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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883370

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of action of Celastrus paniculatus oil on the treatment of perinatal rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: In the perinatal stage, the rats were either isolated or administered with lead acetate to establish an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Atomoxetine served as the reference standard. Animals' behaviours were assessed through Y-maze, novel object preference, fear conditioning and resident-intruder aggression tests. Oxidative stress parameters, bioamine concentration (dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine), nerve growth factor, interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were estimated. Synaptophysin immunohistochemical assay was performed. Results: Celastrus paniculatus oil significantly improved behavioural parameters in Y maze, novel object preference, discrimination index, fear conditioning and resident intruder aggressive tests. The treatment groups showed a decrease in malondialdehyde level. Changes in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin were restored by Celastrus paniculatus oil. Celastrus paniculatus oil increased nerve growth factor and decreased interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and TNF-α. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was also improved by Celastrus paniculatus oil with alleviated reactive gliosis, degeneration, and vascular proliferation. Conclusions: This research shows the therapeutic potential of Celastrus paniculatus oil for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

2.
International Eye Science ; (12): 958-962, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876735

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To study the effect of monocular form deprivation(MD)on the synaptic density in the visual cortex of the amblyopic rats during the critical period of visual development, the visual cortical synaptophysin(SYN)expression and significance of its expression, as well as the relationship between the synaptic density and the visual function. This research will provide mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of amblyopia.<p>METHODS: Normal newborn Long Evans rats were randomly divided into normal control group and amblyopia model group, each with 16 rats. Both groups of rats were raised in the same environment. The normal control group did not receive any treatment. On the 13d after birth, the amblyopic model group received monocular suture to establish a classic monocular form deprived amblyopic model. Both groups of rats were received Visual evoked potential(F-VEP)detection on the 51d. Samples were taken immediately after the detection. The transmission electron microscope and Image J image analysis software were used to observe and analyse the synaptic density in the V1M of the primary visual cortex of the two groups of rats. Frozen sections of visual cortex were stained by immunofluorescence histochemical staining by bleaching method and the expression of SYN positive neurons was observed and quantitatively analyzed. <p>RESULTS: F-VEP examination showed that compared with the normal control group, the P2 latency of the deprived eyes in the amblyopic group was significantly long, and the amplitude of P2 wave was significantly lower than that of normal eyes(<i>P</i><0.05); Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the synaptic density of the bilateral visual cortex of the amblyopic model group was significantly reduced compared with the normal control group(<i>P</i><0.05), the contralateral visual cortex of the amblyopic eye decreased more significantly(<i>P</i><0.05); immunofluorescence staining results showed that the brain slices in the visual cortex of the two groups were intact and the tissue structure was clear under the microscope. Compared with the normal control group, the expression intensity of SYN positive neurons in the amblyopic group was significantly reduced(<i>P</i><0.01).<p>CONCLUSION: There is structural synaptic plasticity during the critical period of visual development. Monocular form deprivation can reduce the synaptic density, SYN expression and the visual function in the primary visual cortex of the amblyopic rats.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908061

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of prenatal taurine supplementation on sensorimotor ability and synaptophysin (Syn) expression in the hippocampus of juvenile rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).Methods:The IUGR rat model was induced by food restriction throughout pregnancy.Pregnant rats were randomly divided into normal control group, IUGR group and IUGR+ taurine group.Sensorimotor ability was tested in 2-week-old juvenile rats via grading the tail suspension scores and beam balance test scores, followed by detecting Syn expression in the hippocampus of juvenile rats by immunohistochemistry and Western blot.The correlation between sensorimotor ability scores and Syn expression was assessed.Results:Tail suspension time[(14.62±3.46) s vs.(25.38±5.92) s, P<0.001] and beam balance test scores [(9.08±1.38) scores vs.(12.08±1.16) scores, P<0.001] in the IUGR group were significant lower than those of normal control group.Tail suspension time (22.77±5.16) s and beam balance test scores (11.08±1.38) scores in IUGR+ taurine group were significantly higher than those in IUGR group (all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference comparable to those in normal control group ( P>0.05). The average optical density ( A) value [(53.96±2.37)% vs.(61.68±3.07)%, P<0.001] and protein expression of Syn (1.82±0.23 vs.2.23±0.17, P<0.001) in rat hippocampus of IUGR group were all signi-ficantly lower than those in normal control group.The A value [(60.27±2.59)%] and expression of Syn protein (2.07±0.17) in IUGR+ taurine group were significantly higher than those in IUGR group (all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference comparable to those in normal control group ( P>0.05). The expression of Syn in rat hippocampus was positively correlated with the tail suspension test time and beam balance test scores (all P<0.05). Conclusions:Prenatal taurine supplementation can improve the sensorimotor ability of juvenile rats with IUGR by upregulating Syn in the hippocampus.

