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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): B1-B9, enero-abril 2025. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554700

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares son consideradas un problema de salud pública que afectan muchas capacidades en el individuo, entre ellas la comunicación; de esta manera el cuidador cumple un papel fundamental en su recuperación. Objetivo: Describir el rol comunicativo del cuidador en la atención a pacientes con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular en la ciudad de Sincelejo, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Paradigma positivista, enfoque cuantitativo y estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado con 40 cuidadores, seleccionados según muestreo por criterios y reclutamiento en cadena. Se utilizó una encuesta sociodemográfica, una sobre favorecimiento y bienestar comunicativo y Escala Likert, se realizó análisis de fiabilidad y consistencia interna del instrumento. Resultados: Predominaron cuidadores de sexo femenino, sobresale el cuidador informal, con estudios de secundaria y estrato socioeconómico bajo. Se encontró una actitud favorable en la competencia del ser y saber hacer, prima el buen trato, justicia y respeto. La competencia del saber evidenció actitud desfavorable, caracterizada por un conocimiento limitado frente a la patología, insuficientes destrezas, técnicas y habilidades para cumplir sus funciones y estrategias empleadas. Conclusión: Es necesario cualificar al cuidador en la atención del paciente con accidente cerebrovascular, mediante programas de que dinamicen la competencia del ser, saber y saber hacer


Introduction: Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health problem affecting the different capabilities of patients, including communication. Thus, caregivers play a fundamental role in their recovery. Objective: To describe the communicative role of caregivers in the support of patients with stroke sequelae in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia. Materials and methods: A positivist paradigm, quantitative approach, and descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 40 caregivers, who were selected according to criteria sampling and chain recruitment. A sociodemographic survey about favorability and communicative well-being as well as the Likert Scale were applied. A reliability and internal consistency analysis was conducted. Results: The majority of caregivers were women. Informal caregivers, with high school education, and belonging to low socioeconomic status were also predominant. A positive attitude regarding competences such as being and knowing what to do; appropriate treatment of patients, with justice and respect, were observed as common features. The knowledge competence was considered unfavorable, which was characterized by limited understanding regarding pathology, strategies used, and insufficient skills, techniques, and abilities to fulfill their functions. Conclusions: Caregivers of stroke patients should be qualified through programs that improve the being, knowing, and knowing how to do competencies.


Introdução: As doenças cerebrovasculares são consideradas um problema de saúde pública que afeta diversas capacidades do indivíduo, incluindo a comunicação; desta forma, o cuidador desempenha um papel fundamental na sua recuperação. Objetivo: Descrever o papel comunicativo do cuidador no cuidado de pacientes com sequelas de acidente vascular cerebral na cidade de Sincelejo, Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Paradigma positivista, abordagem quantitativa e estudo transversal descritivo realizado com 40 cuidadores, selecionados segundo critérios de amostragem e recrutamento em cadeia. Foi utilizado um inquérito sociodemográfico, um de favorabilidade e bem-estar comunicativo e uma Escala Likert, foi realizada uma análise da fiabilidade e consistência interna do instrumento. Resultados: Predominaram cuidadores do sexo feminino, destacando-se os cuidadores informais, com escolaridade média e baixo nível socioeconômico. Encontrou-se na competição uma atitude favorável por ser e saber fazer, prevalecendo o bom tratamento, a justiça e o respeito. A competência conhecimento apresentou atitude desfavorável, caracterizada por conhecimento limitado sobre a patologia, habilidades, técnicas e habilidades insuficientes para cumprir suas funções e estratégias utilizadas. Conclusões: É necessário qualificar o cuidador no cuidado ao paciente com AVC, por meio de programas que potencializem a competência de ser, saber e saber fazer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female
2.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 58564, Jan.-Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1550245

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução: O acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico tem como tratamento a terapia trombolítica, aplicada ainda na fase aguda, promovendo melhora importante nas sequelas acarretadas por este agravo. Considerando a complexidade da terapia trombolítica, torna-se necessário que os enfermeiros compreendam suas competências para auxiliar no cuidado. Objetivo: Identificar evidências científicas acerca das competências do enfermeiro no cuidado a pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral elegíveis à terapia trombolítica. Metodologia: Revisão integrativa composta por seis etapas em seis etapas (elaboração da questão, busca na literatura, coleta de dados, análise, discussão e apresentação da revisão), realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF, IBECS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase e CINAHL. A busca foi realizada entre agosto e setembro de 2022 adotando como critérios de inclusão estudos primários; gratuitos, disponíveis eletronicamente na íntegra; nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol. Foram obtidos inicialmente 2.830 estudos, os quais passaram por uma seleção, onde foram incluídos aqueles que atendiam os critérios previamente estabelecidos. Resultados: Com base nos doze estudos incluídos nesta revisão identificaram-se competências voltadas à três atividades do cuidado: gestão do cuidado como trabalho em equipe, códigos, fluxos e protocolos, assistência ao paciente antes, durante e após a utilização da terapia trombolítica e educação em saúde para equipe, pacientes e familiares. Conclusão: Os achados desta revisão puderam evidenciar as competências do enfermeiro no cuidado aos pacientes elegíveis a terapia trombolítica, as quais perpassam diferentes áreas de atuação do enfermeiro. Para este estudo prevaleceram as competências assistências, seguida por competências gerenciais.


