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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383551

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones intrahospitalarias (IIH) son causa de elevada morbimortalidad y representan un problema sanitario importante. El personal de salud es reservorio y potencial transmisor de los agentes etiológicos de las mismas. S. aureus es uno de los microorganismos implicados, por lo tanto es importante conocer la frecuencia de portación en el personal de salud y establecer el perfil de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana para contribuir con la elaboración de medidas de prevención incluyendo actividades educativas. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia de portación de S. aureus, distribución y antibiotipos de las cepas presentes en el personal sanitario del Hospital Pediátrico de Referencia (HPR). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo durante el periodo julio-setiembre del año 2018. Se incluyeron muestras de hisopados nasales de trabajadores de la salud de distintas áreas de internación que consintieron participar en el estudio. Se excluyeron aquellos que recibieron antibióticos dentro de los 3 meses previos al estudio. Las muestras fueron sembradas en agar sangre ovina al 5% (ASO) y se incubaron a 35-37ºC en aerobiosis por 24-48 horas. La identificación de las colonias sospechosas de Staphylococcus aureus por métodos convencionales y MALDI-TOF. El patrón de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. aureus se detectó por disco-difusión. En los cultivos resistentes a meticilina (SAMR) se determinó la presencia del gen mecA y se realizó la tipificación del SCCmec por pruebas de reacción en cadena de polimerasa. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 225 hisopados a partir de 225 trabajadores, presentaron desarrollo 212. En 49 se recuperaron cultivos de S. aureus. Correspondieron a SAMR 11 de las 49 cepas, todas portaban el gen mecA. Hubo predominio en el personal de enfermería (7/11), en los servicios de hemato-oncología (3/11) y cuidados intensivos neonatales (4/11). Asociaron resistencia a macrólidos y clindamicina 8 de 11 aislamientos SAMR, a gentamicina 2 y a mupirocina uno. El SCCmec más frecuentemente identificado fue el tipo IV (7/11). Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran la presencia de cepas SAMR entre el personal de salud del CHPR y aportan información complementaria para efectuar prevención y control de las IIH, actuando sobre todo en el personal de salud encargado de la atención de pacientes susceptibles.


Hospital-acquired infections (IIH) are a cause of high morbidity and mortality and represent a major health problem. Health personnel are reservoirs and potential transmitters of their etiological agents. S. aureus is one of the microorganisms involved, therefore it is important to know the frequency of carriage in health personnel and establish the antimicrobial susceptibility profile to contribute to the development of prevention measures, including educational activities. Objective: To know the frequency of carriage of S. aureus, distribution and antibiotypes of the strains present in the health personnel of the Reference Pediatric Hospital (HPR). Materials and methods: A descriptive study was carried out during the period July-September 2018. Nasal swab samples from health workers from different hospitalization areas who agreed to participate in the study were included. Those who received antibiotics within 3 months prior to the study were excluded. The samples were seeded in 5% sheep blood agar (ASO) and incubated at 35-37ºC in aerobiosis for 24-48 hours. Identification of suspicious Staphylococcus aureus colonies by conventional methods and MALDI-TOF. The antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus was detected by disc diffusion. In methicillin-resistant cultures (MRSA), the presence of the mecA gene was determined and SCCmec was typified by polymerase chain reaction tests. Results: 225 swabs were obtained from 225 workers, 212 showed development. S. aureus cultures were recovered from 49. 11 of the 49 strains corresponded to MRSA, all of them carried the mecA gene. There was a predominance in the nursing staff (7/11), in the hematology-oncology services (3/11) and neonatal intensive care (4/11). They associated resistance to macrolides and clindamycin in 8 of 11 MRSA isolates, 2 to gentamicin, and 1 to mupirocin. The most frequently identified SCCmec was type IV (7/11). Conclusions: The results show the presence of MRSA strains among the health personnel of the CHPR and provide complementary information to carry out prevention and control of IIH, acting especially on the health personnel in charge of the care of susceptible patients.


