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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 30: e2022_0407, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449760

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: In order to face COVID-19, social restriction measures were adopted that influenced the population's living habits, increasing sedentary lifestyle. Considering the high complexity and dedication required by the Medicine course, it becomes relevant to investigate the effect of the pandemic on the practice of physical exercise and sedentary behavior of these students. Objective: Identify changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior self-reported by medical students in the city of Salvador, Bahia, before and during the self-confinement imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Longitudinal, prospective, quantitative study carried out with regularly enrolled medical students over 18 years of age. A virtual, structured, anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was applied, containing sociodemographic and academic aspects. In addition, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was applied in its short version, considering the period before and during the pandemic. Through this, the level of physical activity, sedentary behavior and time spent walking and performing moderate and vigorous activities were measured. Results: 268 medical students were included, predominantly women (65.7%), white (50.0%) and mixed race (38.8%), aged 24.2 ± 5.5 years, single (90.7%), attending the clinical cycle (59.0%), in private institutions (78.4%). No statistically significant differences were identified in the level of physical activity and in the time spent with moderate and vigorous activities. However, there was a reduction in walking time (p<0.00001) and an increase in sedentary behavior (p=0.001) during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the greatest impact among women (p=0.0009). Conclusion: The repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic have been shown to increase the sedentary behavior of medical students, especially among women, and to reduce activity time spent with walking. Longitudinal studies are needed to analyze the medium and long-term consequences of this change in the healthy lifestyle habits of medical students. Level of evidence II; Comparative prospective study.


Resumen Introducción: Frente al COVID-19 se adoptaron medidas de restricción social que influyeron en los hábitos de vida de la población, aumentando el sedentarismo. Considerando la alta complejidad y la dedicación exigida por la carrera de Medicina, se torna relevante investigar el efecto pandémico sobre la práctica de ejercicio físico y la conducta sedentaria de estos estudiantes. Objetivos: Identificar los cambios en la actividad física y en la conducta sedentaria auto-reportados por los estudiantes de Medicina de la ciudad de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, antes y durante el auto-confinamiento impuesto por la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal, prospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado con estudiantes de medicina regularmente matriculados, mayores de 18 años. Foi aplicado um questionário virtual, estruturado, anónimo, autocompletado, contendo aspectos sociodemográficos e académicos. Além disso, foi aplicado o International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), em sua versão curta, considerando o período antes e durante a pandemia. A través de éste, se midió el nivel de actividad física, el comportamiento sedentario y el tiempo dedicado a caminar, así como las actividades moderadas y vigorosas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 268 estudiantes de medicina, predominantemente mujeres (65,7%), blancas (50,0%) y morenas (38,8%), de 24,2 ± 5,5 años de edad, solteras (90,7%), en el ciclo clínico (59,0%), en instituciones privadas (78,4%). No se identificaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el nivel de actividad física y el tiempo dedicado a actividades moderadas y vigorosas. Sin embargo, hubo una reducción en el tiempo de caminata (p<0,00001) y un aumento en la conducta sedentaria (p=0,001) durante la pandemia COVID-19, siendo mayor el impacto entre las mujeres (p=0,0009). Conclusión: Las repercusiones de la pandemia COVID-19 se manifestaron en el aumento de la conducta sedentaria entre los estudiantes de medicina, especialmente entre las mujeres, además de la reducción del tiempo de actividad dedicado a caminar. Son necesarios estudios longitudinales para analizar las consecuencias a medio y largo plazo de este cambio en los hábitos de vida saludables de los estudiantes de medicina. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio Prospectivo Comparativo.


RESUMO Introdução: Foram adotadas medidas de restrição social para o enfrentamento da COVID-19 que influenciaram nos hábitos de vida da população, aumentando o sedentarismo. Considerando a alta complexidade e a dedicação exigida pelo curso de Medicina, torna-se relevante investigar o efeito da pandemia na prática de exercício físico e conduta sedentária desses estudantes. Objetivos: Identificar alterações na atividade física e na conduta sedentária autorrelatadas por acadêmicos de Medicina na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, antes e durante o autoconfinamento imposto pela pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal, prospectivo, quantitativo, realizado com estudantes de Medicina, maiores de 18 anos, regularmente matriculados. Foi aplicado um questionário virtual, estruturado, anônimo, de autopreenchimento, contendo aspectos sociodemográficos e acadêmicos. Além disso, foi aplicado o International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), em sua versão curta, considerando o período antes e durante a pandemia. Através deste, foram mensurados nível de atividade física, conduta sedentária e tempo de realização de caminhada, além de atividades moderadas e vigorosas. Resultados: Foram incluídos 268 estudantes de Medicina, predominantemente mulheres (65,7%), da raça branca (50,0%) e parda (38,8%), com idade de 24,2 ± 5,5 anos, solteiros (90,7%), cursando o ciclo clínico (59,0%), em instituições privadas (78,4%). Não foram identificadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes no nível de atividade física e no tempo despendido com atividades moderadas e vigorosas. Entretanto, houve redução no tempo de caminhada (p<0,00001) e aumento da conduta sedentária (p=0,001) durante a pandemia de COVID-19, sendo o impacto maior entre as mulheres (p=0,0009). Conclusão: Foram demonstradas as repercussões da pandemia de COVID-19 no aumento da conduta sedentária dos estudantes de Medicina, principalmente entre as mulheres, além da redução do tempo de atividade despendido com caminhadas. Estudos longitudinais são necessários para analisar as consequências a médio e longo prazo dessa alteração nos hábitos de vida saudáveis de estudantes de Medicina. Nível de evidência II; Estudo Prospectivo Comparativo.

2.
Sâo Paulo med. j ; 142(2): e2022493, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Medical students demonstrate higher rates of substance use than other university students and the general population. The challenges imposed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raised significant concerns about mental health and substance use. OBJECTIVES: Assess the current prevalence of substance use among medical students at the University of São Paulo and evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drug consumption. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 275 medical students from the University of São Paulo Medical School (São Paulo, Brazil) in August 2020. METHODS: Substance use (lifetime, previous 12 months, and frequency of use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic) and socioeconomic data were assessed using an online self-administered questionnaire. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. RESULTS: Alcohol was the most consumed substance in their lifetime (95.6%), followed by illicit drugs (61.1%), marijuana (60%), and tobacco (57.5%). The most commonly consumed substances in the previous year were alcohol (82.9%), illicit drugs (44.7%), marijuana (42.5%), and tobacco (36%). Students in the first two academic years consumed fewer substances than those from higher years. There was a decreasing trend in the prevalence of most substances used after the COVID-19 pandemic among sporadic users. However, frequent users maintained their drug use patterns. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of substance use was high in this population and increased from the basic to the clinical cycle. The COVID-19 pandemic may have affected the frequency of drug use and prevalence estimates.

3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 574-592, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1419211

ABSTRACT

A pandemia pelo SARS-CoV-2 é um dos maiores desafios sanitários em escala global. Devido estado de emergência, uma série de medidas de controle e prevenção foram adotadas, como distanciamento social e redução das reuniões públicas. Nesse cenário, buscou-se avaliar a saúde mental de estudantes de uma instituição privada de Ensino Superior diante da pandemia. Esta pesquisa trata-se de um estudo transversal descritivo desenvolvido na Faculdade do Vale do Jaguaribe, localizada em Aracati-CE. A coleta de dados ocorreu de dezembro de 2020 a fevereiro de 2021, utilizando formulário eletrônico contendo variáveis sociodemográficas, epidemiológicas e relativas aos diferentes aspectos da saúde mental do estudante frente a pandemia da COVID-19. A análise foi baseada no cálculo de frequências absolutas e relativas das variáveis além de medidas de tendência central e dispersão. Dos 333 discentes que participaram do estudo, a média de idade foi 25, com variação entre 18 e 56 anos, sendo maioria do sexo feminino (72,7%), autodenominação de cor/etnia parda (72,7%) e não estarem trabalhando (53,8%). A taxa de positividade entre os graduandos para COVID-19 foi de 9% (30). Ao serem questionados sobre como a pandemia alterou seus níveis de estresse ou saúde mental, 75,5% responderam que houve piora. Dentre os sintomas mais relatados no período da quarentena, estavam medo e ansiedade (ambos com 74,2%), seguidos por insegurança (69,7%). Baseados nos achados deste estudo, recomenda-se a incorporação de ações multiprofissionais na atenção aos estudantes dentro da academia. Sugere-se a implantação de um serviço qualificado buscando desenvolver um olhar holístico para os discentes.


