%) evoluíram com melhora completa, 2 (25%) apresentaram melhora parcial e 2 (25%) casos permaneceram com o déficit. O tempo médio cirúrgico foi 3,6 horas para OT e 4,9 horas para FEP. Ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias em 4 (44,4%) pacientes que realizaram FEP e não houve complicações pós-operatórias no grupo submetido a OT. Conclusões: O manejo cirúrgico dessas lesões por meio da OT e FEP se mostrou seguro e eficaz. O seguimento mínimo foi de 12 meses e todos os indivíduos analisados apresentaram boa evolução. Nível de evidência IV; série de casos.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar las indicaciones quirúrgicas, datos epidemiológicos, resultados radiográficos y complicaciones postoperatorias de una serie de 16 casos de fracturas de sacro envejecidas y complejas tratadas mediante las técnicas de fijación espino pélvica bilateral (FEP) u osteosíntesis triangular (OT) en un servicio de referencia de traumatología y ortopedia. Métodos: estudio longitudinal, basado en una revisión retrospectiva de expedientes clínicos de los pacientes con fracturas sacras complejas ingresados entre 2014 y 2020. Se incluyeron en el estudio todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años cuyo tiempo de evolución entre el trauma y el procedimiento quirúrgico fue mayor o igual a tres semanas. Resultados: La edad promedio fue de 39,8 años (18 a 71 años). Las lesiones anteriores del anillo pélvico representaron la asociación más frecuente, presente en 12 (75%) casos. En 8 (50%) casos no hubo lesión neurológica, 1 (6,2%) evolucionó con parestesia, 2 (12,5%) con paresia en miembros inferiores y 5 (31,3%) con disfunción esfinteriana. Entre los pacientes con deterioro neurológico, 4 (50%) evolucionaron con mejoría completa, 2 (25%) mostraron mejoría parcial y 2 (25%) casos permanecieron con déficit. El tiempo quirúrgico promedio fue de 3,6 horas para OT y de 4,9 horas para FEP. Las complicaciones postoperatorias ocurrieron en 4 (44,4%) pacientes que se sometieron a FEP y no hubo complicaciones postoperatorias en el grupo OT. Conclusiones: El manejo quirúrgico de estas lesiones mediante OT y FEP demostró ser seguro y efectivo. El seguimiento mínimo fue de 12 meses y todos los individuos analizados mostraron una buena evolución. Nivel de evidencia IV; Series de casos.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Spine , General Surgery
Coluna/Columna ; 21(1): e250913, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364774


ABSTRACT Introduction: Vertebral fracture is the main complication of osteoporosis and is common among the elderly. Conservative treatment is the first choice for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) but for persistent painful cases, percutaneous vertebral cement augmentation techniques, such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, are indicated. We performed a systematic review to compare clinical and radiological outcomes of both methods. Methods: A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The PICO search strategy consisted of the following terms: Population- Patients with OVCFs; Intervention- Kyphoplasty; Control- Vertebroplasty; Outcomes- Pain, Cement Leakage, Vertebral Body Height, Adjacent level fractures, Oswestry (ODI) and SF36. Results: Seven articles were included in the qualitative analysis, selecting only randomized controlled trials. Four hundred and fifty patients were treated with vertebroplasty (VP) and 469 with kyphoplasty (KP). The leakage rate of the VP group was 63% versus 14% for the KP group. However, these results were without statistical significance. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), ODI and SF-36 outcomes were evaluated based on the 6-month and 1-year follow-up results, and we were unable to find any significant differences between treatments. For restoration of vertebral height, the values of the KP group were, on average, 0.71 cm higher than those of the VP group, with 95% CI. Conclusion: Based on this systematic review, kyphoplasty is superior to vertebroplasty for achieving gains in vertebral body height. As regards cement leakage and other clinical outcomes, neither method showed statistically significant superiority. Level of Evidence I; Systematic review.

