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1.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(3): 335-345, sept. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514373

ABSTRACT

La sialoadenitis crónica esclerosante puede extenderse desde una sialoadenitis focal hasta una cirrosis completa de la glándula. Aparece entre los 40 y 70 años de edad y afecta principalmente a la glándula submandibular. Se asocia con sialolitos y agentes infecciosos inespecíficos. La causa más frecuente de sialolitiasis es la formación de cálculos macroscópicamente visibles en una glándula salival o en su conducto excretor, de los cuales el 80 % al 90 % provienen de la glándula submandibular. Esta predilección probablemente se deba a que su conducto excretor es más largo, más ancho y tiene un ángulo casi vertical contra la gravedad, contribuyendo así a la estasis salival. Además, la secreción semimucosa de la misma es más viscosa. El sitio principal de ubicación de los litos en el conducto submandibular es la región hiliar con un 57 %. La sintomatología típica de la sialolitiasis es el cólico con tumefacción de la glándula y los dolores posprandiales. Reportamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 55 años, quien ingresa al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital General Balbuena de la Ciudad de México por presentar un aumento de volumen en la región submandibular izquierda de consistencia dura y dolorosa a la palpación de 15 días de evolución, acompañada de aumento de temperatura en la zona compatible con un absceso. Los estudios de imagen reportan un sialolito en la región hiliar del conducto submandibular de 2,0 x 1,7 x 1,0 cm. Debido a su localización y tamaño, el tratamiento ideal en estos casos es la escisión de la glándula junto con el lito previo drenaje del absceso e inicio de terapia antibiótica doble.


Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis can range from focal sialadenitis to complete cirrhosis of the gland. It appears between 40 and 70 years of age and mainly affects the submandibular gland. It is associated with sialoliths and nonspecific infectious agents. The most common cause of sialolithiasis is the formation of macroscopically visible stones in a salivary gland or its excretory duct, of which 80 % to 90 % come from the submandibular gland. This predilection isprobably due to the fact that their excretory duct is longer, wider and has an almost vertical angle against gravity, thus contributing to salivary stasis. In addition, the semimucous secretion of it is more viscous. The main location of the stones in the submandibular duct is the hilar region with 57 %. The typical symptomatology of sialolithiasis is colic with swelling of the gland and postprandial pain. We report the case of a 55-year-old male patient, who was admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service of the Hospital General Balbuena in Mexico City due to an increase in volumen in the left submandibular region that was hard and painful on palpation of 15 days of evolution, accompanied by increased temperature in the area compatible with an abscess. Imaging studies report a 2.0 x 1.7 x 1.0 cm sialolith in the submandibular duct hilar region. Due to its location and size, the ideal treatment in these cases is excision of the gland together with the stone previous drainage of the abscess and initiation of dual antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sialadenitis/diagnostic imaging , Submandibular Gland/surgery , Tuberculosis, Oral/diagnostic imaging , Sialadenitis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Oral/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Drainage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 60(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536276

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las guías prácticas de atención al cáncer de cabeza y cuello abordan actualmente la preservación funcional de algunos órganos dentro del tratamiento oncoespecífico. Objetivos: Evaluar guías de práctica clínica y cómo abordan la preservación de la glándula submandibular en la disección del cuello. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación cuantitativa, descriptiva y transversal, donde se evaluaron seis guías de atención al cáncer de cabeza y cuello, en cuanto a su calidad metodológica y la preservación de la glándula submandibular en la disección del cuello. Se utilizó el instrumento Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation y se conformó un equipo compuesto por cuatro evaluadores que dieron su consentimiento y fueron capacitados en su uso. Para el análisis de la información se empleó el Statistical Package for Social Sciences versión 21 y se calculó la puntuación de calidad para cada dominio y el coeficiente de correlación intraclase. Resultados: La mayor puntuación de calidad correspondió a los dominios 1, 4 y 6. La guía con mayor puntuación de calidad fue la de la Sociedad Europea de Oncología Médica, con una media de 94,3 por ciento, mientras que la de la Sociedad China de Oncología Clínica obtuvo el menor valor para un 71,5 por ciento. Tres guías obtuvieron la máxima puntuación de calidad (7) en la evaluación global. La mayor fuerza de concordancia entre los evaluadores correspondió a la guía de la Sociedad Americana de Oncología Clínica (1) y la menor a la del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología (0,93). Conclusiones: Las guías de práctica clínica del cáncer de cabeza y cuello evaluadas presentaron una alta calidad metodológica y la preservación de la glándula submandibular en la disección del cuello no fue abordada en ninguna(AU)