Resumen Introducción: El accidente cerebrovascular isquémico se trata con terapia trombolítica, aplicada incluso en la fase aguda, que promueve una mejoría significativa de las secuelas provocadas por este padecimiento. Considerando la complejidad de la terapia trombolítica, es necesario que las personas profesionales de enfermería comprendan sus competencias para ayudar en el cuidado. Objetivo: Identificar evidencias científicas sobre las competencias del personal de enfermería en el cuidado de pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular elegibles para terapia trombolítica. Metodología: Revisión integradora que consta de seis etapas (elaboración de la pregunta, búsqueda bibliográfica, recolección de datos, análisis, discusión y presentación de la revisión), realizada en las bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF, IBECS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase y CINAHL. La búsqueda se realizó entre agosto y septiembre de 2022. Los criterio de inclusión fueron: estudios primarios, gratuito, disponible electrónicamente en su totalidad, en inglés, portugués y español. Inicialmente se obtuvieron 2830 estudios, los cuales fueron sometidos a un proceso de selección, que incluyó aquellos que cumplían con los criterios previamente establecidos. Resultados: A partir de los doce estudios incluidos en esta revisión, se identificaron competencias centradas en tres actividades asistenciales: gestión del cuidado como trabajo en equipo, códigos, flujos y protocolos, atención a pacientes antes, durante y después del uso de la terapia trombolítica y educación en salud para personal, pacientes y familias. Conclusión: Los hallazgos de esta revisión pudieron resaltar las competencias de las personas profesionales en enfermería en el cuidado de personas elegibles para terapia trombolítica, que abarcan diferentes áreas de actuación del personal de enfermería. Para este estudio, prevalecieron las habilidades asistenciales, seguidas de las competencias gerenciales.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Ischemic stroke is treated with thrombolytic therapy, applied even in the acute phase, promoting a significant improvement in the after-effects caused by this condition. Considering the complexity of thrombolytic therapy, it is necessary for nurses to understand the skills required to assist in care. Objective: To identify scientific evidence about the competencies of nurses in the care of patients with stroke who are eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Methodology: An integrative review consisting of six stages (elaboration of the question, literature review, data collection, analysis, discussion, and presentation), conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF, IBECS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and CINAHL databases. The search was carried out between August and September 2022 using primary studies as the inclusion criteria: free of charge, fully available electronically, published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish. Initially, 2.830 studies were obtained, which underwent a selection process that included only those studies that met the previously established criteria. Results: Based on the twelve studies included in this review, competencies focused on three care activities were identified: care management such as teamwork; codes; flows and protocols; patient care before, during, and after the use of thrombolytic therapy; and education health education for staff, patients, and families. Conclusion: The findings of this review highlighted the nurses' competencies in the care of patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy, which encompass different areas of the nurse's work. For this study, assistance competencies prevailed, followed by management competencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombolytic Therapy/nursing , Stroke/nursing , Nursing Care
3.
Rev. Bras. Neurol. (Online) ; 60(1): 5-10, jan.-mar. 2024. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555078

ABSTRACT

O SARS-CoV-2 é um vírus que surgiu em 2019, sendo responsável por causar uma síndrome respiratória que foi denominada COVID-19. O vírus possui uma proteína, chamada proteína Spike, que interage com as ACE2, estando presente no trato respiratório e nas células endoteliais, causando inflamação, apoptose e efeitos pró-trombóticos que ativam a via de coagulação. Dessa maneira, presume-se que o estado de hipercoagulabilidade do vírus e a inflamação endotelial estejam relacionados à fisiopatologia do AVC isquêmico pós-infecção. O objetivo desta revisão foi analisar a fisiopatologia e a etiologia dos AVCs associados à infecção pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 e seus fatores de risco. Foi realizada uma busca por trabalhos prévios nas plataformas PubMed e BVS, e um total de 26 artigos científicos foram incluídos após a aplicação de critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Através dos estudos analisados, observou-se a correlação do aumento da incidência do AVC pós-infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, e os fatores de risco presentes principais foram hipertensão arterial, fibrilação atrial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia e insuficiência cardíaca. Em conclusão, a infecção por SARS-CoV-2 possui relação com o aumento da incidência de AVC, possivelmente por seu mecanismo trombótico e inflamatório dos endotélios.


SARS-CoV-2 is a virus that emerged in 2019, being responsible for causing a respiratory syndrome that was named COVID-19. The virus has a protein, called Spike protein, which interacts with ACE2, which are present in the respiratory tract and endothelial cells, causing inflammation, apoptosis and prothrombotic effects that activate the coagulation pathway. Thus, it is presumed that the hypercoagulable state of the virus and endothelial inflammation are related to the pathophysiology of postinfection ischemic stroke. The aim of this review was to analyze the pathophysiology and etiology of strokes associated with SARSCoV-2 virus infection and their risk factors. A search for previous works was carried out on PubMed and VHL platforms, and a total of 26 scientific articles were included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Through the studies analyzed, a correlation was observed between the increased incidence of stroke after infection with SARS-CoV-2, and the main risk factors present were arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and heart failure. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 infection is related to the increased incidence of stroke, possibly due to its thrombotic and endothelial inflammatory mechanism.

4.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 14(1)mar., 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555417

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Shoulder pain after stroke, a complication with a prevalence of up to 16­84% usually occurs after 2­3 months and leads to patients withdrawing from rehabilitation programs, staying in the hospital longer, having less limb function and having a great negative impact on their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of PEMF and NMES in reducing shoulder pain in patients with stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled trial included 51 patients with shoulder pain following stroke. The patients were randomly assigned to three groups (17 people in each group): Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF), Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) and Control group. The outcome measures were Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Fugl Meyer Assessment­Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), Active and Passive Range of Motion (AROM/PROM) assessed at the baseline, six weeks into the intervention, and one week into the follow-up. RESULTS: VAS score for pain showed a mean change of 1.60, 1.60 and 4.94 in PEMF, NMES, and control respectively after 20 sessions. It showed pain was significantly improved in all the groups (p<0.001), but the effectiveness of the PEMF and NMES groups was superior to the control group. CONCLUSION: The current literature showed that PEMF & NMES are effective in improving post-stroke shoulder pain, spasticity, range of motion and motor function and a novel method for stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation.