RESUMO Introdução: A fratura vertebral é a principal complicação da osteoporose e ocorre com frequência em idosos. O tratamento conservador é a primeira escolha para fraturas compressivas vertebrais por osteoporose (FCVO), mas para casos dolorosos persistentes, as técnicas de cimentação vertebral, como vertebroplastia e cifoplastia, são indicadas. Realizamos uma revisão sistemática para comparar os resultados clínicos e radiológicos de ambos os métodos. Métodos: Uma revisão sistemática foi realizada de acordo com o PRISMA e o Manual Cochrane de Revisões Sistemáticas. A estratégia de busca PICO foi: População - Pacientes com FCVOs; Intervenção - Cifoplastia; Controle - Vertebroplastia; Resultados - Dor, Extravazamento de Cimento, Altura do Corpo Vertebral, Fraturas em Nível Adjacente, Oswestry (ODI) e SF36. Resultados: Sete artigos foram incluídos na análise qualitativa, somente ensaios clínicos randomizados. Quatrocentos e cinquenta pacientes foram tratados com vertebroplastia (VP) e 469 com cifoplastia (CP). A taxa de extravazamento de cimento do grupo VP foi de 63% contra 14% do CP, no entanto, não atingiu significância estatística. Os desfechos da Escala Visual Analógica (EVA), ODI e SF-36 foram avaliados considerando os resultados de seis meses e um ano de seguimento e não pudemos apontar diferenças entre os tratamentos. Por fim, a CP apresenta valores médios 0,71 cm maiores do que a VP para a restauração da altura do corpo vertebral, com IC de 95%. Conclusão: Nesta revisão sistemática a cifoplastia foi superior à vertebroplastia para ganho de altura do corpo vertebral. Não houve superioridade estatisticamente significativa entre os dois métodos para extravazamento de cimento e outros resultados clínicos. Nível de Evidência I; Revisão sistemática

RESUMEN Introducción: La fractura vertebral es la principal complicación de la osteoporosis y ocurre con frecuencia en los ancianos. El tratamiento conservador es la primera opción para las fracturas vertebrales por compresión debidas a la osteoporosis (FCVO), pero para los casos de dolor persistente están indicadas las técnicas de cementación vertebral, como la vertebroplastia y la cifoplastia. Se realizó una revisión sistemática para comparar los resultados clínicos y radiológicos de ambos métodos. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con la declaración PRISMA y el Manual Cochrane de Revisiones Sistemáticas. La estrategia de búsqueda PICO fue: Población: Pacientes con FCVO; Intervención: Cifoplastia; Control- Vertebroplastia; Resultados: Dolor, Extravasación del cemento, Altura del Cuerpo Vertebral, Fracturas de Nivel Adyacente, Oswestry (ODI) y SF36. Resultados: Se incluyeron siete artículos en el análisis cualitativo, sólo ensayos clínicos aleatorios. Cuatrocientos cincuenta pacientes fueron tratados con vertebroplastia (VP) y 469 con cifoplastia (CP). La tasa de extravasación de cemento en el grupo VP fue del 63% frente al 14% en el CP, sin embargo, no alcanzó significancia estadística. Los resultados de la Escala Visual Analógica (EVA), ODI y SF-36 se evaluaron teniendo en cuenta los resultados de 6 meses y 1 año de seguimiento y no pudimos señalar diferencias entre los tratamientos.. Finalmente, el CP presenta valores promedios 0,71 cm superiores al VP para restaurar la altura del cuerpo vertebral, con un IC del 95%. Conclusión: En esta revisión sistemática, la cifoplastia fue superior a la vertebroplastia para el aumento de altura del cuerpo vertebral. No hubo una superioridad estadísticamente significativa entre los dos métodos para la extravasación del cemento y otros resultados clínicos. Nivel de Evidencia I; Revisión sistemática.

Osteoporosis , Spinal Fractures
Coluna/Columna ; 21(4): e266858, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404411


ABSTRACT Objective: In traumatic injuries of the thoracic spine, three variables are analyzed to make decisions: morphology of the injury, posterior ligamentous complex and neurological status; currently the fourth column is not evaluated; our objective was to determine the biomechanical behavior of the spine with a fracture of the fifth thoracic vertebral body when accompanied by a short oblique fracture of the sternum. Methods: An anonymous model of a healthy 25-year-old male was used, from which the thoracic spine and rib cage were obtained; in addition to the ligaments of the posterior complex and the intervertebral discs, four models were simulated. An axial section was made, a load of 400 N was applied, and the biomechanical behavior of each model was determined. Results: The area that suffered the most stress at the vertebral level was the posterior column of T4-T5 (tensile strength of 747 MPa), which exceeded the plastic limit, the load through the ribs was distributed from the first to the sixth (100 MPa), in the sternum the stress increased (200 MPa), the deformity increased to 45 mm. Conclusions: The sternum was a fundamental part of the spine's stability; the combined injury severely increased the stress (8 MPa to 747 MPa) in the spine and exceeded the plastic limit, which generated an instability that is represented by the global deformity acquired (1 mm to 45 mm). Level of evidence II; Prospective comparative study.