As infecções hospitalares (HII) são causa de alta morbidade e mortalidade e representam um importante problema de saúde. Os profissionais de saúde são reservatórios e potenciais transmissores de seus agentes etiológicos. O S. aureus é um dos micro-organismos envolvidos, por isso é importante conhecer a frequência de portadores em profissionais de saúde e estabelecer o perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana para contribuir no desenvolvimento de medidas de prevenção incluindo atividades educativas. Objetivo: Conhecer a frequência de portadores de S. aureus, distribuição e antibiótipos das cepas presentes no pessoal de saúde do Hospital Pediátrico de Referência (HPR). Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo durante o período de julho a setembro de 2018. Foram incluídas amostras de swab nasal de profissionais de saúde de diferentes áreas de internação que concordaram em participar do estudo. Aqueles que receberam antibióticos nos 3 meses anteriores ao estudo foram excluídos. As amostras foram semeadas em 5% de ágar sangue de carneiro (ASO) e incubadas a 35-37ºC em aerobiose por 24-48 horas. Identificação de colônias suspeitas de Staphylococcus aureus por métodos convencionais e MALDI-TOF. O padrão de resistência antimicrobiana de S. aureus foi detectado por difusão em disco. Em culturas resistentes à meticilina (MRSA), a presença do gene mecA foi determinada e SCCmec foi tipificado por testes de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: 225 swabs foram obtidos de 225 trabalhadores, 212 apresentaram desenvolvimento. Culturas de S. aureus foram recuperadas de 49. 11 das 49 cepas correspondiam a MRSA, todas carregavam o gene mecA. Houve predominância na equipe de enfermagem (7/11), nos serviços de hematologia-oncologia (3/11) e de terapia intensiva neonatal (4/11). Eles associaram resistência a macrolídeos e clindamicina em 8 de 11 isolados de MRSA, 2 à gentamicina e 1 à mupirocina. O SCCmec mais frequentemente identificado foi o tipo IV (7/11). Conclusões: Os resultados mostram a presença de cepas de MRSA entre os profissionais de saúde do CHPR e fornecem informações complementares para realizar a prevenção e controle da HII, atuando principalmente sobre os profissionais de saúde responsáveis ​​pelo atendimento de pacientes suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Carrier State/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Housekeeping, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Uruguay/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Nasal Cavity/microbiology
3.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022203, 06 abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Contamination of cell phones can contribute to the dissemination of pathogens in the community and/or hospital environment. OBJECTIVE: To characterize Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cell phones of university students. METHODS: Samples were collected from 100 cell phones. Detection of genes associated with virulence factors such as biofilm formation (icaA and icaD), enterotoxins production (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), and resistance to methicillin (mecA and mecC) was performed in S. aureus isolates by PCR. Typing mecA gene performed by multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to antimicrobials and biofilm formation rate also evaluated by using disk diffusion test and crystal violet staining. RESULTS: S. aureus was present in 40% of the total samples and about 70% of them belonged to Nursing students. Of the isolates, 85% presented resistance to penicillin and 50% were classified as moderate biofilm producers. In addition, 92.5% of isolates contained the gene icaA and 60% of the gene icaD. Approximately 25% of the isolates presented the mecA gene. Typing of the mecA gene showed the presence of staphylococcal chromosome cassette SCCmec I and c III respectively in 20% and 10% of the isolates. 70% of the samples could not be typed by the technique. Regarding the enterotoxins, the most prevalent gene was SEA (30%) followed by the SEC gene (2.5%). The presence of SED and SEB genes not observed in any of the isolates. CONCLUSION: The cleaning and periodic disinfection of cell phones can contribute to the reduction of the risk of nosocomial infection.


INTRODUÇÃO: A contaminação de celulares pode contribuir para a disseminação de patógenos na comunidade e/ou ambiente hospitalar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de telefones celulares de estudantes universitários. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de 100 telefones celulares. Detecção de genes associados a fatores de virulência quanto a: formação de biofilme (icaA e icaD), produção de enterotoxinas (SEA, SEB, SEC e SED) e resistência à meticilina (mecA e mecC) foi realizada em isolados de S. aureus por PCR. A Tipagem do gene mecA foi realizada por PCR multiplex. A susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos e a taxa de formação de biofilme pelo teste de difusão em disco e coloração com cristal violeta. RESULTADOS: S. aureus esteve presente em 40% do total de amostras, destas, 70% pertenciam a estudantes do curso de enfermagem. Dos isolados, 85% apresentaram resistência à penicilina e 50% foram classificados com moderada formação de biofilme. Além disso, 92,5% dos isolados continham o gene icaA e 60% o gene icaD. Aproximadamente 25% dos isolados apresentaram o gene mecA. A tipagem do gene mecA mostrou a presença do cassete cromossômico estafilocócico SSCmec I e III em respectivamente 20% e 10% dos isolados. 70% das amostras não puderam ser identificadas pela técnica. Das enterotoxinas, o gene mais prevalente foi o SEA (30%), seguido pelo gene SEC (2.5%). A presença dos genes SED e SEB não foi observada nos isolados. CONCLUSÃO: A limpeza e desinfecção periódica dos telefones celulares podem contribuir para a redução do risco de infecção nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Students, Health Occupations , Universities , Cell Phone , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Enterotoxins
4.
Ars méd ; 47(1): 22-29, mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391974