4.
Acupuncture Research ; (6): 310-314, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844167

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: From the perspective of β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity and synaptic plasticity, the mechanism of electroacupuncture to improve learning and memory ability in the early pathological stages of Alzheimer's disease was explored. METHODS: Twelve male amyloid-protein precursor (APP)/γ-secretase (PS1) double transgenic AD mice were randomly and equally divided into electroacupuncture (EA) group and model group, and other 6 male C57BL/6 mice were used as the normal group. EA (1 Hz/50 Hz, 0.5 mA) was applied to "Baihui" (GV20) and bilateral "Yongquan"(KI1) for 15 min, once every other day for 6 weeks. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the positive expression of Aβ in the left hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the positive expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the left hippocampus. Western blot was used to detect the expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin (SYN)in the right hippocampus. RESULTS: Immunofluorescence results showed that extracellular Aβ was seen in the model group and electroacupuncture group, but no senile plaques were seen. Compared with the normal group, the expression level of Aβ in the hippocampus of the model group increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expression of Aβ in the hippocampus of the EA group decreased (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical results showed that compared with the normal group, the PSD-95 positive expression in the model group was decreased(P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the expression of PSD-95 in the EA group was increased (P<0.05). Western blot results showed that compared with the normal group, the expression levels of PSD-95 and SYN in the hippocampus of the model group were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expression levels of PSD-95 and SYN in the EA group were increased (P<0.05,P <0.01). CONCLUSION: EA can reduce the expression of Aβ in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice and increase the expression of PSD-95 and SYN, which may contribute to its effect in improving the synaptic plasticity.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862691

ABSTRACT

<b>Objective::To investigate the mechanism of Buyang Huanwu Tang (BYHWT) in improving synaptic structural plasticity after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. <b>Method::Middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model was established. SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, model group, BYHWT group, BYHWT+ Gap26(connexin43 inhibitor)groups. BYHWT was given twice a day(16 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), Gap26 was intraperitoneally injected once a day since the third day after surgery (25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>). Brain was taken out at the 7<sup>th</sup> day. The changes of neuronal synaptic and gap junction ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Synaptophysin (SYN) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) protein expression were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. <b>Result::The structure of synapses was integrated, and the gap junctions were clear in sham-operated group. In the hippocampus of model group, the structure was destroyed, and the gap junctions disappeared. Compared with the sham-operated group, model group up-regulated the expressions of SYN and GAP-43 (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). In the hippocampus of BYHWT group, the structure was close to the normal. Furthermore, BYHWT up-regulated the expressions of SYN and GAP-43 (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). However, after the combined administration with Cx43 inhibitor (Gap26), the damage of synaptic structural decreased, only a small number of gap junctions with the structural integrity can be seen, and the effect of BYHWT on SYN and GAP-43 was inhibited (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). <b>Conclusion::BYHWT could improve the hippocampal synaptic structural plasticity obviously after the CIRI. The mechanism may be related to the increase of the expression of Cx43 and the promotion of the intervention of SYN and GAP-43.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 475-487, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792995

