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Rev. bras. entomol ; 66(2): e20220006, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376629


ABSTRACT Anthidiini comprise a large, diversified, and widely distributed tribe of megachiline bees. Recently, morphological and molecular analyses recovered five major monophyletic groups within the tribe. For this reason, we review the current classification of the tribe, giving status of subtribe to these lineages. A new subtribe, Epanthidiina (type genus: Epanthidium Moure), is proposed for a large group restricted to the Neotropical region. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic hypotheses support the taxonomic limits of the new subtribe. We also propose a new genus, Urbanthidium (type species: Anthodioctes gracilis Urban), in order to accommodate results from a previous study in which Anthodioctes Holmberg came out paraphyletic. Two species are transferred to the new genus: Urbanthidium gracile (Urban) comb. n., Urbanthidium psaenythioides (Holmberg) comb. n.

Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e210064, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351162


We propose a revised classification of Doradidae based on phylogenetic analyses of sequence data for one nuclear (rag1) and two mitochondrial (co1, 16s) genes, and corroborated by caudal-fin morphology. The molecular dataset comprises 174 doradid specimens representing all 31 valid genera, 83 of the 96 valid extant species and 17 species-level taxa that remain undescribed or nominally unassigned. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of molecular data support six major lineages of doradids assigned here to three nominal subfamilies (Astrodoradinae, Doradinae, Wertheimerinae) and three new ones (Acanthodoradinae, Agamyxinae, Rhinodoradinae). The maximum parsimony topology of Doradidae was sensitive to ingroup density and outgroup age. With the exceptions of Astrodoradinae and Doradinae, each subfamily is diagnosed by caudal-fin characteristics. The highest degree of fusion among skeletal elements supporting the caudal fin is observed in Acanthodoradinae and Aspredinidae, lineages that are sister to the remaining doradids and aspredinoids (i.e., Auchenipteridae + Doradidae), respectively. Fusion among caudal-fin elements tends to be higher in taxa with rounded, truncate or emarginate tails and such taxa typically occupy shallow, lentic habitats with ample structure. Caudal-fin elements are more separated in taxa with moderately to deeply forked tails that occupy lotic habitats in medium to large river channels.(AU)

Propomos uma classificação revisada de Doradidae baseada na análise filogenética de dados moleculares dos genes rag1, co1 e 16s, e suportada pela morfologia da nadadeira caudal. A matriz molecular inclui 174 espécimes de doradídeos representando os 31 gêneros válidos, 83 das 96 espécies viventes e 17 táxons não descritos ou nominalmente não designados. As análises de parcimônia e bayesiana suportam seis linhagens principais de doradídeos atribuídas a três subfamílias nominais (Astrodoradinae, Doradinae, Wertheimerinae) e três novas subfamílias (Acanthodoradinae, Agamyxinae, Rhinodoradinae). A árvore de máxima parcimônia de Doradidae é sensível à densidade de grupo interno e a idade do grupo externo. Com exceção de Astrodoradinae e Doradinae, cada subfamília é diagnosticada por características da nadadeira caudal. Dentro da família Doradidae e da superfamília Aspredinioidea (Aspredinidae, Auchenipteridae e Doradidae), o maior grau de fusão entre os elementos da nadadeira caudal é observado nas linhagens mais antigas, Acanthodoradinae e Aspredinidae, respectivamente. A fusão entre os elementos da nadadeira caudal é maior em táxons com a caudal arredondada, truncada ou emarginada e esses táxons normalmente ocupam habitats lênticos rasos. Os elementos da nadadeira caudal são mais separados em táxons com a cauda bifurcada ocupando habitats lóticos em canais de rios médios a grandes.(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Catfishes/genetics , Ecosystem , Osteology/methods
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e210040, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351153


Lophiosilurus is a monotypic genus represented by L. alexandri, a species endemic to the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. In previous phylogenetic analyses, the genus has been recovered as the sister group of Cephalosilurus. However, few species of Cephalosilurus or few characters were included in those studies. Thus, the current study aims to test the monophyletic hypothesis of the genera Lophiosilurus and Cephalosilurus with a more comprehensive phylogenetic analysis, including all Cephalosilurus species and a representative number of characters. Phylogenetic analyses of 18 terminal taxa (15 ingroups and three outgroups) were conducted based on a combined 75 character matrix, including 70 discrete morphological characters concerning osteology and neuroanatomy, four continuous characters, and the geometric morphometry of the head. The monophyly of the family Pseudopimelodidae was highly supported, and Cephalosilurus is synonymized with Lophiosilurus. The recovered phylogeny of the genus was (L. albomarginatus (L. nigricaudus (L. apurensis (L. fowleri, L. alexandri)))).(AU)

