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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
2.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022203, 06 abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Contamination of cell phones can contribute to the dissemination of pathogens in the community and/or hospital environment. OBJECTIVE: To characterize Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cell phones of university students. METHODS: Samples were collected from 100 cell phones. Detection of genes associated with virulence factors such as biofilm formation (icaA and icaD), enterotoxins production (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), and resistance to methicillin (mecA and mecC) was performed in S. aureus isolates by PCR. Typing mecA gene performed by multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to antimicrobials and biofilm formation rate also evaluated by using disk diffusion test and crystal violet staining. RESULTS: S. aureus was present in 40% of the total samples and about 70% of them belonged to Nursing students. Of the isolates, 85% presented resistance to penicillin and 50% were classified as moderate biofilm producers. In addition, 92.5% of isolates contained the gene icaA and 60% of the gene icaD. Approximately 25% of the isolates presented the mecA gene. Typing of the mecA gene showed the presence of staphylococcal chromosome cassette SCCmec I and c III respectively in 20% and 10% of the isolates. 70% of the samples could not be typed by the technique. Regarding the enterotoxins, the most prevalent gene was SEA (30%) followed by the SEC gene (2.5%). The presence of SED and SEB genes not observed in any of the isolates. CONCLUSION: The cleaning and periodic disinfection of cell phones can contribute to the reduction of the risk of nosocomial infection.


INTRODUÇÃO: A contaminação de celulares pode contribuir para a disseminação de patógenos na comunidade e/ou ambiente hospitalar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de telefones celulares de estudantes universitários. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de 100 telefones celulares. Detecção de genes associados a fatores de virulência quanto a: formação de biofilme (icaA e icaD), produção de enterotoxinas (SEA, SEB, SEC e SED) e resistência à meticilina (mecA e mecC) foi realizada em isolados de S. aureus por PCR. A Tipagem do gene mecA foi realizada por PCR multiplex. A susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos e a taxa de formação de biofilme pelo teste de difusão em disco e coloração com cristal violeta. RESULTADOS: S. aureus esteve presente em 40% do total de amostras, destas, 70% pertenciam a estudantes do curso de enfermagem. Dos isolados, 85% apresentaram resistência à penicilina e 50% foram classificados com moderada formação de biofilme. Além disso, 92,5% dos isolados continham o gene icaA e 60% o gene icaD. Aproximadamente 25% dos isolados apresentaram o gene mecA. A tipagem do gene mecA mostrou a presença do cassete cromossômico estafilocócico SSCmec I e III em respectivamente 20% e 10% dos isolados. 70% das amostras não puderam ser identificadas pela técnica. Das enterotoxinas, o gene mais prevalente foi o SEA (30%), seguido pelo gene SEC (2.5%). A presença dos genes SED e SEB não foi observada nos isolados. CONCLUSÃO: A limpeza e desinfecção periódica dos telefones celulares podem contribuir para a redução do risco de infecção nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Students, Health Occupations , Universities , Cell Phone , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Enterotoxins
3.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 7-16, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363203

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPPB) en niños son una de las principales causas de prescripción de antimicrobianos. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características clínicas y microbiológicas de las IPPB ambulatorias de niños asistidos en dos hospitales zonales. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo entre el 1/11/2017 y el 1/11/2018. Se incluyeron pacientes entre 1 mes y 15 años internados en dos hospitales. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, localidad, factores predisponentes, tipo de IPPB, muestras biológicas realizadas, aislamiento microbiológico, tratamiento empírico indicado y evolución del cuadro. Se realizó antibiograma y determinación genética. Se calculó chi2, IC95, OR; α=5%. N= 94. 58,7% masculinos. 12 pacientes <1 año, 85 >1 año (promedio de edad 4 años, 1-15). El 36% de Tandil y 63,8% de Florencio Varela. El 59,6% corresponden a IPPB purulentas. Se aislaron microorganismos en un 59,6%. Los aislamientos principales: SAMR (40,4%), SAMS (7,4%), S. agalactiae (2,1%) y S. pyogenes (2,1%). El 100% de SAMR son portadores de gen mecA y SCCmec tipo IV, sin multirresistencia. No hubo diferencia estadística entre los factores de riesgo evaluados para el desarrollo de IPPB por SAMR. El 52,1% de los niños recibió tratamiento antibiótico combinado, siendo la más indicada TMS-SMX + CLI en 36 eventos. (38,3%). La evolución fue favorable: no hubo diferencia significativa entre el subgrupo que se aisló SAMR y el que no se aisló SAMR; 91,9% (34/37) y 92,6% (50/54) correspondientemente (chi2: 0,01; p= 0,97 IC95: 0,26-3,88). El principal agente etiológico fue SAMRco, debiendo adecuar los tratamientos a este microorganismo.