ABSTRACT

ProBiotic-4 is a probiotic preparation composed of , , , and . This study aims to investigate the effects of ProBiotic-4 on the microbiota-gut-brain axis and cognitive deficits, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. ProBiotic-4 was orally administered to 9-month-old SAMP8 mice for 12 weeks. We observed that ProBiotic-4 significantly improved the memory deficits, cerebral neuronal and synaptic injuries, glial activation, and microbiota composition in the feces and brains of aged SAMP8 mice. ProBiotic-4 substantially attenuated aging-related disruption of the intestinal barrier and blood-brain barrier, decreased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor- at both mRNA and protein levels, reduced plasma and cerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) nuclear translocation in the brain. In addition, not only did ProBiotic-4 significantly decreased the levels of -H2AX, 8-hydroxydesoxyguanosine, and retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I), it also abrogated RIG-I multimerization in the brain. These findings suggest that targeting gut microbiota with probiotics may have a therapeutic potential for the deficits of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and cognitive function in aging, and that its mechanism is associated with inhibition of both TLR4-and RIG-I-mediated NF-B signaling pathway and inflammatory responses.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into neuron-like cells, which have been listed as the preferred stem cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury. However, due to their low differentiation efficiency, it is particularly important to find a factor with high induction ability. Based on literature review and our previous studies, it is speculated that bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) gene may play a vital role in promoting the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuron-like cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neurons induced by BMP-7 lentivirus vector transfection. METHODS: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured by whole bone marrow adherence method, and then were transfected with LV-GFP when multiplicities of infection were 50, 25, 10, and 1. Green fluorescent protein expression was observed using fluorescence inversion microscope in each group at 3 days after transfection, to confirm the best multiplicity of infection. Passage 3 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were divided into blank control group (routine culture), LV-GFP group, and LV-BMP-7-GFP group, followed by transfection at the best multiplicity of infection. After 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours of transfection, MTT assay was used to detect cell survival rate in each group. Immunocytochemical assay was used to detect the expression of nerve cell markers (neurofilament protein 200, synaptophysin-1) after 3 days of transfection. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) After 3 days of LV-GFP transfection, GFP-positive cells were observed under fluorescence microscopy when multiplicities of infection were 10, 25, and 50, whereas no GFP-positive cells were found when the multiplicity of infection was 1. The average fluorescence intensity was the highest when the multiplicity of infection was 10 (P < 0.05), indicating that multiplicity of infection=10 had the best infection effect. (2) Immunocytochemical results showed that the expression of neurofilament-200 and synaptophysin-1 was negative in the blank control group and LV-GFP group, but positive in the LV-BMP-7-GFP group. The cell body and axon in the LV-BMP-7-GFP group were dyed bright brown. In summary, lentivirus-mediated BMP-7 transfection can promote the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuron-like cells.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is significantly associated with cognitive decline. Our previous studies have found that mitochondrial aging, increased silent synapses and α-synuclein are important pathological changes of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Simvastatin is a traditional lipid regulation agent that can traverse the blood brain barrier, and exerts anti-atherosclerosis, anti-thrombosis and anti-inflammatory effects to improve cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of continuous oral simvastatin for 3 months on cognitive function of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion male Sprague-Dawley rats, and explore the clinical significance of simvastatin in preventing and treating vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into model group, sham group, solvent group and simvastatin group. In the model group, rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. In the sham group, the bilateral common carotid arteries were not ligated. In the solvent group, the model rats were intragastrically treated with 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium. In the simvastatin group, the model rats were intragastrically treated with simvastatin suspension. Interventions in each group lasted for 3 months. Behavioral tests were then used to evaluate the learning and memory ability of rats in each group. The expressions of synaptophysin and post-synaptic density 95, key proteins of presynaptic and postsynaptic membrane, were detected by western blot. Ethical approval was obtained from the Animal Experimental Ethics Committee of the General Hospital of Western Theater Command with approval No. 2019ky79. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the sham group, the learning and memory functions of the rats in the model group were significantly impaired. In the open-field test, the moving distance within 5 minutes was significantly reduced in the model group compared with the sham group (P < 0.05), suggesting that autonomous exploration behavior was impaired. In the place navigation test, escape latency was significantly shortened in the model group, implicating the reference memory was damaged. In the spatial probe test, the frequency of passing through the platform and the time for passing through target quadrant were reduced, indicating that the space exploration ability was reduced. In the simvastatin group, however, these indexes were all improved. Western blot results showed that the protein expression of synaptophysin and post-synaptic density 95 decreased significantly in the model group (P < 0.05), but increased in the simvastatin group as compared with the solvent group. Therefore, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion can significantly impair learning and memory function and reduce cognitive level in rats. Continuous oral simvastatin for 3 months can improve cognitive function in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats, which indicates that simvastatin may be used as an adjunctive drug to improve the prognosis of patients with vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905456