Lophiosilurus é um gênero monotípico representado por L. alexandri, uma espécie endêmica da bacia do rio São Francisco, Brasil. Em análises filogenéticas anteriores, o gênero foi recuperado como grupo irmão de Cephalosilurus. No entanto, poucas espécies de Cephalosilurus ou poucos caracteres foram incluídos nesses estudos. Assim, este estudo tem como objetivo testar a hipótese de monofilia dos gêneros Lophiosilurus e Cephalosilurus, com uma análise filogenética mais abrangente, incluindo todas as espécies de Cephalosilurus e um número representativo de caracteres. As análises filogenéticas de 18 táxons terminais (15 do grupo interno e três grupos externos) foram realizadas com base em uma matriz combinada de 75 caracteres, incluindo 70 caracteres morfológicos discretos de osteologia e neuroanatomia, quatro caracteres contínuos e um de morfometria geométrica da cabeça. A monofilia da família Pseudopimelodidae foi altamente apoiada e Cephalosilurus foi sinonimizado como Lophiosilurus. A filogenia recuperada do gênero foi (L. albomarginatus (L. nigricaudus (L. apurensis (L. fowleri, L. alexandri))).(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Catfishes , Osteology , Rivers , Neuroanatomy
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e210083, 2021. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351152


A new species of Rhyacoglanis is described from the rapids of Jatobal, Pará State, Brazil. This species differs from the congeners by fusing hypurals 3, 4, and 5 (vs. hypural 5 free). It also differs from the other species, except for Rhyacoglanis epiblepsis, by the color pattern with numerous dark spots on the body, short post-cleithral process, rounded pectoral and caudal fins, and incomplete lateral line. This species is known only from the type locality, which is currently flooded by the Tucuruí reservoir.(AU)

Uma nova espécie de Rhyacoglanis é descrita das corredeiras de Jatobal, estado do Pará, Brasil. Essa espécie difere das congêneres pela fusão dos hipurais 3, 4 e 5 (vs. hipural 5 livre). Também difere das demais espécies, exceto de Rhyacoglanis epiblepsis, pelo padrão de colorido com inúmeras pintas escuras no corpo, processo pós-cleitral curto, nadadeiras peitoral e caudal arredondadas, e linha lateral incompleta. Essa espécie é conhecida apenas da localidade tipo, que atualmente se encontra inundada pelo reservatório de Tucuruí.(AU)

Animals , Catfishes , Water Reservoirs , Biodiversity
Rev. bras. entomol ; 65(1): ee20200094, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156005


Abstract Sphecodini are a clade of obligatory parasitic Halictinae, comprising 332 species and five genera worldwide. Recently, Sphecodes Latreille was considered polyphyletic according to the results of a molecular phylogeny. Morphological analysis of Neotropical groups revealed groups of species in Sphecodes s.l. that can be recognized at genus level to improve the classification of the tribe. The main objective of this study is to review the generic classification of Sphecodini, with emphasis on Neotropical groups. I propose Austrosphecodes Michener as a separate genus from Sphecodes s.s. and describe a new genus, Melissocleptis gen. nov. for eight known species. Both genera comprise most of the Neotropical species. Nesosphecodes depressus sp. nov. is described for Brazil and a revised diagnosis for Nesosphecodes Engel is given to accommodate this new species and to include data on male terminalia. A revised key for the genera from the Western Hemisphere is provided.

Rev. cient. (Guatem.) ; 29(2)21 de oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123351


El desarrollo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación han llevado a un cambio en la manera en que se realizan las actividades de diferentes disciplinas, incluso de las más tradicionalistas, como la taxonomía botánica. Se documentó la revisión y validación colaborativa de la primera versión de una clave dicotómica para la identificación taxonómica de los géneros de helechos en Guatemala. Con este esfuerzo, se fundamentó la elaboración de una clave mejorada, su segunda versión, la cual se espera sea accesible para usuarios entrenados en morfología botánica, pero no especializados en la taxonomía específica de los helechos. La segunda versión supera las dificultades que fueron analizadas sobre la primera, y agrega contenido útil para la identificación más precisa de los géneros. Se presentan, además, los siguientes documentos suplementarios en versión electrónica: la versión más actualizada de la clave dicotómica, una lista anotada de la taxonomía supra específica de helechos en Guatemala y una lista de algunos sinónimos taxonómicos de los nombres científicos actuales, respecto a los utilizados en la Flora Mesoamericana. Esta experiencia representa un avance en la transformación de la botánica taxonómica, ya que trasciende de ser una disciplina practicada por pocos, donde prevalece sobre todo el criterio de una autoridad casi incuestionable, a una práctica colaborativa, donde el conocimiento se difunde desde la formulación y revisión de los instrumentos taxonómicos. Se espera que todos estos documentos puedan continuar siendo actualizados de manera dinámica, como un avance de la aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías a la taxonomía botánica.

