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An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 18-24, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380292


Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la primera causa de muerte. El accidente cerebrovascular isquémico es un problema de salud pública. Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas de los pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos durante el periodo de ventana terapéutica en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo 2018 - 2020. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Los sujetos fueron los pacientes de sexo masculino y femenino, mayores de 18 años admitidos en la Unidad de Ictus del Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo de ventana terapéutica comprendido entre junio del año 2018 y septiembre del año 2020. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio 512 pacientes. La media de edad fue 65 ± 12,1 años. El sexo más frecuente fue el masculino con (58,7%) y la mayoría proceden del Departamento Central (61,3%). Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial (83,3%), el sobrepeso (34,7%) y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (27,3%). Presentaron infarto moderado (41,8%) y la trombólisis fue realizada en el (16%) de los pacientes. Conclusión: Los pacientes que presentaron accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos en el periodo de ventana terapéutica fueron en su mayoría del sexo masculino, edad media de 65 años, los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial, el sobrepeso y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, el infarto moderado fue la más frecuente y escasa cantidad recibieron trombólisis.

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Ischemic stroke is a public health problem. Objectives: To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke admitted during the therapeutic window period in the Emergency Department of the Hospital de Clínicas in the period 2018 - 2020. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The subjects were male and female patients, over 18 years of age admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Emergency Service of the Hospital de Clínicas in the therapeutic window period between June 2018 and September 2020. Results: Included 512 patients in the study. The mean age was 65 ± 12,1 years. The most frequent sex was male with (58.7%), most of them come from the central department (61.3%). The most frequent risk factors were arterial hypertension (83.3%), overweight (34.7%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.3%). They presented moderate infarction (41,8%). Thrombolysis was performed in (16%) of the patients. Conclusion: The patients who presented ischemic stroke admitted in the therapeutic window period were mostly male, mean age 65 years, the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors were arterial hypertension, overweight and mellitus diabetes type 2, moderate infarction was the most frequent and few received thrombolysis.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Overweight , Ischemic Stroke , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases , Public Health , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Stroke
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 315-320, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376540


ABSTRACT Introduction: In patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), stroke is a major complication that increases morbidity and mortality. The presence of carotid stenosis (CS) increases risk of stroke, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain due to the lack of randomized clinical trials. The aim of this study is to compare three management approaches to CS in patients submitted to CABG. Methods: From 2005 to 2015, 79 consecutive patients with significant CS submitted to CABG were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided in three groups, according to CS treatment: 17 underwent staged carotid endarterectomy (CEA)-CABG, 26 underwent synchronous CEA-CABG, and 36 underwent isolated CABG without carotid intervention. The primary outcomes were composed by 30-day postoperative acute myocardial infarction (MI), 30-day postoperative stroke, and death due to all causes during the follow-up. Results: Patients were evaluated during an average 2.05 years (95% confidence interval = 1.51-2.60) of follow-up. Major adverse cardiac events, including death, postoperative MI, and postoperative stroke, occurred in 76.5% of the staged group, 34.6% of the synchronous group, and 33.3% of the isolated CABG group (P=0.007). As for MI, the rates were 29.4%, 3.85%, and 11.1% (P=0.045), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in total mortality rates (35.3%, 30.8%, and 25.0%, respectively; P=0,72) and stroke (29.4%, 7.7%, and 8.3%, respectively; P=0,064) between groups. Conclusion: Staged CEA-CABG is associated with higher major adverse cardiac events and MI rate when compared to the strategy of synchronous and isolated CABG, but without statistically difference in total mortality during the entire follow-up.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 401-404, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376548


Abstract The treatment of valvular endocarditis in patients with cardiac implantable electrophysiological device (CIED) includes valvular surgery and lead extraction. This can be challenging in patients with severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Reduced LVEF in combination with sepsis and cardioplegic cardiac arrest can make weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass difficult. Some of these patients require venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for postcardiotomy syndrome. Lead extraction by manual traction is often not possible in cases with a long lead dwell time. Therefore, a lead extraction procedure with powered sheaths is required during the VA-ECMO support. We describe our technique for laser lead extraction during VA-ECMO support in a 64-year-old patient with triple valve endocarditis and lead vegetations.

Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 364-372, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375640


Abstract Background: Among the various pathologies that affect the elderly, Heart Failure (HF) stands out. Recently, an attempt has been made to verify the existence of cognitive impairment associated with HF. Objectives: To compare the cognitive performance of elderly people with heart failure with that of age-matched individuals without this pathology. Check the existence of marked impairment in some cognitive functions in the clinical group. Methods: The sample consisted of 78 elderly people, whose inclusion criterion was the presence of HF and no HF (control group); age over 60 years, both sexes, and any level of education. The control group consisted of 37 individuals (with a median age of 68 years - Interquartile range of 12) and the HF group, with 41 individuals (with a median age of 67 years - Interquartile range of 11). The subjects were matched in terms of education level, with a predominance of elderly people with 0 to 4 years of education (65.9% in the Clinical Group and 59.5% in the Control Group). Eleven neuropsychological tests covering cognitive functions were used: attention, language, memory, mood, and executive function. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 23, with a significance level of 5%. The Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test were applied. Results: The results showed significant differences between the groups, mainly in executive functions, which include the ability to plan, switch, and recall previously stored information. Conclusion: Our study showed differences between the cognitive performance of elderly people with HF and elderly people without HF. The main alteration was found in the so-called executive functions, attention, and memory.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attention , Aging , Executive Function , Cognitive Dysfunction , Heart Failure , Memory , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Nervous System Diseases , Neuropsychology
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 384-389, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377397