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has presented itself as one of the greatest health challenges on a global scale. Given the state of public health emergency, a series of control and prevention measures have been adopted, such as social distancing and reduction of public meetings, as in universities. Faced with this scenario, we sought to evaluate the mental health of students from a private institution of Higher Education in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this research was a descriptive cross-sectional study developed at the Faculdade do Vale do Jaguaribe, located in the City of Aracati- CE. Data collection occurred from December 2020 to February 2021, using an electronic form containing sociodemographic and epidemiological variables, as well as variables related to the repercussions in different aspects of the student's mental health when facing the pandemic of COVID-19. The analysis was based on the calculation of absolute and relative frequencies of the variables, as well as measures of central tendency and dispersion. Of the 333 students who participated in the study, the mean age was 25 years, with ages ranging from 18 to 56 years, the majority being female (72.7%), self- denominated as Brown (72.7%), not working when answering the form (53.8%). The positivity rate among undergraduates for COVID-19 was 9% (30/333). When asked how the pandemic altered their stress levels or mental health, 75.5% responded that it had worsened. Among the symptoms most reported by students during the quarantine period were fear and anxiety (both 74.2%), followed by insecurity (69.7%). It is suggested the implementation of a qualified approach service seeking to develop a holistic look for the students.


La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 es uno de los mayores desafíos sanitarios a escala global. Debido al estado de emergencia, se han adoptado una serie de medidas de control y prevención, como el distanciamiento social y la reducción de reuniones públicas. En este escenario, se buscó evaluar la salud mental de los estudiantes de una institución privada de educación superior frente a la pandemia. Esta investigación es un estudio descriptivo transversal desarrollado en la Facultad de Valle de Jaguaribe, ubicada en Aracati-CE. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo de diciembre de 2020 a febrero de 2021, utilizando un formulario electrónico que contiene variables sociodemográficas, epidemiológicas y relacionadas con los diferentes aspectos de la salud mental del estudiante frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. El análisis se basó en el cálculo de frecuencias absolutas y relativas de las variables, además de medidas de tendencia central y dispersión. De los 333 estudiantes que participaron en el estudio, la media de edad fue de 25 años, con variación entre 18 y 56 años, siendo la mayoría del sexo femenino (72,7%), autodenominación de la raza / etnia morena (72,7%) y no trabajando (53,8%). La tasa de positividad entre los estudiantes de pregrado para COVID-19 fue del 9% (30). Cuando se les preguntó cómo la pandemia había alterado su nivel de estrés o salud mental, el 75,5% respondió que había empeorado. Entre los síntomas más comunes durante el período de cuarentena, se encontraban el miedo y la ansiedad (ambos con un 74,2%), seguidos de la inseguridad (69,7%). Basados en los resultados de este estudio, se recomienda la incorporación de acciones multiprofesionales en la atención a los estudiantes dentro de la academia. Se sugiere la implementación de un servicio calificado que busque desarrollar una mirada holística hacia los estudiantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Students , Universities , Mental Health/education , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety , Stress, Physiological , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Academies and Institutes , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Fear , Physical Distancing , Sociodemographic Factors , Health Services Research
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 795-812, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424953

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar os motivos pelos quais levaram os estudantes a escolherem a formação universitário em Enfermagem. Metodologia: Estudo exploratório- descritivo, sob abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido com 276 acadêmicos de Enfermagem de uma universidade pública do Noroeste do estado do Ceará, Brasil. As informações foram coletadas por meio de um questionário eletrônico, aplicado por meio da plataforma Google Forms®. Essas por sua vez, foram analisadas a partir de análise de conteúdo proposto por Minayo, com o suporte do software N VIVO 11®. Resultados: As palavras mais referidas pelos estudantes ao serem questionados acerca dos motivos na escolha do curso de Enfermagem, foram: "Área", "Saúde", "Curso" e "Profissão", as quais suscitam que em algumas situações a escolha do curso aconteceu pela área da Saúde e não pelo curso em específico. Entretanto, outras palavras com maior quantitativo de repetição foram identificadas: "Sempre", "Gosto" e "Enfermagem", que por sua vez, demonstram a identificação com o curso de Enfermagem em específico e com o fazer da profissão. A partir de então, foram definidas seis categorias de análise, a saber "Identificar-se com a profissão", "Determinação Social e Mercado de Trabalho", "Enfermagem como segunda ou única opção", "Influências externas", "Permanência na área da Saúde" e "Vocação e visão solidária-romântica". Considerações finais: A partir dos discursos dos participantes em estudo, evidenciou-se que os motivos pelos quais levaram esses a ingressarem no curso universitário em Enfermagem estão associados ao imaginário da vocação, da concepção da Enfermagem enquanto profissão voltada para o cuidar/cuidado, bem como pelo o interesse de atuação na área da saúde.


Objective: To identify the reasons why students chose a university degree in Nursing. Methodology: Exploratory-descriptive study, under a qualitative approach, developed with 276 Nursing students from a public university in the Northwest of the state of Ceará, Brazil. Information was collected through an electronic questionnaire, applied through the Google Forms® platform. These, in turn, were analyzed based on the content analysis proposed by Minayo, with the support of the N VIVO 11® software. Results: The words most mentioned by students when asked about the reasons for choosing the Nursing course were: "Area", "Health", "Course" and "Profession", which suggest that in some situations the choice of course happened by the Health area and not by the specific course. However, other words with a higher number of repetitions were identified: "Always", "I like" and "Nursing", which, in turn, demonstrate identification with the Nursing course in particular and with the profession. From then on, six categories of analysis were defined, namely "Identifying with the profession", "Social Determination and the Labor Market", "Nursing as a second or only option", "External influences", "Permanence in the area of Health" and "Vocation and solidarity-romantic vision". Final considerations: From the speeches of the participants in the study, it was evident that the reasons why they entered the university course in Nursing are associated with the imaginary of the vocation, of the conception of Nursing as a profession focused on care/care, as well as as well as the interest in acting in the health area.


Objetivo: Identificar las razones por las cuales los estudiantes eligieron la carrera universitaria de Enfermería. Metodología: Estudio exploratorio-descriptivo, con abordaje cualitativo, desarrollado con 276 estudiantes de Enfermería de una universidad pública del Noroeste del estado de Ceará, Brasil. La información se recolectó a través de un cuestionario electrónico, aplicado a través de la plataforma Google Forms®. Estos, a su vez, fueron analizados con base en el análisis de contenido propuesto por Minayo, con el apoyo del software N VIVO 11®. Resultados: Las palabras más mencionadas por los estudiantes cuando se les preguntó acerca de los motivos de la elección de la carrera de Enfermería fueron: "Área", "Salud", "Curso" y "Profesión", lo que sugiere que en algunas situaciones la elección de la carrera pasó por la carrera de Enfermería. área y no por el curso específico. Sin embargo, fueron identificadas otras palabras con mayor número de repeticiones: "Siempre", "Me gusta" y "Enfermería", que, a su vez, demuestran identificación con la carrera de Enfermería en particular y con la profesión. A partir de ahí, se definieron seis categorías de análisis, a saber, "Identificación con la profesión", "Determinación social y mercado de trabajo", "Enfermería como segunda o única opción", "Influencias externas", "Permanencia en el área de la Salud". " y "Vocación y visión solidaria-romántica". Consideraciones finales: A partir de los discursos de los participantes en el estudio, se evidenció que las razones por las cuales ingresaron a la carrera universitaria en Enfermería están asociadas al imaginario de la vocación, de la concepción de la Enfermería como profesión enfocada en el cuidado, así como el interés por actuar en el área de la salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Career Choice , Nursing , Nurses , Students, Nursing , Catchment Area, Health/statistics & numerical data , Education, Nursing , Job Market , Health Occupations/education
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2)Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424869

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a predição de suicídios entre adolescentes a partir da última década pré-pandêmica em Mato Grosso. Método: trata-se de estudo ecológico e retrospectivo. A coleta de dados ocorreu em janeiro de 2021, referente ao recorte temporal de 2009 a 2019. Utilizou-se dados secundários do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade via Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Mato Grosso. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se o programa STATA 14.0. Resultados: a predição de suicídios entre os adolescentes de Mato Grosso revelou predominância do sexo masculino, cor não branca e com oito anos ou mais de escolaridade. Os suicídios em Mato Grosso apresentam estabilidade em relação ao sexo. Quanto a cor, o Centro-Oeste possui maior disparidade quando comparado ao Mato Grosso. Todavia, ambos exibem comportamentos epidemiológicos semelhantes na escolaridade. Conclusão: a partir da última década pré- pandêmica, previu o crescimento de casos de suicídios entre adolescentes em Mato Grosso, e que não se assemelha à totalidade do perfil esperado para a região Centro-Oeste.