The procedures of several scientific disciplines are changing with the spreading of new information and communication technologies, even the most traditional, like botanical taxonomy. Here we document the review and validation, by collaborative efforts, on the first version of the taxonomic key for the identification of the fern genera in Guatemala. An upgraded version was composed which is easier to follow and more precise. It is intended to be accessible for a wide range of interested people, more than just the fern specialists. Along with this paper, electronic supplementary documents are published too, including the most recent version of the key, an annotated list of taxonomic categories of ferns of Guatemala in the supra-specific levels, and some lists of taxonomic synonymy of the currently valid names, with reference to the old names used in Flora Mesoamericana. With this experience a new milestone has been reached by the national taxonomy, getting over the old paradigm in which taxonomy was an exclusive practice, endeavored by few authorities, to become a more inclusive discipline, embracing the development and revision of its instruments. In the future, we hope to maintain updated all these documents in a more dynamic way, applying new technologies to the taxonomic botany practices.

Med. infant ; 27(1): 25-28, Marzo de 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118643


Los parches de EMLA son frecuentemente utilizados como anestésicos locales durante la realización en procedimientos invasivos. Con el fin de valorar su eficacia y compararla con la de otros analgésicos y anestésicos disponibles, se realizó una revisión sistemática de todos los estudios realizados que cumplieran criterios de inclusión entre los años 1990 y 2019. Población y métodos: la búsqueda bibliográfica de la evidencia disponible fue realizada en las bases de datos de Cochrane Medline y Lilacs. Se incluyeron todos los ECA y revisiones sistemáticas en pacientes menores de 16 años entre los años 1990 y 2019. Resultados: Fueron hallados 31 artículos de los cuales 21 cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. De dichos 21, solamente 8 estudios resultaron de muy buena y excelente calidad metodológica (JADAD). Conclusiones: El EMLA demostró mayor eficacia como analgésico en el 100% de los estudios donde se comparaba respecto del placebo. Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas respecto de otros analgésicos farmacológicos y no farmacológicos.(AU)

EMLA patches are commonly used as local anesthetics in minor invasive procedures. To assess efficacy and compare the patches with other available analgesics and anesthetics, a systematic review was conducted evaluated all studies that met the inclusion criteria published between 1990 and 2019. Population and methods: A literature search of the available evidence was conducted in the Cochrane, Medline, and Lilacs databases. All RCTs and systematic reviews in patients younger than 16 years published between 1990 and 2019 were included. Results: 31 articles were identified of which 21 met the inclusion criteria. Of these 21, of only 8 studies the methodology was of very good and excellent quality (JADAD). Conclusions: EMLA better efficacy as an analgesic in 100% of the studies comparing EMLA patches with placebo. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the patches with other pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesics.(AU)

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pain/prevention & control , Transdermal Patch , Pain Management/methods , Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Comparative Effectiveness Research
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(2): e190139, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135380


A new species of the characid genus Knodus is described from the rio Aripuanã (rio Madeira basin). It can be distinguished from its congeners by its very low body depth, the presence of tri- to pentacuspid teeth on the outer premaxillary series, with the median cuspid larger than the lateral ones, the teeth of the inner premaxillary series pentacuspid, distinctly larger than those of the outer series, the maxillary teeth tri- to pentacuspid, with the median cusp slightly larger than the lateral ones, the four anteriormost dentary teeth pentacuspid, the smaller posterior teeth tri- to pentacuspid, a complete lateral line with 36-38 scales, 3 longitudinal scale series from pelvic fin origin to lateral line, and 11-12 circumpeduncular scales. The new species is also compared to incertae sedis species of 'Bryconamericus' from northern South America since phylogenetic studies suggest a closer relationship of those species with Knodus.(AU)