INTRODUÇÃO: Dor no ombro após acidente vascular cerebral com prevalência de 16­84% geralmente ocorre após 2­3 meses e pode resultar na suspensão de programas de reabilitação, internações hospitalares mais longas e redução da função dos membros, prejudicando qualidade de vida dos pacientes com AVC. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o efeito da PEMF e da EENM na redução da dor no ombro em pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Um estudo prospectivo, randomizado e controlado incluiu 51 pacientes com dor no ombro pós-AVC. Os pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos (17 pessoas em cada grupo): grupo Campo Eletromagnético Pulsado (PEMF), grupo Estimulação Elétrica Neuromuscular (EENM) e grupo Controle. As medidas de resultados foram na Escala Visual Analógica (VAS), Escala de Ashworth Modificada (MAS) e Avaliação de Fugl Meyer ­ Extremidade Superior (FMA-UE), Amplitude de Movimento (AROM/PROM) foram avaliadas no início do estudo, após seis semanas de tratamento, e após um acompanhamento semanal. RESULTADOS: A pontuação VAS para dor mostrada uma alteração média de 1,60, 1,60 e 4,94 na PEMF, EENM e Controle, respectivamente, após 20 sessões. Mostrou melhora significativa entre os três grupos (p<0,001), mas a eficácia do grupo PEMF e EENM foi superior ao grupo Controle. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostrou que PEMF e EENM são eficazes na melhora da dor no ombro pós-AVC, espasticidade, amplitude de movimento e função motora e um novo método para pacientes com AVC em reabilitação. Nossas descobertas indicam que a eficácia da EENM é claramente superior à do PEMF na manutenção da analgesia a longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Shoulder Pain , Electric Stimulation
5.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 14(1)mar., 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After a stroke, most patients often suffer reduced walking ability and balance. Restoring walking ability and improving balance are major goals of stroke rehabilitation. Treadmills are often used in clinical setups to achieve these goals. Adding dimensions to the visual feedback in addition to the mirror for real-time frontal view is proven to enhance the gait. It is, therefore, important to design additional real-time visual feedback in treadmill training, in particular for the sagittal view involved side. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to test if the real-time sagittal visual feedback during treadmill training is superior to the conventional mirror feedback treadmill training program of equivalent intensity in improving walking speed and balance after stroke. METHODS/DESIGN: The RE-VISIT trial (Real-time Visual feedback after Stroke in Treadmill training) is registered in the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2023/10/058299). In this two-arm randomized control trial, which will be a single-blinded study, 42 eligible stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation will be randomly allocated (1:1 ratio) to either real-time visual sagittal feedback along with front mirror (experimental) group or only front mirror treadmill training (control) group, all the participants will receive 15 sessions of treadmill training for up to 15 min at a safe self-selected speed over 5-6 weeks. The RE-VISIT (experimental) group will receive real-time, visual sagittal view feedback of the involved lower limb trajectory along with the routine front mirror view during treadmill training and will be asked to modify their gait pattern. The control group will receive treadmill walking training only with the routine front mirror view feedback. Clinical and gait assessments will be conducted at the baseline, immediately following the final session of training, and at the 9th week during follow-up. The outcome measures of interest are walking speed (primary) and balance (secondary), which will be measured prior to baseline, post 15 sessions of training, and at the 9th week following training. DISCUSSION: This REVISIT trial will provide insight and contribute to the existing innovation and modifications of incorporating realtime visual feedback during treadmill training in post-stroke gait rehabilitation. The findings will help the better designing of a gait rehabilitation program with a treadmill for post-stroke subjects to improve walking speed, and balance for those who have greater difficulties in community ambulation. We anticipate that those in the REVISIT training will demonstrate improved walking ability.


CONTEXTO: Após o acidente vascular cerebral, a maioria dos pacientes frequentemente sofre redução da capacidade de caminhar e do equilíbrio. Restaurar a capacidade de caminhar e melhorar o equilíbrio são os principais objetivos da reabilitação do AVC. As esteiras são frequentemente usadas em ambientes clínicos para atingir esses objetivos. Está comprovado que adicionar dimensões ao feedback visual, além do espelho para visão frontal em tempo real, melhora a marcha. É, portanto, importante projetar feedbacks visuais adicionais em tempo real no treinamento em esteira, em particular para o lado envolvido na visão sagital. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é testar se o feedback visual sagital em tempo real durante o treinamento em esteira é superior ao programa de treinamento em esteira com feedback de espelho convencional de intensidade equivalente na melhoria da velocidade de caminhada e equilíbrio após acidente vascular cerebral. MÉTODOS/ DESENHO: O ensaio RE-VISIT (feedback visual em tempo real após acidente vascular cerebral no treinamento em esteira) está registrado no Registro de Ensaios Clínicos da Índia (CTRI/2023/10/058299). Neste ensaio de controle randomizado de dois braços, que será um estudo cego, 42 sobreviventes de AVC elegíveis em reabilitação serão alocados aleatoriamente (proporção de 1:1) para feedback sagital visual em tempo real junto com grupo de espelho frontal (experimental) ou apenas Grupo de treinamento em esteira com espelho frontal (controle), todos os participantes receberão 15 sessões de treinamento em esteira por até 15 minutos em uma velocidade segura e autosselecionada durante 5-6 semanas. O grupo RE-VISIT (experimental) receberá feedback visual em tempo real da visão sagital da trajetória dos membros inferiores envolvidos, juntamente com a visão rotineira do espelho frontal durante o treinamento em esteira e será solicitado a modificar seu padrão de marcha. O grupo de controle receberá treinamento de caminhada em esteira apenas com o feedback rotineiro da visão do espelho frontal. Avaliações clínicas e de marcha serão realizadas no início do estudo, imediatamente após a sessão final de treinamento e na 9ª semana durante o acompanhamento. As medidas de resultados de interesse são a velocidade de caminhada (primária) e o equilíbrio (secundário), que serão medidos antes da linha de base, após a 15ª sessão de treinamento e na 9ª semana após o treinamento. DISCUSSÃO: este ensaio REVISIT fornecerá insights e contribuirá para a inovação e modificações existentes na incorporação de feedbacks visuais em tempo real durante o treinamento em esteira na reabilitação da marcha pós-AVC. As descobertas ajudarão no melhor desenho de um programa de reabilitação da marcha com esteira para indivíduos pós-AVC para melhorar a velocidade de caminhada e o equilíbrio para aqueles que têm maiores dificuldades na deambulação comunitária. Prevemos que aqueles no treinamento REVISIT demonstrarão melhor capacidade de caminhada.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Feedback, Sensory , Walking Speed
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 57: e13019, fev.2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550146

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autophagy-related gene (ATG) 5 regulates blood lipids, chronic inflammation, CD4+ T-cell differentiation, and neuronal death and is involved in post-stroke cognitive impairment. This study aimed to explore the correlation of serum ATG5 with CD4+ T cells and cognition impairment in stroke patients. Peripheral blood was collected from 180 stroke patients for serum ATG5 and T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cell detection via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and flow cytometry. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale was completed at enrollment, year (Y)1, Y2, and Y3 in stroke patients. Serum ATG5 was also measured in 50 healthy controls (HCs). Serum ATG5 was elevated in stroke patients compared to HCs (P<0.001) and was positively correlated to Th2 cells (P=0.022), Th17 cells (P<0.001), and Th17/Treg ratio (P<0.001) in stroke patients but not correlated with Th1 cells, Th1/Th2 ratio, or Treg cells (all P>0.050). Serum ATG5 (P=0.037), Th1 cells (P=0.022), Th17 cells (P=0.002), and Th17/Treg ratio (P=0.018) were elevated in stroke patients with MMSE score-identified cognition impairment vs those without cognition impairment, whereas Th2 cells, Th1/Th2 ratio, and Treg cells were not different between them (all P>0.050). Importantly, serum ATG5 was negatively linked with MMSE score at enrollment (P=0.004), Y1 (P=0.002), Y2 (P=0.014), and Y3 (P=0.001); moreover, it was positively related to 2-year (P=0.024) and 3-year (P=0.012) MMSE score decline in stroke patients. Serum ATG5 was positively correlated with Th2 and Th17 cells and estimated cognitive function decline in stroke patients.