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of stroke. Inflammation is the primary factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Use of immature granulocytes (IGs) has been recommended as a new indicator of systemic inflammation. However, data on the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat tissue thickness (EFT) and IGs in patients with AIS are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the presences of IGs, epicardial fat tissue and AIS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in a tertiary-care university hospital in Antalya, Turkey. METHODS: Our study included 53 AIS patients and 41 healthy controls with age and gender compatibility. Blood samples and transthoracic echocardiography of all participants were compared. RESULTS: IG levels were significantly higher in patients with AIS than in controls (0.62 ± 0.36 versus 0.28 ± 0.02, P < 0.001). The mean EFT was 3.74 ± 0.61 mm in the control group and 6.33 ± 1.47 mm in the AIS patient group. EFT was significantly greater in AIS patients than in controls (P < 0.001). For the optimum cut-off value for IG (0.95), the area under the curve (AUC) was determined to be 0.840; sensitivity was determined to be 81.1% and specificity, 92.5%. For the optimum cut-off value for EFT (4.95 mm), the AUC was determined to be 0.953; sensitivity was determined to be 90.6% and specificity, 90%. CONCLUSIONS: IG and echocardiographic EFT are clinical markers that can be used to predict AIS risk.

Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Echocardiography , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Granulocytes , Inflammation
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(5): 1919-1928, maio 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374982


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é verificar a associação raça/cor e acesso a serviços de reabilitação pós-AVC. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 966 adultos (≥18 anos) pós-AVC, respondentes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Desfecho, acesso à reabilitação, e exposição (raça/cor) foram coletados de modo autorreferido. Variáveis sociodemográficas, histórico clínico, plano de saúde e limitação pós-AVC foram considerados para o ajuste. Regressão de Poisson com estimativa de variância robusta foi utilizada para estimar a associação nas análises bruta e ajustada. Da amostra total, 51,8% são autodeclarados negros ou outras raças, 61,4% demandam por reabilitação, sendo que apenas 20% têm acesso ao serviço de reabilitação. Dificuldade em acessar reabilitação foi referida por 57,5% dos autodeclarados amarelos ou indígenas, 43% dos negros, e 35,4% dos brancos. Na análise ajustada, negros têm 4% menos acesso à reabilitação se comparados com seus pares brancos (RP 1,04, IC95% 1,00-1,08). Pessoas da raça amarela ou indígena 17% menos acesso que brancos (RP 1,17, IC95% 1,13-1,20). No Brasil, autodeclarados negros, amarelos, indígenas e outros têm pior acesso à reabilitação pós-AVC quando comparados aos autodeclarados brancos, apontando iniquidades raciais na reabilitação em sobreviventes de AVC.

Abstract This article aims to verify the association between race/skin color and access to post-stroke rehabilitation services. It is a cross-sectional population-based study including 966 post-stroke adults (≥18 years) that responded to the National Health Survey (PNS). The outcome, access to rehabilitation, and exposure (race/skin color) were collected in a self-reported manner. Socio-demographic variables, clinical history, healthcare plan and post-stroke limitation were considered for the adjustment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation was used to estimate the association in the crude and adjusted analyses. Based on the sample, 51.8% are self-declared black and 61.4% require rehabilitation, with only 20% having access to the rehabilitation service. Difficulty in accessing rehabilitation was reported by 57.5% of other self-declared races, 43% blacks, and 35.4% whites. In the adjusted analysis, 4% of self-declared black (PR 1.04, CI95%1.00-1.08) and 17% of self-declared yellow and indigenous (PR 1.17, IC95%1.13-1.20) have less access to rehabilitation than their white peers. In Brazil, self-declared black and yellow and indigenous people have worst access to post-stroke rehabilitation in comparison with self-declared white people, highlighting racial inequities in rehabilitation in stroke survivors.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(4): 703-709, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374345


Resumo Fundamento A prevalência e o significado da microalbuminúria não foram bem estudados em pacientes com diferentes subtipos de insuficiência cardíaca. Objetivo A prevalência e o significado da microalbuminúria não foram bem estudados em pacientes com diferentes subtipos de insuficiência cardíaca. Portanto, nosso objetivo foi investigar a frequência e o valor prognóstico da microalbuminúria em pacientes hospitalizados por insuficiência cardíaca aguda (ICA) com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEp), fração de ejeção de faixa média (ICFEfm) e fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFEr). Métodos Todos os pacientes adultos consecutivos encaminhados ao hospital devido a ICA entre junho de 2016 e junho de 2019 foram inscritos. A microalbuminúria é definida como o nível de albumina urinária para relação de creatinina (AURC) na faixa de 30-300 mg/g. A mortalidade hospitalar foi o critério de valoração deste estudo. Resultados Dos 426 pacientes com ICA (idade média de 70,64 ± 10,03 anos, 53,3% do sexo feminino), 50% tinham ICFEr, 38,3% tinham ICFEp e 11,7% tinham ICFEfm na apresentação. A prevalência de microalbuminúria foi de 35,2%, 28,8% e 28,0% em ICFEr, ICFEp e ICFEfm, respectivamente. Um total de 19 (4,5%) pacientes morreram durante o curso intra-hospitalar, e a mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi maior em pacientes com ICFEr (6,6%) em comparação com pacientes com ICFEr (2,5%) e ICFEfm (2,0%). A análise multivariada mostrou que a presença de microalbuminúria previu mortalidade intra-hospitalar em pacientes com ICFEr e ICFEfm, mas não em ICFEp. Conclusão Embora a microalbuminúria fosse comum em todos os subgrupos de pacientes com ICA, descobriu-se que ela prediz o prognóstico apenas em pacientes com ICFEr e ICFEfm.