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus, es la principal causa de bacteriemia infecciosa y endocarditis, así como de infecciones osteoarti-culares, de piel y tejidos blandos, su reservorio principal es la mucosa nasal. Los trabajadores de la salud son una fuente importante de transmisión de S. aureus y S. aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM). Objetivo: determinar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus y SARM en la fosa nasal de auxiliares de enfermería en la ciudad de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en auxiliares de enfermería de diferentes instituciones hospitalarias y clínicas en la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia. Se realizó un muestreo aleatorio. El tamaño de la muestra fue de 491 hisopados de la fosa nasal derecha de igual número de auxiliares de enfermería que al momento del estudio se encontraban laborando a nivel clínico. Se tomó un intervalo de confianza del 95% y error máximo admisible del 5%, se consideró el valor de p= 0,5. Se realizó un estudio de frecuencias y determinación de prevalencias mediante un análisis univariado. Resultados: la presente investigación encontró queel 28,5% de los participantes fueron portadores del Staphylococcus aureus y el 6,1% fueron SARM. Conclusiones: la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus y SARM es frecuente en auxiliares de enfermería.


Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen of clinical severe relevance, it is the leading cause of infectious bacteremia and endocarditis, as well as osteoarticular, skin, and soft tissue infections; its, main reservoir is the nasal mucosa. Healthcare workers are a significant source of transmission of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Objective: To determine the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in the nostrils of nursing assistants in Bogotá's city. Materials and methods: a descriptive cross-sec-tional study in nursing assistants from different hospitals and clinical institutions in Bogotá's city, Colombia. Random sampling was carried out. The sample size was 491 swabs from the right nostril from the same number of nursing assistants working at the clinical level at the time of the study. A confidence interval of 95% and maximum permissible error of 5% were taken, the value of p = 0.5 was considered. A study of frequencies and determination of prevalence was carried out through univariate analysis. Results: the present investigation found that 28.5% of the participants were carriers of Staphylococcus aureus, and 6.1% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA). Conclusions: colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is common in nursing assistants.

5.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 96-104, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are related do different oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Therefore, the control or/and eradication of microorganisms and their by-products is primordial for the success of their treatment. An alternative for decrease bacterial load is the use of plant extracts used in popular medicine. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial action of extracts of Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers, Senna martiniana, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan and Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. against strains of Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aggregatibacter actinomyces- tencomitans and Candida albicans were investigated. Cytotoxicity was assessed at concentrations of 1, 10, 40, 80, 100 and 1000 μg/mL by means of the MTT test and compared to a control group with untreated cells. Those with acceptable cytotoxicity had the antimicrobial action measured by the XTT test. As a positive control, sodium hypochlorite was used. Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers had the highest citototoxicity results while Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. had the best results, but all extracts showed acceptable cytotoxicity at different concentrations. The plant extracts showed higher activity against A. actinomycetencomitans: Anadenanthera columbrina (Vell.) Brenan (80.52%) at 40 μg/mL, Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (78.48%) in 1 μg/mL, Senna martiniana (73.28%) in the concentration of 40 μg/mL and Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers (70.50%) in 10 μg/mL. All extracts analyzed showed acceptable cytotoxicity at different concentrations and were promising for inhibition of the pathogenic microorganisms studied.


Resumo Bactérias estão relacionadas a diferentes doenças bucais, como a cárie dentária e a doença periodontal. Assim, o controle e/ou erradicação de microrganismos e seus subprodutos é primordial para o sucesso dos tratamentos. Uma alternativa para diminuir a carga bacteriana é a utilização de extratos vegetais utilizados na medicina popular. A citotoxicidade e ação antimicrobiana de extratos de Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers, Senna martiniana H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan e Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. contra cepas de Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcusfaecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Agartibacter actinomycetencomitans e Candida albicans foram investigados. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada nas concentrações de 1, 10, 40, 80, 100 e 1000 μg/mL por meio do teste MTT. Aqueles com citotoxicidade aceitável tiveram a ação antimicrobiana medida pelo teste XTT. Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers apresentou os maiores resultados de citototoxicidade, enquanto Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. obteve os melhores resultados, mas todos os extratos apresentaram citotoxicidade aceitável em diferentes concentrações. Os extratos vegetais apresentaram maior atividade contra A. actinomycetencomitans: Anadenanthera columbrina (Vell.) Brenan (80,52%) a 40 μg/mL, Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (78,48%) em 1 μg/mL, Senna martiniana H.S. Irwin & Barneby (73,28%) na concentração de 40 μg/mL e Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers (70,50%) em 10 μg/mL. Todos os extratos analisados apresentaram citotoxicidade aceitável em diferentes concentrações e foram promissores na inibição dos microrganismos patogênicos estudados.