7.
Medisan ; 28(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558499

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica tiene una alta frecuencia debida, fundamentalmente, al envejecimiento poblacional. Objetivo: Comparar las características clínicas de pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica de dos grupos etarios. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en 36 pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica correspondientes a dos grupos etarios (65 y menos años y mayores de 65), quienes fueron atendidos en el Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía, La Habana, de enero a diciembre del 2017. Al respecto, se analizaron variables demográficas y clínicas y se aplicaron diferentes pruebas estadísticas para comparar. Resultados: Se obtuvo un aumento significativo de pacientes hipertensos (88,9 %) en el grupo etario mayor de 65 años. La mediana de la escala de ictus del National Institute of Health fue superior en estos pacientes (mediana [10-90 percentil]: 9,5 (4-19]). Hubo incremento estadístico de los mayores de 65 años con parálisis parcial de la mirada y ataxia; en tanto, la monoparesia y la extinción visual predominaron en los de 65 y menos años. Dicha escala mostró un aumento estadístico en el ictus aterotrombótico y cardioembólico en comparación con otras causas en ambos grupos. Los pacientes mayores de 65 años con solo un factor de riesgo o ninguno y los que eran hipertensos tuvieron mayor puntuación de la escala. Conclusiones: El grado de afectación neurológica fue superior en los mayores de 65 años que tenían un factor de riesgo y en aquellos con hipertensión arterial. Puede sugerirse que los mecanismos moleculares y fisiopatológicos de estos pacientes varían según la edad.


Introduction: The ischemic cerebrovascular disease has a high frequency due to the population aging mainly. Objective: To compare clinical characteristics of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular of two age groups. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study was carried out in the Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute in Havana, from January to December, 2017 in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease; 36 individuals of both age groups. In this regard, demographic variables, risk factors, clinical manifestations, coma scale and neurological deficiency, etiology and localization of the ischemic ictus were analyzed. Results: The 65 years group had a significant increase of hypertensive patients (88.9%). The average of the National Institute of Health stroke scale was superior in these patients (median [10-90 percentile]: 9.5 [4-19]). There was statistical increment of over 65 years patients with partial paralysis of the look and ataxia, but monoparesis and visual extinction in the age under 65 years. Such a scale had a statistical increase in the atherothrombotic and cardioembolic ictus in comparison with other etiologies in both patient groups. The over 65 years patients with just one risk factor or and those with hypertension had a higher punctuation of the scale. Conclusions: The degree of neurological affectation was higher in over 65 years patients that had a risk factor and in those with hypertension. As a result it could be suggested that the molecular and pathophysiolologic mechanisms of these patients vary with the age.

8.
Medisur ; 22(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558552

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: la proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (PCR-as) y la homocisteína (Hci) parecen relacionarse con la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica, pero sus hallazgos sobre el riesgo y pronóstico de esta enfermedad resultan controversiales y no concluyentes. Objetivo caracterizar la proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad y homocisteína en pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de corte transversal en pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica, ingresados en el Servicio de Ictus del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía entre 2016 y 2019. Se recogieron variables demográficas, manifestaciones clínicas, tiempo de evolución, etiología y localización del infarto y factores riesgo. Se cuantificaron la PCR-as (riesgo cardiovascular) y la Hci. Resultados las medias de PCR-as (7,0±8,3 mg/L) y Hci (17,1±7,3 µM) fueron elevadas. El riesgo cardiovascular moderado y alto se presentaron en igual proporción (46,8 %). Hubo diferencias estadísticas en la relación entre el riesgo cardiovascular y la edad (p=0,00); pero ni el tiempo de evolución ni los factores de riesgo de la enfermedad mostraron este comportamiento. Los pacientes con riesgo cardiovascular alto (PCR-as >3 mg/L) y elevada Hci (>15 (M) exhibieron mayores frecuencias de etiologías aterotrombótica o cardioembólica. Conclusiones el riesgo cardiovascular aumenta en la medida que se incrementa la edad de pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica. Las características demográficas, clínicas y neurológicas no mostraron relación con el alto riesgo cardiovascular y los valores elevados de Hci, aunque se encontró una tendencia asociativa de la etiología aterotrombótica con el incremento de PCR-as y Hci.


Foundation: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and homocysteine seem to be related to ischemic cerebrovascular disease, but their findings on the risk and prognosis of this disease are controversial and inconclusive. Objective: to characterize high sensitivity C-reactive protein and homocysteine in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods: a descriptive and retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, admitted to the Stroke Service of the Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute between 2016 and 2019. Demographic variables, clinical manifestations, time of evolution, etiology and infarction location, risk factors. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (cardiovascular risk) and homocysteine were quantified. Results: the means of C-reactive protein (7.0±8.3 mg/L) and homocysteine (17.1±7.3 µM) were high. Moderate and high cardiovascular risk occurred in equal proportions (46.8%). There were statistical differences in the relationship between cardiovascular risk and age (p=0.00); but neither the time of evolution nor the risk factors of the disease showed this behavior. Patients with high cardiovascular risk (hs-CRP >3 mg/L) and high homocysteine (>15 (M), exhibited higher frequencies of atherothrombotic or cardioembolic etiologies. Conclusions: cardiovascular risk increases as the age of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease increases. Demographic, clinical and neurological characteristics did not show a relationship with high cardiovascular risk and high homocysteine values, although an associative trend of atherothrombotic etiology was found with increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and homocysteine.

9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(1): e20230472, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529358

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular accident (or stroke) and ischemic heart disease are the the major causes of death in the world. It is estimated that about 85% of strokes are ischemic in origin. Reperfusion therapy in the acute phase of ischemic stroke with a recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator is effective, but some factors influence the success of this treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical aspects and possible determinants for reperfusion after venous thrombolysis. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study based on a review of hospital records of inpatients diagnosed with ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis, the main outcome being reperfusion or not. RESULTS: Data from this study revealed a predominance of females in the group of reperfused patients and males in the non-reperfused group, both maintaining moderate severity on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and admission without statistical significance (p>0.18). In addition, the mean admission severity score was 13.2 for the group of reperfused patients and 14.2 for those not reperfused, and the mean ejection fraction of both groups was within normal functionality, with a mean of 0.50 for reperfused patients and 0.62 for non-reperfused patients. CONCLUSION: We found an association between successful venous chemical thrombolysis reperfusion and lower mortality in patients with acute stroke.