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of Ganoderma triterpenoids combined with exogenous monosialoteterahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on cognitive dysfunction in rats with epilepsy. Methods:A total of 75 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into blank control group, epileptic model group, Ganoderma triterpenoids group, GM1 group and GM1 combined with Ganoderma triterpenoids group (combination group), with 15 rats in each group. All the groups, except the blank control group, were intraperitoneally injected with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) 35 mg/kg once a day for 28 days. Medication groups were given corresponding administration based on daily intraperitoneal injection of PTZ. They were tested with Morris Water Maze; and were observed with transmission electron microscopy and HE staining for hippocampal neurons. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of actin-binding protein (Cofilin), synaptophysin (SYN) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) mRNA in hippocampus of rats. Results:Compared with the blank control group, the escape lantency prolonged in the epileptic model group in all the time points (P < 0.05). Compared with the epileptic model group, the escape lantency shortened in the treatment groups somewhen (P < 0.05). Compared with the epileptic model group, the number of crossing the platform increased in the treatment groups (P < 0.01), and the time of staying in the target quadrant prolonged (P < 0.01); while the number of pyramidal cells increased, the nuclear lysis and fragmentation reduced, the structure of neurons and the number of synapses improved, as well as the organelle structure. Compared with the blank control group, the expression of Cofilin mRNA increased (P < 0.05), and the expression of SYN mRNA and GAP-43 mRNA decreased (P < 0.05) in the epileptic model group; compared with the epileptic model group, the expression of Cofilin mRNA decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of SYN mRNA increased (P < 0.05) in all the treatment groups, while the expression of GAP-43 mRNA increased (P < 0.05) only in the combination group. Conclusion:Ganoderma triterpenoids, GM1 and their combination can improve the learning and memory abilities of epileptic rats, which may be associated with increasing the expression of SYN and GAP-43, decreasing the expression of Cofilin, to promote the synaptic remodeling of hippocampal tissue and protect brain neurons from PTZ-induced epilepsy.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196339

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 5-year-old male child presenting with seizures for 4 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cortical-based solid cystic lesion in the right parietal lobe. Histopathological examination showed a tumour comprised of spindled glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) positive neoplastic cells interspersed with bizarre pleomorphic cells showing nuclear pseudoinclusions and intermingled dysplastic ganglion cells variably immunopositive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, Neu-N and immunonegative for neuron filament protein (NFP). This report highlights the occurrence of the rare composite pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma-ganglioglioma and the vagaries of immunohistochemical analysis in highlighting neuronal differentiation in such a case setting. In addition, to the best of our knowledge this is the youngest patient till date to present with this entity.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-744255

ABSTRACT

AIM:To investigate the expression of synaptophysin in the CA1 region of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) , and to explore the mechanism of spatial memory changes in PTSD rats.METHODS:Healthy adult SD rats (n=36) were randomly divided into 2 groups:control group and model group, with 18 rats in each group.The rats in model group was continuously given single prolonged stress (SPS) to construct the PTSD model.Morris water maze (MWM) was used to test the learning and memory ability of the rats in the2 groups.The protein expression of synaptophysin in the hippocampal CA1 area and PFC was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments.RESULTS:The latency of the rats in searching for the underwater platform in model group was significantly longer than that in control group from the 2nd day (P<0.01) in the MWM experiment, the target quadrant swimming time was significantly shortened (P<0.01) , and the times of crossing the platform were also significantly reduced (P<0.01).The results of immunohistochemistry, Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments showed that the expression of synaptophysin was obviously reduced in the CA1 region of hippocampus and PFC in model group as compared with control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).CONCLUSION:The reduction of spatial memory ability in PTSD rats may be associated with the decreased expression of synaptophysin in the CA1 region of hippocampus and PFC.