Uma nova espécie de um caracídeo do gênero Knodus é descrita do rio Aripuanã (bacia do rio Madeira). Esta espécie se distingue de suas congeneres por possuir o corpo muito estreito, a presença de dentes tri- a pentacúspides na série externa do pré-maxilar, com a cúspide mediana ligeiramente maior que as cúspides laterais, dentes da série interna pentacúspide, distintamente maiores que os da série externa, dentes do maxilar tri- a pentacúspides com a cúspode central discretamente maior que as laterais, os quatro dentes mais anteriores do dentário pentacuspidados, os dentes mais posteriores tricuspidados a pentacuspidados, a linha lateral complete com 36-38 escamas, 3 séries longitudinais de escamas entre a origem da nadadeira pélvica e a linha lateral, e 11-12 séries longitudinais de escamas circumpedunculares. A nova espécie é comparada com espécies incertae sedis de 'Bryconamericus' do norte da América do Sul uma vez que estudos filogenéticos sugerem a próxima relação daquelas espécies com Knodus.(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Characidae/anatomy & histology , Characidae/classification , Weights and Measures , Gender Identity
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200041, 2020. mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135139


The aim of this contribution is to bring some precise information on the reasons why the number of noxious scorpion species is constantly growing. This fact is directly associated with the zoological research on the domains generally defined as systematics and taxonomy. The classification of any zoological group is in most cases a source of problem for most biologists not directly involved with this almost confidential aspect of the zoological research. Much information has been gathered and published over two centuries on the classification but it is remains poorly accessible and too technical for non-experts. The exposed example could be taken from several groups of scorpions possessing infamous species, but the choice went to the genus Leiurus Ehrenberg, 1828 distributed from North Africa to the Middle East. Maybe this contribution will help to explain why so numerous cases of species misidentification are regularly present in the general literature devoted to scorpion venoms and incidents.(AU)

Animals , Scorpion Venoms , Scorpions
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190126, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098420


From a study of morphological and molecular datasets we determine that a species originally described as Sternarchogiton preto does not form a monophyletic group with the other valid species of Sternarchogiton including the type species, S. nattereri. Previously-published phylogenetic analyses indicate that this species is sister to a diverse clade comprised of six described apteronotid genera. We therefore place it into a new genus diagnosed by the presence of three cranial fontanels, first and second infraorbital bones independent (not fused), the absence of an ascending process on the endopterygoid, and dark brown to black pigments over the body surface and fins membranes. We additionally provide a redescription of this enigmatic species with an emphasis on its osteology, and provide the first documentation of secondary sexual dimorphism in this species.(AU)

RESUMO Através de um estudo com dados morfológicos e moleculares, nós propomos que a espécie originalmente descrita como Sternarchogiton preto não forma um grupo monofilético com outras espécies válidas de Sternarchogiton incluindo a espécie-tipo, S. nattereri. Análises filogenéticas anteriormente publicadas indicam que essa espécie é irmã de um clado diverso contendo seis gêneros descritos de Apteronotidae. Nós então a alocamos em um novo gênero diagnosticado pela presença de três fontanelas craniais, primeiro e segundo ossos infraorbitais independentes (não fusionados), ausência de um processo ascendente do endopterigoide e pigmentação marrom-escura à negra sobre a superfície do corpo e membranas das nadadeiras. Adicionalmente, nós realizamos a redescrição dessa enigmática espécie com ênfase na sua osteologia, e fazemos o primeiro registro de dimorfismo sexual secundário nessa espécie.(AU)

Sex Characteristics , Gymnotiformes/anatomy & histology , Gymnotiformes/classification , Amazonian Ecosystem
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190111, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098416


Tatia comprises twenty-five valid species, distributed in the main inland watersheds of South America, including the Orinoco, Essequibo, and coastal rivers of Suriname, Amazon, upper rio Paraná and São Francisco basins. A new species is described from tributaries of upper rio Manuel Alves on uplands of Serra Geral do Tocantins plateau, Tocantins State, Brazil. It is promptly distinguished from all congeners, except Tatia britskii, due to absence of an adipose fin. It differs from T. britskii by the longer caudal peduncle length (24.1-30.5% SL, mean 25.3 vs. 20.0-22.7, mean 20.9); caudal peduncle depth (10.9-16.8 SL, mean 14.1 vs. 9.4-10.5, mean 9.8), and anterior cranial border with mesethmoid width equals its length (vs. width approximately three times its length in T. britskii). Additionally, information regarding the poorly known species Tatia simplex originally described from rio das Mortes, is provided.(AU)