Abstract Background The prevalence and significance of microalbuminuria have not been well studied in patients with different heart failure subtypes. Objective The prevalence and significance of microalbuminuria have not been well studied in patients with different heart failure subtypes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the frequency and prognostic value of microalbuminuria in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF), and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods All consecutive adult patients referred to the hospital due to AHF between June 2016 and June 2019 were enrolled. Microalbuminuria is defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) level in the range of 30-300 mg/g. Hospital mortality was the endpoint of this study Results Of the 426 AHF patients (mean age 70.64 ± 10.03 years, 53.3 % female), 50% had HFrEF, 38.3% had HFpEF, and 11.7% had HFmrEF at presentation.The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 35.2%, 28.8%, and 28.0% in HFrEF, HFpEF, and HFmrEF, respectively. A total of 19 (4.5%) patients died during the in-hospital course, and in-hospital mortality was higher in HFrEF patients (6.6%) compared to patients with HFpEF (2.5%) and HFmrEF (2.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of microalbuminuria predicted in-hospital mortality in patients with HFrEF and HFmrEF but not in HFpEF. Conclusion Although microalbuminuria was common in all subgroups of AHF patients, it has been found to predict prognosis only in patients with HFrEF and HFmrEF.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(4): 353-359, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374464


Abstract Background: Topographic patterns may correlate with causes of ischemic stroke. Objective: To investigate the association between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Methods: We included 1019 ischemic stroke patients. DWI were classified as: i) negative; ii) DWI single lesion (cortico-subcortical, cortical, subcortical ≥20 mm, or subcortical <20 mm); iii) scattered lesions in one territory (small scattered lesions or confluent with additional lesions); and iv) multiple lesions (multiple unilateral anterior circulation [MAC], multiple posterior circulation [MPC], multiple bilateral anterior circulation [MBAC], and multiple anterior and posterior circulations [MAP]). Results: There was a relationship between DWI patterns and TOAST classification (p<0.001). Large artery atherosclerosis was associated with small, scattered lesions in one vascular territory (Odds Ratio [OR] 4.22, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 2.61-6.8), MPC (OR 3.52; 95%CI 1.54-8.03), and subcortical lesions <20 mm (OR 3.47; 95%CI 1.76-6.85). Cardioembolic strokes correlated with MAP (OR 4.3; 95%CI 1.64-11.2), cortico-subcortical lesions (OR 3.24; 95%CI 1.9-5.5) and negative DWI (OR 2.46; 95%CI 1.1-5.49). Cryptogenic strokes correlated with negative DWI (OR 4.1; 95%CI 1,84-8.69), cortical strokes (OR 3.3; 95%CI 1.25-8.8), MAP (OR 3.33; 95%CI 1.25-8.81) and subcortical lesion ≥20 mm (OR 2.44; 95%CI 1,04-5.73). Lacunar strokes correlated with subcortical lesions diameter <20 mm (OR 42.9; 95%CI 22.7-81.1) and negative DWI (OR 8.87; 95%CI 4.03-19.5). Finally, MBAC (OR 9.25; 95%CI 1.12-76.2), MAP (OR 5.54; 95%CI 1.94-15.1), and MPC (OR 3.61; 95%CI 1.5-8.7) correlated with stroke of other etiologies. Conclusions: A relationship exists between DWI and stroke subtype.

RESUMEN Antecedentes: Los patrones topográficos pueden correlacionarse con las causas del accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Objetivo: Investigar la asociación entre imágenes ponderadas por difusión por resonancia nuclear magnética (dRNM) y el ensayo de Org 10172 en la clasificación de tratamiento agudo de accidentes cerebrovasculares (TOAST). Métodos: Fueron incluidos 1.019 pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Las dRNM fueron clasificadas como: i) negativa; ii) dRNM lesión única (cortico-subcortical, cortical, subcortical ≥20 mm, o subcortical <20 mm); iii) lesiones disgregadas un territorio vascular (pequeñas lesiones dispersas o confluentes con lesiones adicionales); y iv) lesiones múltiples (unilaterales de circulación anterior [MAC], de circulación posterior [MPC], bilaterales de circulación anterior [MBAC] y de circulación anterior y posterior [MAP]). Resultados: Existió relación entre los patrones de dRNM y la clasificación TOAST (p<0,001). La aterosclerosis de las arterias grandes se asoció con lesiones pequeñas y disgregadas en un territorio vascular (Odds Ratio [OR] 4,22, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 2,61-6,8), MPC (OR 3,52; IC95% 1,54-8,03), y lesiones subcorticales <20 mm (OR 3,47; IC95% 1,76-6,85). Cardioembolias se relacionaron con MAP (OR 4,3; IC95% 1,64-11,2), lesiones cortico-subcorticales (OR 3,24; IC95% 1,9-5,5) y dRNM negativas (OR 2,46; IC95% 1,1-5,49). Los accidentes cerebrovasculares criptogénicos se relacionaron con dRNM negativas (OR 4,1; IC95% 1,84-8,69), accidentes cerebrovasculares corticales (OR 3,3; IC95% 1,25-8,8), MAP (OR 3,33; IC95% 1,25-8,81) y lesiones subcorticales ≥20 mm (OR 2,44; IC95% 1,04-5,73). Los accidentes cerebrovasculares lacunares se correlacionaron con lesiones subcorticales de diámetro <20 mm (OR 42,9; IC95% 22,7-81,1) y dRNM negativas (OR 8,87; IC95% 4,03-19,5). Finalmente, MBAC (OR 9,25; IC95% 1,12-76,2), MAP (OR 5,54; IC95% 1,94-15,1) y MPC (OR 3,61; IC95% 1,5-8,7) se relacionaron con accidentes cerebrovasculares de otras etiologías. Conclusiones: Existe relación entre dRNM y subtipo de accidente cerebrovascular.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 259-262, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376513