Skin and soft tissue infections (SSIs) in children are one of the main causes of antimicrobial prescription. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of outpatient SSIs in children attended in two hospitals. A prospective study was conducted between 11/1/2017 and 11/1/2018. Patients between 1 month and 15 years old, hospitalized were included. We evaluated: age, sex, locality, predisposing factors, type of IPPB, biological samples taken, microbiological isolation, empirical treatment indicated and evolution of the condition. An antibiogram and genetic determination were performed. Chi2, CI95, OR; α=5% were calculated. N= 94. 58.7% male. 12 patients <1 year, 85 >1 year (mean age 4 years, 1-15). 36% were from Tandil and 63.8% from Florencio Varela. 59.6% corresponded to purulent SSIs. The diagnostic yield was 59.6%. Main isolates: MRSA (40.4%), MSSA (7.4%), S. agalactiae (2.1%) and S. pyogenes (2.1%). 100% of MRSA carried the mecA gene and SCCmec type IV, with no multidrug resistance. There was no statistical difference between the risk factors evaluated. 52.1% of children received combined antibiotic treatment, the most indicated being TMS-SMX + CLI in 36 events. (38,3%). Evolution was favorable: there was no significant difference between the subgroup that isolated MRSA and the subgroup that did not isolate MRSA; 91.9% (34/37) and 92.6% (50/54) respectively (chi2: 0.01; p= 0.97 CI95: 0.26-3.88). The main etiological agent was MRSA, and treatments should be adapted to this microorganism


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Skin Diseases/microbiology , Social Class , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Hygiene/education , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sanitary Profiles , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 96-104, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are related do different oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Therefore, the control or/and eradication of microorganisms and their by-products is primordial for the success of their treatment. An alternative for decrease bacterial load is the use of plant extracts used in popular medicine. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial action of extracts of Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers, Senna martiniana, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan and Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. against strains of Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aggregatibacter actinomyces- tencomitans and Candida albicans were investigated. Cytotoxicity was assessed at concentrations of 1, 10, 40, 80, 100 and 1000 μg/mL by means of the MTT test and compared to a control group with untreated cells. Those with acceptable cytotoxicity had the antimicrobial action measured by the XTT test. As a positive control, sodium hypochlorite was used. Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers had the highest citototoxicity results while Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. had the best results, but all extracts showed acceptable cytotoxicity at different concentrations. The plant extracts showed higher activity against A. actinomycetencomitans: Anadenanthera columbrina (Vell.) Brenan (80.52%) at 40 μg/mL, Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (78.48%) in 1 μg/mL, Senna martiniana (73.28%) in the concentration of 40 μg/mL and Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers (70.50%) in 10 μg/mL. All extracts analyzed showed acceptable cytotoxicity at different concentrations and were promising for inhibition of the pathogenic microorganisms studied.


Resumo Bactérias estão relacionadas a diferentes doenças bucais, como a cárie dentária e a doença periodontal. Assim, o controle e/ou erradicação de microrganismos e seus subprodutos é primordial para o sucesso dos tratamentos. Uma alternativa para diminuir a carga bacteriana é a utilização de extratos vegetais utilizados na medicina popular. A citotoxicidade e ação antimicrobiana de extratos de Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers, Senna martiniana H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan e Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. contra cepas de Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcusfaecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Agartibacter actinomycetencomitans e Candida albicans foram investigados. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada nas concentrações de 1, 10, 40, 80, 100 e 1000 μg/mL por meio do teste MTT. Aqueles com citotoxicidade aceitável tiveram a ação antimicrobiana medida pelo teste XTT. Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers apresentou os maiores resultados de citototoxicidade, enquanto Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. obteve os melhores resultados, mas todos os extratos apresentaram citotoxicidade aceitável em diferentes concentrações. Os extratos vegetais apresentaram maior atividade contra A. actinomycetencomitans: Anadenanthera columbrina (Vell.) Brenan (80,52%) a 40 μg/mL, Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (78,48%) em 1 μg/mL, Senna martiniana H.S. Irwin & Barneby (73,28%) na concentração de 40 μg/mL e Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers (70,50%) em 10 μg/mL. Todos os extratos analisados apresentaram citotoxicidade aceitável em diferentes concentrações e foram promissores na inibição dos microrganismos patogênicos estudados.

5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19233, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374569

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, the metabolite profiling of methanolic extract from aerial parts of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad, as an endemic medicinal plant from Iran, was evaluated using HPLC-PDA-ESI. Then, the main compound from the extract was isolated and purified by using extensive chromatographic techniques. In addition, the structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated using 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectrometry, upon which 22 compounds were identified. The antibacterial activity of diosmetin 7-rutinoside (6) and linarin (13) in combination with carvacrol as a major compound of the essential oil was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus through disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The results indicated that the linarin, when mixed with carvacrol as the main compounds in the essential oil of the plant, has a satisfactory activity against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 0.16 and 0.18 µg/mL, respectively. Further, the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index indicated that this compound had synergism with carvacrol.

6.
International Eye Science ; (12): 22-27, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906723

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To establish the model of pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis infection in tree shrews. To determine the expression of IL-17 in the bacterial infection process of tree shrews cornea, and the mechanism of IL-17 in bacterial keratitis of tree shrews is discussed.<p>METHODS: The tree shrew bacterial keratitis models were established by the contact lens-assisted corneal scratching method. After establishing models successfully, the infection symptoms of the model were evaluated by using anterior segment photography and <i>in vivo</i> confocal microscopy on 1, 4, 7 and 14d after performing inoculation, and pathological sections were made to observe histopathological changes in the cornea. Samples were collected at the corresponding time points above, and the expression of IL-17 mRNA in the corneal tissues of tree shrews was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of IL-17 protein was detected by ELISA.<p>RESULTS:The success rate of modeling the tree shrew pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis models was 96% and 100%.The clinical manifestations and inflammatory cell infiltration of the tree shrew keratitis was consistent with the changing rules of the cornea in histopathological. IL-17 gene and protein expression profiles in tree shrew corneas were consistent with the severity of corneal inflammation basically. <p>CONCLUSION:The use of contact lens-assisted corneal scratching method can successfully establish animal models of pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis in tree shrews that more closely resemble the natural course of human bacterial keratitis infection. IL-17 participated in the occurrence and development of bacterial keratitis in tree shrews.