Objective: to analyze the prediction of suicides among adolescents from the last pre-pandemic decade in Mato Grosso. Method: this is an ecological and retrospective study. Data collection took place in January 2021, referring to the time frame from 2009 to 2019. Secondary data from the Mortality Information System via the Mato Grosso State Health Department were used. For data analysis, the STATA 14.0 program was used. Results: the prediction of suicides among adolescents in Mato Grosso revealed a predominance of males, non-white and with eight or more years of schooling. Suicides in Mato Grosso show stability in relation to gender. As for color, the Midwest has greater disparity when compared to Mato Grosso. However, both exhibit similar epidemiological behavior in schooling. Conclusion: from the last pre-pandemic decade, it predicted the growth of suicide cases among adolescents in Mato Grosso, which does not resemble the entire profile expected for the Midwest region.


Objetivo: analizar la predicción de suicidios entre adolescentes de la última década pre-pandemia en Mato Grosso. Método: se trata de un estudio ecológico y retrospectivo. La recolección de datos ocurrió en enero de 2021, con referencia al período de 2009 a 2019. Se utilizaron datos secundarios del Sistema de Información de Mortalidad a través de la Secretaría de Estado de Salud de Mato Grosso. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el programa STATA 14.0. Resultados: la predicción de suicidios entre los adolescentes de Mato Grosso reveló un predominio del sexo masculino, no blancos y con ocho o más años de escolaridad. Suicidios en Mato Grosso muestran estabilidad en relación al género. En cuanto al color, el Centro-Oeste tiene mayor disparidad en comparación con Mato Grosso. Sin embargo, ambos exhiben un comportamiento epidemiológico similar en la escolaridad. Conclusión: a partir de la última década previa a la pandemia, se predijo el crecimiento de los casos de suicidio entre los adolescentes de Mato Grosso, lo que no se asemeja a todo el perfil esperado para la región del Centro- Oeste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Suicide/ethnology , Suicide/psychology , Mental Health , Mental Health/ethnology , Adolescent Behavior/ethnology , Students , Health Profile , Forecasting
6.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3959, ene.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1450105

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de síntomas de ansiedad y depresión, al igual que su asociación con el tiempo de pantalla, la dieta y la actividad física, en una cohorte de estudiantes de enfermería. Método: estudio descriptivo y transversal sobre una muestra de 648 estudiantes de enfermería. Se utilizaron la Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, la versión corta del International Physical Activity Questionnaire y el Índice de Alimentación Saludable español. Se llevaron a cabo diferentes modelos de regresión lineal múltiple para analizar la asociación entre los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión, y el tiempo de pantalla, la dieta y la actividad física. Resultados: la prevalencia de síntomas de ansiedad y depresión fue de 24,1% y 3,7%, respectivamente. El tiempo de pantalla prolongado (>6 horas por día), baja actividad física y dieta inadecuada se asociaron de manera independiente y significativa con una mayor sintomatología psicológica. Conclusión: la salud mental de los estudiantes de enfermería podría beneficiarse de implementarse iniciativas que promuevan estilos de vida saludables.


Objective: to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as their association with screen time, diet and physical activity, in a cohort comprised by nursing students. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 648 Nursing students. The instruments used were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Spanish Healthy Eating Index (Índice de Alimentación Saludable Español, IASE). Different multiple linear regression models were performed to analyze the association between anxiety/depression symptoms and screen time, diet and physical activity. Results: the prevalence values for anxiety and depression symptoms were 24.1% and 3.7%, respectively. Prolonged screen times (>6 hours a day), low levels of physical activity and inadequate diet were independently and significantly associated with deeper psychological symptoms. Conclusion: Nursing students' mental health might benefit from the implementation of initiatives promoting healthy lifestyles.


Objetivo: determinar a prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão e sua associação com tempo de tela, dieta e atividade física em uma coorte de estudantes de enfermagem. Método: estudo descritivo transversal com amostra de 648 estudantes de enfermagem. Utilizou-se a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, a versão curta do International Physical Activity Questionnaire e o Índice Espanhol de Alimentação Saudável. Foram realizados diferentes modelos de regressão linear múltipla para analisar a associação entre sintomas de ansiedade e depressão e tempo de tela, dieta e atividade física. Resultados: a prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão foi de 24,1% e 3,7%, respectivamente. O tempo prolongado de tela (>6 horas por dia), a baixa atividade física e a dieta inadequada foram associados de forma independente e significativa ao aumento da sintomatologia psicológica. Conclusão: a saúde mental dos estudantes de enfermagem pode ser beneficiada com a implementação de iniciativas que promovam estilos de vida saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Students, Nursing , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Screen Time , Psychological Distress
7.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 31: e69703, jan. -dez. 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437999

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: refletir sobre o estilo de vida dos estudantes de enfermagem no paradigma emergente da modernidade líquida. Conteúdo: ensaio reflexivo alicerçado em 20 artigos sobre o tema discutido criticamente em diálogo com os conceitos de paradigma emergente e modernidade líquida. A discussão se organizou em duas categorias: estilo de vida dos estudantes de enfermagem no contexto da modernidade líquida: da realidade social ao sofrimento psíquico; e estilo de vida dos estudantes de enfermagem e o paradigma emergente: dos paradigmas dominantes à individuação. Considerações finais: os tempos líquidos reverberam no estilo de vida e na saúde dos estudantes de enfermagem, agravando as doenças da pós-modernidade. Destaca-se a maneira como esses estudantes apreendem as dificuldades e o aprendizado que deduzem dessas oportunidades. O estilo de vida destes estudantes deve ponderar o alcance da perspectiva singular e profunda do ser inserido no paradigma emergente.


Objective: to reflect on the lifestyle of nursing students in the emerging paradigm of liquid modernity. Content: reflective essay based on 20 articles on the subject critically discussed in dialogue with the concepts of emerging paradigm and liquid modernity. The discussion was organized into two categories: nursing students' lifestyle in the context of liquid modernity: from social reality to psychic suffering; and lifestyle of nursing students and the emerging paradigm: from dominant paradigms to individuation. Final considerations: liquid times reverberate in the lifestyle and health of nursing students, aggravating postmodern diseases. It is worth highlighting the way in which these students apprehend the difficulties and the learning they deduce from these opportunities. The lifestyle of these students must consider the scope of the singular and profound perspective of being inserted in the emerging paradigm.


Objetivo: reflexionar sobre el estilo de vida de los estudiantes de enfermería bajo el prisma del paradigma emergente de la modernidad líquida. Contenido: ensayo reflexivo basado en 20 artículos sobre el tema, discutido críticamente en diálogo con los conceptos de paradigma emergente y modernidad líquida. La discusión se organizó en dos categorías: el estilo de vida de los estudiantes de enfermería en el contexto de la modernidad líquida: de la realidad social al sufrimiento psíquico; y estilo de vida de los estudiantes de enfermería y el paradigma emergente: de los paradigmas dominantes a la individuación. Consideraciones finales: los tiempos líquidos repercuten en el estilo de vida y la salud de los estudiantes de enfermería, agravando las enfermedades de la posmodernidad. Se destaca la forma cómo estos estudiantes entienden las dificultades y los aprendizajes que deducen de estas oportunidades. El estilo de vida de estos estudiantes debe considerar el alcance de la singular y profunda perspectiva de estar insertos en el paradigma emergente.

8.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3902, ene.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1441991

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar las implicaciones de las actividades prácticas en el Laboratorio de Habilidad y Simulación relacionadas con la motivación y los sentimientos expresados por los estudiantes universitarios cuando regresan a las actividades presenciales luego del aislamiento social ocasionado por la pandemia del COVID-19. Método: estudio cuasiexperimental, con un solo grupo y del tipo pre y postest, realizado mediante una intervención educativa basada en el entrenamiento de habilidades en administración de medicamentos y venopunción, con estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública brasileña. La muestra estuvo conformada por 47 estudiantes. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron los instrumentos de caracterización y autopercepción de los individuos y la Escala de Motivación Situacional. Resultados: en la muestra, el 98% mencionó la falta de actividades prácticas durante la pandemia. El sentimiento descrito con mayor frecuencia fue la ansiedad. Después de realizar la actividad, hubo un cambio en la frecuencia de los sentimientos expresados, aunque no hubo un cambio significativo en los niveles de motivación. Regulación Externa (5,1 - 5,6), Regulación Identificada (6,1 - 6,4) y Motivación Intrínseca (5,6 - 6,0) presentaron resultados altos, demostrando similitud con los sentimientos relatados por los estudiantes. Conclusión: la motivación es fundamental para un aprendizaje efectivo y el uso de metodologías activas refuerza de manera efectiva las habilidades construidas en los estudiantes frente al proceso de aprendizaje.