Introduction: Practical guidelines for head and neck cancer care currently address the functional preservation of some organs within oncospecific treatment. Objectives: To evaluate clinical practice guidelines and how they address the preservation of the submandibular gland in neck dissection. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out to evaluate six guidelines for head and neck cancer care, in terms of their methodological quality and the preservation of the submandibular gland in neck dissection. The Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation instrument was used, a team was composed by four evaluators who gave their consent and were trained to use such instrument. For the analysis of the information, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used and the quality score for each domain and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated. Results: The highest quality score corresponded to domains 1, 4 and 6. The guide with the highest quality score was that of the European Society of Medical Oncology reporting an average of 94.3 percent, while that of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology obtained the lowest value (71.5 percent). Three guidelines had the highest quality score (7) in the global evaluation. The highest strength of agreement between the evaluators corresponded to the guideline of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (1) and the lowest to that of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (0.93). Conclusions: The head and neck cancer clinical practice guidelines evaluated presented high methodological quality and the preservation of the submandibular gland in neck dissection was not addressed in any of them(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guideline , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2023 Apr; 121(4): 32-35
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216718

ABSTRACT

Objectives : To study the biometric measurements of the submandibular salivary gland in the Indian population using Computed Tomography. Materials and Methods : From the available database, 300 patients who have undergone Computed Tomography without any salivary gland disease, the CT scans were retrospectively evaluated. The CT scans were obtained with TOSHIBA Activion 16 slice CT machine. The antero-posterior, transverse and cranio-caudal dimensions of bilateral submandibular salivary glands were measured in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes. Results : The mean CT measurements of the patients included was 2.0 ± 0.38 cm in Antero-posterior, 2.1 ± 0.31 cm in Transverse and 2.90 ± 0.27 cm in Cranio-caudal dimensions. The average volume of the submandibular gland was 6.68 ± 0.21 cc.

4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 85-89, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430538

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo demostrar la existencia de variaciones morfológicas en el tejido conectivo de la glándula submandibular de ratas obesas expuestas a glutamato monosódico (GMS). Se utilizaron 12 ratas Sprague Dawley machos recién nacidas (6 ratas para el grupo 1, control; 6 ratas para el grupo 2 (GMS), 4 mg/g de glutamato monosódico de peso (5 dosis) mantenidas por 16 semanas respectivamente con una dieta y agua ad libitum. En el estudio se realizó un análisis estereológico e histológico, demostrándose una variación en el tejido conectivo presentando una disminución del volúmen glandular, mayor fibrosis, y disminución de adipocitos a nivel periférico siendo reemplazado por tejido rico en colágeno. Los vasos sanguíneos observados a nivel estereológico no presentan mayores cambios en cuanto a volumen, superficie y área.


SUMMARY: This study aims to demonstrate the existence of morphological variations in the connective tissue of the submandibular gland of obese rats exposed to MSG. Twelve male newborn Sprague Dawley rats were used (6 rats for group 1, control; 6 rats for group 2 (MSG), 4 mg/g of monosodium glutamate of weight (5 doses) maintained for 16 weeks respectively with a diet and water ad libitum. In the study, a stereological and histological analysis was carried out, demonstrating a variation in the connective tissue, presenting a decrease in the glandular volume, greater fibrosis, and a decrease in adipocytes at the peripheral level, being replaced by tissue rich in collagen. Blood cells observed at the stereological level do not present major changes in terms of volume, surface and area, but in the histological study greater vascularization is observed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Submandibular Gland/drug effects , Obesity , Sodium Glutamate/pharmacology , Blood Vessels/drug effects , Body Weight , Fibrosis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Connective Tissue/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(11): e20230738, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521478

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio on the differentiation of benign and malignant masses in the submandibular triangle. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 48 patients who underwent surgery for submandibular gland masses between January 2013 and February 2023. The patient's age, gender, preoperative complete blood count and imaging findings, postoperative histopathological diagnosis, and hemogram data were analysed. Patients were evaluated according to their postoperative histopathological diagnoses and categorised into four main groups: sialolithiasis, sialadenitis, benign tumours, and malignant tumours. Benign submandibular gland disease formations were evaluated under group B and malignant tumour formations under group M. RESULTS: A preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed on 19 patients due to sialadenitis, pleomorphic adenoma, and malignant diseases other than sialolithiasis. One patient died among the patients with malignant disease and the remaining 7 patients were compared with the benign group of 40 patients regarding preoperative and postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. In the benign group, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was 2.64 preoperatively and decreased to 2.34 in the first postoperative year. The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio decreased from 4.79 to 1.77 postoperatively in the malignant group. A statistically significant difference was observed (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio can be used as a biomarker in submandibular gland masses and has prognostic significance in malignant masses. In addition to fine needle aspiration biopsy results, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio can be used as a biomarker.