7.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 225-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920853

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the distribution characteristics and drug resistance of pathogens in infected donors from organ donation after citizen's death. Methods Clinical data of 465 potential donors from organ donation after citizen's death were retrospectively analyzed. The airway secretion, urine and blood samples of all donors were cultured. The infection rate of the donors, the source and composition ratio of pathogens were summarized. The drug resistance of main Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens was analyzed. Results Among 465 donors, 330 cases were infected and the infection rate was 71.0%. Among the positive culture samples of all donors, lower respiratory tract samples accounted for 63.8%(292/458), 18.6%(85/458) for blood samples and 17.7%(81/458) for urine samples. A total of 512 pathogens were isolated, including 75.0%(384/512) of Gram-negative pathogens, 18.2%(93/512) of Gram-positive pathogens followed by 6.8%(35/512) of fungi. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were the most common Gram-negative pathogens. Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to quinolones, compound preparations containing β-lactamase inhibitor (piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoperazone sodium-sulbactam sodium) and carbapenem antibiotics, whereas less sensitive to cephalosporins. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to β-lactams, quinolones and aminoglycosides. Acinetobacter baumannii was sensitive to polymyxin, tigecycline and amikacin, whereas resistant to the other antibiotics. No Gram-positive pathogens was resistant to vancomycin, linezolid and teicoplanin. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most commonly isolated Gram-positive pathogens, which yielded resistance rates of 36% and 87% to oxacillin sodium, and were generally resistant to penicillin and erythromycin. The resistance rate of Enterococcus faecalis to quinolones and erythromycin exceeded 90%, and 55% for high-concentration gentamicin. Conclusions The infection rate of organ donors from organ donation after citizen's death is relatively high, and the main infection site is lung. Gram-negative pathogens are the most commonly isolated strains, and certain strains tend to exhibit multiple drug resistance.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928476

ABSTRACT

Prosthetic infection is one of the severe postoperative complications of arthroplasty. Mixed bacterial-fungal prosthetic infection is rare but can be disastrous. This case was a 76-year-old female suffered from prosthetic infection following total hip replacement due to femoral neck fracture and underwent multiple debridements. The culture of periprosthetic tissue was bacteriologically sterile following the first debridement, while the Staphylococcus hominis was identified in the second debridement in the previous hospitalization where fungal infection had not been considered. Thus the pathogen spectrum of anti-infection therapy failed to contain fungus. Ultimately, the culture result of our sampled periprosthetic tissue during the third debridement was Candida albicans without bacterium in our hospital. The fungal prosthetic infection was successfully treated by a two-stage revision with antifungal drugs. Accurate diagnosis and standardized treatment is the key to the therapy of infection after hip arthroplasty, especially for mixed bacterial-fungal prosthetic infection.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Debridement , Female , Fungi , Hip Prosthesis/adverse effects , Humans , Mycoses/drug therapy , Prosthesis-Related Infections/therapy , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923976

ABSTRACT

Objective To prepare samples of proficiency testing (PT) containing live Staphylococcus aureus with drug matrix in microbial PT program of drug testing, and to evaluate the laboratory capability of microbiology tests in China. Methods Two kinds of PT samples containing living bacteria with drug matrix were prepared and evaluated. The results of laboratories participated in PT program and their response to the survey questionnaire were collected and analyzed. Results The homogeneity and stability of the PT samples complied with the requirements of CNAS-CL03: 2010. Samples could be stored stably for at least 6 months at -20 ℃. Among 63 laboratories participating in PT program, 53 laboratories (84.1%) achieved satisfactory results. The satisfaction rate was 94.1% (16/17) in 17 government laboratories (27.0% of total 63 laboratories), 81.4% (35/43) in 43 pharmaceutical quality control laboratories (68.3% of total 63 laboratories), and 66.7% (2/3) in 3 non-government laboratories (4.8% of total 63 laboratories), respectively. Conclusion The government laboratories performed better than pharmaceutical quality control laboratories in microbiology tests of drug, and the testing abilities of some pharmaceutical laboratories needs to be improved. The preparation and application of microbial samples in drug matrix could provide evaluation tools for drug testing laboratories in microbiology.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923954

ABSTRACT

Objective To prepare samples of proficiency testing (PT) containing live Staphylococcus aureus with drug matrix in microbial PT program of drug testing, and to evaluate the laboratory capability of microbiology tests in China. Methods Two kinds of PT samples containing living bacteria with drug matrix were prepared and evaluated. The results of laboratories participated in PT program and their response to the survey questionnaire were collected and analyzed. Results The homogeneity and stability of the PT samples complied with the requirements of CNAS-CL03: 2010. Samples could be stored stably for at least 6 months at -20 ℃. Among 63 laboratories participating in PT program, 53 laboratories (84.1%) achieved satisfactory results. The satisfaction rate was 94.1% (16/17) in 17 government laboratories (27.0% of total 63 laboratories), 81.4% (35/43) in 43 pharmaceutical quality control laboratories (68.3% of total 63 laboratories), and 66.7% (2/3) in 3 non-government laboratories (4.8% of total 63 laboratories), respectively. Conclusion The government laboratories performed better than pharmaceutical quality control laboratories in microbiology tests of drug, and the testing abilities of some pharmaceutical laboratories needs to be improved. The preparation and application of microbial samples in drug matrix could provide evaluation tools for drug testing laboratories in microbiology.