12.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(1): 111-117, feb. 2018. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899979

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El carcinoma primario de vagina representa 1 a 2% de los cánceres ginecológicos, siendo la diferenciación histológica neuroendocrina de células pequeñas extremadamente infrecuente, sólo se han reportado 28 casos en la literatura, describiéndose en orden de frecuencia en cérvix, endometrio, ovario, vagina y vulva. Se observa con más frecuencia en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Se presenta el caso de paciente femenino, de 39 años de edad, quien acude a la consulta por presentar secreción genital serohemática, fétida, de 1 mes de evolución, evidenciándose al examen físico lesión exofítica, friable, renitente, de aproximadamente 4 cm de diámetro, en tercio superior y cara posterolateral izquierda de vagina, por lo que se realiza biopsia excisional de dicha lesión, siendo el diagnóstico anatomopatológico carcinoma neuroendocrino de células pequeñas, grado histológico: 3. A propósito de este caso, se realiza una revisión del tema, haciendo hincapié en la importancia de la exploración ginecológica exhaustiva que incluya tomas de citologías y colposcopias periódicas, tomando en cuenta la vagina y así, realizar diagnóstico precoz en vista que el riesgo de carcinoma en dicha zona es infrecuente, mejorando el pronóstico y sobrevida de las pacientes.


ABSTRACT The primary carcinoma of the vagina represents 1 to 2 % of gynecologic cancers, being the histological differentiation neuroendocrine of small cells extremely infrequent, only 28 cases have been reported in the literature, describing in order of frequency: in the cervix, endometrium, ovary, vagina and vulva. It is most commonly seen in postmenopausal women. We present the case of a female patient, 39 years old, who comes to medical consult due to serohematic, fetid, genital discharge of 1 month of evolution, evidencing at physical examination an exophytic lesion, friable, renitent, with a diameter of approximately 4 cm, in the upper third and posterolateral left side of the vagina, for which an excisional biopsy of said lesion is performed, being the anatomopathological diagnosis neuroendocrine carcinoma of small cells, histological grade: 3. A bibliography reviewed was made, emphasizing the importance of exhaustive gynecological exploration with periodic cytology and colposcopy examinations, including the vagina for early diagnosis in view of carcinoma risk in this area is uncommon, improving the prognosis and survival of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Vaginal Diseases/diagnosis , Vaginal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Small Cell/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Small Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Vaginal Diseases/pathology , Vaginal Neoplasms/pathology , Chromogranins , Synaptophysin , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851629

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of magnolol on hippocampal neuroplasticity in depression model rats. Methods In this study, depression model rats were prepared with unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), and was given different doses of magnolol (20, 40 mg/kg) for 28 d. The rats in the positive control group were given fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) for 28 d. The ameliorative effects of magnolol on symptom of depression were investigated through behavior tests including open-field test, sucrose preference test, and forced-swimming test. The mRNA levels of Map-2, Gap43, and SYP in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum of rats in each group were detected by qRT-PCR, and the localization and expression of MAP-2, GAP43, and SYP in the hippocampus were observed by immunohistochemical staining analysis. The quantitative analysis of MAP-2, p-MAP-2, and p-ERK in hippocampus of rats in each group were further analyzed by Western blotting. Results UCMS was able to decrease the sucrose preference index, reduce locomotor activity and increase the immobility time in the forced swimming test. Compared with model group, magnolol significantly increased the spontaneous activity of rats, increased the consumption of sugar and water, and decreased the immobility time of chronic stress rats in forced swimming (P < 0.05, 0.01). Magnolol reversed MAP-2 mRNA and protein level in the hippocampus, increased phosphorylated MAP-2 expression in the hippocampus (P < 0.05), and significantly restored the p-ERK expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion Magnolol can affect the phosphorylation of MAP-2 through ERK pathway and increase the expression of MAP-2, thus affecting the neuronal plasticity and exerting its antidepressant effect.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-183651