Tatia abriga vinte e cinco espécies válidas distribuídas nos maiores sistemas fluviais de águas interiores da América do Sul, como o Orinoco, Essequibo, e rios costeiros do Suriname, Amazonas, alto Paraná e São Francisco. Uma espécie nova é descrita para tributários do alto rio Manuel Alves, nos contrafortes da Serra Geral do Tocantins, estado do Tocantins, Brasil. A espécie nova é facilmente distinguida de todos os congêneres, exceto Tatia britskii, pela ausência de nadadeira adiposa. Difere de T. britskii pelo maior comprimento do pedúnculo caudal (24,1-30,5% CP, média 25,3 vs. 20,0-22,7% CP, média 20,9); altura do pedúnculo caudal (10,9-16,8 SL, mean 14,1 vs. 9,4-10,5, mean 9,8) e margem craniana anterior com largura do mesetmoide igual a seu comprimento (vs. largura aproximadamente três vezes no seu comprimento em T. britskii). Adicionalmente, são fornecidas informações sobre Tatia simplex, uma espécie pouco conhecida, descrita para o rio das Mortes.(AU)

Catfishes/classification , Hydrographic Basins , Drainage
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(4): e200048, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143350


Catfishes of the family Astroblepidae form a group composed by 82 valid species of the genus Astroblepus inhabiting high-gradient streams and rivers throughout tropical portions of the Andean Cordillera. Little has been advanced in the systematics and biodiversity of astroblepids other than an unpublished thesis, a single regional multilocus study and isolated species descriptions. Here, we examined 208 specimens of Astroblepus that apparently belong to 16 valid species from several piedmont rivers from northern Colombia to southern Peru. Using three single-locus approaches for species delimitation in combination with a species tree analysis estimated from three mitochondrial genes, we identified a total of 25 well-delimited lineages including eight valid and 17 potential undescribed species distributed in two monophyletic groups: the Central Andes Clade, which contains 14 lineages from piedmont rivers of the Peruvian Amazon, and the Northern Andes Clade with 11 lineages from trans- and cis-Andean rivers of Colombia and Ecuador, including the Orinoco, Amazon, and Magdalena-Cauca basins and Pacific coastal drainages. Results of species delimitation methods highlight several taxonomical incongruences in recently described species denoting potential synonymies.(AU)

Los bagres de la familia Astroblepidae son un grupo compuesto por 82 especies válidas del género Astroblepus que habitan quebradas y ríos de alto gradiente a través de la porcion tropical en la Cordillera de los Andes. Poco se ha avanzado en la sistemática y biodiversidad de los astroblepidos aparte de una tesis no publicada, un único estudio multilocus regional y descripciones aisladas de especies. Aquí, examinamos 208 especímenes de Astroblepus que aparentemente pertenecen a 16 especies válidas provenientes de ríos de pie de monte de la cordillera de los Andes, desde el norte de Colombia hasta el sur de Perú. Utilizando tres metodologías de delimitación de especies para un único locus en combinación con análisis de un árbol de especies a partir de tres genes mitocondriales, identificamos un total de 25 linajes bien definidos que incluyen ocho especies válidas y 17 potenciales especies no descritas distribuidas en dos grupos monofiléticos: un clado de los andes centrales, que contiene 14 especies de los ríos de pie de monte de la Amazonía peruana y un clado de los andes del norte con 11 especies de los ríos trans y cisandinos de Colombia y Ecuador, incluyendo las cuencas del Orinoco, Amazonas y Magdalena-Cauca así como drenajes costeros del Pacífico. Los resultados de los métodos de delimitación de especies destacan varias incongruencias taxonómicas en especies recientemente descritas que denotan posibles sinonimias.(AU)

Animals , Amazonian Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Catfishes , Gender Identity
rev. udca actual. divulg. cient ; 22(1): e1208, Ene-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094776


RESUMEN Las garrapatas son el grupo de ectoparásitos de mayor relevancia en la transmisión de patógenos a los animales domésticos y a humanos. La detección de estos agentes, normalmente, se realiza por métodos basados en PCR y, por ello, se requiere de la obtención de ácidos nucleicos, para la amplificación selectiva de dianas moleculares. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue comparar el desempeño de tres métodos de extracción de ADN, sales, columnas y tiocianato de guanidina, a partir de garrapatas, para estudios de detección de patógenos y sistemática molecular de garrapatas. Se realizaron comparaciones múltiples del desempeño de extracción sobre 30 muestras de garrapatas y se valoró la calidad del extracto de ADN, mediante la amplificación de un fragmento del gen mitocondrial 16S de garrapatas, con la utilización de la técnica de PCR. Además, se evaluó la presencia de patógenos de los géneros Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma y Babesia. El método con mayor desempeño en la extracción de ADN fue el basado en tiocianato de guanidina (mdnR=160ng/uL), seguido por columnas (mdnR=4,7ng/uL) y luego sales (mdnR=1,6ng/uL). Se presentaron diferencias estadísticas en el rendimiento de la extracción; no obstante, no existieron diferencias respecto al éxito de amplificación, mediante PCR, de acuerdo con el método de extracción (p=0,1173). No se detectaron patógenos rickettsiales o piroplasmas en ninguno de los extractos de ADN de garrapatas evaluados. Considerando el costo/beneficio de los métodos comparados, la utilización del método de sales puede facilitar la masificación de trabajos sobre la detección de patógenos que son transmitidos por garrapatas, en laboratorios de discreto presupuesto.

ABSTRACT Ticks are the most important group of ectoparasites in the transmission of pathogens to domestic animals and humans. Detection of those pathogens is usually performed by PCR-based methods and therefore requires the extraction of nucleic acids for the selective amplification of molecular targets. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the performance of three DNA extraction methods (salts, columns and guanidine thiocyanate) from ticks for studies of pathogen detection and molecular systematics of ticks. DNA extraction performance was measured by multiple comparisons on 30 tick samples and assessment of quality of the DNA extract through PCR amplification of 16S mitochondrial ticks gene. The presence of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma and Babesia were also evaluated. The guanidine thiocyanate was the method with highest performance (mdnR= 160ng/uL), then columns (mdnR= 4.7ng/uL) and finally salting out method (mdnR= 1.6ng/uL). Although there were statistical differences of performance among DNA extraction protocols, there were no differences regarding the success of PCR amplification according to the extraction method (p = 0.1173). No rickettsial pathogens or piroplasms were detected in any of the DNA extracts evaluated. Considering the cost/benefit ratio of the three methods, the use of the salting out method can facilitate the massification of studies on tick-borne pathogen in low-budget laboratories.

Acta amaz ; 49(2): 131-138, abr. - jun. 2019. ilus, tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1119161


As they spend most of their time buried in the substrate and are not a fishery resource, heterenchelyids are seldom seen. These eels are characterized by their greatly reduced eyes, which are covered by semi-transparent skin, the absence of a pectoral fin or lateral line, and no pores on the head or body. Pythonichthys sanguineus is a particularly poorly-known species, with only eight scientific records from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname. The present study is based on six adult specimens of P. sanguineus captured by vessels of the shrimp trawling fleet along the northern Brazilian coast, in the vicinity of the Amazon Reef. We provide meristic, morphometric and DNA barcoding data. These findings provide insights into the distribution of the species off the northern Brazilian coast and contribute to the discussion about the southern limit of the Greater Caribbean fauna. (AU)

Heterenchelídeos passam a maior parte do tempo enterrados no substrato e raramente são vistos, não representando recursos pesqueiros importantes. Essas enguias são caracterizadas por seus olhos muito reduzidos e cobertos por pele semi-transparente, ausência de nadadeiras peitorais ou linha lateral, e ausência de poros na cabeça ou no corpo. Pythonichthys sanguineus é uma espécie particularmente pouco conhecida, com apenas oito registros em coleção zoológica para Cuba, Porto Rico, Colômbia, Venezuela, Guiana e Suriname. O presente estudo é baseado em seis espécimes adultos de P. sanguineus capturados pela frota industrial de arrasto de camarão-rosa na costa norte do Brasil, ao largo dos Recifes da Amazônia. Apresentamos dados merísticos, morfométricos e de DNA barcoding dos exemplares examinados. O registro fornece informações importantes sobre a distribuição da espécie na costa norte do Brasil, e contribui para a discussão sobre o limite sul da fauna do Grande Caribe.(AU)

Animals , Eels/anatomy & histology , Animal Distribution/physiology , Fisheries , Species Specificity , Brazil , Conservation of Natural Resources , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
Rev. bras. entomol ; 63(1): 73-79, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045538


ABSTRACT Advances in potter wasp systematics have been achieved recently, with classificatory changes resulting from analyses based upon large scale molecular datasets. For the Neotropics, recent hypotheses point to the occurrence of an exclusive clade recognized within the tribe Eumenini. In this group, several contributions regarding taxonomy and systematics have been proposed in the last five years, including the genus Alphamenes. This taxon contains seven described species whose distribution is exclusively Neotropical. Females are morphologically homogeneous, and characters related to copulatory organs are useful in male diagnosis. This contribution forms the first phylogenetic approach to include all species of Alphamenes, hence the first to strongly test for group monophyly. Our cladistic results recovered Alphamenes as a monophyletic group supported by male genital features. Relationships among included species also rely upon genitalic characters, highlighting the importance of these attributes for eumenine systematics. Recent phylogenetic investigations applied to the Neotropical fauna of potter wasps represent desirable advancements towards a natural classification for the group.

Rev. bras. entomol ; 63(1): 91-100, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045540


ABSTRACT The Augochlora clade includes four genera: Augochlora Smith, Augochlorella Sandhouse, Ceratalictus Moure, and Pereirapis Moure. This is one of the richest and most widespread groups of Augochlorini bees. There are about 150 species, which occur from Argentina to Canada. The species of Augochlora clade are considered solitary to facultatively social, except Ceratalictus for which nothing is known. Wood nesting behavior arose once in the clade, in Augochlora sensu strictu. The objective of this study is to describe four new species and to present a revised phylogenetic analysis of the Augochlora clade for the placement of these species. The morphological matrix comprised 77 characters and 42 terminals, and resulted in two most parsimonious trees. The monophyly of the Augochlora clade is corroborated. Ceratalictus and Pereirapis are considered as sister groups and Ceratalictus inflexus sp. nov. came as sister to other species of Ceratalictus. Augochlora and Augochlorella are monophyletic and sister groups. Both extant subgenera of Augochlora were corroborated as monophyletic. Augochlorella comis is considered as sister group to the rest of Augochlorella species. All Augochlorella new species described belong to the Augochlorella ephyra group. Augochlorella kelliae sp. nov. is phylogenetically related to Augochlorella una. Augochlorella procliva sp. nov. and Augochlorella mavricera sp. nov. constitute a clade with Augochlorella acarinata. Including the new species, Augochlorella has 19 species and Ceratalictus 11 species. A revised key for species of Augochlorella and Ceratalictus is also presented in the Supplementary Information.

Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180109, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002703


Lutjanidae comprises 21 genera and 135 species widespread throughout Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Nonetheless, the phylogenetic relationships of Lutjaninae remain uncertain. Furthermore, phylogenetic hypotheses for Lutjanus alexandrei, an endemic species from northeastern Brazilian coast, in Lutjanidae are absent so far. Therefore, we carried out multiloci analyses, combining both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences in Lutjaninae species from Western Atlantic focusing on the controversial relationships among Lutjanus, Rhomboplites, and Ocyurus. Besides, we determined the phylogenetic position and dated the origin of L. alexandrei. The phylogenetics trees based on the 4.4 kb for 11 species corroborated the synonym among Lutjanus and the putative monotypic genera. For the dating of L. alexandrei, another nucleotide dataset (3.0 kb; 40 species) validated the genetic identity of this species that diverged from the sister taxon L. apodus between 2.5 - 6.5 Mya, probably as a result of the barrier caused by the muddy outflow from Orinoco and Amazon rivers along the coastal zone. This report is the most robust multiloci analysis to confirm the synonymy of the three genera of Lutjaninae from Western Atlantic and the first reliable inference about the phylogenetic relationships and origin of L. alexandrei.(AU)

A Família Lutjanidae compreende 21 gêneros e 135 espécies, distribuídas ao longo dos oceanos Atlântico, Índico e Pacífico. As relações filogenéticas dos Lutjaninae são incertas. Além disso, a espécie Lutjanus alexandrei, endêmica da costa nordeste do Brasil, não foi inclusa em nenhuma hipótese filogenética até o presente. Assim, realizamos uma análise integrando DNA mitocondrial e nuclear para espécies de Lutjaninae do Atlântico Ocidental, direcionada para a controversa relação entre Lutjanus, Rhomboplites e Ocyurus. Além disso, alocamos filogeneticamente L. alexandrei e datamos sua origem. As árvores filogenéticas baseadas em 4.4 kb de 11 espécies corroboraram a sinonímia entre os monotípicos e Lutjanus. Para a datação de L. alexandrei, outro banco de nuclueotídeos foi analisado (3.0 kb; 40 espécies), validando geneticamente a espécie e a colocando como irmã de L. apodus, da qual se separou entre 2.5 - 6.5 Mya, o que provavelmente foi provocado pela faixa enlameada na região costeira, influenciada pelas descargas dos rios Amazonas e Orinoco, que funciona como barreira. Este trabalho representa a mais robusta análise multiloci direcionada para a sinonimização dos três gêneros de Lutjaninae e a primeira hipótese filogenética a propor um posicionamento e origem para L. alexandrei.(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Perciformes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180076, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002709