10.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE00601, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1519815

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o nível de incapacidade funcional e identificar os fatores associados em pessoas após Acidente Vascular Cerebral Isquêmico. Métodos Coorte prospectiva, realizada em hospital de referência em neurologia, com 224 pessoas com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre março a outubro de 2019. Os participantes foram acompanhados durante a internação, quando as variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas foram levantadas empregando-se instrumentos específicos e contatados após 90 dias, por ligação telefônica, para aplicação do Índice de Barthel modificado. Na análise, aplicou-se estatística descritiva e o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson. Adotou-se significância estatística de 5%. Resultados A maioria apresentou algum grau de incapacidade funcional (58,5%), sendo que 29,5% apresentaram dependência moderada e 29,0% severa ou grave. As variáveis sexo feminino (p=0,011), tempo de chegada ao hospital de referência maior ou igual a 4,5h (p=0,017), Acidente vascular cerebral prévio (p=0,031), não ter realizado trombólise (p=0,023), ter hipertensão arterial (p=0,032) e maior gravidade estimada pela National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (p=0,000) foram associadas a maior nível de incapacidade. Conclusão Predominou a dependência de moderada a grave. A gravidade do evento, evento prévio, hipertensão, não submissão à trombólise, retardo à chegada ao hospital e sexo feminino foram associados a maior nível de incapacidade funcional.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el nivel de incapacidad funcional e identificar los factores asociados en las personas después de un accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Métodos Cohorte prospectiva, realizada en un hospital de referencia en neurología, con 224 personas con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo entre marzo y octubre de 2019. Se acompañó a los participantes durante la internación, momento en que se recopilaron las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas mediante la utilización de instrumentos específicos, y se los contactó 90 días después, por teléfono, para aplicar el Índice de Barthel modificado. En el análisis se aplicó estadística descriptiva y la prueba χ2 de Pearson. Se adoptó significación estadística de 5 %. Resultados La mayoría presentó algún nivel de incapacidad funcional (58,5 %), de los cuales el 29,5 % presentó dependencia moderada y el 29,0 % dependencia severa o grave. Las siguientes variables fueron asociadas a un mayor nivel de incapacidad: sexo femenino (p=0,011), tiempo de llegada al hospital de referencia mayor o igual a 4,5 h (p=0,017), accidente cerebrovascular previo (p=0,031), no haber realizado trombólisis (p=0,023), tener hipertensión arterial (p=0,032) y mayor gravedad estimada por la National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (p=0,000). Conclusión Predominó la dependencia de moderada a grave. La gravedad del evento, evento previo, hipertensión, no realización de trombólisis, retraso de la llegada al hospital y sexo femenino fueron las variables asociadas a un mayor nivel de incapacidad funcional.


Abstract Objective To assess the functional disability level and identify associated factors in people after Ischemic Cerebral Vascular Accident. Methods A prospective cohort, carried out in a reference hospital in neurology with 224 people with ischemic stroke. Data collection took place between March and October 2019. Participants were followed up during hospitalization, when sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected using specific instruments and contacted after 90 days, by telephone call, to apply the Modified Barthel Index. In the analysis, descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square test were applied. Statistical significance of 5% was adopted. Results Most had some degree of functional disability (58.5%), with 29.5% having moderate dependence and 29.0% having severe dependence. The variables being female (p=0.011), time of arrival at the reference hospital greater than or equal to 4.5 hours (p=0.017), previous stroke (p=0.031), not having undergone thrombolysis (p=0.023), having high blood pressure (p=0.032) and greater severity estimated by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (p=0.000) were associated with a higher disability level. Conclusion Moderate to severe dependence predominated. The severity of the event, previous event, hypertension, non-submission to thrombolysis, delay in arriving at the hospital and female gender were associated with a higher functional disability level.

11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(1): s00441779505, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533831

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Understanding the causes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is crucial for effective treatment and preventing recurrences. The SMASH-U scale is a suggested method for classifying and predicting the outcomes of ICH. Objective To describe the SMASH-U classification and outcomes by etiology in patients admitted to a comprehensive stroke center in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients admitted to the hospital or outpatient clinic between April 2015 and January 2018. Two stroke neurologists evaluated the SMASH-U classification, and patients with incomplete medical records were excluded. Results Out of the 2000 patients with a stroke diagnosis evaluated, 140 were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 57.9 (± 15.5) years, and 54.3% were male. Hypertension was the most frequent etiology, accounting for 41.4% of cases, followed by amyloid angiopathy (18.5%) and structural lesions (14.1%). Structural lesions were more common among women and patients under 45 years old. Favorable outcomes were observed in 61% of patients with structural lesions, compared to 10% of patients with medication-related etiologies. Conclusion This study provides important evidence regarding the etiological classification of Brazilian patients with ICH. Hypertension and amyloid angiopathy were the most frequent causes, while structural lesions and systemic diseases were more common in younger patients.


Resumo Antecedentes Compreender as causas da hemorragia intracerebral (HIC) é crucial para o tratamento eficaz e prevenção de recorrências. A escala SMASH-U é um método sugerido para classificar e prever os resultados da HIC. Objetivo Descrever a classificação SMASH-U e os resultados por etiologia em pacientes admitidos em um centro de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) em São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes admitidos no hospital ou ambulatório entre abril de 2015 e janeiro de 2018. Dois neurologistas especializados em doenças cerebrovasculares avaliaram a classificação SMASH-U e pacientes com prontuários incompletos foram excluídos. Resultados Dos 2000 pacientes com diagnóstico de AVC avaliados, 140 foram incluídos na análise final. A idade média foi de 57,9 (±15,5) anos e 54,3% eram do sexo masculino. A hipertensão foi a etiologia mais frequente, correspondendo a 41,4% dos casos, seguida pela angiopatia amiloide (18,5%) e lesões estruturais (14,1%). As lesões estruturais foram mais comuns em mulheres e pacientes com menos de 45 anos. Resultados favoráveis foram observados em 61% dos pacientes com lesões estruturais, em comparação com 10% dos pacientes com etiologias relacionadas a medicamentos. Conclusão Este estudo fornece evidências importantes sobre a classificação etiológica de pacientes brasileiros com HIC. A hipertensão e a angiopatia amiloide foram as causas mais frequentes, enquanto lesões estruturais e doenças sistêmicas foram mais comuns em pacientes mais jovens.