ABSTRACT

Background: The principle findings of synaptophysin immunoreactivity (SynpIR) during the ontogeny of rabbit spinal cord are: At E14, SynpIR precedes in the entire marginal layer especially at the entrance zone of dorsal root and motor neurite outgrowth emerged from the basal plate. At E21, SynpIR is expressed in the motoneurons of ventral and lateral horns of mantle layer growing into the ventrolateral columns of marginal layer. Methods: We found intensely stained thick tracts and diffuse axons among proliferating neuroblasts of mantle layer. The peripheral parts of ventral horns were occupied with closely packed multipolar neurons from which long dendrites departed toward the surface of marginal layer. Results: At E28, pronounced SynpIR presented in the ventral grey horn while the white matter was faintly stained., meanwhile the dorsal horn was more cellular than ventral and lateral horns. Few intensively SynpIR fibers cross the dorsal and ventral commissures. In adult, profuse SynpIR appeared in the entire grey matter, and stained dendrites departed from neurons in the lateral laminae into the adjacent funiculi as finger-like projections. These projections did not reach the surface, so that the outer one-third to onefourth of the funiculi contained little or no SynpIR. In the periphery of ventral horns, we found large multipolar neurons with faintly stained cytoplasm. The white matter and the neuroepithelial cells surrounding the central canal were almost unstained. Conclusion: Synaptophysinis a reliable marker for fiber outgrowth and synapse formation in therabbit spinal cord, and its differential expression levels is specific and almost completed before birth.

15.
Cambios rev. méd ; 16(2): 76-79, jul.- 2017. ^eilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981245

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El carcinoma de células pequeñas de vejiga es una neoplasia poco frecuente que puede coexistir con un carcinoma urotelial. Ocurre principalmente en el sexo masculino en la séptima y octava décadas de vida. Macroscópicamente se observa como una masa sólida, polipoide y microscópicamente se conforma por células atípicas con núcleos hipercromáticos y una alta tasa mitótica. Caso: Paciente de 56 años, masculino, fumador que refiere que desde hace 6 meses presentó hematuria, con disuria y dificultad para orinar. Se realizó cistoscopía encontrándose lesión tumoral en vejiga por lo que se sometió a cistoprostatectomía radical. Discusión: El carcinoma vesical de células pequeñas es poco frecuente y puede coexistir con el carcinoma urotelial. El estudio anátomo patológico es fundamental para determinar el diagnóstico siendo necesarios marcadores de inmunohistoquímica como sinaptofisina, CD56, cromogranina y enolasa. La cirugía, quimioterapia y radiación se utilizan para dar un tratamiento multidisciplinario de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare neoplasm, which can coexist many times with an urothelial carcinoma. It occurs mainly in males in the seventh and eighth decades of life. Macroscopically it is observed as a solid and polypoid mass and microscopically it is conformed by atypical cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and a high mitotic rate. Case: A 56-year-old man, smoker who has hematuria for six months, and dysuria and difficulty to urinate. In a cystocopy a bladder tumor is identified and a radical cistoprostectomy is performed. Discusion: Small cell vesical carcinoma is uncommon and may coexist with urothelial carcinoma. The anatomical pathological study is fundamental to determine the diagnosis, requiring immunohistochemical markers such as synaptophysin, CD56, chromogranin and enolase. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation are used to provide a multidisciplinary treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Small Cell , Stem Cells , Cystectomy , Smokers
16.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(1): 47-53, mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844395

ABSTRACT

Introduction or case story: Young female patient (24 years-old), without known morbid precedents. She comes for a ten-days period of symptoms characterized by fever of up to 38.5 °C and a dyspnoea grade III. Physical exam showed decreased vesicular murmur on the right pulmonary base with dullness and positive vocal vibrations. Exams: Thorax X-ray: Atelectasis condensation on the right pulmonary base. CT chest scan without contrast: Nodule located in an intermediate bronchus which generates atelectasis in the basal bronchi. Fibro-bronchoscopy (FOB): A tumour-like injury blocking 100% of the right intermediate bronchus’ duct. Biopsy: Pulmonary tissue with haemorrhagic areas, granular tissue with small cellular clusters of lobular disposal and glandular shape with eccentric central nuclei cells, with homogenous chromatin and without atypical mitosis. Immunohistochemistry: Intensely positive cells to synaptophysin and CD56. Diagnosis: Neuroendocrine Typical Carcinoid Tumor. Comments: The patient evolves without progression of dyspnoea, she is waiting for a surgical resolution of tumour at National Institute of Thorax.


Introducción o historia del caso: Mujer joven de 24 años de edad, sin antecedentes mórbidos, acudió por cuadro de 10 días de evolución, de fiebre de hasta 38,5 °C y disnea grado III. Al examen físico destacó a nivel pulmonar: murmullo pulmonar disminuido en base pulmonar derecha, matidez de la misma zona y vibraciones vocales positivas. Exámenes: Radiografía de Tórax: Condensación atelectásica en base pulmonar derecha. TAC de Tórax sin contraste: Imagen nodular a nivel de bronquio intermedio, que genera atelectasia en bronquios basales. Fibrobroncoscopía (FBC): Lesión tumoral que ocluye el 100% del lumen para bronquio intermedio derecho. Biopsia: Tejido pulmonar con áreas de hemorragia, tejido granulatorio y tumor con acúmulos celulares de disposición lobular y glanduliforme, con núcleos centrales excéntricos, cromatina homogénea, sin atipias. Inmunohistoquímica: Células intensamente positivas para sinaptofisina, y CD-56. Diagnóstico: Tumor Neuroendocrino Carcinoide típico Comentarios: Paciente evoluciona sin progresión de su disnea, esperando resolución quirúrgica del tumor en Instituto Nacional del Tórax.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Carcinoid Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoid Tumor/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnostic imaging , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-238381

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of "nourishing liver and kidney" acupuncture therapy on motor and cognitive deficits,and the underlying mechanism following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) via increasing the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptophysin (SYN) in the hippocampus.Healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (n=51),model group (n=51),acupuncture group (n=51) and acupuncture control group (n=51).The middle cerebral I/R model was established.Acupunctures were performed in the acupuncture group and acupuncture control group at acupoints of Taixi (K103),Taichong (ST09) of both sides,for 30 min once daily every morning.The animals in the sham operation group and model group were conventionally fed in the cage,without any intervention therapy.The rats of each group were assessed with modified neurological severity scores (mNSS).The expression of BDNF and SYN in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemical SP method and the synaptic structure in hippocampus area was assessed morphologically and quantitatively at the 3rd,7th and 14th day.The Morris water Maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the rats' learning and memory abilities on the 15th day after acupuncture.The animals in the acupuncture control group and sham operation group presented no neurological deficit.In the acupuncture group,the nerve functional recovery was significantly better than that in the model group at the 7th and 14th day after modeling.The average MWM escape latency in the acupuncture group was shorter than that in the model group at the 3rd,4th and 5th day.The number of crossings of the platform quadrant in the acupuncture group was significantly more than that in the model group.At the each time point,the expression levels of BDNF and SYN in the hippocampal regions increased significantly in the model group as compared with the sham operation group and the acupuncture control group.In the acupuncture group,the expression levels of BDNF at the 7th and 14th day increased more significantly than those in the model group.In the acupuncture group,the expression levels of SYN at the each time point increased more significantly than those in the model group.The post-synaptic density (PSD) was significantly increased and the synapse cleft width was narrowed in the acupuncture group as compared with other groups.The synaptic curvatures were improved obviously in the acupuncture group in contrast to the model group.It was concluded that the "nourishing liver and kidney" acupuncture therapy has positive effects on behavioral recovery,as well as learning and memory abilities,probably by promoting the expression of BDNF and SYN,and synaptic structure reconstruction in the ipsilateral hippocampus after I/R in rats.The "nourishing liver and kidney" acupuncture therapy can promote the functional recovery in rats after cerebral ischemia injury.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-667830

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at Baihui (GV20), Dazhui (GV14) and Shenshu (BL23) acu-points on cognitive function and the synapse of neurons in hippocampal CA1 in SAMP8 mice,to explore the mechanism of EA in the treat-ment of Alzheimer's disease(AD).Methods A total of 24 seven-month-old SAMP8 mice were randomly divided into model group(n=12) and EA group (n=12), and the same age SAMR1 mice were as control group (n=12).The EA group accepted EA at Baihui, Dazhui and Shenshu for 30 days.They were assessed with Morris maze test.The expression of synaptophysin(SYN)and postsynaptic density protein 95(PSD95)in hippocampal CA1 region were detected with immunohistochemistry.The morphology and density of synapse in hippocampal CA1 region was observed with transmission electron microscopy.Results Compared with the model group,the latency of Morris maze de-creased in EA group(P<0.05),the time staying in the quadrant of the platform increased(P<0.05),as well as the number passing the origi-nal platform(P<0.05),with the more expression of SYN and PSD95 in hippocampal CA1 region(P<0.001),and more and completed syn-apse.Conclusion EA can improve the learning and memory ability of SAMP8 mice by increasing the expression of SYN and PSD95 to pro-tect the ultrastructure of synapses in hippocampal CA1 region.

19.
Chinese Journal of Immunology ; (12): 1828-1831, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-663757

ABSTRACT

Objective:To prepare the synaptophysin and chromogranin A monoclonal antibodies with clinical evalua -tion.Methods:The fuse gene (Syn and CgA) was designed and it was constructed on the expression vector pET-28a.Then ,the fusion protein was purified.After protein immunization , cell fusion and screening , the target antibodies were selected .Specificity study and correlation coefficient of Syn and CgA was evaluated by clinical sample comparison validation .Results:By screening,two antibodies 3D9 and 4A12,respectively,for Syn and CgA,were obtained.19 kinds of wax block organization were detected by 3D9,4A12 and control antibody(Leica).The statistical results were analyzed ,the results were in good agreement ,and the correlation coefficients were r=0.9892 and r =0.9939, respectively.Conclusion: This method is prepared to obtain the synaptophysin and chromogranin A antibodies successfully and both can be used for immunohistochemistry .This method can also provide some reference for the study of antibody .

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-512811

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of the three kinds of EE on the cognitive function and the expression of SYN and MAP-2,and the dentritic growth of pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex in rats.Method:Forty-eight male SD rats were divided into preserving the physique EE group (EE1),preserving the spirit EE group (EE2),preservation for both physique and spirit EE group(EE3) and standard group (SE),12 rats in each group.Rats were put into the three kinds of EE or standard cages after pre-training.The environmental enrollment lasted for 14 days and followed by a 6-days Morris water maze test.After the Morris water maze test,all the rats were sacrificed for histological study,including using the immunohistochemistry method to detect the expression of SYN and MAP-2,and using the Golgi-Cox staining to study the dentritic growth of pyramidal cells in cerebral cortex.Result:In the Morris water maze,the EE3 group exhibited shorter escape latency than the MCAO+SE group (P<0.05) on day 5,while no significant differences were seen for the time spent in the target quadrant among the 4 groups (P> 0.05).The results of immunohistochemical staining of SYN showed that the expression of SYN was the lowest in the SE group,and there was no significant difference between EE1 and EE3 groups but significantly higher than the EE2 group.The expression of MAP-2 was the lowest in the SE group,and there was no significant difference of expression between EE1 and EE2 groups but significantly lower than the EE3 group.The results of Golgi-Cox staining showed that there was no difference of the dentritic branch among groups in mPFC (P> 0.05) while the spine density of the EE1 group was significantly greater than that of the SE and EE2 groups (P < 0.05),but significantly lower than that of the EE3 group (P < 0.05).Conclusion:Two weeks of preservation from both physique and spirit EE can improve the cognitive function,and promote the expression of MAP-2 and SYN and the dentritic growth of pyramidal cells in normal rats.

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