11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06958, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360626

ABSTRACT

Bovine mastitis is the most common disease in dairy cattle and responsible for economic losses in the milk industry. The present study aimed to identify the main species and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from cow herds with mastitis in dairy farms from southern Brazil. A total of 107 milk samples were collected from different cow herds in one important dairy producing region in southern Brazil, including farms located in ten cities from the Northeast region in the Rio Grande do Sul state. Bacterial strains were isolated and submitted to presumptive identification by classical bacteriological methods. Bacterial species were also identified by MALDI-TOF MS and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with 12 antimicrobials commonly used in dairy farms. Fifty-one bacterial strains were isolated and the presumptive identification demonstrated the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. (82.3%), Bacillus spp. (3.9%), Klebsiella spp. (3.9%), Streptococcus spp. (3.9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) and Serratia sp. (2%). Forty-one isolates were successfully identified in the MALDI-TOF analysis, including 35 isolates from eleven different bacterial species. Importantly, there were eight different Staphylococcus species, with a high frequency of Staphylococcus chromogenes (48.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20%). Overall, bacterial isolates demonstrated resistance to penicillin (46.3%), tetracycline (39%), amoxicillin (36.6%), ampicillin (34.1%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (31.7%). Enrofloxacin was the unique antimicrobial that all isolates were susceptible. In addition, there were six multidrug resistant isolates (five S. chromogenes and one S. aureus). This study highlights that bacterial pathogens with resistance to several antimicrobials were identified in cows from dairy farms in a very important milk producing region located in southern Brazil. Microbial identification of the bovine mastitis pathogens and determination of the antimicrobial profile is necessary for the rational use of the medicines.(AU)


A mastite bovina é a doença mais comum em gado leiteiro e responsável por perdas econômicas na indústria de laticínios. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar as principais espécies e avaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados bacterianos de rebanhos bovinos com mastite em fazendas leiteiras no sul do Brasil. Um total de 107 amostras de leite foram coletadas em diferentes rebanhos bovinos em uma importante região produtora de leite do sul do Brasil, incluindo fazendas localizadas em 10 cidades da região Nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e submetidas à identificação presuntiva por métodos bacteriológicos clássicos. A identificação bacteriana foi confirmada por MALDI-TOF MS e o teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foi realizado com antimicrobianos comumente usados em fazendas leiteiras. Cinquenta e uma cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e a identificação presuntiva demonstrou a ocorrência de Staphylococcus spp. (82,3%), Bacillus spp. (3,9%), Klebsiella spp. (3,9%), Streptococcus spp. (3,9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) e Serratia sp. (2%). Os 41 isolados foram identificados com sucesso na análise MALDI-TOF, incluindo 35 isolados de onze espécies bacterianas diferentes. É importante ressaltar que houve a ocorrência de oito espécies diferentes de Staphylococcus, com alta frequência de Staphylococcus chromogenes (48,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (20%). No geral, os isolados bacterianos tiveram alta resistência à penicilina (46,3%), tetraciclina (39%), amoxicilina (36,6%), ampicilina (34,1%) e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima (31,7%). A enrofloxacina foi o único antimicrobiano que todos os isolados foram suscetíveis. Além disso, havia seis isolados multirresistentes (cinco S. chromogenes e um S. aureus). Este estudo destaca que os patógenos bacterianos com resistência aos antimicrobianos estão presentes em fazendas leiteiras de subsistência em uma importante região produtora no sul do Brasil. É necessário o monitoramento constante dos patógenos da mastite bovina e a determinação de seu perfil antimicrobiano para o uso racional dos medicamentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06991, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365241

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic and ubiquitous pathogen found in the skin, nares, and mucosal membranes of mammals. Increasing resistance to antimicrobials including methicillin has become an important public concern. One hundred and eight (108) S. aureus strains isolated from a total of 572 clinical and animal products samples, were investigated for their biofilm capability, methicillin resistance, enterotoxin genes, and genetic diversity. Although only one strain isolated from raw retail was found as a strong biofilm producer, the percentage of antimicrobial resistance pattern was relatively higher. 17.59% of S. aureus strains tested in this study were resistant to cefoxitin and identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. mecA and mecC harboring S. aureus strains were detected at a rate of 2.79% and 0.93%, respectively. In addition, staphylococcal enterotoxin genes including Sea, Seb, Sec, and Sed genes were found to be 18.5%, 32.4%, 6.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the isolates showed relationship between joint calf and cow milk isolates. Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed three different sequence types (STs) including ST84, ST829, and ST6238. These findings highlight the development and spread of MRSA strains with zoonotic potential in animals and the food chain throughout the world.