12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(2): e20231001, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535081

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the measurement of mean optic nerve sheath diameter in patients with transient ischemic attack could be used to distinguish between control groups, the acute ischemic stroke group, and subgroups within the acute ischemic stroke category. METHODS: Retrospectively, the mean optic nerve sheath diameters of patients aged 18 years and older belonging to control, transient ischemic attack, acute ischemic stroke, and subgroups within the acute ischemic stroke category were measured with initial computed tomography conducted in the emergency department. RESULTS: Out of the 773 patients included in the study, 318 (41.1%) were in the control group, 77 (10%) had transient ischemic attack, and 378 (49%) were categorized as stroke patients. The average mean optic nerve sheath diameter was significantly higher in both the stroke and transient ischemic attack groups compared with the control group (p<0.001 for both comparisons). Furthermore, the mean optic nerve sheath diameter in the stroke subgroups was significantly higher than in both the transient ischemic attack and control groups (p<0.001 for all comparisons). In transient ischemic attack patients, the mean optic nerve sheath diameter showed a significant ability to predict transient ischemic attack (AUC=0.913, p<0.001), with a calculated optimal cutoff value of 4.72, sensitivity of 94.8%, and specificity of 73.9%. CONCLUSION: The mean optic nerve sheath diameter of patients in the transient ischemic attack group was lower compared with those in the stroke subgroups but higher compared with the control group.

13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 39(2): e20220470, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535548

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) has been shown to reduce postoperative complications. The feasibility of GDFT in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) patients under general anesthesia has not yet been demonstrated. We examined whether GDFT could be applied in patients undergoing TAVR in general anesthesia and its impact on outcomes. Methods: Forty consecutive TAVR patients in the prospective intervention group with GDFT were compared to 40 retrospective TAVR patients without GDFT. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, elective TAVR in general anesthesia, no participation in another interventional study. Exclusion criteria were lack of ability to consent study participation, pregnant or nursing patients, emergency procedures, preinterventional decubitus, tissue and/or extremity ischemia, peripheral arterial occlusive disease grade IV, atrial fibrillation or other severe heart rhythm disorder, necessity of usage of intra-aortic balloon pump. Stroke volume and stroke volume variation were determined with uncalibrated pulse contour analysis and optimized according to a predefined algorithm using 250 ml of hydroxyethyl starch. Results: Stroke volume could be increased by applying GDFT. The intervention group received more colloids and fewer crystalloids than control group. Total volume replacement did not differ. The incidence of overall complications as well as intensive care unit and hospital length of stay were comparable between both groups. GDFT was associated with a reduced incidence of delirium. Duration of anesthesia was shorter in the intervention group. Duration of the interventional procedure did not differ. Conclusion: GDFT in the intervention group was associated with a reduced incidence of postinterventional delirium.

14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(2): s00441779270, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background There is very few data regarding homocysteine's influence on the formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Objective To compare homocysteine levels between patients with ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and to evaluate possible influences of this molecule on vasospasm and functional outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective, case-control study. We evaluated homocysteinemia differences between patients with ruptured and unruptured aneurysms; and the association of homocysteine levels with vasospasm and functional outcomes. Logistic regressions were performed. Results A total of 348 participants were included: 114 (32.8%) with previous aneurysm rupture and 234 (67.2%) with unruptured aneurysms. Median homocysteine was 10.75μmol/L (IQR = 4.59) in patients with ruptured aneurysms and 11.5μmol/L (IQR = 5.84) in patients with unruptured aneurysms. No significant association was detected between homocysteine levels and rupture status (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.96-1.04). Neither mild (>15μmol/L; OR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.32-4.12) nor moderate (>30μmol/L; OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.54-1.81) hyperhomocysteinemia demonstrated significant correlations with ruptured aneurysms. Neither univariate (OR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.71-1.0) nor multivariable age-adjusted (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.75-1.05) models evidenced an association between homocysteine levels and vasospasm. Homocysteinemia did not influence excellent functional outcomes at 6 months (mRS≤1) (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.94-1.16). Conclusion There were no differences regarding homocysteinemia between patients with ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. In patients with ruptured aneurysms, homocysteinemia was not associated with vasospasm or functional outcomes.


RESUMO Antecedentes Existem poucos dados sobre a influência da homocisteína na formação e rotura de aneurismas intracranianos (AI). Objetivo Comparar os níveis de homocisteína entre pacientes com AI rotos e não rotos e influências no vasoespasmo e resultados funcionais. Métodos Estudo caso-controle, que avaliou as diferenças de homocisteinemia entre pacientes com aneurismas rotos e não rotos, além da associação entre níveis de homocisteína, vasoespasmo e estado funcional. Regressões logísticas foram realizadas. Resultados Um total de 348 participantes foram incluídos: 114 (32,8%) com aneurismas rotos e 234 (67,2%) não rotos. A homocisteína mediana foi de 10,75μmol/L (IQR = 4,59) nos rotos e 11,5μmol/L (IQR = 5,84) nos não rotos. Não houve associação significativa entre os níveis de homocisteína e o status de ruptura (OR = 0,99, 95% CI = 0,96-1,04). Nem a hiperhomocisteinemia leve (>15μmol/L; OR = 1,25, 95% CI = 0,32-4,12) nem a moderada (>30μmol/L; OR = 1,0, 95% CI = 0,54-1,81) mostraram correlações significativas com aneurismas rotos. Modelos univariados (OR = 0,86; 95% CI = 0,71-1,0) e multivariados ajustados por idade (OR = 0,91; 95% CI = 0,75-1,05) não evidenciaram associação entre homocisteína e vasoespasmo. A homocisteinemia não influenciou resultados funcionais excelentes em seis meses (mRS ≤ 1) (OR = 1,04; 95% CI = 0,94-1,16). Conclusão Não houve diferenças em relação à homocisteinemia entre pacientes com aneurismas intracranianos rotos e não rotos. Em pacientes com aneurismas rotos, a homocisteinemia não foi associada ao vasoespasmo ou resultados funcionais.

15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(2): s00441779297, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550050

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM) is used to measure the mobility of chronic hemiparetic patients and the Life Space Assessment (LSA) scale was developed to assess the displacement of hemiparetic patients in different contexts through self-reporting. Studies that apply the LSA remotely and correlate it with the number of steps measured by the SAM were not found. Objective To evaluate the measurement properties of the LSA applied remotely and to evaluate the correlation between the LSA scale score and the number of steps measured by the SAM in post-stroke chronic hemiparetic patients. Methods Nineteen patients participated in the study. The LSA scale was applied remotely and later, face to face. The SAM measured the steps taken by the participants over a period of three consecutive days. The correlation between the LSA and the SAM was performed using Pearson's correlation. The measurement properties calculated of remote LSA were the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Cronbrach's alpha, standard error of measurement (SEM), and smallest real difference (SRD). Results The reproducibility of the LSA scale between remote and face-to-face applications was considered excellent with ICC = 0.85 (IC 95% 0.62-0.94); SEM = 8.4; SRD = 23.2, and Cronbach's alpha = 0.85. The correlation between SAM and LSA was positive, considered moderate (r = 0.51) and significant (p = 0.025). Conclusion The LSA is a reproducible measure for post-stroke chronic hemiparetic patients even if applied remotely and can be used as a remote measurement for mobility in a real-world environment for people with chronic hemiparesis after stroke.