RESUMO Objetivo: Nas lesões traumáticas da coluna torácica, três variáveis são analisadas para tomada de decisão: morfologia da lesão, complexo ligamentar posterior e estado neurológico; atualmente a quarta coluna não é avaliada, nosso objetivo foi determinar o comportamento biomecânico da coluna com fratura do quinto corpo vertebral torácico quando acompanhada de fratura oblíqua curta do esterno. Métodos: Obteve-se um modelo anônimo de um homem saudável de 25 anos, do qual foram obtidas a coluna torácica e caixa torácica, além dos ligamentos do complexo posterior e dos discos intervertebrais, foram simulados 4 modelos, foi feito o corte, e foi aplicada uma carga de 400 N e o comportamento biomecânico de cada modelo foi estendido. Resultados: A área que mais sofreu estresse ao nível vertebral foi a coluna posterior de T4-T5 (resistência à tração de 747 MPa), que ultrapassou o limite plástico, a carga pelas costelas foi distribuída da primeira à sexta (100 MPa), no esterno a maior tensão (200 MPa), a deformidade maior que 45 mm. Conclusões: O esterno foi a peça fundamental na estabilidade da coluna, a lesão combinada aumentou severamente o estresse (8 MPa a 747 MPa) na coluna e ultrapassou o limite plástico, o que mantém uma instabilidade que é representada pela deformidade global adquirida (1 mm a 45 mm). Nível de evidência II; Estudo prospectivo comparativo.

RESUMEN Objetivo: En las lesiones traumáticas de la columna torácica se analizan tres variables para tomar decisiones: morfología de la lesión, complejo ligamentoso posterior y estado neurológico; actualmente no se evalúa la cuarta columna, nuestro objetivo fue determinar el comportamiento biomecánico de la columna con una fractura del quinto cuerpo vertebral torácico cuando se acompaña de una fractura oblicua corta del esternón. Métodos: Se utilizó un modelo anónimo de sexo masculino sano de 25 años de edad, del cual se obtuvo la columna torácica, y la caja torácica, además se le agregaron los ligamentos del complejo posterior y los discos intervertebrales, se simularon 4 modelos a los cuales se les realizó un corte axial, se aplicó una carga de 400 N y se determinó el comportamiento biomecánico de cada modelo. Resultados: La zona que más estrés sufrió a nivel vertebral fue la columna posterior de T4-T5 (resistencia a la tracción de 747 MPa), la cual superó el límite plástico, la carga a través de las costillas se distribuyó de la primera a la sexta (100 MPa), en el esternón el estrés aumentó (200 MPa), la deformidad aumentó a 45 mm. Conclusiones: El esternón fue parte fundamental en la estabilidad de la columna, la lesión combinada incrementó severamente el estrés (8 MPa a 747 MPa) en la columna y este superó el límite plástico, lo que generó una inestabilidad que se representa por la deformidad global adquirida (1 mm a 45 mm). Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio prospectivo comparativo.