RESUMO: Staphylococcus aureus é um patógeno dúctil e ubíquo encontrado na pele, narinas e membranas mucosas de mamíferos. O aumento da resistência aos antimicrobianos, incluindo a meticilina, tornou-se uma importante preocupação pública. Cento e oito (108) cepas de S. aureus isoladas de um total de 572 amostras clínicas e de produtos animais foram investigadas por sua capacidade de biofilme, resistência à meticilina, genes de enterotoxinas e diversidade genética. Embora apenas uma cepa isolada do cru tenha sido encontrada como forte produtora de biofilme, a porcentagem do padrão de resistência antimicrobiana foi relativamente maior. Parte das cepas (17,59%) de S. aureus testadas neste estudo eram resistentes à cefoxitina e identificadas como isolados de MRSA. mecA e mecC abrigando cepas de S. aureus foram detectados a uma taxa de 2,79% e 0,93%, respectivamente. Além disso, verificou-se que os genes da enterotoxina estafilocócica, incluindo os genes Sea, Seb, Sec e Sed, eram 18,5%, 32,4%, 6,5% e 3,7%, respectivamente. A relação filogenética entre os isolados mostrou relação entre os isolados de bezerro e leite de vaca. A tipagem de sequência multiloco (MLST) revelou três tipos de sequência diferentes (STs), incluindo ST84, ST829 e ST6238. Essas descobertas destacam o desenvolvimento e a disseminação de cepas de MRSA com potencial zoonótico em animais e na cadeia alimentar em todo o mundo.

13.
Rev. ADM ; 78(6): 332-338, nov.-dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354456

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus es la especie más común implicada en las enfermedades infecciosas que causan morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial. Posee los genes hla, hlb, hld, hlg, hlg-v que codifican para hemolisinas. Las hemolisinas son reconocidas como un factor de virulencia potencial que ataca a la membrana y produce destrucción de las plaquetas y necrosis. Tienen la capacidad de sobrevivir por largos periodos en superficies inertes como en pantallas de teléfonos móviles. Estudio observacional de tipo transversal descriptivo. Se aislaron en un estudio previo 16 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus a partir de 92 muestras de pantallas de teléfonos móviles de estudiantes de odontología. Se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para detectar los genes que codifican para hemolisinas. El gen hla se detectó en 75% (12/16) de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, hlb en 25% (4/16), hld 75% (12/16), hlg 75% (12/16), hlg-v 13% (2/16). Este estudio evidencia el alto porcentaje de cepas virulentas que poseen genes que codifican para hemolisinas en pantallas de teléfonos móviles, lo que puede contribuir a la diseminación de este patógeno. Es imperioso implementar medidas para la desinfección de teléfonos móviles (AU)


Staphylococcus aureus is the most common species implicated in infectious diseases causing morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has the hla, hlb, hld, hlg, hlg-v genes encoding for hemolysins. Hemolysins are recognized as a potential virulence factor that attacks the membrane and causes platelet destruction and necrosis. They have the ability to survive for long periods on inert surfaces such as cell phone screens. Observational descriptive cross-sectional study. Sixteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in a previous study from 92 samples of cell phone screens of dental students; the polymerase chain reaction technique was used to detect genes coding for hemolysins. The hla gene was detected in 75% (12/16) of Staphylococcus aureus strains, hlb in 25% (4/16), hld 75% (12/16), hlg 75% (12/16), hlg-v 13 % (2/16). This study evidences the high percentage of virulent strains that possess genes encoding for hemolysins in cell phone screens, which may contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen. It is imperative to implement measures for the disinfection of cell phones (AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Students, Dental , Cell Phone , Hemolysin Proteins , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Communicable Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Clinical Coding
14.
Acta méd. colomb ; 46(4): 1-7, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374082

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: infective endocarditis (IE) is a potentially fatal disease. This study analyzed the clinical, laboratory, microbiological and echocardiographic characteristics of IE in a population of patients at a tertiary care hospital in Medellín, Colombia, over a three-year period. Methods: a retrospective observational study. The patients were classified according to the modified Duke criteria. Clinical and echocardiographic data, laboratory results and cultures were gathered from the clinical charts. Factors associated with the prognosis were determined. Results: a total of 48 cases were included, 29 (60.4%) of which involved males. The mean age was 53.8±19.2 years. Fever and fatigue were the most common clinical signs. No heart murmur was reported on admission in 52.1% of the patients. Most of the patients (62.5%) had no underlying predisposing heart condition. The IE occurred in a native valve in 36 patients (75%), with the mitral valve being the most frequently affected site. Transthoracic and/or transesophageal echocardiography showed vegetations in 45 cases (93.7%); these were mostly mobile, with an average size of 17.6±11.3 mm. Staphylococcus aureus was the main causal organism (33%). The prevalence of IE with negative blood cultures was 37.5%. The most frequent complication was embolism in 21 patients (43.7%), followed by heart failure (41.7%). On multivariate analysis, septic shock, kidney failure, Staphylococcus infection and the use of immunosuppressants were predictors of higher inpatient mortality. Conclusions: most cases occur in elderly patients with no underlying predisposing heart condi tion, in a native valve, with a predilection for the mitral valve. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent causal organism. Several factors predict greater inpatient mortality, including the presence of septic shock, kidney failure, Staphylococcus infection and the use of immunosuppressants. (Acta Med Colomb 2021; 46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2021.1930)