Resumo Antecedentes O StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM) é utilizado para medir a mobilidade de pacientes hemiparéticos crônicos e a escala Life Space Assessment (LSA) avalia o deslocamento de pacientes hemiparéticos em diferentes contextos por meio de autorrelato. Não foram encontrados estudos que tenham aplicado a LSA remotamente nem que a correlacionam com o número de passos mensurados pelo SAM. Objetivo Avaliar as propriedades de medida da LSA aplicada remotamente e avaliar a correlação entre o escore da escala LSA e o número de passos mensurados pelo SAM em pacientes com hemiparesia crônica pós-AVC. Métodos Dezenove participantes responderam a LSA remotamente e, posteriormente, presencialmente. O SAM mediu os passos dados pelos participantes durante um período de três dias consecutivos. A correlação entre a LSA e o SAM foi realizada por meio da correlação de Pearson. As propriedades de medida calculadas da LSA aplicada remotamente foram o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (ICC), alfa de Cronbrach, erro do padrão de medida (SEM) e menor diferença real (SRD). Resultados A reprodutibilidade da escala LSA entre as aplicações remotas e presenciais foi considerada excelente com ICC = 0,85 (IC 95% 0,62-0,94); SEM = 8,4; SRD = 23,2 e alfa de Cronbrach = 0,85. A correlação entre SAM e a LSA foi positiva, considerada moderada (r = 0,51) e significativa (p= 0,025). Conclusão A LSA é uma medida reprodutível para pacientes hemiparéticos crônicos pós-AVC mesmo se aplicada remotamente e pode ser usada como uma medida remota de mobilidade em ambiente real para pessoas com hemiparesia crônica após AVC.

16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 39(1): e20220344, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is the first-line therapy for temporary mechanical circulatory support allowing cardiac and pulmonary recovery or as a bridge to further therapeutic alternatives. The aim of this study was to report clinical outcomes in adult patients with refractory cardiac failure after open-heart surgery undergoing ECMO in a single center with an ECMO unit in Chile. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed adults with refractory cardiac failure after open-heart surgery who required a venoarterial (VA) ECMO between 2016 and 2021. Results: Of 16 patients with VA ECMO, 60% were men (n=10), 90% had hypertension (n=14), 69% had < 30% of left ventricular ejection fraction (n=11), and the mean European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II score was 12 ± 11%. ECMO support with central cannulation accounts for 81% (n=13), and an intra-aortic balloon pump was used in nine patients (56%). The mean time of support was 4.7 ± 2.6 days (1.5 - 12 days). ECMO weaning was achieved in 88% of patients, and in-hospital mortality was 44% (n=7) after discharge. The freedom from all-cause mortality at one year of follow-up of the entire cohort was 38% (n=6). Conclusion: VA ECMO is now a well-known life-saving therapeutic option, but mortality and morbidity remain high. Implementation of an ECMO program with educational training is mandatory in order to find the proper balance between patient benefits, ethical considerations, and public health financial input in South America.

17.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(1): e2022644, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450511

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Renal dysfunction is an important risk factor for stroke. Brazilian studies on stroke knowledge are generally population based. Studies stratifying stroke knowledge according to comorbidities are rare. Scientific data are essential to guide the awareness of stroke. OBJECTIVE: To assess stroke knowledge in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study of patients with CKD on hemodialysis in north-eastern Brazil. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey on stroke awareness was administered to patients with CKD on hemodialysis between April and November 2022. The chi-square test and other descriptive statistics were used. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 197 patients were included in the analysis. The Brazilian acronym for stroke was used by 53.5% of the participants. Less than 10.0% of the sample showed optimal decision-making ability regarding stroke. Of the participants, 29.9% knew at least one risk factor and one symptom; however, this was considered as having below the minimum capacity because they did not know the emergency service call number. In the analysis adjusted for income and education, females (odds ratio [OR], 0.40%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.82), older patients (OR, 0.24%; 95% CI, 0.09-0.63) and having at most one comorbidity (OR, 0.48%; 95% CI, 0.23-0.98) were factors for lower levels of knowledge or ideal decision-making capacity against stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Patients on hemodialysis, especially women and older people, have little knowledge about stroke.

18.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 29: e2850, 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533843

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a associação da independência funcional com aspectos clínicos de comprometimento neurológico, a localização e extensão do dano neuronal e os fatores sociodemográficos em pacientes na fase aguda do AVC. Método Estudo analítico de recorte transversal, realizado com 90 pacientes adultos e idosos acometidos por AVC isquêmico, que tiveram admissão no ambiente hospitalar nas primeiras 24 horas após o evento vascular. A coleta dos dados referentes aos aspectos clínicos e fatores sociodemográficos foi realizada pelo prontuário eletrônico e/ou entrevista para descrever o perfil dos pacientes, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project, Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale e a Medida de Independência Funcional. Resultados O comprometimento neurológico, de acordo com a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, foi associado à funcionalidade nas primeiras 24 horas após o AVC. Além disso, a presença de hipertensão arterial, idade, trabalho inativo, tabagismo e extensão do dano neuronal estiveram associados à dependência funcional, mas não permaneceram no modelo final deste estudo. Conclusão A dependência funcional está associada à hipertensão arterial, idade, trabalho inativo, tabagismo, extensão do dano neuronal e grau de comprometimento neurológico nas primeiras 24 horas após o evento vascular. Além disso, um nível mais elevado de comprometimento neurológico foi independentemente associado a níveis aumentados de dependência funcional.


ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze the association of functional independence with clinical aspects of neurological impairment, the location and extent of neuronal damage and sociodemographic factors in patients in the acute phase of stroke. Methods Analytical cross-sectional study in 90 adult and older patients affected by ischemic stroke, admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of the vascular event. Sociodemographic factors and clinical aspects data were collected from electronic medical records and/or interviews in order to depict the patients'profile, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project, Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Results Neurological impairment, according to the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, was associated with functioning in the first 24 hours after the stroke. Furthermore, the presence of arterial hypertension, age, inactive work, smoking and extent of neuronal damage were associated with functional dependence, but did not remain in the final model of this study. Conclusion Functional dependence is associated with arterial hypertension, age, inactive work, smoking, extent of neuronal damage, and degree of neurological impairment in the first 24 hours after the vascular event. Furthermore, a higher level of neurological impairment was independently associated with increased levels of functional dependence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Acute-Phase Reaction , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnosis , Functional Status , Sociodemographic Factors , Patients
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(3): s00441779691, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Genetic factors influence the risk of developing stroke. Still, it is unclear whether this risk is intrinsically high in certain people or if nongenetic factors explain it entirely. Objective To compare the risk of stroke in kin and nonkin caregivers. Methods In a cross-sectional study using the Stroke Riskometer app (AUT Ventures Limited, Auckland, AUK, New Zealand), we determined the 5- and 10-year stroke risk (SR) among caregivers of stroke inpatients. The degree of kinship was rated with a score ranging from 0 to 50 points. Results We studied 278 caregivers (69.4% of them female) with a mean age of 47.5 ± 14.2 years. Kin caregivers represented 70.1% of the sample, and 49.6% of them were offspring. The median SR at 5 years was of 2.1 (range: 0.35-17.3) versus 1.73 (range: 0.04-29.9), and of 4.0 (range: 0.45-38.6) versus 2.94 (range: 0.05-59.35) at 10 years for the nonkin and kin caregivers respectively. In linear logistic regression controlled for the age of the caregivers, adding the kinship score did not increase the overall variability of the model for the risk at 5 years (R2= 0.271; p= 0.858) nor the risk at 10 years (R2= 0.376; p= 0.78). Conclusion Caregivers of stroke patients carry a high SR regardless of their degree of kinship.


Resumen Antecedentes Los factores genéticos probablemente influyen en el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC), pero no está claro si el riesgo es intrínsecamente alto o si es totalmente explicado por factores modificables. Objetivo Comparar el riesgo de EVC (REVC) en cuidadores pertenecientes y no pertenecientes a la misma familia de pacientes con EVC. Métodos En un estudio transversal que utilizó la aplicación Stroke Riskometer (AUT Ventures Limited, Auckland, AUK, Nueva Zelanda), determinamos el REVC a 5 y 10 años en cuidadores de pacientes hospitalizados por EVC. El grado de parentesco se graduó con un puntaje de 0 a 50 dependiendo de su relación familiar con el paciente. Resultados Estudiamos a 278 cuidadores (69.4% de ellos mujeres) con edad media de 47.5 ± 14.2 años. Los cuidadores familiares representaron el 70.1% de la muestra, siendo el 49.6% hijos. Las medianas de REVC a 5 años fueron de 2.1 (rango: 0.35-17.3) versus 1.73 (rango: 0.04-29.9), y de 4.0 (rango: 0.45-38.6) versus 2.94 (rango: 0.05-59.35) a 10 años para el grupo de cuidadores familiares y no familiares, respectivamente. En una regresión logística lineal contralando para la edad de los cuidadores, la adición del puntaje de parentesco no incrementó la variabilidad general del modelo para el riesgo a 5 años (R2= 0.271; p= 0.858) ni para el riesgo a 10 años (R2= 0.376; p= 0.78). Conclusión Los cuidadores de pacientes con EVC tienen un REVC alto, independientemente de su grado de parentesco.

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Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(3): s00441779268, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557131

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The relationship between collateral circulation and prognosis after endovascular treatment in anterior circulation strokes has been reported in many studies. Objective In this study, we aimed to compare the predictive power of clinical outcome by comparing five different collateral scores that are frequently used. Methods Among the patients who underwent endovascular treatment in our clinic between November 2019 and December 2021, patients with premorbid mRS < 3, intracranial ICA and/or MCA M1 occlusion, and a pre-procedural multiphase CTA examination were included in the study. Demographic, technical, and duration information about the procedure, major events after the procedure, and clinical outcomes at 3 months were recorded. The mCTA, Tan, Maas, Miteff, and rLMC collateral scores of the patients were evaluated. Results Clinical outcome at 3 months were good in 37 of the 68 patients included in the study (mRS ≤ 2). Only the mCTA and rLMC collateral scores were statistically significantly higher in those with a good clinical outcome. Significant correlation with 3-month mRS was detected only in mCTA and rLMC scores. Although rLMC and mCTA collateral scores showed a statistically significant association with prognosis, they were not sufficient to be an independent predictor of prognosis. Conclusion mCTA and rLMC were found to have the highest predictive power of clinical outcome and the highest correlation with the 3-month clinical outcome. Our study suggests that it would be beneficial to develop a new scoring system over multiphase CTA, which combines regional and temporal evaluation, which are the strengths of both collateral scoring.


Resumo Antecedentes A relação entre circulação colateral e prognóstico após tratamento endovascular em acidentes vasculares cerebrais de circulação anterior tem sido relatada em muitos estudos. Objetivo Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi comparar o poder preditivo do desfecho clínico comparando cinco escores colaterais diferentes que são frequentemente utilizados. Métodos Entre os pacientes submetidos a tratamento endovascular em nossa clínica entre novembro de 2019 e dezembro de 2021, foram incluídos no estudo pacientes com mRS pré-mórbido < 3, oclusão intracraniana de ICA e/ou MCA M1 e exame de CTA multifásico pré-procedimento. Foram registradas informações demográficas, técnicas e de duração sobre o procedimento, eventos importantes após o procedimento e resultados clínicos em três meses. Foram avaliados os escores colaterais mCTA, Tan, Maas, Miteff e rLMC dos pacientes. Resultados Os resultados clínicos aos três meses foram bons em 37 dos 68 pacientes incluídos no estudo (mRS ≤ 2). Apenas os escores colaterais mCTA e rLMC foram estatisticamente significativamente maiores naqueles com boa evolução clínica. Correlação significativa com mRS de três meses foi detectada apenas nos escores mCTA e rLMC. Embora os escores colaterais de rLMC e mCTA tenham mostrado uma associação estatisticamente significativa com o prognóstico, eles não foram suficientes para serem um preditor independente de prognóstico. Conclusão Verificou-se que mCTA e rLMC têm o maior poder preditivo do resultado clínico e a maior correlação com o resultado clínico de três meses. Nosso estudo sugere que seria benéfico desenvolver um novo sistema de pontuação em vez de CTA multifásico, que combinasse avaliação regional e temporal, que são os pontos fortes de ambas as pontuações colaterais.

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