Spinal Fractures
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955439


Objective:To analyze the diagnostic value of X-ray, CT and MRI multimodal images in the vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases and osteoporosis.Methods:The basic clinical data and X-ray, CT, MRI imaging data of 102 patients with vertebral compression fractures from January 2019 to May 2021 in Jiangnan Hospital (Xiaoshan Traditional Chinese Medicine) Affiliated to Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases was in 47 cases, and vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis was in 55 cases.Results:The age and osteoporosis rate in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases were significantly lower than those in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis: (61.95 ± 11.84) years old vs. (72.37 ± 12.55) years old and 4.3% (2/47) vs. 83.6% (46/55), the body mass index and pain visual analogue score were significantly higher than those in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis: (22.58 ± 3.85) kg/m 2 vs. (18.11 ± 2.79) kg/m 2 and (8.31 ± 2.91) scores vs. (7.02 ± 2.72) scores, and there were statistical differences ( P<0.05); there was no statistical difference in gender composition ( P>0.05). The rates of vertebral body wedge shape and double concave shape in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases were significantly lower than those in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis: 2.80% (3/107) vs. 60.82% (104/171) and 6.54% (7/107) vs. 29.82% (51/171), the rates of flat shape and posterior margin swelling were significantly higher than those in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis: 75.70% (81/107) vs. 9.36% (16/171) and 14.95% (16/107) vs. 0, and there were statistical differences ( P<0.01); the rates of pedicle involvement and soft tissue mass in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases were significantly higher than those in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis: 68.09% (32/47) vs. 1.82% (1/55) and 46.81% (22/47) vs. 0, while the rate of linear image signal in vertebral body was significantly lower than that in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis: 0 vs. 96.36% (53/47), and there were statistical difference ( P<0.01); there was statistical difference in MRI signals ( P<0.01), vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases were mainly characterized by low T 1 high T 2 and low T 1 low T 2, while vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis was mainly characterized by low T 1 high T 2; the rates of disc compression and widening in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases were significantly lower than those in patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis: 4.26%(2/47) vs. 34.55% (19/55) and 2.13%(1/47) vs. 18.18% (10/55), and there were statistical differences ( P<0.01 or <0.05). The accuracies of multimodal imaging in the diagnosis of vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases and osteoporosis were significantly higher than those of X-ray, CT and MRI (89.4% vs. 51.1%, 72.3%, 83.0%; 90.9% vs. 52.7%, 60.0%, 78.2%), and there were statistical differences( P<0.05). Conclusions:Multimodal imaging is helpful to improve the diagnostic accuracy of vertebral compression fractures caused by osteolytic metastases and osteoporosis, to reduce the clinical misdiagnosis rate, with important reference value for the differential diagnosis of the two diseases.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956617


Objective:To compare the therapeutic results between axis pedicle screwing assisted by intraoperative 3-D navigation and freehand axis pedicle screwing in the treatment of Hangman fracture.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed of the 64 patients with Hangman fracture who had received posterior axis pedicle screwing at Department of Spinal Surgery, The Sixth Hospital of Ningbo from May 2014 to December 2019. According to the placement methods of axis pedicle screws, they were divided into a navigation group ( n=34, subjected to axis pedicle screwing assisted by intraoperative 3-D navigation) and a freehand group ( n=30, subjected to freehand axis pedicle screwing). Pedicle screw placement time, operation time, intraoperative bleeding, fluoroscopy time, hospital stay, total hospitalization cost and complications were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. The accuracy of axis pedicle screw placement was evaluated according to the postoperative cervical CT and screw grading criteria proposed by Park et al. At admission, 3 months postoperation, and the last follow-up, neurological function of the patients was evaluated by modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score, neck pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), and C2/3 vertebral body angulation and C2 forward displacement were measured. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by Moon grading at the last follow-up. Results:The navigation group and the freehand group were comparable due to insignificant differences between them in the preoperative general data ( P>0.05). The accuracy of screw placement in the navigation group (98.2%, 54/55) was significantly higher than that in the freehand group (85.2%, 46/54) ( P<0.05). The screw placement time, operation time, fluoroscopy time and total hospitalization cost in the navigation group were significantly more than those in the freehand group ( P<0.05). Vertebral artery injury occurred in 3 cases in the freehand group. Screw loosening, screw breakage or rod breakage occurred in none of the patients after operation. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay or follow-up time ( P>0.05). In both groups, the VAS score, mJOA score, C2/3 vertebral body angulation and C2 forward displacement were significantly improved at 3 months postoperation and the last follow-up compared with those at admission ( P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the contemporary comparisons ( P>0.05). At the last follow-up, Moon grading in the navigation group was significantly better than that in the freehand group ( P<0.05). Conclusion:In the treatment of Hangman fracture, compared with freehand screw placement, axis pedicle screwing assisted by intraoperative 3-D navigation can improve accuracy and safety of screw placement and reduce postoperative complications, leading to better clinical efficacy.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956560