15.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 53: e600, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365455

ABSTRACT

Resumen Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente es un microorganismo aislado, principalmente a nivel hospitalario; sin embargo, esta condición ha cambiado en los últimos años, pues hoy en día se reconoce como el agente causal de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad por niños sin factores predisponentes asociados. Esto puede variar en todo el mundo, pero hay una alerta global por el aumento del problema. En América Latina, esto ya ha sido reportado en países como Argentina y Colombia. Evaluar los gérmenes circulantes a nivel regional y sus características genotípicas es importante para el manejo clínico de algunos pacientes, incluso niños menores de un año, quienes también son susceptibles a este tipo de infección. En este reporte, se presentan dos casos en niños menores de un año, incluyendo un recién nacido, lo que hace de este un grupo etario susceptible. La sospecha clínica de esta bacteria de adquisición en la comunidad ayuda a la elección adecuada del esquema antibiótico, con mejores resultados clínicos. Por lo tanto, debe ser una prioridad realizar la vigilancia local de las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus adquiridas en la comunidad y determinar los protocolos de manejo, según los grupos de edad y condiciones asociadas.


Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an isolated germ mainly in hospital settings. However, this condition has changed in the last years. Today, it is recognized as a germ that causes infections acquired in the community by children, without predisposing risk factors. This may vary around the world, but there is a global alert for the increase of the problem. In Latin America, this has already been reported in some countries such as Argentina and Colombia. Evaluating the circulating germs at regional level and their genotypic characteristics is important for the clinical management of some patients, including children under a year of age as they are also susceptible to this infection. We are presenting two cases in children under one year of age, including a neonate, which are a susceptible age group. Clinical suspicion of this community acquired bacterium helps to choose the appropriate antibiotic regimen, with better clinical results. Therefore, it must be a priority to carry out the local surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus infections acquired in the community and determine the management protocols, according to age groups and associated conditions.

16.
Iatreia ; 34(4): 316-324, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350831

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el principal patógeno en las infecciones osteoarticulares es el Staphylococcus aureus, los esquemas de tratamiento recomendados se basan en la literatura estadounidense o europea, no hay datos de estudios locales. El propósito de este estudio es conocer el perfil epidemiológico en las infecciones osteoarticulares del Hospital Infantil San Vicente Fundación (Medellín, Colombia) y las características de los pacientes afectados. Materiales y métodos: revisión retrospectiva de historias de pacientes entre los 0 y 15 años con diagnóstico de infección osteoarticular en el Hospital Infantil San Vicente Fundación, se detallaron las variables demográficas de la patología y los antecedentes relevantes para caracterizar el perfil epidemiológico de las infecciones osteoarticulares. Resultados: identificamos 72 pacientes con infección osteoarticular. La infección más común fue la artritis séptica (40 %), seguida por la osteomielitis aguda (37 %). La cadera (18 %) y la tibia (31 %) fueron la articulación y el hueso afectados con mayor frecuencia. La mayoría de las infecciones fueron secundarias a S. aureus (65 %), de estas fueron por Stafilococo aureus meticilino sensible (SAMS) el 38,9 % y por Stafilococo aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR)el 26,4 %. El tratamiento antibiótico empírico y el tratamiento definitivo se basó en cefalosporinas de primera generación en 83 % y 52,7% de los casos, respectivamente. La principal complicación fue la sepsis en 18 (25 %) pacientes. Conclusiones: se debe tener un alto índice de sospecha, no todos los pacientes se presentan con síntomas o signos típicos. El patógeno principal es el Staphylococcus aureus. En los últimos 10 años ha aumentado la incidencia de las infecciones por SAMR en nuestra institución en relación con estudios previos. Notamos una demora en el diagnóstico y, por ende, en el inicio del tratamiento.


SUMMARY Introduction: The main pathogen in osteoarticular infections is Staphylococcus aureus. The recommended treatment schemes are based on American or European literature, there are no data from local studies. The purpose of this study is to know the epidemiological profile in osteoarticular infections of the San Vicente Fundación children's hospital (Medellín/Colombia) and the characteristics of the affected patients. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of histories of patients between 0 and 15 years old with a diagnosis of osteoarticular infection in the San Vicente Fundación children's hospital detailing demographic variables, pathology and relevant antecedents to characterize the epidemiological profile of osteoarticular infections in the hospital. Results: We identified 72 patients with osteoarticular infection. The most common septic arthritis infection (40%) followed by acute osteomyelitis (37%), the most affected joint was the hip (18%) and the most affected bone was the tibia (31%). The majority of infections were secondary to S. aureus (65%) of which were by SAMS 38.9% and by SAMR 26.4%. Empirical as well as definitive antibiotic treatment was based on first generation cephalosporins 83% and 52.7% respectively. The main complication was sepsis in 18 (25%) patients. Conclusions: There must be a high index of suspicion, not all patients present with typical symptoms and / or signs. The main pathogen Staphylococcus aureushas increased the incidence of MRSA infections in our institution in the last 10 years in relation to previous studies. We note delay in diagnosis and therefore in the start of treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteomyelitis , Staphylococcus aureus , Arthritis, Infectious , Health Profile
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 408-413, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342850