Objective: to verify the implications of practical activities in the Skills and Simulation Laboratory on the motivation and feelings expressed by undergraduate students when returning to face-to-face activities after the social isolation caused by COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a quasi-experimental study, with a single group and of the pre- and post-test type, carried out through an educational intervention based on skills training on medication administration and venipuncture, with medical students from a Brazilian public university. The sample was comprised by 47 students. The instruments of students' characterization and self-perceived feelings and the Situational Motivation Scale were used for data collection. Results: in the sample, 98% mentioned the lack of practical activities during the pandemic. The most frequently described feeling was anxiety. After carrying out the activity, there was a change in the frequency of expressed feelings, although there was no significant change in motivational levels. External Regulation (5.1 - 5.6), Identified Regulation (6.1 - 6.4) and Intrinsic Motivation (5.6 - 6.0) presented high results, showing similarity to the feelings reported by the learners. Conclusion: motivation is essential for effective learning and the use of active methodologies reinforces skills built in an affective way in the students facing the learning process.


Objetivo: verificar as implicações das atividades práticas no Laboratório de Habilidade e Simulação relacionado à motivação e os sentimentos expressos pelos estudantes universitários quando regressam às atividades presenciais após o isolamento social causado pela pandemia da COVID-19. Método: estudo quase-experimental, com um único grupo, do tipo pré e pós-teste, realizado por meio de uma intervenção educacional baseada no treino de habilidades de administração de medicamentos e punção venosa, com estudantes de medicina de uma universidade pública brasileira. A amostra foi composta por 47 estudantes. Para a coleta de dados, foram utilizados os instrumentos de caracterização dos sujeitos e sentimentos autopercebidos pelos estudantes e a Escala de Motivação Situacional. Resultados: na amostra, 98% referiram falta de atividades práticas durante a pandemia. O sentimento mais frequentemente descrito foi a ansiedade. Após a realização da atividade, observou-se uma mudança na frequência dos sentimentos expressos, embora não se tenha verificado uma mudança significativa nos níveis motivacionais. A Regulação Externa (5,1 - 5,6), a Regulação (6,1 - 6,4) e a Motivação Intrínseca (5,6 - 6,0) apresentaram resultados elevados, demostrando semelhança com os sentimentos relatados pelos alunos. Conclusão: a motivação é essencial para uma aprendizagem eficaz e a utilização de metodologias ativas reforça as habilidades construídas de uma forma efetiva nos estudantes frente ao processo de aprendizagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical , Simulation Training , COVID-19 , Learning , Motivation
9.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3851, ene.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1441994

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analizar cuáles son las variables tecnológicas, derivadas del uso de dispositivo electrónico, predicen el estrés académico, y sus dimensiones en estudiantes de enfermería. Método: estudio transversal de tipo analítico, realizado en 796 estudiantes de seis universidades de Perú. Se empleó la escala SISCO y para el análisis se estimaron cuatro modelos de regresión logística, con selección de variables por pasos. Resultados: entre los participantes, 87,6% presentaron un nivel alto de estrés académico; el tiempo de uso del dispositivo electrónico, el brillo de la pantalla, la edad y el sexo, estuvieron asociados con el estrés académico y sus tres dimensiones; la posición de uso del dispositivo electrónico estuvo asociada con la escala total y con las dimensiones estresores y reacciones. Finalmente, la distancia entre el rostro y el dispositivo electrónico estuvo asociada con la escala total y la dimensión reacciones. Conclusión: las variables tecnológicas y las características sociodemográficas predicen el estrés académico en estudiantes de enfermería. Se sugiere optimizar el tiempo de uso de las computadoras, regular el brillo de la pantalla, evitar sentarse en posiciones inadecuadas y vigilar la distancia, con la finalidad de reducir el estrés académico durante la enseñanza a distancia.


Objective: to analyze which technological variables, derived from the use of electronic devices, predict academic stress and its dimensions in Nursing students. Method: analytical cross-sectional study carried out with a total of 796 students from six universities in Peru. The SISCO scale was used and four logistic regression models were estimated for the analysis, with selection of variables in stages. Results: among the participants, 87.6% had a high level of academic stress; time using the electronic device, screen brightness, age and sex were associated with academic stress and its three dimensions; the position of using the electronic device was associated with the total scale and the stressors and reactions dimensions. Finally, the distance between the face and the electronic device was associated with the total scale and size of reactions. Conclusion: technological variables and sociodemographic characteristics predict academic stress in nursing students. It is suggested to optimize the time of use of computers, regulate the brightness of the screen, avoid sitting in inappropriate positions and pay attention to the distance, in order to reduce academic stress during distance learning.


Objetivo: analisar quais variáveis tecnológicas, derivadas do uso de dispositivos eletrônicos, predizem o estresse acadêmico e suas dimensões em estudantes de enfermagem. Método: estudo transversal do tipo analítico, realizado em 796 estudantes de seis universidades do Peru. Foi utilizada a escala SISCO e foram estimados quatro modelos de regressão logística para a análise, com seleção das variáveis por etapas. Resultados: entre os participantes, 87,6% apresentaram alto nível de estresse acadêmico; o tempo de uso do aparelho eletrônico, o brilho da tela, a idade e o sexo foram associados ao estresse acadêmico e suas três dimensões; a posição de uso do aparelho eletrônico foi associada à escala total e às dimensões estressores e reações. Por fim, a distância entre o rosto e o dispositivo eletrônico foi associada à escala total e à dimensão das reações. Conclusão: variáveis tecnológicas e características sociodemográficas predizem estresse acadêmico em estudantes de Enfermagem. Sugere-se otimizar o tempo de uso dos computadores, regular o brilho da tela, evitar sentar-se em posições inadequadas e atentar-se à distância da tela, a fim de diminuir o estresse acadêmico durante o ensino a distância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stress, Psychological , Students, Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Distance , COVID-19
10.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3884, ene.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1431826

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre la calidad de vida y la presencia de síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés en estudiantes universitarios del área de la salud. Método: estudio transversal que incluyó a 321 estudiantes de carreras del área de la salud. La calidad de vida se midió mediante la escala de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, versión abreviada, en los dominios físico, psicológico, relaciones sociales y ambiente, y los síntomas se evaluaron por la escala de depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Se realizó un análisis multivariante por medio de regresión lineal robusta para evaluar la asociación entre la calidad de vida y los síntomas presentados. Resultados: se observó una asociación negativa entre la calidad de vida y los síntomas de depresión en todos los dominios, mientras que los síntomas de ansiedad tuvieron una asociación negativa en el dominio ambiente, y los síntomas de estrés tuvieron una asociación negativa en el dominio psicológico. La gravedad de los síntomas se asoció desfavorablemente con la calidad de vida, es decir, cuanto mayor la gravedad de los síntomas, menores las puntuaciones medias en todos los dominios. Conclusión: los síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés fueron prevalentes e impactaron negativamente en la calidad de vida de los estudiantes, especialmente en presencia de síntomas depresivos. Las puntuaciones disminuidas se asociaron significativamente con la gravedad de los síntomas.


Objective: to evaluate the association between quality of life and presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in college students in the health area. Method: cross-sectional study that included 321 students from undergraduate courses in the health area. Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization scale, abbreviated version, in the physical, psychological, social relations and environment domains, and symptoms were assessed by the depression, anxiety and stress scale. Multivariate analysis was performed using robust linear regression to evaluate the association between quality of life and symptoms. Results: a negative association was observed between the quality of life and depression symptoms in all domains, while anxiety symptoms showed a negative association in the environment domain, and stress symptoms had a negative association in the psychological domain. Symptom severity was unfavorably associated with quality of life, that is, the greater the symptom severity, the lower the mean scores in all domains. Conclusion: symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were prevalent and had a negative impact on students' quality of life, especially in the presence of depressive symptoms. The decrease in scores was significantly associated with the severity of symptoms.