Abstract The left ventricular aneurysm is a pathological condition defined as an akinetic or dyskinetic area of the left ventricle (LV) wall associated with reduced ejection fraction. The most common surgical technique to reconstruct a left ventricular aneurysm is endoventricular patch plasty (Dor procedure). In this case, endoventricular reconstruction of the left ventricular aneurysm using a double-layer extracellular matrix was performed.

Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7540-7552, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372419


Objetivo: Avaliar a cognição e presença de dor em idosos após AVE que residem no interior de Coari, Amazonas. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal e observacional realizado com 50 idosos pós-AVE no município de Coari, Amazonas. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de outubro e dezembro de 2019 até janeiro de 2020. Resultados: No MEEM, 78,0% (39) apresentam grave déficit cognitivo demonstrando estarem abaixo da nota de corte para analfabetos (≥20). Sobre o teste de fluência verbal, a maioria dos idosos apresentaram dificuldades de linguagem e memória e não conseguiram no tempo estipulado falar e/ou lembrar de nomes de frutas e animais. 72% (36) dos idosos relataram sentir dor, maioria apresentou dor de intensidade moderada a forte 68,0% (34). Os locais mais referidos de dor foram os membros inferiores 26,0% (13). Conclusão: Após o AVE os idosos deste estudo apresentaram consideráveis alterações cognitivas e piora da dor.(AU)

Objective: To evaluate cognition and presence of pain in elderly people after CVA living in the countryside of Coari, Amazonas. Method: This is a cross-sectional and observational study conducted with 50 post-CVA elderly in the municipality of Coari, Amazonas. Data collection was performed in the period from October and December 2019 to January 2020. Results: In the MMSE, 78.0% (39) present severe cognitive deficit demonstrating to be below the cutoff score for illiterate (≥20). On the verbal fluency test, most of the elderly presented language and memory difficulties and were unable in the stipulated time to speak and/or remember names of fruits and animals. 72% (36) of the elderly reported feeling pain, majority presented pain of moderate to strong intensity 68.0% (34). The most referred sites of pain were the lower limbs 26.0% (13). Conclusion: After the CVA, the elderly in this study presented considerable cognitive changes and worsening of pain.(AU)

Objetivo: Evaluar la cognición y la presencia de dolor en ancianos después del ACV que viven en el campo de Coari, Amazonas. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal y observacional realizado con 50 ancianos post-CVA en el municipio de Coari, Amazonas. La recogida de datos se realizó en el periodo comprendido entre octubre y diciembre de 2019 y enero de 2020. Resultados: En el MMSE, el 78,0% (39) presentan un déficit cognitivo severo demostrando estar por debajo de la puntuación de corte para analfabetos (≥20). En la prueba de fluidez verbal, la mayoría de los niños presentaban dificultades de lenguaje y memoria y no conseguían, en el tiempo estipulado, decir y/o memorizar nombres de frutas y animales. El 72% (36) de los ancianos dijeron sentir dolor, la mayoría presentó dolor de intensidad moderada a fuerte 68,0% (34). Los lugares de dolor más referidos fueron las extremidades inferiores 26,0% (13). Conclusión: Tras el ACV, los ancianos de este estudio presentaron considerables cambios cognitivos y empeoramiento del dolor(AU)

Pain , Aged , Cognition , Stroke
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7645-7661, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372585


Objetivo:identificar o conhecimento de idosos sobre acidente vascular cerebral relacionado à busca pelo atendimento emergencial. Método:revisão integrativa realizada em maio e junho de 2021,na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, Scientific Eletronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS e Web of Science, empregados Descritores de Ciências da Saúde, Medical Subject Headings e termos alternativos, publicados em 2016 a 2021.Resultados:compuseram 33 artigos o corpus da revisão, categorizados em duas vertentes: os conhecimentos sobre fatores de risco, prevenção e identificação do AVC; e a busca pelo atendimento precoce no serviço de urgência e emergência. Conclusão:idosos geralmente desconhecema doença e a necessidade de busca precoce doatendimento, o que ressalta a importância de ações de promoção à saúde e orientações relacionadas ao AVC, sejam elas por meio das mídias ou de pessoas que compõem a rede de apoio(AU)