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los agentes infecciosos más prevalentes en niños y puede causar un variado espectro de presentaciones clínicas. La bacteriemia por S. aureus se asocia frecuentemente con complicaciones y metástasis infecciosas. Los datos epidemiológicos y clínicos sobre esta entidad, y sus complicaciones en pediatría son escasos. Objetivos. Describir la epidemiología, frecuencia, distribución y tipo de metástasis infecciosas en una serie de pacientes pediátricos con bacteriemia por S. aureus y evaluar posibles factores de riesgo para su aparición. Población y métodos. Estudio de corte transversal de pacientes pediátricos internados con bacteriemia por S. aureus en un hospital pediátrico de La Plata entre enero de 201 y junio de 2019. Resultados. Se analizaron 112 episodios de bacteriemia por S. aureus. La tasa de infección metastásica fue del 34,8 %; el pulmón fue la localización más frecuente. Los factores de riesgo principales para el desarrollo de metástasis infecciosas fueron la bacteriemia por S. aureus meticilino resistente (OR : 2,95; IC95 %: 1,19-7,83; p = 0,015) y la persistencia de hemocultivos de control positivos a las 48 horas (OR: 3,17; IC95 %: 1,22-8,46; p = 0,012). Conclusión. La tasa de metástasis infecciosas en pacientes con bacteriemia por S. aureus fue del 34,8 %. Los factores de riesgo asociados fueron la bacteriemia por S. aureus meticilino resistente y la persistencia de hemocultivos de control positivos a las 48 horas. Los órganos más afectados fueron el pulmón, el sistema osteoarticular, la piel y partes blandas.


Introduction. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in children and may cause a wide variety of clinical presentations. S. aureus bacteremia is frequently associated with complications and metastatic infections. The epidemiological and clinical data about S. aureus bacteremia and its complications in pediatrics are scarce. Objectives. To describe the epidemiology, frequency, distribution, and type of metastatic infections in a series of pediatric patients with S. aureus bacteremia and assess possible risk factors for its development. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with S. aureus bacteremia admitted to a children's hospital of La Plata between January 2016 and June 2019. Results. A total of 112 S. aureus bacteremia events were analyzed. The rate of metastatic infection was 34.8 %; the lung was the most common infection site. The main risk factors for the development of metastatic infections were bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-7.83; p = 0.015) and persistent positive control blood cultures at 48 hours (odds ratio: 3.17; 95 % confidence interval: 1.22-8.46; p = 0.012). Conclusion. The rate of metastatic infections among patients with S. aureus bacteremia was 34.8 %. Associated risk factors were bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and persistent positive control blood cultures at 48 hours. The most common organs affected included the lungs, the osteoarticular system, and the skin and soft tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pediatrics , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric
18.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e212, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1339132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la sepsis tardía por estafilococo coagulasa negativo (SCoN) es una causa común de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal. Los SCoN son los microorganismos más frecuentemente involucrados con aproximadamente el 50% de los casos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la incidencia y las características de los neonatos portadores de sepsis tardía por SCoN. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron las bases de datos del laboratorio de microbiología del hospital y las historias clínicas electrónicas para obtener la información. El período de estudio analizado fueron los años 2018 y 2019 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos e intermedios de recién nacidos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtuvimos una incidencia de 2,5% de los ingresos a cuidados intensivos e intermedios (25 pacientes). La edad gestacional al nacer fue de 28 semanas (25,0-35,0) y la mediana del peso fue de 1.070 g (730,0-2.365,0). La media de edad gestacional posmenstrual al momento del diagnóstico fue de 32,92±7,921 semanas. Por sospecha de sepsis precoz, 17 pacientes habían recibido un curso de antibióticos previo. El signo clínico más frecuentemente observado fue el deterioro del estado general, en 11 pacientes, seguido de distensión abdominal en 6 y fiebre en 5. Dentro de los SCoN, el más frecuentemente aislado fue el Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 pacientes); 22 pacientes recibieron tratamiento, 18 de ellos con vancomicina-meropenem y 4 con monoterapia con vancomicina. Conclusión: estos patógenos representan una causa importante de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal, particularmente en pacientes que presentan mayor gravedad y mayor necesidad de soporte vital. Se necesitan pautas claras de interpretación del rol de estos microorganismos y de abordaje de pacientes con riesgo de sepsis tardía, incluyendo el tratamiento antibiótico empírico.


Introduction: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) late onset sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). CoNS are the most frequently isolated microorganisms and total 50% of cases. The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and characteristics of newborns carriers of late onset CoNS. Materials and methods: we performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal study. Data was obtained from the hospital's microbiology laboratory database and electronic medical records. Patients included were those admitted to NICU during the period between 2018 and 2019. Results: we obtained an incidence of 2.5% of patients admitted to the NICU (25 patients). Median gestational age at birth was 28 weeks 25.0-35.0 and median birth weight was 1.070 g 730.0-2365.0. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 32.92±7.921 weeks. 17 patients had received an antibiotics course at birth because of early onset sepsis suspicion. The most frequently observed clinical symptom was deterioration of general condition, 11 patients, followed by abdominal distention in 6 and fever in 5. Among CoNS, the most frequently isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 patients). 22 patients received treatment, 18 a combination of vancomycin and meropenem and 4 received vancomycin monotherapy. Conclusion: these pathogens are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn intensive care unit, particularly in patients with more serious conditions and in those who require more advanced life support measures. Clearer interpretation of their role is needed as well as to determine a proper approach to patients at risk of late onset sepsis, including empiric antibiotic treatment.