6.
Rev. int. Coll. Odonto-Stomatol. Afr. Chir. Maxillo-Fac ; 30(3): 41-44, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1511303

ABSTRACT

Introduction : La lithiase est la plus courante des affections salivaires chez l'adulte. Elle touche principalement la glande submandibulaire. L'atteinte isolée d'une glande est habituelle. Cependant, la lithiase simultanée des deux glandes submandibulaires est moins fréquente. L'objectif était de décrire à partir de l'observation d'un cas, les caractéristiques physiopathologiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de la lithiase submandibulaire bilatérale. Observation : Une patiente de 53 ans, commerçante a consulté en Mars 2022 au Service de Stomatologie et Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale du CHU de Treichville pour une tuméfaction submandibulaire bilatérale. Cette tuméfaction évoluait depuis un an et augmentait de volume au cours des repas. Les antécédents familiaux ont mis en évidence une lithiase submandibulaire bilatérale chez une tante. L'examen clinique a retrouvé une tumeur submandibulaire droite et gauche. L'échographie submandibulaire était en faveur d'une lithiase submandibulaire bilatérale. Une submandibulectomie bilatérale a été réalisée. Aucune complication post opératoire n'a été observée et la patiente est sortie de l'hôpital après deux jours d'hospitalisation. Discussion : Les antécédents familiaux de sialolithiase suggèrent la recherche d'une origine génétique ou familiale de la lithiase bilatérale des glandes submandibulaires, s'il n'existe pas une étiologie évidente ou probable. Conclusion : La lithiase submandibulaire bilatérale est un fait clinique rare mais qu'il faut savoir rechercher même en cas de lithiase submandibulaire isolée.


Introduction: Lithiasis is the most common salivary disease in adults. It mainly affects the submandibular gland. Isolated involvement of one gland is common. However, simultaneous lithiasis of both submandibular glands is less frequent. The objective was to describe, from the observation of a case, the physio-pathological, diagnostic, and therapeutic characteristics of bilateral submandibular lithiasis. Observation: A shopkeeper of 53 years old, consulted a doctor for bilateral submandibular swelling in March 2022 at the Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery at Treichville University Hospital. That swelling has been developing for a year. The family history revealed bilateral submandibular lithiasis in an aunt. Clinical examination showed a right and left submandibular tumor that gained volume during meals. The submandibular ultrasound showed bilateral submandibular lithiasis. A bilateral sub-mandibulectomy was performed. No postoperative complications were observed, and the patient was discharged after a two-day hospital stay. Discussion: In the absence of an obvious or probable etiology, a family history of sialolithiasis suggests a genetic or familial origin for bilateral submandibular gland lithiasis. Conclusion: Bilateral submandibular lithiasis is a rare clinical finding but should be investigated even in cases of isolated submandibular lithiasis


Subject(s)
Lithiasis
7.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 377-384, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007918

ABSTRACT

More than 30 years of rapid development of endoscopic surgery has led to the mainstreaming of this procedure in many surgical departments in China. Since the first report on endoscopy, it has been used in salivary gland resection for more than 20 years. The overall development of endoscopic surgery indicates that its use in oral and maxillofacial surgery is still in the early exploration stage; it has not yet been maturely developed or applied. Owing to the advancement of other disciplines and corresponding widening experiences in those fields, the development of endoscopic technology in oral and maxillofacial surgery will likely achieve a leapfrogging. Learning from the general development pattern of endoscopy, this research explores the application history, current situation, and future direction of the application of endoscopy in salivary gland surgery.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy/methods , Endoscopes , Salivary Glands/surgery , China
8.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 8-12, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971267