Objetivo: avaliar a associação entre qualidade de vida e presença de sintomas de depressão, ansiedade e estresse em estudantes universitários da área da saúde. Método: estudo transversal que incluiu 321 estudantes de cursos de graduação da área da saúde. A qualidade de vida foi mensurada por meio da escala da Organização Mundial da Saúde, versão abreviada, nos domínios físico, psicológico, relações sociais e meio ambiente, e os sintomas avaliados pela escala de depressão, ansiedade e estresse. Foi realizada análise multivariada utilizando regressão linear robusta para avaliar a associação entre qualidade de vida e sintomas apresentados. Resultados: observou- se associação negativa entre qualidade de vida e sintomas de depressão em todos os domínios, enquanto os sintomas de ansiedade apresentaram associação negativa no domínio meio ambiente, e os sintomas de estresse tiveram associação negativa no domínio psicológico. A gravidade dos sintomas associou-se de forma desfavorável com a qualidade de vida, ou seja, quanto maior a gravidade dos sintomas, menor a média dos escores em todos os domínios. Conclusão: sintomas de depressão, ansiedade e estresse mostraram-se prevalentes e com impacto negativo na qualidade de vida dos estudantes, principalmente na presença de sintomas depressivos. A diminuição dos escores foi significativamente associada à gravidade dos sintomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Students, Health Occupations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/epidemiology
11.
Humanidad. med ; 23(2)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448427

ABSTRACT

El actual resultado constituye una salida del proyecto de investigación perfeccionamiento de la formación socio-humanista en la educación médica superior, que gestiona el Centro de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en Salud, adscrito a la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Camagüey. El universo estuvo constituido por los estudiantes de primer año de la carrera de Medicina, de los que se seleccionó el grupo I. La muestra quedó constituida por 55 estudiantes. Predominaron los jóvenes del sexo femenino y el grupo de edad entre los 17 y 19 años. El estudio inicial consistió en la revisión de la bibliografía y la aplicación de la encuesta para medir el nivel de conocimiento que los jóvenes poseían sobre la sexualidad. Los resultados demostraron las insuficiencias que existían al respecto. La estrategia educativa se elaboró con el objetivo de contribuir al logro de una sexualidad sana y responsable en los estudiantes y la misma se llevó a la práctica desde septiembre 2020 a junio del 2021.


ABTRACT The current result constitutes a departure from the research project for the improvement of socio-humanist training in higher medical education, managed by the Center for the Development of Social and Humanistic Sciences in Health, attached to the University of Medical Sciences of Camagüey. The universe was made up of first-year students of the Medicine career, from which group I was selected. The sample was made up of 55 students. Young females and the age group between 17 and 19 years predominated. The initial study consisted of a review of the bibliography and the application of the survey to measure the level of knowledge that young people had about sexuality. The results demonstrated the insufficiencies that existed in this regard. The educational strategy was developed with the objective of contributing to the achievement of a healthy and responsible sexuality in students and it was put into practice from september 2020 to june 2021.

12.
Humanidad. med ; 23(2)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448431

ABSTRACT

La necesidad de desarrollar competencias interculturales no solo es un imperativo ético, en términos del respeto y comprensión de aquellas culturas diferentes, sino también un requisito técnico. Un profesional que pueda vincularse exitosamente con personas de diversas culturas probablemente logrará una interacción efectiva con usuarios y comunidades, un mayor nivel de confianza, que se traducirá en una mayor satisfacción con el cuidado y mejor adherencia terapéutica. En el presente artículo se analiza desde el punto de vista teórico la incorporación de la competencia intercultural en los currículos de las carreras de la salud. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de artículos y documentos relacionados con la competencia intercultural en la educación superior en bases de datos Pubmed y Scielo, y en páginas web de organizaciones ligadas con la temática de enseñanza y aprendizaje en educación superior, cultura y diversidad.


The need to develop intercultural competences is not only an ethical imperative, in terms of respect and understanding of those different cultures, but also a technical requirement. A professional who can successfully connect with people from diverse cultures will probably achieve effective interaction with users and communities, a higher level of trust, which will translate into greater satisfaction with care and better therapeutic adherence. This article analyzes from a theoretical point of view the incorporation of intercultural competence in the curricula of health careers. A bibliographic review of articles and documents related to intercultural competence in higher education was carried out in Pubmed and Scielo databases, and in web pages of organizations linked to the subject of teaching and learning in higher education, culture and diversity.

13.
Interdisciplinaria ; 40(2): 169-180, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448488

ABSTRACT

Resumen El capital psicológico y la motivación, bajo la perspectiva teórica de la psicología positiva y la autodeterminación respectivamente, conducen al ser humano a la obtención de resultados y al éxito del desarrollo profesional y personal. Asimismo, ante situaciones problemáticas, representan recursos para generar estrategias de resolución. Se planteó como hipótesis que el capital psicológico ejerce influencia sobre la motivación intrínseca de estudiantes universitarios. El objetivo fue identificar un modelo empírico compuesto por dos factores en interacción de un grupo de 253 estudiantes universitarios de primer ingreso en la carrera de psicología, con un promedio de edad de 19.64 años (DT = 3.34). Se integró una muestra por conveniencia a la que se aplicó un cuestionario con reactivos de tipo escala valorativa: 29 reactivos midieron motivación con cinco opciones de respuesta y 24 reactivos capital psicológico con seis opciones de respuesta. La recolección de datos se realizó en diversas sesiones que duraron aproximadamente 20 minutos; el cuestionario fue contestado voluntariamente, y los datos recabados fueron analizados con ecuaciones estructurales. Se obtuvo un modelo con bondad de ajuste que identificó la influencia del capital psicológico sobre la motivación intrínseca, lo que representa que los estudiantes poseen fuertes motivadores internos para realizar sus estudios y auguran el desempeño exitoso, según advierten algunos estudios preliminares. De acuerdo con la teoría de la autodeterminación, prevalecen los factores internos para generar acciones que repercuten con diversos comportamientos organizacionales.


Abstract Psychological capital and motivation under the perspective of positive psychology and self-determination lead the human being to obtain results and success of professional and personal development; when faced with problematic situations, they also represent resources to generate resolution strategies. In work environments, psychological capital is considered an important resource as the human capital is in any organization. Currently, the study of the psychological capital is focused on university students, which means that educational institutions have to plan the graduate profile that will characterize future professionals. Psychological capital is a construct composed of personal resources defined as: optimism, hope, resilience, and self-efficacy. The data collected in the work environment indicated that these variables could favorably affect organizational effectiveness and job performance. Also, in the educational field, it has been observed that university students who scored high in psychological capital showed greater academic performance and success in completing their studies than those who obtained low scores. Specifically, some studies have shown a predominance of high hope and resilience scores of students. Psychological capital is an antecedent, mediating, or consequent variable that interacts with motivation, with various organizational behaviors, with academic performance, and success in completing professional studies. Therefore, this article set out to identify the influence that psychological capital exerted on the intrinsic motivation of the group of students included in the sample. The aim of this study was to identify an empirical model capable of showing if psychological capital is linked to intrinsic motivation in a group of 253 university newly admitted students the career of Psychology, with an average age of 19.64 years (DT = 3.34); 199 were female and 54 were male. A convenience sample was integrated, by choosing the participation of a cohort of students who were in groups conformed by the preferences of the students' schedules and the availability of space in each classroom. A questionnaire with rating scale items was applied: 29 items belonged to the Educational Motivation Scale, with five response options; and 24 items belonged to the Psychological Capital Scale, with six response options. The items on both scales demonstrated internal consistency in previous research. A psychologist carried out the data collection in several sessions that lasted approximately 20 minutes. The sample voluntarily answered the questionnaire. Structural equations were used to analyze the data. The confirmatory factor analysis technique was performed, since it allowed testing the hypothesis. The empirical model obtained had practical goodness of fit, since it presented a C2 = 26.51 (13 gl, p = .01). The practical goodness of fit was manifested in the fit values of .97 for BBN, .97 for BBNN and .98 for CFI. The RMSEA was equal to .06. The measurement model obtained was made up of four latent first-order variables (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience); these variables formed a latent second-order variable called psychological capital that influenced the second-order variable called intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation was integrated by three first-order latent variables (intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, and intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation). A good-fit model identified the influence of psychological capital on intrinsic motivation, which meant that students had strong internal motivators to carry out their studies and predict successful performance according to some preliminary studies. The empirical model registered also had high factorial weights for hope and resilience. In this study, psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) was associated with intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, and intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation). In previous research, the relationship with motivation was more generic. According to the theory of self-determination, internal factors prevail to generate actions that affect several organizational behaviors.