Sepse tardia para Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCoN) é uma causa comum de morbidade e mortalidade na unidade neonatal. SCoNs são os microrganismos mais frequentemente envolvidos e representam aproximadamente 50% dos casos. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a incidência e as características de neonatos com sepse tardia por SCoN. Materiais e métodos: foi realizado um estudo descritivo, longitudinal e retrospectivo. Usamos os bancos de dados do laboratório de microbiologia e prontuários médicos eletrônicos de nosso hospital para obter as informações. O período de estudo analisado foi de 2018 e 2019 na unidade de terapia intensiva e intermediária para recém-nascidos do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtivemos uma incidência de 2,5% de internações em Terapia Intensiva e Intermediária (25 pacientes). A idade gestacional ao nascer foi de 28 semanas 25,0-35,0 e o peso médio foi de 1070g 730,0-2365,0. A média da idade gestacional pós-menstrual no momento do diagnóstico foi de 32,92 ± 7,921 semanas. 17 pacientes haviam recebido um curso anterior de antibióticos por suspeita de sepse precoce. O sinal clínico mais frequentemente observado foi deterioração do estado geral em 11 pacientes, seguido por distensão abdominal em 6 e febre em 5. Dentre os SCoN, o mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus Epidermidis (13 pacientes). 22 pacientes receberam tratamento, 18 deles com Vancomicina-Meropenem e 4 com Vancomicina em monoterapia. Conclusão: esses patógenos representam uma importante causa de morbimortalidade na unidade neonatal, principalmente em pacientes com maior gravidade e maior necessidade de suporte de vida. Orientações claras são necessárias para interpretar o papel desses microrganismos e para abordar pacientes com risco de sepse tardia, incluindo tratamento com antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Coagulase , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/virology , Staphylococcus hominis/virology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e306, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278306

ABSTRACT

Los estafilococos coagulasa negativos son microorganismos frecuentemente aislados cuya significancia clínica puede ser difícil de establecer por su carácter de comensales habituales de la piel. En la población neonatal estos patógenos han ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo debido a la sobrevida de pacientes mas prematuros que en el pasado, así como sus necesidades de tratamiento, que determinan mayores tiempos de estadía hospitalaria. Estos elementos representan factores de riesgo también para el desarrollo de endocarditis en estos pacientes, particularmente debido a la utilización de catéteres intravasculares centrales por tiempo prolongado. En este caso clínico se presenta un paciente pretérmino severo que presentó una endocarditis a estafilococo coagulasa negativo a partir del cual discutiremos las características de las infecciones por estos microorganismos, las características de la endocarditis infecciosa en el recién nacido pretérmino y la utilización de antibióticos en estos pacientes, así como algunos elementos asociados a la vigilancia activa en el uso de antibióticos.


Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) are commonly isolated microorganisms whose clinical importance may be difficult to establish due to their role as part of our usual skin microbiota. These pathogens have gained relevance in neonatal population due to an improvement in neonatal care that determine longer survival rates and hospitals stays. Neonatal endocarditis is also affected by these microorganisms and particularly by the use of central intra vascular lines for long periods of time. In this clinical case we introduce a severe preterm patient who developed a CoNS endocarditis and discuss the characteristics of CoNS infections and endocarditis in preterm newborns as well as some antibiotic vigilance principles.


Os estafilococos coagulase negativos são microrganismos frequentemente isolados, cujo significado clínico pode ser difícil de estabelecer devido ao seu caráter de comensais cutâneos comuns. Na população neonatal, esses patógenos vêm adquirindo maior destaque devido à sobrevida de pacientes mais prematuros do que no passado, bem como suas necessidades de tratamento, as quais determinam tempos de internação mais longos. Esses elementos também representam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de endocardite nesses pacientes, principalmente pelo uso prolongado de cateter intravascular central. Neste caso clínico apresentaremos um paciente pré-termo grave que apresentou endocardite estafilocócica coagulase-negativa a partir do qual discutiremos as características das infecções por esses microrganismos, as características da endocardite infecciosa no recém-nascido pré-termo e o uso de antibióticos nesses pacientes bem como alguns elementos associados à vigilância ativa no uso de antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Coagulase , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Endocarditis/etiology , Infant, Extremely Premature
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 607-614, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352285

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a worldwide concern given its presence even in non-hospitalized healthy individuals, such as university students. OBJECTIVE: To identify in the literature the prevalence of colonization by MRSA among healthcare students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Integrative review of the literature conducted in Universidade Federal do Piauí. METHOD: A search for primary studies was performed in the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on-line; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Web of Science; Scopus; and LILACS. RESULTS: This review included 27 studies that demonstrated MRSA infection prevalence ranging from 0.0 to 15.3% among students. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of colonization of MRSA among healthcare students is high, and the nasal cavity was cited as an important reservoir location for these microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Students , Carrier State/epidemiology , Prevalence , Delivery of Health Care
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