ABSTRACT

Sialolithiasis occurs in approximately 0.45% to 1.20% of the general population. The typical clinical symptom manifests as a painful swelling of the affected glands after a meal or upon salivary stimulation, which extremely affects the life quality of the patients. With the development of sialendoscopy and lithotripsy, most sialoliths can be successfully removed with preservation of the gland. However, sialoliths in the deep hilar-parenchymal submandibular ducts and impacted parotid stones located in the proximal ducts continue to pose great challenges. Our research center for salivary gland diseases (in Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology) has used sialendoscopy for 17 years and treated >2 000 patients with salivary gland calculi. The success rate was approximately 92% for submandibular gland calculi and 95% for parotid calculi. A variety of minimally invasive surgical techniques have been applied and developed, which add substantial improvements in the treatment of refractory sialolithiasis. Further, the radiographic positioning criteria and treatment strategy are proposed for these intractable stones. Most of the hilar-parenchymal submandibular stones are successfully removed by a transoral approach, including transoral duct slitting and intraductal basket grasping, while a small portion of superficial stones can be removed by a mini-incision in submandibular area. Impacted stones located in the distal third of parotid gland ducts are removed via "peri-ostium incision", which is applied to avoid a cicatricial stenosis from a direct ostium incision. Impacted parotid stones located in the middle and proximal third of the Stensen's duct are removed via a direct mini-incision or a peri-auricular flap. A direct transcutaneous mini-incision is commonly performed under local anesthesia with an imperceptible scar, and is indicated for most of impacted stones located in the middle third, hilum and intraglandular ducts. By contrast, a peri-auricular flap is performed under general anesthesia with relatively larger operational injury of the gland parenchyma, and should be best reserved for deeper intraglandular stones. Laser lithotripsy has been applied in the treatment of sialolithiasis in the past decade, and holmium ∶YAG laser is reported to have the best therapeutic effects. During the past 3 years, our research group has performed laser lithotripsy for a few cases with intractable salivary stones. From our experiences, withdrawal of the endoscopic tip 0.5-1.0 cm away from the extremity of the laser fiber, consistent saline irrigation, and careful monitoring of gland swelling are of vital importance for avoidance of injuries of the ductal wall and the vulnerable endoscope lens during lithotripsy. Larger calculi require multiple treatment procedures. The risk of ductal stenosis can be alleviated by endoscopic dilation. In summary, appropriate use of various endoscopy-assisted lithotomy helps preserve the gland function in most of the patients with refractory sialolithiasis. Further studies are needed in the following aspects: Transcervical removal of intraglandular submandibular stones, intraductal laser lithotripsy of impacted parotid stones and deep submandibular stones, evaluation of long-term postoperative function of the affected gland, et al.


Subject(s)
Humans , Salivary Gland Calculi/surgery , Constriction, Pathologic , Endoscopy , Salivary Ducts/surgery , Lithotripsy , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 36-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964943

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of Huashi Runzao prescription (HRP) on the histopathological injury and function of submandibular gland in naive non-obese diabetic (NOD/Ltj) mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and its regulatory effect on aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression in submandibular gland cells. MethodThe SS model was induced in NOD/Ltj mice. The NOD/Ltj female mice aged nine weeks were selected and randomly assigned into model group,HRP group (7.15 g·kg-1·d-1),and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group (1.30 g·kg-1·d-1), and female BALB/c mice in the same age were selected and assigned into the normal group, with six mice in each group. Drug intervention lasted eight weeks. The water consumption and salivary flow rate (SFR) of each group were recorded. The pathological staining results of the submandibular gland of mice in each group were observed and scored. AQP5 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot. ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group showed increased water consumption (P<0.05) and reduced SFR (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the HRP group showed decreased water consumption (P<0.05) and increased SFR (P<0.05), and the HCQ group showed increased SFR (P<0.05). In terms of histopathological results of the submandibular gland,compared with the normal group,the model group showed increased pathological score, number of lymphocyte infiltration foci,and percentage of lymphatic infiltration area (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the HRP group showed reduced pathological scores and number of lymphocyte infiltration foci (P<0.05), and the HRP group and the HCQ group showed reduced percentage of lymphatic infiltration area(P<0.05). The results of IHC and Western blot showed that compared with the normal group,the model group showed down-regulated expression level of AQP5 protein (P<0.05), and compared with the model group and the HCQ group,the HRP group showed up-regulated expression level of AQP5 protein (P<0.05). ConclusionHRP can improve the secretion function of submandibular gland acinous cells and glandular structure injury in SS model mice, and its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of AQP5 protein expression level in submandibular gland cells.

10.
Arch. Head Neck Surg ; 51: e20220011, Jan-Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401265

ABSTRACT

Some situations can lead to obstruction of Wharton's duct. Obstructions are usually due to endogenous causes, such as calculi, fibromucinous plugs, stenosis, and malformations of the duct system; however, in rare situations, obstructions can also have exogenous causes, such as foreign bodies. The tortuous anatomy of Wharton's duct hinders the retrograde migration of straight-shaped foreign bodies, as well as makes their spontaneous discharge virtually impossible. Here, we report the case of a 47-year-old woman with an asymptomatic foreign body in Wharton's duct that was spontaneously discharged.

11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(3): 365-374, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384169