6.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 17-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936393

ABSTRACT

@#Plant essential oils were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The isolates (n=03) were procured from Institute of Microbiology, UVAS Lahore, Pakistan. After biochemical and 16S rRNA gene-based PCR characterization, accession numbers were retrieved from NCBI i.e. MW344063.1, MW344064.1 and MW344065.1. These isolates exhibited molecular positivity by multiplex PCR for mecA, coa and eta toxin genes. Moreover, these isolates exhibited resistance to cefoxitin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin. The antibiotic resistant isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils. The highest zone of inhibition (mean ZOI±S.D.) was measured for Cinnamomum verum (22.67±1.52 mm) followed by Eucalyptus globulus (18.67±2.51 mm) and Syzygium aromaticum (12.67±2.51 mm). Lowest mean MIC value (0.33±0.11 mg/mL) was recorded for E. globulus. Eucalyptus globulus was processed for fractionation by column chromatography and n-hexane, chloroform, n-hexane + chloroform and ethyl-acetate fractions were evaluated for antibacterial activity. Lowest mean MIC (10.04±5.80 mg/mL) was recorded for E. globulus n-hexane fraction. Cell survival percentage of BHK21 cell line was 51.7% at 54.87mg/mL concentration of E. globulus n-hexane fraction. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of n-hexane fraction, benzene was found abundant (29.9%) as active compound. It was concluded that E. globulus n-hexane fraction exhibited significantly promising results against MRSA.

7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 22-27, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906723

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To establish the model of pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis infection in tree shrews. To determine the expression of IL-17 in the bacterial infection process of tree shrews cornea, and the mechanism of IL-17 in bacterial keratitis of tree shrews is discussed.<p>METHODS: The tree shrew bacterial keratitis models were established by the contact lens-assisted corneal scratching method. After establishing models successfully, the infection symptoms of the model were evaluated by using anterior segment photography and <i>in vivo</i> confocal microscopy on 1, 4, 7 and 14d after performing inoculation, and pathological sections were made to observe histopathological changes in the cornea. Samples were collected at the corresponding time points above, and the expression of IL-17 mRNA in the corneal tissues of tree shrews was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of IL-17 protein was detected by ELISA.<p>RESULTS:The success rate of modeling the tree shrew pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis models was 96% and 100%.The clinical manifestations and inflammatory cell infiltration of the tree shrew keratitis was consistent with the changing rules of the cornea in histopathological. IL-17 gene and protein expression profiles in tree shrew corneas were consistent with the severity of corneal inflammation basically. <p>CONCLUSION:The use of contact lens-assisted corneal scratching method can successfully establish animal models of pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis in tree shrews that more closely resemble the natural course of human bacterial keratitis infection. IL-17 participated in the occurrence and development of bacterial keratitis in tree shrews.

8.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 225-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920853

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the distribution characteristics and drug resistance of pathogens in infected donors from organ donation after citizen's death. Methods Clinical data of 465 potential donors from organ donation after citizen's death were retrospectively analyzed. The airway secretion, urine and blood samples of all donors were cultured. The infection rate of the donors, the source and composition ratio of pathogens were summarized. The drug resistance of main Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens was analyzed. Results Among 465 donors, 330 cases were infected and the infection rate was 71.0%. Among the positive culture samples of all donors, lower respiratory tract samples accounted for 63.8%(292/458), 18.6%(85/458) for blood samples and 17.7%(81/458) for urine samples. A total of 512 pathogens were isolated, including 75.0%(384/512) of Gram-negative pathogens, 18.2%(93/512) of Gram-positive pathogens followed by 6.8%(35/512) of fungi. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were the most common Gram-negative pathogens. Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to quinolones, compound preparations containing β-lactamase inhibitor (piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoperazone sodium-sulbactam sodium) and carbapenem antibiotics, whereas less sensitive to cephalosporins. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to β-lactams, quinolones and aminoglycosides. Acinetobacter baumannii was sensitive to polymyxin, tigecycline and amikacin, whereas resistant to the other antibiotics. No Gram-positive pathogens was resistant to vancomycin, linezolid and teicoplanin. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most commonly isolated Gram-positive pathogens, which yielded resistance rates of 36% and 87% to oxacillin sodium, and were generally resistant to penicillin and erythromycin. The resistance rate of Enterococcus faecalis to quinolones and erythromycin exceeded 90%, and 55% for high-concentration gentamicin. Conclusions The infection rate of organ donors from organ donation after citizen's death is relatively high, and the main infection site is lung. Gram-negative pathogens are the most commonly isolated strains, and certain strains tend to exhibit multiple drug resistance.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940386