Objective: to identify the knowledge of the elderly about stroke related to the search for emergency care. Method: integrative review carried out in May and June 2021 at the Virtual Health Library, National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS and Web of Science, employees Health Sciences, Medical Subject Headings and alternative terms, published in the years 2016 to 2021. Results: the review corpus comprised 33 articles, categorized into two aspects: knowledge about risk factors, prevention and identification of stroke; and the search for early care in the urgency and emergency service. Conclusion: the elderly are generally unaware of the disease and the need to seek care early, which highlights the importance of health promotion actions and guidelines related to stroke, whether through the media or people who make up the support network.(AU)

Objetivo: identificar el conocimiento de los ancianos sobre el accidente cerebrovascular relacionado con la búsqueda de atención de emergencia. Método: revisión integradora realizada en mayo y junio de 2021 en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina e Institutos Nacionales de Salud, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS y Web of Science, empleados Ciencias de la Salud , Medical Subject Headings y términos alternativos, publicados en los años 2016 a 2021. Resultados: el corpus de revisión comprendió 33 artículos, categorizados en dos aspectos: conocimiento sobre factores de riesgo, prevención e identificación del ictus; y la búsqueda de atención temprana en el servicio de urgencias y emergencias. Conclusión: los ancianos generalmente desconocen la enfermedad y la necesidad de buscar atención temprana, lo que destaca la importancia de las acciones y directrices de promoción de la salud relacionadas con el accidente cerebrovascular, ya sea a través de los medios de comunicación o de las personas que componen la red de apoyo.(AU)

Aged , Knowledge , Stroke , Emergencies
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(2): 162-164, Mar-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365695


ABSTRACT Introduction: Iatrogenic stroke is a cerebrovascular clinical event. It quickly leads to localized or diffuse brain dysfunction. After the onset, the patient develops motor dysfunction. Objective: To study the effect of evidence-based physical exercise on the physical function and daily life ability of stroke patients with hemiplegia. Results: The performance of the exercise group was better than that of the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Systematic evidence-based exercise and effective rehabilitation methods can alleviate the motor dysfunction of stroke patients with hemiplegia. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução: O acidente vascular cerebral iatrogênico é um evento clínico que, em pouco tempo, leva à disfunção cerebral localizada ou difusa, fazendo com que o paciente desenvolva disfunções motoras. Objetivo: Estudar o efeito de atividade física baseada em evidências sobre a função física de pacientes de AVC com hemiplegia sobre sua capacidade de executar suas atividades da vida diária. Método: 160 pacientes com AVC iatrogênico foram selecionados e separados aleatoriamente em grupos. O grupo Exercício recebeu treino reabilitativo, além de terapia medicamentosa convencional básica, enquanto o grupo Controle recebeu apenas terapia medicamentosa. Em seguida, os efeitos da reabilitação foram avaliados. Resultados: A performance do grupo Exercício foi melhor que a do grupo Controle. A diferença entre os dois grupos foi estatisticamente significativa. Conclusão: Atividade física sistemática e baseada em evidências e métodos de reabilitação eficientes podem aliviar a disfunção motora de pacientes de AVC com hemiplegia. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação do resultado de tratamentos.

RESUMEN Introducción: El accidente vascular cerebral iatrogénico es un evento clínico que, en poco tiempo, ocasiona disfunción cerebral localizada o difusa, haciendo que el paciente desarrolle disfunciones motoras. Objetivo: Estudiar el efecto de actividad física basada en evidencias sobre la función física de pacientes de ACV con hemiplejia sobre su capacidad de ejecutar sus actividades de vida diaria. Método: Fueron seleccionados y separados aleatoriamente en grupos 160 pacientes con ACV iatrogénico. El grupo Ejercicio recibió entrenamiento de rehabilitación, además de terapia medicamentosa convencional básica, mientras que el grupo Control recibió solo terapia medicamentosa. A continuación, los efectos de la rehabilitación fueron evaluados. Resultados: El rendimiento del grupo Ejercicio fue mejor que la del grupo Control. La diferencia entre los dos grupos fue estadísticamente significativa. Conclusión: Actividad física sistemática y basada en evidencias y métodos de rehabilitación eficientes pueden aliviar la disfunción motora de pacientes de ACV con hemiplejia. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación del resultado de tratamientos.

Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(2): e10447, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368443


O objetivo principal deste estudo foi analisar as alterações da marcha de adultos com hemiparesia após acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) e comparar com sujeitos saudáveis. A amostra foi composta por 14 participantes do grupo AVE e 14 participantes pareados do grupo-controle (CON). Foi realizada uma análise tridimensional da marcha mediante um sistema de cinemetria. Os parâmetros analisados foram a velocidade, o comprimento da passada, a largura da passada, a cadência e o tempo da passada, sendo utilizado o teste t independente para as comparações entre os grupos e considerando p < 0,05 como critério de decisão. Os participantes do grupo AVE apresentaram valores médios significantemente inferiores em todos os parâmetros analisados. Além disso, os pacientes do grupo AVE também tiveram valores muito inferiores quando comparados aos de outros estudos com pacientes pós-AVE, possivelmente devido ao curto período entre o AVE (média de 14,14 meses) e a avaliação da marcha.