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are uncommon pathological entities, representing less than 5% of head and neck neoplasms. The prognosis of patients with malignant tumors of the salivary glands is highly variable and certain clinical factors can significantly influence overall survival. Objective To analyze the clinicopathologic and sociodemographic characteristics that influence survival in patients with malignant tumors of the salivary glands Methods This retrospective study analyzed sex, age, race, education level, tumor location, tumor size, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, margin status, treatment type, marital status, method of health care access and 15-year overall survival in 193 patients with malignant tumors of the salivary glands. The X², log-rank Mantel-Cox, multinomial regression and Cox logistic regression tests were used (SPSS 20.0,p < 0.05). Results The most common histological types were adenocarcinoma (32.1%), adenoid cystic carcinoma (31.1%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (18.7%). The 15-year overall survival rate was 67.4%, with a mean of 116 ± 6 months. The univariate analysis revealed that male sex (p = 0.026), age > 50 years (p = 0.001), referral origin from the public health system (p = 0.011), T stage (p = 0.007), M stage (p < 0.001), clinical stage (p < 0.001), compromised surgical margins (p = 0.013), and chemotherapy (p < 0.001) were associated with a poor prognosis. Multivariate analyses also showed that age > 50 years was independently associated with a poor prognosis (p = 0.016). The level of education was the only factor more prevalent in older patients (p = 0.011). Conclusion Patients with malignant tumors of the salivary glands older than 50 years have a worse prognosis and an independent association with a low education level.


Resumo Introdução Os tumores malignos das glândulas salivares são entidades patológicas incomuns, representam menos de 5% das neoplasias de cabeça e pescoço. O prognóstico dos pacientes com tumores malignos das glândulas salivares é altamente variável e alguns fatores clínicos podem influenciar significativamente a sobrevida global. Objetivo Analisar as características clinicopatológicas e sociodemográficas que influenciam a sobrevida em pacientes com tumores malignos das glândulas salivares. Método Este estudo retrospectivo analisou sexo, idade, etnia, nível de escolaridade, localização do tumor, tamanho do tumor, envolvimento linfonodal, metástase distante, margens, tipo de tratamento, estado civil, método de acesso à assistência médica e sobrevida global em 15 anos de 193 pacientes com tumores malignos das glândulas salivares. Foram usados os testes X2, log-rank Mantel-Cox, regressão multinomial e regressão logística de Cox (SPSS 20.0, p < 0,05). Resultados Os tipos histológicos mais comuns foram adenocarcinoma (32,1%), carcinoma adenoide cístico (31,1%) e carcinoma mucoepidermoide (18,7%). A taxa de sobrevida global em 15 anos foi de 67,4%, com média de 116 ± 6 meses. A análise univariada revelou que sexo masculino (p = 0,026), idade > 50 anos (p = 0,001), origem de referência do sistema público de saúde (p = 0,011), estádio T (p = 0,007), estádio M (p < 0,001)), estágio clínico (p < 0,001), margens cirúrgicas comprometidas (p = 0,013) e quimioterapia (p < 0,001) foram associados a um prognóstico ruim. As análises multivariadas também mostraram que a idade > 50 anos foi associada independentemente a um prognóstico ruim (p = 0,016). O nível de escolaridade foi o único fator mais prevalente em pacientes idosos (p = 0,011). Conclusão Pacientes com tumores malignos das glândulas salivares acima de 50 anos apresentam pior prognóstico e associação independente com baixo nível de escolaridade.

12.
Indian J Cancer ; 2022 Dec; 59(4): 591-596
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221733

ABSTRACT

Background: There is no oncologic basis for the extirpation of the submandibular gland (SMG) in early oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) unless the SMG is truly infiltrated by the tumor. The study aimed at assessing the true involvement of SMG in OSCC and to determine whether the gland extirpation in all cases is justified. Methods: This study prospectively evaluated the pathological involvement of SMG by OSCC in 281 patients, who were diagnosed with OSCC and underwent wide local excision of the primary tumor with simultaneous neck dissection. Results: Among 281 patients, 29 (10%) cases underwent bilateral neck dissection. A total of 310 SMG were evaluated. Involvement of SMG was seen in 5 (1.6%) cases. SMG metastases from Level Ib were seen in 3 (0.9%) of cases, whereas 0.6% showed direct SMG infiltration from the primary tumor. The advanced floor of mouth and lower alveolus cases had a higher tendency to infiltrate SMG. In none of the cases, bilateral or contralateral SMG was involved. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the extirpation of SMG in all cases is truly irrational. Preserving the SMG is justified in early OSCC with no nodal metastasis. However, SMG preservation is case dependent and is an individual preference. Further studies are required to assess the locoregional control rate and salivary flow rate in postradiotherapy cases where SMG is preserved.

13.
Medisan ; 26(2)abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405795

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 56 años edad, quien acudió al Servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Central de Maputo, capital de Mozambique, por presentar aumento de volumen debajo de la lengua, del lado derecho, lo cual le causaba dolor al ingerir alimentos. Durante la exploración clínica se corroboró el aumento de volumen en el piso de la boca, conformado por una zona amarillenta, rodeada de un halo eritematoso que dolía a la palpación. Se diagnosticó una sialolitiasis de la glándula submandibular derecha y se indicó enucleación quirúrgica con anestesia local. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente y no presentó recidivas.