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the virulence and biofilm inhibition effect of Fufang Huangbai Fluid Paint (FFHBFP) on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and to explore the antibacterial effect of FFHBFP on MRSA, which provides a theoretical basis and reference for clinical medication. MethodFirstly, the microdilution method and time–growth curve were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of FFHBFP and vancomycin (VAN) against MRSA and the effect on bacterial growth. The effects of FFHBFP and VAN on the inhibition of MRSA virulence factor lipase and restoration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensitivity were detected under sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC). The inhibitory effect of FFHBFP and VAN on MRSA biofilm formation and maturation was detected by the microplate method. The morphological changes of mature biofilms before and after administration were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was utilized to detect the effect of 50.600 g·L-1 concentration of FFHBFP on the expression of MRSA virulence gene crtM and biofilm-forming genes fnbA and icaA. Finally, molecular docking technology was used to predict the mechanism of potential antibacterial active ingredients of FFHBFP in inhibiting the virulence and biofilm of MRSA. ResultThe MIC of VAN was 2 mg·L-1, and VAN below 1 mg·L-1 exerted no effect on MRSA growth. The MIC of FFHBFP was not determined, while the 101.200-202.400 g·L-1 original solution inhibited MRSA growth. Compared with the blank group and the VAN group, sub-MIC (25.300-50.600 g·L-1 original solution) inhibited lipase and recovered MRSA sensitivity to H2O2 (P<0.01). The results of the microplate method showed that FFHBFP (25.300-202.400 g·L-1 original solution) inhibited biofilm formation and maturation (P<0.05, P<0.01). The SEM exhibited that FFHBFP made the structure of biofilm loose and the size of the bacteria varied. FFHBFP at 50.600 g·L-1 concentration can inhibit the expression of related virulence genes and biofilm-forming genes (P<0.05, P<0.01), and molecular docking results also showed that the main antibacterial active ingredients in FFHBFP have good binding ability to the target. ConclusionFFHBFP that cannot directly kill MRSA exerts clinical efficacy by impairing virulence expression, biofilm formation, and other pathogenic properties.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934346

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the mechanism of histidine kinase AgrC in Staphylococcusaureus biofilm formation enhancements under a environment with sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) ciprofloxacin, aiming to shed new light on the antibiotic treatment for S. aureus biofilm-related infections. Methods:Clinical isolates were collected from the skin tissue and body fluid samples at the Department of Medicine Clinical Laboratory, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in 2021. Microdilution broth method was used for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Biofilm assays were performed by using crystal violet staining assay and SYTO9 and PI fluorescent dye staining. Reverse transcription real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to assess the transcriptional levels of the biofilm regulatory genes ( agrC, agrA, icaA and icaR) of S. aureus treated with different sub-MIC concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to analyze the binding affinity of ciprofloxacin to histidine kinase AgrC. The data setwere presented as xˉ±s, analysis of variance or nonparametric test is used based on the distribution and homogeneity of variance of the data set. P<0.05 indicates statistically significant differences. Results:The MIC of ciprofloxacin against S. aureus was 0.25-0.5 mg/L. Ciprofloxacin could significantly promote the ability of S. aureus biofilm formation at the concentration of 1/4 × MIC [ATCC 43300( t=7.42, P=0.002), SA1( t=5.42, P=0.005), SA2( t=6.38, P=0.002), SA3( t=4.8, P =0.009), SA4( t=7.06, P=0.002) and SA5( t=4.36, P=0.004)]. The result of fluorescent staining showed that sub-MIC of ciprofloxacin could significantly promote the biofilm formation of S. aureus. The result of qRT-PCR suggested that there was no significant change in agrC gene expression, but the expression level of agrA ( t=4.42, P=0.003) and icaR ( t=4.49, P=0.007) was significantly decreased in the presence of sub-MIC ciprofloxacin [(0.61±0.24) and (0.56±0.12)], and the expression level of icaA was increased [1.51±0.19( t=5.24, P=0.009)].The result of ITC showed that ciprofloxacin had a significantly high affinity with AgrC. Conclusion:Sub-MIC of ciprofloxacin could promote the biofilm formation of S. aureus and increase its antibiotic resistance by binding to the AgrC protein receptor and affecting the expression of a grA, icaA and icaR genes.

11.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 200-207, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933537