The main objective of this study was to analyze the gait alterations of adults with hemiparesis after cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and compare it with healthy subjects. The sample consisted of 14 participants from the stroke group and 14 matched participants from the control group (CON). A three-dimensional gait analysis was performed using a kinemetry system. The parameters analyzed were velocity, stride length, stride width, cadence, and stride time, using the independent t test for comparisons between groups and considering p < 0.05 as a decision criterion. Participants in the stroke group had significantly lower mean values in all analyzed parameters. In addition, patients in the CVA group also had much lower values when compared to other studies with post-CVA patients, possibly due to the short period between the CVA (mean of 14.14 months) and the gait assessment.

Acta fisiátrica ; 29(1): 42-49, mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363398


A versão brasileira da Escala de Participação (P-Scale) é um instrumento de avaliação que mensura restrições em participação em indivíduos com diversas condições de saúde.Objetivos: Avaliar a confiabilidade interexaminador e teste-reteste da versão brasileira da P-Scale em um grupo de pacientes pós-acidente vascular cerebral (AVC).Método: Estudo metodológico, avaliou 20 pacientes com diagnóstico de AVC atendidos em um Centro de Reabilitação. A confiabilidade do escore total foi avaliado por meio do Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse (ICC). A confiabilidade interavaliador e teste-reteste de cada item foi medida pelo Coeficiente Kappa com ponderação quadrática. Para avaliação da concordância entre os escores obtidos item por item interavaliador e teste-reteste, foi utilizado o gráfico Bland-Altman.Resultados: A versão brasileira da P-Scale apresentou confiabilidade quase perfeita da maioria dos itens (kw>0,81), sem erros sistemáticos de mensuração avaliados pelo gráfico de concordância de Bland-Altman (p= 0,350) e excelente confiabilidade teste-reteste do escore total (ICC= 0,96; p= 0,000). Em relação à confiabilidade interexaminador, os itens apresentaram confiabilidade variando de quase perfeita (kw>0,81) a regular (0,210,40) e o gráfico de concordância de Bland-Altman indicou diferenças sistemáticas de mensuração (p= 0,018) apenas para dois casos atípicos. ICC da confiabilidade interexaminador do escore total foi excelente tanto na análise da amostra total (ICC= 0,95 para 20 indivíduos; p= 0,000), quanto na amostra sem os casos atípicos (ICC= 0,97 para 18 casos; p= 0,000).Conclusão: A versão brasileira da P-Scale apresentou excelente confiabilidade teste-reteste e interexaminador para avaliar participação em pacientes após AVC.

The Brazilian version of the Participation Scale (P-Scale) is an evaluation instrument that assesses the restrictions in participation in individuals with several different health conditions. Objectives:Evaluating the interexaminer and test-retest reliability of the Brazilian verson of the P-Scale in a group of stroke patients. Methods:Methodological study that evaluated 20 stroke patients attended in a Rehabilitation Center. The reliability of the total score was evaluated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The interexaminer and test-retest reliability of each item were measured using the quadratic weighted Kappa Coefficient. To evaluate the agreement between the scores obtainted per each interexaminer and test-retest item, the Bland-Altman graphic was used. Results: The Brazilian version of the P-Scale presented an almost perfect reliability in most items (kw>0.81), with no systemic measuring errors according to the Bland-Altman agreement graphic (p=0.350) and an excellent total score test-retest reliability (ICC=0.96; P=000). Regarding interexaminer reliability, the items varied from almost perfect (kw>0.81) to regular (0.210.40) and the Bland-Altman agreement graphic only indicated systemic measuring differences (p=0.018) in two atypical cases. The ICC of interexaminer reliability total score was excellent in both the analysis of the entire sample (ICC=0.95 for 20 individuals; p=0.000) and in the sample without including the atypical cases (ICC=0.97 for 18 individuals; p=0.000). Conclusion:The Brazilian version of the P-Scale presented excellent interexaminer and test-retest reliability to evaluate participation in stroke patients.

Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 9-17, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374503


Abstract Bothrops spp. envenomation and its relationship with ischemic stroke has complex pathogenesis. Local effects such as edema, pain, redness, necrosis, and systemic manifestations like coagulation disorders, thrombosis, renal failure, and hemorrhage have been reported. Hemorrhagic stroke is a common neurological complication but ischemic stroke is poorly understood. We present here the case of a 50-year-old male with no comorbidities referred from a rural area in southwest Colombia with a Bothrops spp. snakebite on the left hand. On admission, the patient presented with a deterioration of consciousness and required mechanical ventilation assistance. The MRI showed multiple ischemic areas in the bilateral frontal- temporal and occipital regions. Two months later, the patient had a favorable resolution, although central paresis in the III and VI cranial nerves and positive Babinski's sign persisted. As already mentioned, the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke due to snakebite is complex but the procoagulant activity of the venom components, the hypovolemic shock, the endothelial damage, and the thromboinflammation can explain it, and although it rarely occurs, it should be considered as a complication of ophidian accidents caused by Bothrops spp.