The case report of a 56 years patient is described. He went to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service of Maputo Central Hospital, capital of Mozambique, due to an increase of volume under the tongue, on the right side, which caused him pain when ingesting foods. During the clinical exploration the increase of volume was corroborated in the bottom of the mouth, conformed by a yellowish area, surrounded by an erythematosus halo that hurted at palpation. A sialolithiasis of the right submandibular gland was diagnosed and a surgical enucleation with local anesthesia was indicated. The patient had a favorable clinical course and he did not present relapses.


Subject(s)
Submandibular Gland , Surgery, Oral , Salivary Gland Calculi , Mouth Floor
14.
Indian J Cancer ; 2022 Mar; 59(1): 123-127
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221662

ABSTRACT

Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is a rare malignant tumor of Langerhans cells and uncommonly involves head and neck regions. Unlike Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), it has an aggressive clinical course with malignant cytological features. Till now, a handful of cases have been reported and the common anatomical sites involved are skin, lymph node, and bone in loco – regional cases and lymph node, lung, liver, spleen, and bone in disseminated disease. Due to its rarity, standard protocols of treatment for these patients are not yet well established. Herein, we report such a case in a 25-year-old male presenting with a bilateral submandibular swelling, which was diagnosed as LCH on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and later confirmed to be a case of LCS in histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. The authors are aware of only a single similar case being reported in the English literature.

15.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1435-1440, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014021

ABSTRACT

Aim To study the effect of gender differences in C57BL / 6J mice on antigen induced Sjogren's syndrome(SS)model. Methods The submandibular gland protein of C57BL/6J female and male mice was extracted and mixed with the same amount of Freund's complete adjuvant(FCA)for the first three times, the antigen concentration was adjusted to 2.5 g·L-1, mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant(FIA)for the fourth time, and the same-sex mouse antigen was injected into the back of mice for a total of four times to induce the mouse SS model. The mouse SS model was induced by multi-point intradermal injection of antigen on the back of mice for four times,the body weight of female and male mice was measured every week, the general condition was observed, the saliva volume of mice was measured at the sixth week of modeling. After the mice were sacrificed, the pathological changes of submandibular gland and the changes of T and B lymphocyte subsets in spleen were detected, and the differences in SS model preparation between female and male mice were compared. Results The SS model of male and female mice was successfully established, and there was no significant difference in general condition, saliva volume, submandibular gland pathology, plasma cells and memory B cells between male and female SS mice. The success rate of SS model was 75% in female mice and 60% in male mice. Compared with normal mice of the same sex, the weight loss of female SS mice was earlier and more obvious than that of male SS mice; the submandibular gland index of male mice was significantly higher than that of female mice. Compared with normal mice of the same sex, the proportion of Th17 and Treg cells in spleen of female SS mice was more statistically significant than that of male SS mice. Conclusions The success rate of SS modeling in female mice is higher than that in male mice. Compared with male SS mice, female SS mice have more significant SS like manifestations and pathological manifestations, which can provide a reference basis for the selection of gender when establishing SS model.

16.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 89-94, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of acid stimulation on salivary flow rate and compositions of human parotid and submandibular glands, so as to provide basis for comprehensive evaluation of salivary gland function in both health and disease status.@*METHODS@#In the study, 210 healthy participants' whole saliva samples were collected under passive drooling, and their parotid gland and submandibular gland secretions were collected by negative pressure suction. 2% citric acid was dropped on the tip of tongue every 1 min for acid stimulation for a total of 5 times to collect stimulated whole saliva, parotid and submandibular gland saliva. The collected saliva was weighed and saliva flow rate was calculated. The K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, total protein, total phosphorus and α-amylase in saliva samples were detected by biochemical analyzer, and the changing features of flow rate and compositions of different kinds of saliva were compared and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#After acid stimulation, saliva flow rate significantly increased. The increase proportion of parotid gland saliva (10.7 folds) was much higher than that of submandibular gland saliva (2.9 folds). The concentrations of Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, total protein and α-amylase in parotid gland saliva increased significantly (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in total phosphorus and K+ (P=0.89, P=0.34). The concentration of Na+ and Ca2+ in saliva of submandibular gland increased significantly(P < 0.05), the concentration of total phosphorus decreased significantly(P < 0.05), and the concentration of Cl- increased, but the difference was not significant(P=0.068). There was no significant difference in total protein, K+ and α-amylase (P=0.85, P=0.07, P=0.95). The compound secretion rate of total phosphorus in saliva of submandibular gland remained unchanged(P=0.066), while the secretion rate of K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, total protein and α-amylase significantly increased(P < 0.01). The compound secretion rate of K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, total protein and total phosphorus and α-amylase in parotid gland saliva increased(P < 0.01). The concentrations of Na+, Cl-, K+, total phosphorus, total protein and α-amylase in parotid were higher than those in submandibular gland (P < 0.01), and the concentration of Ca2+ in submandibular gland saliva was significantly higher than that in parotid (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The response of parotid to acid stimulation is stronger, and the secretion of submandibular gland is more stable. Acid stimulation significantly influences the concentrations of electrolytes in saliva, and the composited secretion rate is an evaluation index to reflect both flow rate and composition concentration of saliva. The parotid gland plays an important role in the secretion of total protein, total phosphorus and α-amylase in saliva, and the submandibular gland is the main source of Ca2+ in saliva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parotid Gland , Saliva , Secretory Rate , Submandibular Gland , Tongue
17.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 13-17, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936106