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze drug resistance, virulence and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) isolated from skin sites of suppurative infections, and to provide an experimental basis for clinical anti-infective therapies. Methods:Swab samples from suppurative skin lesions and nasal secretions were collected from inpatients in Department of Dermatology, the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from May 2020 to December 2020, and subjected to bacterial isolation and culture. Suspected S. aureus colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Drug sensitivity test was conducted by using the broth microdilution method. Virulence genes of S. aureus were amplified by PCR, and real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR was performed to determine the relative expression of 4 virulence genes including tsst-1, pvl, hla and clfA in S. aureus strains from different sources. S. aureus strains were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Drug resistance rates and detection rates of virulence genes were compared by using chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test, and measurement data among groups were compared by using t test or Mann-Whitney U test. Results:A total of 85 strains of S. aureus were isolated from 210 inpatients, including 54 isolates from skin sites of suppurative infections (case group) and 31 isolates from the nasal cavity (control group) . Drug sensitivity test showed that 14 strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were identified among 85 strains of S. aureus. The resistance rate to penicillin was the highest (90.59%, 77/85) in the 85 S. aureus strains; the resistance rates to clindamycin and erythromycin were 60.00% (51/85) and 61.18% (52/85) respectively; no strains showed resistance to rifampicin, vancomycin or linezolid. PCR showed that the detection rate of the pvl gene was 33.33% (18/54) in the case group, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (12.90%, 4/31; χ2= 4.28, P= 0.038) . Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression level of the clfA gene was significantly higher in the control group (3.87[2.30, 5.94]) than in the case group (1.63[0.95, 2.62], P= 0.007) . A total of 17 ST types were identified among the 85 strains of S. aureus, and the dominant types were ST398-methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (20/71) and ST22-MRSA (9/14) . The detection rate of the virulence gene pvl was significantly higher in the ST22-MRSA strain (14/14) than in the non-ST22 MRSA strains (0, P < 0.001) . Conclusions:S. aureus strains isolated from the skin sites of suppurative infections were highly resistant to penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin, so these antibiotics should not be used as the first-choice empiric treatment. The occurrence of cutaneous S. aureus infections may be associated with the virulence gene pvl, and the nasal colonization of S. aureus may be associated with the clfA gene.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932998

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of human infectious diseases, which can cause skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis, necrotizing pneumonia, myelitis and other serious infectious diseases. With the use of antibiotics, Staphylococcus aureus is evolving to develop drug resistance; at the same time it produces a variety of virulence factors to attack the host. This article will review the recent advances of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors associated with the three stages of infection and introduce the detection methods of virulence factors briefly.

13.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 490-495, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932089

ABSTRACT

Objective:Animal models of sepsis are mainly established by cecal ligation and puncture which causes mixed bacterial infections in the abdominal cavity. However in internal clinic, sepsis is more common to be caused by respiratory bacterial infections. Therefore, it is necessary to establish animal models of sepsis caused by lung Infection.Methods:According to the concentration of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) suspension and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) suspension, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were equally divided into 10 groups, including S-Cont group, S-0.75 group, S-1.5 group, S-3 group, S-6 group and P-Cont group, P-1 group, P-2 group, P-4 group, P-8 group. Rats in the control group were treated with normal saline nasal drip. Rats in each experimental group were infected by nasal dripping bacterial suspension with 0.75×10 8 CFU/ml, 1.5×10 8 CFU/ml, 3×10 8 CFU/ml, 6×10 8 CFU/ml of S. aureus suspension or 1×10 8 CFU/ml, 2×10 8 CFU/ml, 4×10 8 CFU/ml, 8×10 8CFU/ml P. aeruginosa suspension. Our study detected the body temperature (T), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) of rats in each group before and after infection, as well as blood lactic acid (Lac) and procalcitonin (PCT) level after infection. The lung infections of rats in each group were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Results:The blood pressure(BP) of S-1.5 group, S-3 group, S-6 group and P-8 group was lower than before infection (all P<0.05). The Lac and PCT of each S. aureus experimental group were higher than that of the S-Cont group (all P<0.01); and they showed an increasing trend with the increase of the bacterial suspension concentration ( P<0.05), except for the S-3 and S-6 group ( P>0.05). The Lac and PCT of each P. aeruginosa experimental group were higher than that of the P-Cont group (all P<0.01); and they showed an increasing trend with the increase of the bacterial suspension concentration (all P<0.05), except for the Lac in the P-4 group and P-8 group ( P>0.05). HE staining showed that different degrees of inflammatory infiltration can be seen in the lungs of the experimental rats in each group. Conclusions:Infection of rats by nasal dripping with 3×10 8 CFU/ml of S. aureus suspension or 4×10 8 CFU/ml of P. aeruginosa suspension could establish relatively stable rat sepsis model induced by lung bacterial infection, of which the former could also establish a relatively stable septic shock model.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930239

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) strain and clinical characteristics, and to describe the molecular biological characteristics of invasive Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) infected clinical isolates. Methods:The isolates of S. aureus caused by invasive infection were collected in Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2016 to December 2019, and the clinical data of the corresponding children were collected retrospectively using electronic medical records. Multilocus sequence typing, spa typing and pvl gene were analyzed using the PCR. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics of all isolates were detected by the micro-broth dilution method, and the isolates were divided into the pvl+ and pvl- groups according to whether or not the S. aureus isolates carried pvl. The t test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the clinical symptoms between the pvl+ and pvl- groups. Chi-square test was used to compare the drug susceptibility between the two isolates. Results:A total of 127 cases of invasive S. aureus infection were collected during the study period. The white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and C-reaction protein level in the pvl+ group were significantly higher than those in the pvl- group ( P=0.001, P=0.001, P=0.005). The rate of pvl carrier was 44.9%. Among 57 pvl+ pathogenic strains, 64.9% (37/57) were MRSA. The multidrug resistance rate of pvl- isolates was higher than that of pvl+ isolates (70% vs. 49.12%, P=0.02). Conclusions:In invasive S. aureus infection, pvl+ strain is associated with elevated inflammatory markers in children. the positive rate of pvl is higher in clinical isolates, and the multidrug resistance rate of pvl- S. aureus is higher.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923976