14.
Interdisciplinaria ; 40(2): 181-196, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448489

ABSTRACT

Resumen La Teoría Social Cognitiva reconoce a la autoeficacia en el marco de las creencias personales que permiten a las personas ejercer cierto control sobre su comportamiento, y es de particular relevancia en relación con la vida universitaria y el rendimiento académico. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión abreviada de la Escala de Autoeficacia para el Rendimiento Académico en universitarios adaptada por Krumm y Lemos (2012). El estudio que se presenta fue de índole instrumental, con un diseño transversal, no experimental y se utilizó un muestreo no probabilístico incidental. Participaron 1044 estudiantes universitarios residentes todos en Formosa capital al momento del estudio. La edad media de los participantes fue de 26 años (DE = 7.125), de los cuales un 24.9 % de hombres (n = 260) y un 75.1 % de mujeres (n = 784). Según la técnica de ecuaciones estructurales, se efectuó el Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC) sobre la versión original de la escala (Modelo 1), y se realizaron dos reespecificaciones que generaron dos modelos: el Modelo 2 definido como una escala unidimensional con 24 ítems y el Modelo 3 o versión breve, definido a partir de una escala unidimensional con nueve ítems. La solución final obtuvo índices de ajuste óptimos (RMSEA = .019; TL I = .999; CFI = .998 y GFI = .997) y confirma que la propuesta de una versión breve de la Escala de Autoeficacia para el Rendimiento Académico presenta adecuadas propiedades psicométricas y posibilita la evaluación de la autoeficacia académica en estudiantes universitarios de manera práctica, por lo que resulta particularmente útil en contextos de investigación.


Abstract The Social Cognitive Theory recognizes Self-efficacy within the framework of personal beliefs that allow people to exercise some control over their behavior, being of particular relevance in relation to university life and Academic Performance. University life poses not only cognitive challenges but also emotional and social challenges that involve the development and mobilization of personal resources to adapt to the demands of higher education. Self-efficacy linked to Academic Performance in this context can be a factor that favors learning in the case of perceived adequately capable, or it can be a factor that contributes to shelling or abandonment in the case of not being adequately experienced. Given its importance, the conceptualization of the concept of Self-efficacy has made possible the design of various scales that allow evaluating this construct, some oriented to the evaluation of General Self-efficacy and others to Self-efficacy in relation to specific aspects. However, given the complexity of the concept and the factors that influence its configuration, it is considered necessary to research and develop specific instruments related to the transit through university life with all the demands that it entails and that allow a deeper understanding of this particular training stage. The present work aimed to study the psychometric properties of the abbreviated version of the Self-efficacy Scale for Academic Performance in university students adapted by Krumm and Lemos (2012). The study presented was instrumental in nature, with a cross-sectional, non-experimental design, an incidental non-probabilistic sampling was used. 1044 university students, all residing in Formosa Capital at the time of the study, participated. The mean age of the participants was 26 years (SD = 7.125), being 24.9% men (n = 260) and 75.1 % women (n = 784). The original Scale consisted of 24 items and three subscales: (1) coping with negative physical and emotional states; (2) social relationships; and (3) coping with positive emotions. The following reliability indices were reported for each subscale: Cronbach's Alpha of .59, .69 and .55 respectively. Considering the technique of structural equations, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out on the original version of the Scale (Model 1), carrying out two re-specifications, which generated two models, Model 2 defined as a one-dimensional Scale with 24 items and Model 3 or short version, defined from a one-dimensional scale with 9 items. The results obtained show that the three dimensions proposed in the original scale did not emerge as such, since the items that made it up presented differences in grouping by factor. The final solution or short version obtained optimal fit indices (RMSEA = .019; TL I = .999; CFI = .998 and GFI = .997). Regarding reliability, the Omega coefficient showed a high internal consistency of the scale both for the original test and for the abbreviated version, indicating that, despite having reduced the number of items on the scale, it retains adequate reliability. From the results obtained, it is confirmed that the proposal of a short version of the Self-efficacy Scale for Academic Performance presents adequate psychometric properties and enables the evaluation of academic self-efficacy in university students in a practical way, which is why it is particularly useful in research contexts.

15.
Interdisciplinaria ; 40(2): 197-214, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448490

ABSTRACT

Resumen La agresión entre pares, sea un caso aislado o recurrente, se ha convertido en un problema cada vez más frecuente que socava el desarrollo psicoafectivo saludable en adolescentes y universitarios. Como en el caso de otras conductas de riesgo, la investigación sugiere que los aspectos emocionales son relevantes para su prevención. El objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar la posible relación entre la agresión entre pares, la agresión frecuente como potencial conducta de bullying, y la diferenciación del self, un constructo procedente de la perspectiva sistémica, vinculado con la autorregulación emocional y la madurez afectiva. Universitarios de entre 17 y 20 años (. = 365), completaron sendos cuestionarios autoadministrados sobre estilos de vida (Carlos et al., 2016) y diferenciación del self (Duch-Ceballos et al., 2022). En esta muestra, los análisis realizados indican que menores niveles de diferenciación del self en los varones se asocian con mayor probabilidad de agresión entre pares, tanto sufrida como ejercida. Además, uno de los componentes de la diferenciación del self, la reactividad emocional, predijo también las probabilidades de agresión (sufrida y ejercida) entre las mujeres. La diferenciación del self está recibiendo una creciente atención como variable relevante para explicar la conducta de los adolescentes y jóvenes emergentes, especialmente en lo que refiere a conductas de riesgo. Este sería el primer estudio sobre la relación entre diferenciación del self, agresión entre pares y agresión frecuente como potencial conducta de buylling. Finalmente, a partir de los resultados encontrados, se plantean futuras líneas de investigación y aplicaciones prácticas.


Abstract The socio-emotional well-being of children and adolescents is a subject of interest, both for academics and researchers, as well as for parents, teachers, and educators. Initiatives on this subject promoted from the scientific and social fields are constantly increasing, and tend to have multiple objectives, among which one is to understand the dynamics of violence and aggression (which can lead to harassment situations), in order to design more effective prevention and intervention programs. Research suggests that emotional aspects are relevant to the prevention of aggression. Within this realm, we have focused on Differentiation of self (DoS). The Differentiation of Self is the central construct of Bowen's (1978) systemic family theory, considered from the systemic perspective as one of the most comprehensive theories of human behavior. With multiple applications in various fields, DoS is a multidimensional construct, defined as the ability to balance emotional and intellectual functioning -intrapsychic dimension-, and intimacy and autonomy in personal relationships -interpersonal dimension-. Based on previous studies in which associations between bullying and socio-emotional competencies were found, the objective of this study was to find relationships between differentiation of self and peer aggression. The sample of this study was comprised of university students between 17 and 20 years old (. = 365; . = 18.3, SD = .7), who were studying the first or second year of different careers at a private university in Argentina. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on lifestyles (Carlos et al., 2016) and the Spanish version of the Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (S-DSI; Rodríguez-González et al., 2015). Considering that peer aggression does not represent bullying in all cases, the association between self-differentiation and peer aggression was first analyzed and, second, this same association was analyzed, but considering frequent aggression. Peer aggression was perpetrated by 54 % of women and 63 % of men (. = .043) and suffered by 72 % of women and 61 % of men (. = .124). Frequent peer aggression was perpetrated by 15 % of women and 21 % of men (. = .001) and suffered by 41 % of women and 24 % of men (. = .146). Both measures of DoS (Emotional reactivity and Emotional cutoff) were associated with a lower prevalence of both aggression and frequent aggression. This work offers two main findings. First, given the high incidence of peer aggression, the results of this study confirm the relevance of the research on peer aggression and, specifically, on frequent aggression associated with bullying. Second, present data suggests the existence of a relationship between differentiation of self and aggression. Since the idea and perceptions about aggression could be changing, new research is suggested, based around the cultural context and social changes that identify how the concept of bullying evolves should be promoted. Moreover, it would be positive to develop new research that can delve into the role played by the differentiation of self, since it is a factor that impacts the development and health of adolescents. The significant relationship between peer aggression and DoS found in this study contributes to the empirical corpus that affirms the relevance of the emotional factor in aggressive and bullying behaviors. In this sense, this study joins others that support the idea of intervening in aggression and buylling through the development of school intervention programs aimed at developing emotional competencies, involving students and also parents and educators.

16.
Interdisciplinaria ; 40(2): 215-229, ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448491

ABSTRACT

Resumen La adquisición de alguna Infección de Transmisión Sexual (ITS) y los embarazos no planificados son riesgos a los que se enfrentan los jóvenes ante la decisión de no usar condón al tener relaciones sexuales. La aproximación del balance decisional enfatiza qué costos y beneficios están asociados a la conducta sexual de riesgo. Las decisiones acerca del uso del condón son un precursor de la conducta y este proceso puede estar influido por los beneficios que se perciban sobre él. El objetivo de la presente investigación es identificar la relación de las ganancias y pérdidas del uso del condón con la conducta sexual de riesgo. Se evaluó la conducta sexual de riesgo y el uso del condón masculino en sus relaciones sexuales. Se midieron las ganancias y las pérdidas del condón con una escala de medición, en una muestra de 257 universitarios, con una edad entre 18 y 39 años (. = 22.34; DE = 3.6) de Querétaro, México. La evaluación del balance decisional indica que las ganancias son mayores que las pérdidas (costos) del uso consistente del condón en las relaciones sexuales. Se encontraron asociaciones entre las ganancias y las pérdidas con indicadores de la conducta sexual de riesgo. Se observa que los universitarios que no utilizan condón manifiestan mayores pérdidas por utilizarlo. En las ganancias, se aprecia un aumento en las puntuaciones cuando se usa condón. Lo encontrado provee apoyo para el desarrollo de intervenciones que promuevan las ganancias o beneficios para incrementar el uso consistente del condón.