Steindachnerina nigrotaenia is resurrected from the synonym of S. brevipinna and considered a valid species. The previous designation of the lectotype of S. nigrotaenia is considered invalid and a new lectotype is designated herein. Steindachnerina nigrotaenia and S. insculpta are redescribed based on type specimens and on additional material from the rio Paraguai and the upper rio Paraná basins, respectively. The two species can be separated by the number of scales of the lateral line and of the transverse series and by phylogenetic analyses of molecular data.(AU)

Steindachnerina nigrotaenia é retirada da sinonímia de S. brevipinna e considerada uma espécie válida. A designação do lectótipo de S. nigrotaenia é considerada inválida e um novo lectótipo é aqui designado. Steindachnerina nigrotaenia e S. insculpta são redescritas com base no material tipo e em exemplares adicionais das bacias do rio Paraguai e alto rio Paraná, respectivamente. As duas espécies se diferenciam pelo número de escamas da linha lateral e da série transversal e por análises filogenéticas de dados moleculares.(AU)

Animals , Classification , Characiformes/genetics , Phylogeny
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(2): e190001, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002717


A new species of Curculionichthys is described from the rio Curuá-Una basin, in the northern edge of the Brazilian Shield, State of Pará, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by possessing a single rostral plate, by having darkened tooth-crowns, and by a series of morphometric and meristic data. A close examination of the species of Curculionichthys revealed the presence of hyperthrophied odontodes on both dorsal and ventral margins of the snout tip, which are illustrated by electronic microscopy. A discussion is provided on possible phylogenetic relationships of the new taxon. The new species is provisionally accessed as Least Concern (not threatened).(AU)

Uma nova espécie de Curculionichthys é descrita da bacia do rio Curuá-Una, na borda norte do Escudo Brasileiro, Estado do Pará, Brasil. A nova espécie é diagnosticada de seus congêneres por possuir uma placa rostral única, a coroa dos dentes escurecida e por uma séria de dados morfométricos e merísticos. Um exame detalhado das espécies de Curculionichthys revelou a presença de odontódeos hipertrofiados nas margens dorsal e ventral da ponta do focinho, que são ilustrados por microscopia eletrônica. Uma discussão é apresentada sobre as possíveis relações filogenéticas do novo táxon. A nova espécie é provisoriamente categorizada como Menos Preocupante (não ameaçada).(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Catfishes/classification , Classification/methods
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(2): e190022, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1012719


A new species of Leporinus is described using morphological data and compared to all other species of the family. Specimens were illustrated using digital photograph, measured using digital calipers, and had teeth, scales, and fin rays counted under a stereomicroscope. The new species is distinguished from all other Anostomidae, except Anostomus anostomus, A. brevior, A. ternetzi, Hypomasticus despaxi, Leporinus arcus, and L. striatus, by having four dark longitudinal stripes on body. The new species is distinguished from aforementioned species by having terminal mouth with four teeth on the premaxilla, 12 series of scales around caudal peduncle, and 34 to 36 scales in the lateral line. The new species is remarkably similar to Leporinus arcus, which occurs on the opposite side of Guyana Shield highlands. The new species and L. arcus are possibly closely related to Leporinus gomesi, L. granti, L. lebaili, L. melanostictus, L. nijsseni, and L. santosi.(AU)

Uma espécie nova de Leporinus é descrita usando dados morfológicos e comparações entre todas as espécies da família. Exemplares foram ilustrados com fotografia digital, medidos com paquímetro digital e seus dentes, escamas e raios das nadadeiras foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. A espécie nova distingue-se dos demais Anostomidae, exceto Anostomus anostomus, A. brevior, A. ternetzi, Hypomasticus despaxi, Leporinus arcus e L. striatus, por apresentar quatro faixas longitudinais no corpo. A nova espécie distingue-se das espécies mencionadas por ter boca terminal com quatro dentes no osso pré-maxilar, 12 séries de escamas ao redor do pedúnculo caudal e 34 a 36 escamas na linha lateral. A espécie nova é particularmente similar à Leporinus arcus, que ocorre no lado oposto das terras altas do Escudo da Guiana. A espécie nova e L. arcus, possivelmente, são relacionadas proximamente à Leporinus gomesi, L. granti, L. lebaili, L. melanostictus, L. nijsseni e L. santosi.(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Characiformes/classification , Characiformes/genetics