ABSTRACT

Objective To prepare samples of proficiency testing (PT) containing live Staphylococcus aureus with drug matrix in microbial PT program of drug testing, and to evaluate the laboratory capability of microbiology tests in China. Methods Two kinds of PT samples containing living bacteria with drug matrix were prepared and evaluated. The results of laboratories participated in PT program and their response to the survey questionnaire were collected and analyzed. Results The homogeneity and stability of the PT samples complied with the requirements of CNAS-CL03: 2010. Samples could be stored stably for at least 6 months at -20 ℃. Among 63 laboratories participating in PT program, 53 laboratories (84.1%) achieved satisfactory results. The satisfaction rate was 94.1% (16/17) in 17 government laboratories (27.0% of total 63 laboratories), 81.4% (35/43) in 43 pharmaceutical quality control laboratories (68.3% of total 63 laboratories), and 66.7% (2/3) in 3 non-government laboratories (4.8% of total 63 laboratories), respectively. Conclusion The government laboratories performed better than pharmaceutical quality control laboratories in microbiology tests of drug, and the testing abilities of some pharmaceutical laboratories needs to be improved. The preparation and application of microbial samples in drug matrix could provide evaluation tools for drug testing laboratories in microbiology.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923954

ABSTRACT

Objective To prepare samples of proficiency testing (PT) containing live Staphylococcus aureus with drug matrix in microbial PT program of drug testing, and to evaluate the laboratory capability of microbiology tests in China. Methods Two kinds of PT samples containing living bacteria with drug matrix were prepared and evaluated. The results of laboratories participated in PT program and their response to the survey questionnaire were collected and analyzed. Results The homogeneity and stability of the PT samples complied with the requirements of CNAS-CL03: 2010. Samples could be stored stably for at least 6 months at -20 ℃. Among 63 laboratories participating in PT program, 53 laboratories (84.1%) achieved satisfactory results. The satisfaction rate was 94.1% (16/17) in 17 government laboratories (27.0% of total 63 laboratories), 81.4% (35/43) in 43 pharmaceutical quality control laboratories (68.3% of total 63 laboratories), and 66.7% (2/3) in 3 non-government laboratories (4.8% of total 63 laboratories), respectively. Conclusion The government laboratories performed better than pharmaceutical quality control laboratories in microbiology tests of drug, and the testing abilities of some pharmaceutical laboratories needs to be improved. The preparation and application of microbial samples in drug matrix could provide evaluation tools for drug testing laboratories in microbiology.

17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06991, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365241

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic and ubiquitous pathogen found in the skin, nares, and mucosal membranes of mammals. Increasing resistance to antimicrobials including methicillin has become an important public concern. One hundred and eight (108) S. aureus strains isolated from a total of 572 clinical and animal products samples, were investigated for their biofilm capability, methicillin resistance, enterotoxin genes, and genetic diversity. Although only one strain isolated from raw retail was found as a strong biofilm producer, the percentage of antimicrobial resistance pattern was relatively higher. 17.59% of S. aureus strains tested in this study were resistant to cefoxitin and identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. mecA and mecC harboring S. aureus strains were detected at a rate of 2.79% and 0.93%, respectively. In addition, staphylococcal enterotoxin genes including Sea, Seb, Sec, and Sed genes were found to be 18.5%, 32.4%, 6.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the isolates showed relationship between joint calf and cow milk isolates. Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed three different sequence types (STs) including ST84, ST829, and ST6238. These findings highlight the development and spread of MRSA strains with zoonotic potential in animals and the food chain throughout the world.


Staphylococcus aureus é um patógeno dúctil e ubíquo encontrado na pele, narinas e membranas mucosas de mamíferos. O aumento da resistência aos antimicrobianos, incluindo a meticilina, tornou-se uma importante preocupação pública. Cento e oito (108) cepas de S. aureus isoladas de um total de 572 amostras clínicas e de produtos animais foram investigadas por sua capacidade de biofilme, resistência à meticilina, genes de enterotoxinas e diversidade genética. Embora apenas uma cepa isolada do cru tenha sido encontrada como forte produtora de biofilme, a porcentagem do padrão de resistência antimicrobiana foi relativamente maior. Parte das cepas (17,59%) de S. aureus testadas neste estudo eram resistentes à cefoxitina e identificadas como isolados de MRSA. mecA e mecC abrigando cepas de S. aureus foram detectados a uma taxa de 2,79% e 0,93%, respectivamente. Além disso, verificou-se que os genes da enterotoxina estafilocócica, incluindo os genes Sea, Seb, Sec e Sed, eram 18,5%, 32,4%, 6,5% e 3,7%, respectivamente. A relação filogenética entre os isolados mostrou relação entre os isolados de bezerro e leite de vaca. A tipagem de sequência multiloco (MLST) revelou três tipos de sequência diferentes (STs), incluindo ST84, ST829 e ST6238. Essas descobertas destacam o desenvolvimento e a disseminação de cepas de MRSA com potencial zoonótico em animais e na cadeia alimentar em todo o mundo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Cheese/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Enterotoxins
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19233, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374569

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, the metabolite profiling of methanolic extract from aerial parts of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad, as an endemic medicinal plant from Iran, was evaluated using HPLC-PDA-ESI. Then, the main compound from the extract was isolated and purified by using extensive chromatographic techniques. In addition, the structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated using 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectrometry, upon which 22 compounds were identified. The antibacterial activity of diosmetin 7-rutinoside (6) and linarin (13) in combination with carvacrol as a major compound of the essential oil was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus through disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The results indicated that the linarin, when mixed with carvacrol as the main compounds in the essential oil of the plant, has a satisfactory activity against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 0.16 and 0.18 µg/mL, respectively. Further, the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index indicated that this compound had synergism with carvacrol.

19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55: e0353, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394694

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Domestic pigeons carry pathogens in their droppings, posing a potential public health problem. Methods: The phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistances of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium in the feces of urban pigeons near hospitals with intensive care units were measured. Results: Twenty-nine samples showed Enterococcus growth, whereas one was positive for S. aureus. The S. aureus isolate was sensitive to the antibiotics tested via antibiogram, however resistance genes were identified. E. faecium isolates showed phenotypic resistance to gentamicin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: Antimicrobial profiles harmful to health were demonstrated in bacterial pathogens isolated from the external environment of hospitals.

20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(6): 774-782, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388320

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Staphylococcus aureus es parte de la microbiota nasal en 20-30% de la población general, colonización que constituye un reservorio para su transmisión, lo que es preocupante en cepas resistentes a meticilina (SARM). OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de S. aureus en estudiantes de Medicina y Enfermería del Campus San Felipe y caracterizar sus aislamientos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El 2017 se midió la portación nasal a 225 estudiantes, a las cepas aisladas se le analizó su antibiotipo por difusión en agar, la relación clonal por electroforesis de campo pulsado y MLST. En SARM se determinó el cassette SCCmec y gen de la leucocidina de Panton-Valentine. RESULTADOS: 61 estudiantes portaron S. aureus (27,1%) incluyendo dos cepas SARM (0,9%). Staphylococcus aureus mostró resistencia a penicilina (75%), eritromicina (14%) y clindamicina (10%), cloranfenicol (1,6%) y levofloxacina, oxacilina, cefoxitina (3,3%). Se diferenciaron diecinueve pulsotipos y el secuenciotipo coincidió con complejos clonales descritos a nivel mundial en portadores de S. aureus: CC30, CC8, CC97, CC15, CC22 y CC1. Las dos cepas SARM correspondieron con los clones chileno/cordobés y USA100NY/J, ambas del CC5. CONCLUSIÓN: La portación nasal de S. aureus y SARM en los estudiantes coincidió con la portación en la población general y las cepas sensibles a meticilina mostraron diversidad clonal y alta susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, exceptuando a penicilina.


BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is part of the nasal microbiota in 20-30% of the population. This colonization is also a reservoir for its dissemination, which is worrying in the case of strains with resistance to methicillin (MRSA). AIM: To determine S. aureus nasal carriage in nursing and medical students of San Felipe Campus and characterize theirs isolates. METHODS: During 2017, nasal swabs were taken from 225 students and seeded in salt manitol agar. Antibiotypes were determined by agar diffusion and the genetic clonality was assessed by PFGE and MLST in isolated S. aureus. SCCmec cassette and Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) presence were determined in the MRSA isolates. RESULTS: 61 students carried S. aureus (27.1%) including two MRSA strains (0.9%). S. aureus showed resistance to penicillin (75%), erythromycin (14%) and clindamycin (10%), chloramphenicol (1.6%) and levofloxacin, oxacillin, cefoxitin (3.3%). Nineteen PFGE-types were differentiated, and their sequence-types coincided with main clonal complexes described in S. aureus carriers from different places worldwide: CC30, CC8, CC97, CC15, CC22 and CC1. MRSA strains belonged to CC5 and they corresponded to the Chilean/Cordobes and USA100NY/J clones. CONCLUSION: Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA in students, coincided with the general population and sensitive-methicillin strains showed clonal diversity and high antimicrobial susceptibility except for penicillin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Students, Nursing , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Agar , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Methicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
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