Objective:To explore the clinical effects of unilateral secondary puncture percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in the treatment of type ⅡA acute symptomatic osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures (ASOTLF).Methods:A retrospective case-control study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 193 patients with type ⅡA ASOTLF who had been admitted to Department of Spine Surgery, Honghui Hospital from February 2016 to October 2018. They were 71 males and 122 females, aged from 65 to 90 years [average, (73.9±4.3) years]. The segments injured were T10 in 21 cases, T11 in 27 cases, T12 in 44 cases, L1 in 48 cases, L2 in 29 cases, L3 in 14 cases, and L4 in 10 cases. Of them, 85 received unilateral secondary puncture PVP (observation group) and 108 did not (control group). The clinical effects were evaluated by comparing between the 2 groups the operation time, bone cement injection volume, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, and visual analogue scale (VAS) for back pain, spinal Oswestry disability index (ODI), anterior height of the injured vertebral body (AH) and kyphosis angle (KA) of the injured vertebra before operation, at 3 days after operation and the last follow-up. The bone cement leakage and fracture of adjacent vertebral body were observed.Results:All patients were followed up for 12 to 24 months (average, 15.8 months). There was no significant difference in the preoperative general data between the 2 groups, showing they were comparable ( P>0.05). The operation time and bone cement injection volume [(36.2±1.4) min and (5.5±0.7) mL] in the observation group were significantly longer or more than those in the control group [(32.3±1.7) min and (4.0±0.7) mL] ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the hospital stay or intraoperative blood loss between the 2 groups ( P>0.05). The VAS, ODI, AH and KA at 3 days after operation and the last follow-up were significantly improved compared with those before operation in both groups ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in VAS, ODI, AH or KA between the 2 groups before operation or at 3 days after operation ( P>0.05). However, the VAS, ODI, AH and KA at the last follow-up in the observation group [(2.2±0.8) points, 19.2%±5.8%, (2.90±0.21) cm, and 12.2°±1.5°] were better than those in the control group [(3.1±0.9) points, 22.8%±5.3%, (2.41±0.15) cm, and 13.3°±1.2°]. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of postoperative bone cement leakage or that of adjacent vertebral fracture ( P>0.05). Conclusions:In the treatment of type ⅡA ASOTLF, unilateral secondary puncture PVP can result in satisfactory clinical effects, because it effectively promotes dispersion of bone cement and prevents re-collapse of the vertebra operated but does not increase the risks of bone cement leakage and adjacent vertebral fracture.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956559


Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of manual reduction under general anesthesia combined with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in the treatment of lower cervical locked facet dislocation.Methods:Retrospectively analyzed were the data of 53 patients with traumatic single segment dislocation of lower cervical spine combined with single/bilateral facet articular lock who had been admitted to Department of Orthopaedic Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from January 2019 to December 2020. There were 36 males and 17 females, aged from 18 to 64 years (average, 45.5 years). All the patients were treated with ACDF under neuroelectrophysiological monitoring. Clinical efficacy was assessed by observing complications and comparing American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grading, Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores, neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after surgery.Results:All patients were followed up for 16 to 30 months (mean, 24 months). All incisions healed by primary intention with no infection after operation. There were 2 cases of delirium, 9 cases of abdominal distension, 4 cases of lower extremity venous thrombosis, and one case of central diabetes insipidus. Postoperative imaging data showed that all patients achieved sequential reduction of the cervical spine, intervertebral bony fusion, and no internal fixation loosening. The last follow-up showed that the overall improvement rate of ASIA grading of spinal cord function was 84.9% (45/53) compared with the preoperation and that the VAS score (2.0±0.5), mJOA score (13.1±3.1) and NDI index (16.6±5.9) were significantly improved compared with the preoperative values (7.5±1.5, 6.9±3.5, and 37.8±7.8) ( P< 0.05). Conclusion:On the premise of fully assessing the patient's injury status, manual reduction under general anesthesia combined with ACDF is a safe and effective treatment of single-level lower cervical fracture combined with facet dislocation.

Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 961-972, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956541


Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) can lead to lower back pain and may be even accompanied by scoliosis, neurological dysfunction and other complications, which will affect the daily activities and life quality of patients. Vertebral augmentation is an effective treatment method for OVCF, but it cannot correct unbalance of bone metabolism or improve the osteoporotic status, causing complications like lower back pain, limited spinal activities and vertebral refracture. The post-operative systematic and standardized rehabilitation treatments can improve curative effect and therapeutic efficacy of anti-osteoporosis, reduce risk of vertebral refracture, increase patient compliance and improve quality of life. Since there still lack relevant clinical treatment guidelines for postoperative rehabilitation treatments following vertebral augmentation for OVCF, the current treatments are varied with uneven therapeutic effect. In order to standardize the postoperative rehabilitation treatment, the Spine Trauma Group of the Orthopedic Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association organized relevant experts to refer to relevant literature and develop the "Guideline for postoperative rehabilitation treatment following vertebral augmentation for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (2022 version)" based on the clinical guidelines published by the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) as well as on the principles of scientificity, practicality and advancement. The guideline provided evidence-based recommendations on 10 important issues related to postoperative rehabilitation treatments of OVCF.