Abstract The acquisition of a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) and unplanned pregnancies are risks that young people deal when deciding not to use a condom when having sexual intercourse. During the decision-making process, individuals value the benefits (gains) and losses (costs) associated with a behavior. Cost-benefit analysis has been investigated to examine the differential impact of gains and losses on risky behaviours. The decisional balance approach emphasizes that costs and benefits are associated with risky sexual behavior. Decisions about condom use are a precursor to behavior, and this process may be influenced by perceived benefits. In the present study, it is proposed that the balance between the benefit and the loss of condom use contributes to consistent condom use. These factors as determinants of behaviour must be considered under the cultural context in which they are carried out. The objective of this research is to identify the relationship of gains and losses from condom use with risky sexual behaviour. It was hypothesized that: 1) Young people will evaluate the benefits (gains) with higher scores compared to the losses (costs) in deciding to use a condom in sexual intercourse. 2) The gains will be greater in those college students who use a condom more frequently and the losses will not be the same among those who use a condom. To evaluate risky sexual behavior and the use of the male condom in their sexual relations were considered. Condom gains and losses were measured with a measurement scale in a sample of 257 university students, aged between 18 and 39 years (. = 22.34; SD = 3.6) from Querétaro, México. With reference to sexual behavior, it was found that 89.1 % have started their sexual activity. The average age of initiation of sexual life is 15.41 years. The frequency of sexual activity is once or twice each month. The mean of sexual partners is 4.2, with a median of 3. The 68.5 % reported using some contraceptive method and regarding the use of condoms, 27.8 % always use it and 5.7 % never use it. To evaluate the decisional balance, subtracting the gain and loss factors created a net difference score. The gain factor was subtracted from its counterpart of the loss factor to indicate the preference for having sex with a condom. The decisional balance assessment indicates that the gains are greater than the losses (costs) of consistent condom use in sexual intercourse. Associations were found between gains and losses with indicators of risky sexual behavior. It is observed that university students who do not use a condom show greater losses from using it. In gains, there is an increase in scores when using a condom. Additionally, it is observed that university students, who sometimes use a condom, show greater losses for using it, unlike those who always use it, which show low scores in the losses of using it. In gains factor, there is an increase in the scores when using a condom, that is, those who never or almost never use a condom have the lowest scores and as the scores increase, the frequency of using a condom in their sexual relations also increases. In conclusion, gains and losses from male condom use are associated with risky sexual behavior (age of sexual activity, number of partners and condom use) in the university context. The findings provide support for the development of interventions that promote gains or benefits to increase consistent condom use. It is important to consider in specific interventions those young people who decide to continue having sex without using a condom despite the costs and possible consequences of not using it.

17.
Interdisciplinaria ; 40(2): 245-263, ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448493

ABSTRACT

Resumen El concepto de bienestar subjetivo se refiere a la forma global, positiva o negativa, en la que las personas evalúan sus vidas y experiencias. La búsqueda de factores que expliquen el bienestar subjetivo, actualmente uno de los temas de mayor interés en la psicología, condujo al concepto de satisfacciones de dominios, que se entienden como los juicios que las personas hacen al evaluar los mayores dominios de vida. Este estudio correlacional tuvo por objetivo establecer la relación de la satisfacción en los dominios económico, de pareja, familia, amigos, salud, vida universitaria y rendimiento académico, con los componentes cognitivo y emocional del bienestar subjetivo (satisfacción vital y felicidad, respectivamente), identificando cuáles de esos dominios lo predicen. La muestra, no probabilística, estuvo conformada por 344 estudiantes de una universidad pública colombiana (50.9 % mujeres y 49.1 % hombres) con edades entre 18 y 29 años (. = 20.89; DT = 2.52). Los resultados mostraron una fuerte relación de todos los dominios con el bienestar subjetivo. La satisfacción en los dominios económico, de pareja, familia, amigos y vida universitaria explicó la varianza de la satisfacción vital y la felicidad en forma diferenciada. Se concluye que: (a) el bienestar se afecta con la satisfacción de necesidades asociadas a los dominios cercanos e importantes para el individuo; (b) las satisfacciones de dominios impactan más el componente cognitivo del bienestar que el emocional; (c) el dominio económico satisface más necesidades cognitivas, la amistad suple necesidades emocionales, y la pareja, la familia y la vida universitaria satisfacen ambas.


Abstract The concept of subjective well-being refers to the overall positive or negative way in which people evaluate their lives and experiences. It is generally accepted that subjective well-being is made up of a cognitive component usually called satisfaction with life or life satisfaction and an emotional component usually referred to as happiness. The search for factors that explain subjective well-being is currently one of the most interesting topics in psychology and led to the concept of domain satisfactions, which are understood as the judgments that people make when evaluating the major domains of life. It refers to the perceived degree of satisfaction that we obtain from the way in which each of these main domains or areas of our lives are developed. This correlational study with predictive intent aimed at establishing the relationship of satisfaction in the economic, couple, family, friends, health, university life, and academic performance domains, with the cognitive and emotional components of subjective well-being (life satisfaction and happiness, respectively), identifying which of these domains predict well-being. The non-probabilistic sample, for convenience, was made up of 344 women and men (50.9 % and 49.1 % respectively) between 18 and 29 years of age (M = 20.89); SD = 2.52), students from an important Colombian public university based in the city of Palmira. The instruments, which include the Diener's life satisfaction and Lyubomirsky and Lepper's happiness scales, and simple items for each domain satisfaction studied (economic, couple, family, friends, health, university life, and academic performance) were answered in a format printed by 64 % of the participants and in virtual format by 36 %, according to their own choice. The results showed that all domain satisfactions were significantly related to both the cognitive and the emotional components of subjective well-being. The results also showed that except for satisfaction with health and academic performance, all other domain satisfactions predicted at least one of the components of subjective well-being. In general, domain satisfactions explained the variance of satisfaction and happiness much better than sociodemographic variables. Thus, it was confirmed that the psychological significance of events that occur in the main areas of people´s lives have much more relevance to well-being than situational factors such as sociodemographic ones. In a different sense, and order of impact, satisfaction with the economic domain, satisfaction with university life, and satisfaction with the couple emerged as the domains that had the greatest influence on life satisfaction, and satisfaction with friends and satisfaction with university life emerged as the strongest predictors of happiness. The results suggest that well-being is especially affected by the satisfaction of needs associated with the closest domains and more important to the individual. These would include the economic domain and relationships that involve affections, but also other domains that, for specific reasons, occupy a relevant place in the individual's internal hierarchy of importance, which may vary among cultures and even among people of the same culture. The above conclusion could explain, among other findings, the significant impact of satisfaction with university life on subjective well-being. The results also suggest that, in general, domain satisfactions have a greater impact on the cognitive component of well-being than on the emotional component, and that, in particular, domains such as economics fundamentally satisfy cognitive needs, friendship fundamentally satisfy emotional needs, and other domains such as couple, family and university life, satisfy both cognitive and emotional needs. This would demonstrate the importance of applying differentiated instruments to study the cognitive and emotional components of well-being.

18.
Interdisciplinaria ; 40(2): 265-279, ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448494

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este estudio examina la detección y posterior seguimiento online de problemas de salud mental en estudiantes universitarios y expone los resultados de ambos procesos. Para ello, se aplicó a través de la plataforma de la universidad a 1 707 estudiantes una batería de cuestionarios destinados a detectar desesperanza y riesgo de suicidio, síntomas depresivos y ansiosos, estrés, trastornos de la conducta alimentaria y apoyo social percibido. Una vez aplicados los instrumentos, los estudiantes recibían una retroalimentación acerca de sus niveles de síntomas e información acerca de redes y establecimientos para buscar ayuda y recibir atención en los casos requeridos. A mediados del año siguiente, se realizó una encuesta de seguimiento a 577 de los estudiantes que previamente habían respondido todos los cuestionarios. Los resultados de la batería de cuestionarios aplicados indican altos índices de problemas de salud mental, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas según sexo, siendo las mujeres quienes presentan mayor prevalencia. Estos resultados concuerdan con diversos estudios que muestran altos porcentajes de síntomas de problemas de salud mental en los universitarios. A su vez, el posterior seguimiento permitió evidenciar que el feedback entregado activó la búsqueda de ayuda, y se obtuvieron correlaciones positivas entre sentirse mejor y haber buscado un tratamiento de salud mental o haber pedido ayuda a los amigos o a la familia. El uso de tecnologías de la información en la detección y prevención de salud mental tendría un alcance positivo y resultó ser una herramienta útil, accesible y cercana para los jóvenes.