ABSTRACT

Some kinds of chronic sialadenitis were recognized during the recent years. They have specific pathogenesis, clinical and histopathologic appearances, and require specific treatment. IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS) is one of the immune-mediated diseases, characterized by tumefactive lesions. The incidence of IgG4-RS obviously increased during the past 30 years. The study on the potential relationship between occupational exposure to chemical substances and the incidence of IgG4-RS showed that subjects with occupational exposure to agents known to cause IgG4-RD had an increased risk for IgG4-RS. Surgical excision of involved SMG could not control the disease progression, which is not recommended for treatment of IgG4-RS. The combination of glucocorticoid and steroid-sparing agents is effective for treating IgG4-RS, and restores salivary gland function. Radioiodine induced sialadenitis (RAIS) is one of the common complications of postoperative adjuvant treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer by 131I. The incidence of the disease is related to radiation dosage. Clinically, the patients suffered from swelling and tenderness in the buccal or submandibular regions, especially during the mealtime. Imaging appearances are similar to those of chronic obstructive sialadenitis. Conservative managements, such as gland massage, sialagogues, are the mainstream methods in the treatment of RAIS. Sialendoscopy is feasible for RAIS, but not as effective as conventional obstructive sialadenitis (COS). Therefore the prevention of RAIS is crucial. Eosinophilic sialodochitis (ES) is a new type of chronic inflammatory disease of the salivary gland related to allergy. It has characteristics of swelling of multiple major salivary glands, strip-like gelatinous plugs discharged from the duct orifice of the gland, elevated level of serum IgE and eosinophils in peripheral blood, infiltration of eosinophils and IgE positive plasma cells in the tissues, allergic history, increased expression of allergy-related cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin, which suggest allergic reactions as a potential pathogenesis of the disease. The clinical, laboratory, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of ES are significantly different from conventional obstructive sialadenitis (COS). Therefore, it is suitable to separate ES from COS. Conservative managements, such as self-maintenance therapy and anti- allergic modality are the choices of treatment for ES. Based on the results of our comprehensive studies a new classification of chronic sialadenitis is suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Iodine Radioisotopes , Salivary Glands , Sialadenitis/etiology , Submandibular Gland
18.
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ; (12): 258-265, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920549

ABSTRACT

Objective@# To summarize the clinical manifestations of IgG4-related diseases in the head and neck, explore treatment methods.@*Methods @#The clinical data of 21 patients diagnosed with IgG4-related diseases were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical data and the results of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive therapy were studied retrospectively.@* Results@#All patients had swollen sclerotic masses, and CT showed irregular high-density masses with uniform enhancement in the enlarged glands. Some patients had mucosal thickening and mass-like changes in theoral cavity, nose, sinuses, throat and other tissues, and most of the patients had cervical lymphadenopathy and elevated serum IgG4 levels (≥ 1.35 g/L). Histopathological examination of affected exosine glands and affected mucosa and lymph nodes in all patients showed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and IgG4+ plasma cells. In 21 patients, the mass in the affected glands and mucosa (including head, neck and other tissues) disappeared, and the clinical symptoms were relieved after the application of glucocorticoids. However, with a reduction in glucocorticoids, the mass recurred or even worsened.@*Conclusion @#For patients with a single mass in the submandibular gland, parotid gland and other salivary glands, as well as lymph node enlargement, CT is the first choice to identify the nature of gland neoplasms. Combined with pathological examination, related auxiliary examination and peripheral blood examination are also needed to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Glucocorticoid therapy is used to achieve a good prognosis, and long-term follow-up and timely adjustment of medication regimens are required.

19.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1302-1310, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385477

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Considering that the submandibular gland (SMG) of postnatal mice performs active cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation which are regulated by proto-oncogene products in cancerous cells, the expression and localization of a proto-oncogene product HER (human epidermal growth factor receptor)-2 was examined in SMG of postnatal mice. In Western blot analysis, the expression for HER-2 was high until pre-puberty, and it decreased from puberty to young adult stages with male SMG more dominant. In immunohistochemistry, the immunoreactivity was positive in acinar and ductal cells of newborn SMG with distinct localization at the intercellular apposition sites. The immunoreactivity in acinar cells progressively decreased to negligible levels by pre-pubertal stage, while it remained positive in most ductal cells throughout the postnatal time-course. The immunoreactivity in cells of terminal tubules and intercalated ducts, both of which have a high potential to produce cells, were seen at levels similar to those of more proximal ducts, while the immunoreactivity in ductal basal cells was significantly high, but the granular convoluted tubule cells were seen at negligible levels in male and at faint levels in female. In immuno-electron microscopy of excretory ducts, the immunoreactivity was dominantly localized on the basal infolding membranes as well as vesicles and vacuoles of various sizes, but rarely in Golgi apparatus and mitochondria. The immunoreactivity without association to any membranous structures were also seen, though not numerous. The relation of expression levels of HER-2 in various portions of normal SMG to those in their cancerous ones is briefly discussed.


RESUMEN: Considerando que la glándula submandibular (GSM) de ratones postnatales realiza la proliferación celular activa, apoptosis y diferenciación que están reguladas por productos protooncogénicos en células cancerosas, la expresión y localización de un producto protooncogénico HER (receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano) - 2 se examinó en GSM de estos ratones. En el análisis de Western blot, la expresión de HER-2 fue alta hasta la prepubertad, y disminuyó desde la pubertad hasta las etapas de adultos jóvenes con GSM macho más dominante. En inmunohistoquímica, la inmunorreactividad fue positiva en las células acinares y ductales de GSM de recién nacido con una localización distinta en los sitios de aposición intercelular. La inmunorreactividad en las células acinares disminuyó progresivamente a niveles insignificantes en la etapa prepuberal, mientras que permaneció positiva en la mayoría de las células ductales durante el transcurso del tiempo posnatal. La inmunorreactividad en las células de los túbulos terminales y los conductos intercalados, los cuales tienen un alto potencial para producir células, se obser- vó a niveles similares a los de los conductos más proximales, mientras que la inmunorreactividad en las células basales ductales fue significativamente alta, pero en el túbulo contorneado granular las células se observaron en niveles insignificantes en los machos y en niveles débiles en las hembras. En la microscopía inmunoelectrónica de los conductos excretores, la inmunorreactividad se localizó de manera predominante en las membranas de pliegues basales, así como en vesículas y vacuolas de varios tamaños, pero raramente en el aparato de Golgi y en las mitocondrias. También se observó la inmunorreactividad sin asociación a ninguna estructura membranosa, aunque no numerosa. Se discute brevemente la relación de los niveles de expresión de HER-2 en varias porciones de GSM normal con aquellos en sus cancerosos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Submandibular Gland/growth & development , Submandibular Gland/metabolism , Sex Characteristics , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Submandibular Gland/ultrastructure , Testosterone , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Microscopy, Immunoelectron
20.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 21(2): 27-30, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1382258

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A sialolitíase é um distúrbio da glândula salivar que afeta 12 em cada 1.000 indivíduos adultos. É caracterizada pela deposição de minerais dentro de seu ducto ou parênquima, sendo a glândula submandibular a mais afetada. Os sialolitos têm tamanhos variados, quando maiores que 15 mm são raros e relatados como sialolitos gigantes. Sialolitos gigantes dentro do parênquima glandular ou porção proximal do ducto são geralmente tratados de forma invasiva por via extraoral com excisão da glândula associada. Relato de caso: Este estudo relata um caso incomum de um paciente diagnosticado com sialolito salivar gigante localizado na porção proximal de um ducto da glândula submandibular, assintomática, tratado por remoção cirúrgica por via intraoral, minimizando riscos potenciais e obtendo sucesso no tratamento. Considerações finais: Mesmo sialolitos localizados em regiões mais profundas do ducto submandibular, o acesso intraoral pode ser uma alternativa viável e de menor risco... (AU)


Introduction: Sialolithiasis is a disorder of the salivary gland that affects 12 out of 1,000 adult individuals. It is characterized by the deposition of minerals within its duct or parenchyma, with the submandibular gland being the most affected. Sialolites have varying sizes, when larger than 15 mm they are rare and reported as giant sialolites. Giant sialoliths within the glandular parenchyma or proximal portion of the duct are usually treated invasively by the extraoral route with excision of the associated gland. Case report: This study reports an unusual case of a patient diagnosed with giant salivary sialolith located in the proximal portion of a submandibular gland duct, asymptomatic, treated by intraoral surgical removal, minimizing potential risks and achieving treatment success. Final considerations: Even sialoliths located in deeper regions of the submandibular duct, intraoral access can be a viable and less risky alternative... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Submandibular Gland , Submandibular Gland/surgery , Surgery, Oral , Salivary Gland Calculi , Salivary Duct Calculi , Parenchymal Tissue
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