Resumen La mordedura de serpientes Bothrops spp. y el ataque cerebrovascular isquémico tienen una patogenia compleja. Se reconocen efectos locales como edema, dolor, enrojecimiento y necrosis, así como manifestaciones sistémicas como trastornos de la coagulación, trombosis, insuficiencia renal y hemorragia, por lo que el accidente cerebrovascular hemorrágico es una complicación neurológica común, pero, en cambio, el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico es poco conocido. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 50 años, sin comorbilidades, remitido de una zona rural del suroccidente de Colombia debido a la mordedura de una serpiente Bothrops spp. en su mano izquierda. En el momento del ingreso, el paciente presentaba deterioro de la conciencia y requirió asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Mediante resonancia magnética, se observaron múltiples áreas isquémicas bilaterales en la región fronto-temporal y en la occipital. Dos meses después, el paciente había evolucionado favorablemente, pero persistían la paresia en los pares craneales III y VI y el signo de Babinski. La fisiopatología del accidente cerebrovascular isquémico por mordedura de serpiente es compleja. La actividad procoagulante de los componentes del veneno, el choque hipovolémico, el daño endotelial y la tromboinflamación pueden explicar el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico que, aunque raro, debe considerarse como una complicación del accidente ofídico causado por serpientes Bothrops spp.

Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 2-11, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374126


RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La evaluación de la calidad de la atención del ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) es una prioridad para los sistemas de salud, debido a su relación con la disminución de la discapacidad y la muerte. En este estudio se analizan los marcadores de calidad en ACV en un hospital de referencia en Nariño, Colombia. OBJETIVO: Evaluar los marcadores de calidad de atención en ACV en el Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño E. S. E., entre junio del 2018 y diciembre del 2019. Como referencia se comparó con los registros de Colombia en la plataforma RES-Q. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de pacientes con ACV atendidos intrahospitalariamente. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante la plataforma RES-Q, en tanto que el análisis se efectuó por medio de estadísticos descriptivos y frecuencias absolutas y relativas y las diferencias con pruebas analíticas. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 457 pacientes con predominio de ACV isquémico y se llevó a cabo trombólisis endovenosa al 7,2% en el 2018 y al 9,2 % en el 2019, el 27,7 % con tiempo puerta aguja menor a 60 minutos en el 2018 y el 42,8 % en el 2019. Entre los marcadores de calidad, se encontró mejoría en realización de NIHSS, evaluación de disfagia en las primeras 24 horas, realización de doppler carotideo en los primeros siete días. En comparación con Colombia, se encontró un porcentaje inferior en trombólisis endovenosa y trombectomía. La mayoría de los indicadores de atención en ACV es similar al promedio nacional. CONCLUSIONES: La mejoría en el cumplimiento de marcadores de calidad en ACV refleja el impacto de programas de atención en ACV. El monitoreo de los parámetros de calidad permite generar programas para fortalecer la atención integral del ataque cerebrovascular en la región.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of the quality of care for Stroke is a priority for health systems, given its relationship with disability and death. In this study, Stroke quality markers are analyzed in stroke in a referral hospital in Narino, Colombia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the markers of quality of care in stroke in the Hospital Departamental Universitario de Narino E.S.E between June 2018 and December 2019. As a reference, the outcomes were compared with the Colombian registries on RES-Q platform. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of patients treated in-hospital with stroke, data collection was performed using the RES-Q platform. The analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and absolute and relative frequencies and the differences with analytical tests. RESULTS: 457patients were evaluated, with ischemic stroke predominance, endovenous thrombolysis was performed in 7.2 % in 2018, and 9.2 % in 2019, 27.7 % of patients had door to needle time less than 60 minutes in 2018 and 42.8 % in 2019. Among the quality markers evaluated, an improvement was found in the performance of NIHSS, dysphagia evaluation, and carotid doppler performance in ischemic stroke. Compared with Colombian registry, a lower percentage was found in endovenous thrombolysis and thrombectomy. Most of Stroke Care Markers are similar to national average. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in compliance of standard of Stroke Care Quality Markers reflects the impact of stroke care programs. The monitoring of quality parameters allows the generation of comprehensivestroke care programs in the region.

Quality of Health Care , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Colombia , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Stroke , Developing Countries
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 12-22, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374127