Abstract The exponential increase in higher education students and the new university profile that incorporates more vulnerable social groups are associated with an increase in mental health problems in this population. Likewise, the complex stage of the life cycle in which these young people find themselves and the stress of the transition between adolescence and adulthood are other risk factors for the development of mental health problems. The emergence of mental health problems in this group could then be due to a confluence of factors, also facilitating risk behaviors. National and international researches have reported the worrying rates of mental health disorders in university students, mainly in relation to the presence of depression, anxiety, stress, alcohol or drug use, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation. These disorders tend to be aggravated, because the university population is prone not to seek help. The stigma of presenting mental health problems, skepticism about treatments, not wanting to worry the closest family and the few economic resources or not having a health plan, lead to not seeking help or do this late. Studies have found that more than half of students who need mental health and support services are not receiving them. On the other hand, a high percentage seeks help late, which implies that the disorders are accentuated or become chronic, which makes subsequent treatment and improvement difficult, even becoming a public health problem due to the high economic and professional demand that these treatments require.

19.
Podium (Pinar Río) ; 18(2)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448875

ABSTRACT

La investigación se realizó en el municipio Jiguaní, provincia de Granma, Cuba. Se inició, a partir de la limitada atención que reciben los educandos fibroquísticos en el contexto escolar; pues, en el sistema educativo cubano no hay evidencias de programas de actividades físico-terapéuticas que orienten la prescripción de ejercicios físicos y tengan en cuenta las posibilidades, potencialidades y necesidades de estos niños. La investigación tiene como objetivo elaborar un programa de actividades físico-terapéuticas, caracterizado por un enfoque integral físico-educativo que mejore la condición física orientada a la salud de educandos con fibrosis quística. Para su desarrollo, se efectuó un estudio correlacional, con diseño pre-experimental en el período comprendido entre septiembre 2019 y junio 2021. Se emplearon métodos teóricos, empíricos y estadístico-matemáticos, así como técnicas de investigación, entre ellos: analítico-sintético, hipotético-deductivo, sistémico estructural-funcional, revisión documental, observación estructurada, criterio de expertos, entrevista, triangulación metodológica y estadística descriptiva e inferencial. A partir de un muestreo intencional, se seleccionaron cuatro educandos con manifestaciones clínicas de las vías respiratorias, baja autoestima y escasa condición física, que representan el total de la población, para el 100 %, con una edad promedio de nueve años. En los resultados del experimento, mediante los indicadores evaluados con la implementación del programa de actividades físico-terapéuticas, se observaron cambios significativos en el 100 % de la muestra, con ello mejoró la condición física orientada a la salud en educandos con fibrosis quística.


A pesquisa foi realizada no município de Jiguaní, província de Granma, Cuba. Ela foi iniciada devido à atenção limitada que os alunos fibrocísticos recebem no contexto escolar, uma vez que no sistema educacional cubano não há evidências de programas de atividades físico-terapêuticas que orientem a prescrição de exercícios físicos e levem em conta as possibilidades, o potencial e as necessidades dessas crianças. O objetivo desta pesquisa é elaborar um programa de atividades físico-terapêuticas, caracterizado por um enfoque físico-educacional integral que melhore a condição física orientada para a saúde dos alunos com fibrose cística. Para seu desenvolvimento, foi realizado um estudo correlacional, com um desenho pré-experimental no período entre setembro de 2019 e junho de 2021. Foram utilizados métodos teóricos, empíricos e estatístico-matemáticos, bem como técnicas de pesquisa, incluindo: analítico-sintético, hipotético-dedutivo, estrutural-funcional sistêmico, revisão documental, observação estruturada, julgamento de especialistas, entrevista, triangulação metodológica e estatística descritiva e inferencial. A partir de uma amostragem intencional, foram selecionados quatro alunos com manifestações clínicas do trato respiratório, baixa autoestima e condição física ruim, representando 100% da população total, com idade média de nove anos. Nos resultados do experimento, por meio dos indicadores avaliados com a implementação do programa de atividades físico-terapêuticas, foram observadas mudanças significativas em 100% da amostra, melhorando assim a condição física voltada para a saúde dos alunos com fibrose cística.


The research was carried out in the Jiguaní municipality, Granma province, Cuba. It began, from the limited attention that fibrocystic students receive in the school context due to in the Cuban educational system there is no evidence of physical-therapeutic activity programs that guide the prescription of physical exercises and take into account the possibilities, potentialities and needs of these children. The objective of the research is to develop a program of physical-therapeutic activities, characterized by a comprehensive physical -educational approach that improves the health-oriented physical condition of students with cystic fibrosis. For its development, a correlational study was carried out, with a pre-experimental design in the period between September 2019 and June 2021. Theoretical, empirical and statistical-mathematical methods were used, as well as research techniques, including: analytical-synthetic, hypothetical-deductive, structural-functional systemic, documentary review, structured observation, expert judgment, interview, methodological triangulation and descriptive and inferential statistics. From an intentional sampling, four students with clinical manifestations of the respiratory tract, low self-esteem and poor physical condition were selected, representing the total population, for 100 %, with an average age of nine years. In the results of the experiment, through the indicators evaluated with the implementation of the program of physical-therapeutic activities, significant changes were observed in 100 % of the sample, thereby improving the health-oriented physical condition in students with cystic fibrosis.

20.
Podium (Pinar Río) ; 18(2)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448889

ABSTRACT

El deporte adaptado, referido al término de actividad física con niños que presentan algún tipo de discapacidad, tiene una evolución histórica relevante, pues desde sus orígenes enfrenta altos retos. Es reconocido que en escuelas de nivel internacional y específicamente en Cuba, se realizan esfuerzos por potenciar la inclusión en el deporte; sin embargo, se considera que todavía son insuficientes las propuestas que, desde el punto de vista científico y metodológico, sustentan el aprovechamiento de las competencias y el desarrollo de habilidades en las personas con discapacidad. Es por ello, que se propone como objetivo de este trabajo visualizar la captación de niños con potencialidades para practicar deportes, desde la Educación Física, en la escuela especial "28 de Enero". En esta investigación, se aplicó una encuesta a los estudiantes sobre sus gustos en materia de deporte y se realizó una caracterización, a partir de aplicación de test que midió la discapacidad intelectual y la discapacidad físico-motor en ellos. Los datos, de forma general, revelaron que con dedicación, superación y trabajo en equipo se pueden obtener resultados satisfactorios no solo en el rendimiento deportivo, sino en la autoestima y calidad de vida en estos estudiantes.


O esporte adaptado, referente ao termo de atividade física com crianças que apresentam algum tipo de deficiência, tem uma evolução histórica relevante, pois desde suas origens tem enfrentado grandes desafios. Reconhece-se que nas escolas, em nível internacional e especificamente em Cuba, estão sendo feitos esforços para promover a inclusão no esporte; no entanto, considera-se que as propostas que, do ponto de vista científico e metodológico, apoiam o uso de competências e o desenvolvimento de habilidades em pessoas com deficiência ainda são insuficientes. É por essa razão que o objetivo deste trabalho é visualizar o recrutamento de crianças com potencial para a prática esportiva, a partir da Educação Física, na escola especial "28 de Enero". Nessa pesquisa, foi aplicado um questionário aos alunos sobre seus gostos pelo esporte e realizada uma caracterização, a partir da aplicação de um teste que mediu a deficiência intelectual e a deficiência físico-motora neles. Os dados, em geral, revelaram que, com dedicação, autoaperfeiçoamento e trabalho em equipe, é possível obter resultados satisfatórios não só no desempenho esportivo, mas também na autoestima e na qualidade de vida desses alunos.


Adapted sport, referred to as the term physical activity with children who have some type of disability, has a relevant historical evolution, since from its origins it has faced high challenges. It is recognized that in international level schools and specifically in Cuba, efforts are made to promote inclusion in sport; however, it is considered that the proposals that, from the scientific and methodological point of view, support the use of skills and the development of skills in people with disabilities are still insufficient. For this reason, the objective of this work is to visualize the recruitment of children with the potential to practice sports, from Physical Education, in the special school "28 de Enero". In this research, a survey was applied to students about their likes in sports and a characterization was carried out, based on the application of a test that measured intellectual disability and physical-motor disability in them. The data, in general, revealed that with dedication, improvement and teamwork, satisfactory results can be obtained not only in sports performance, but also in self-esteem and quality of life in these students.

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