RESUMEN INTRODUCCION: El ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) de etiología isquémica es una patología cuya incidencia y mortalidad aumentaron en la última década. Cuando se maneja oportunamente, mediante trombólisis como terapia inicial, mejora su desenlace y funcionalidad. En el departamento del Tolima (Colombia) no hay registros de esta patología y en el país la bibliografía al respecto es limitada. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los desenlaces clínicos del manejo agudo con r-tPA en los pacientes que presentaron ACV isquémico en dos instituciones de la ciudad de Ibagué, capital de dicho departamento, entre junio del 2019 y junio del 2020, e identificar los tiempos de atención hospitalaria y las principales variables asociadas con el grupo de pacientes que fallecieron. MATERIALES Y METODOS: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal del manejo del ACV isquémico con r-tPA, en el que se describen las variables sociodemográficas, la escala NIHSS como evaluación neurológica inicial, los tiempos de atención (inicio-aguja, puerta-tac y puerta-aguja), los desenlaces postoperatorios y el Rankin modificado al egreso. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 38 pacientes con una media de 67,37 años, el 60,53 % fueron mujeres. La escala NIHSS al ingreso fue 13,47 puntos (DE 5,24). Los tiempos de atención fueron 183 minutos (DE 72,63) inicio-aguja, 41 minutos (RIQ 17-72) puerta-TAC y 101,50 minutos (RIQ 77 - 137,25) puerta-aguja. La mortalidad fue del 23,68 %. CONCLUSION: La mortalidad y el desenlace funcional del ACV en nuestra población fueron similares a los reportados en la literatura nacional e internacional, sin embargo, es preciso implementar protocolos de atención del infarto cerebral para incrementar el número de pacientes con desenlace favorable, acortando los tiempos de atención en toda la cadena del tratamiento adecuado del infarto cerebral.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Ischemic stroke is a growing disease in the last decade, increasing both its incidence and its mortality. However, timely thrombolysis management as initial therapy can improve both disease progression as well as an individual's functionality. In Tolima, there are no registries of this disease and in Colombia in general, the literature is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes of the acute management of ischemic stroke using r-tPA as well as identifying in-hospital treatment times, at two institutions in Ibague between 2019 and 2020. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study, we describe the management of ischemic stroke using r-tPA, describing sociodemographic variables, NIHSS scale as the initial neurological evaluation, in-hospital treatment times (symptoms-to-needle, door-to-TAC, door-to-needle), the clinical outcomes, and lastly the modified Rankin score upon discharge. RESULTS: We included 38 patients with median age of 67,37 years, 60,53 % were females. The initial average NIHSS scale upon admission was 13,47 (DE 5,24). In-hospital attention time averages were: symptoms-to-needle 183 minutes (DE 72,63), door-to-CAT 41 minutes (RIQ 17-72), and door-to-needle 101,50 minutes (RIQ 77-137,25). Overall the rate of mortality was 23,68 %. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and functionality outcomes of the stroke population observed was similar to previously reported, both nationally and internationally. However, protocols should be implemented for the timely ischemic stroke management to improve the number of patients with favorable outcomes, by reducing the in-hospital attention times in all areas of the management chain.

Mortality , Colombia , Stroke
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 634-645, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364356


Resumo Fundamento Embora se saiba que a fração de ejeção (FE) do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) medida por eletrocardiograma seja preservada em pacientes com acromegalia, não há informação suficiente sobre deformação longitudinal global e deformação do átrio esquerdo (SLG-VE e SAE). Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as funções do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e do átrio esquerdo (AE) por ecocardiograma strain (ES) em pacientes com acromegalia. Métodos Este estudo incluiu 50 pacientes com acromegalia na forma ativa da doença e 50 controles saudáveis com idade, sexo e área de superfície corporal similares. Além dos ecocardiogramas de rotina, medições de SLG-VE e SAE foram realizadas com o ES. Resultados Os valores dos SAE e SLG-VE foram significativamente mais baixos em pacientes com acromegalia (p<0,05 para todos). Na análise bivariada, a pressão arterial sistólica, o pró-hormônio N-terminal do peptídeo natriurético cerebral, o fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina tipo 1, e detectou-se que os níveis de IMVE tinham correlação positiva com SAE e SLG-VE (p<0,05). O nível de IGF-1 tinha forte correlação com SAE e SLG-VE (p<0,001 e β=0,5 vs. p<0,001 e β=0,626, respectivamente); 48% dos pacientes com acromegalia têm SLG-VE reduzido (<20%). O índice de massa do ventrículo esquerdo (IMVE) determina independentemente a presença de SLG-VE reduzido, e cada 1g/m2 de aumento no nível de IMVE aumenta a probabilidade de redução de SLG-VE em 6%. Conclusão Embora a fração de ejeção de VE seja normal em pacientes com acromegalia, os valores de SAE e SLG-VE são significativamente mais baixos. Além do aumento em IMVE, outro achado do envolvimento cardíaco pode ser a redução de SAE e SLG-VE. Portanto, além do ecocardiograma de rotina, SAE e SLG-VE podem ser úteis para avaliar os sinais iniciais de envolvimento cardíaco antes da ocorrência de alterações cardíacas irreversíveis.

Abstract Background Although it is known that the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) measured by echocardiography is preserved in patients with acromegaly, there is not enough information about the LV and left atrial strain (LV-GLS and LAS). Objective This study aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) functions with strain echocardiography (SE) in patients with acromegaly. Methods This study included 50 acromegaly patients with active disease and 50 healthy controls with similar age, gender, and body surface area. In addition to routine echocardiography examinations, LV-GLS and LAS measurements were performed with SE. Results LAS and LV-GLS values were significantly lower in patients with acromegaly (p<0.05 for all). In bivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, Insulin-like growth factor-1, LA diastolic diameter, and LVMI levels were found to be positively correlated with both LAS and LV-GLS (p <0.05). IGF-1 level was strongly correlated with LAS and LV-GLS (p<0.001 and β=0.5 vs. p<0.001 and β=0.626, respectively); 48% of patients with acromegaly have reduced LV-GLS (<20%). Left ventricular mass-index (LVMI) independently determines the presence of reduced LV-GLS and each 1g/m2increase in LVMI level increases the likelihood of reduced LV-GLS by 6%. Conclusion Although LV ejection fraction is normal in patients with acromegaly, LAS and LV-GLS values were significantly reduced. Apart from LVMI increase, another finding of cardiac involvement may be LAS and LV-GLS decrease. Therefore, in addition to routine echocardiography, LAS and LV-GLS may be useful to evaluate early signs of cardiac involvement before the occurrence of irreversible cardiac changes.

Humans , Acromegaly/complications , Acromegaly/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology