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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2344-2361, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888806


Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as COVID-19 and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnosis to initiate treatment and curb transmission. Successful diagnostic strategies critically depend on the efficiency of biological sampling and timely analysis. However, current diagnostic techniques are invasive/intrusive and present a severe bottleneck by requiring specialist equipment and trained personnel. Moreover, centralised test facilities are poorly accessible and the requirement to travel may increase disease transmission. Self-administrable, point-of-care (PoC) microneedle diagnostic devices could provide a viable solution to these problems. These miniature needle arrays can detect biomarkers in/from the skin in a minimally invasive manner to provide (near-) real-time diagnosis. Few microneedle devices have been developed specifically for infectious disease diagnosis, though similar technologies are well established in other fields and generally adaptable for infectious disease diagnosis. These include microneedles for biofluid extraction, microneedle sensors and analyte-capturing microneedles, or combinations thereof. Analyte sampling/detection from both blood and dermal interstitial fluid is possible. These technologies are in their early stages of development for infectious disease diagnostics, and there is a vast scope for further development. In this review, we discuss the utility and future outlook of these microneedle technologies in infectious disease diagnosis.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3035-3059, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922741


Various boron-containing drugs have been approved for clinical use over the past two decades, and more are currently in clinical trials. The increasing interest in boron-containing compounds is due to their unique binding properties to biological targets; for example, boron substitution can be used to modulate biological activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and drug resistance. In this perspective, we aim to comprehensively review the current status of boron compounds in drug discovery, focusing especially on progress from 2015 to December 2020. We classify these compounds into groups showing anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and other activities, and discuss the biological targets associated with each activity, as well as potential future developments.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875920


@#Introduction: Malaysia is an intermediate tuberculosis burdened country as classified by WHO. There was a recent rise in TB incidence. Healthcare providers, especially in secondary or tertiary centers, were constantly exposed to TB infected patients, which is a hazard source for TB infection. Thus, assessment of behavior towards TB is paramount through knowledge, attitude, health-seeking practice, and stigma domains. Method: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between November 2014 and February 2015 among healthcare providers in Medical Department, Hospital Ampang. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver 21. Results: Despite overall good knowledge on TB, only 20% of the correspondence knew which patient’s population is at risk of TB infection. Almost all perceived TB as a health threat and willing to seek medical care if they developed TB symptoms. However, a small proportion (5.3%) will keep it a secret if they contracted TB. This is contrasted by the majority that perceived TB patients will not be accepted by the community. Conclusion: Knowledge and attitude towards TB was adequate within the healthcare providers in Medical Department, Hospital Ampang despite the presence of some knowledge gaps. However, there was high perceived stigma that needed to be addressed in order for them to deliver the best medical care.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 384-392, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309944


Isoniazid (INH) is highly effective for the management of tuberculosis. However, it can cause liver injury and even liver failure. INH metabolism has been thought to be associated with INH-induced liver injury. This review summarized the metabolic pathways of INH and discussed their associations with INH-induced liver injury.

Immune Network ; : 117-123, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40269


The immune response to any stimulus is complex, requiring coordinated action by several types of cells in a tightly regulated sequence. Thus, a physical stress such as exercise may act at any number of points in the complex sequence of events collectively termed the immune response. Although exercise causes many propound changes in parameters of immune function, the nature and magnitude of such changes rely on several factors including the immune parameters of interest; type, intensity, and duration of exercise; fitness level or exercise history of the subject; environmental factors such as ambient temperature and humidity. Although regular moderate exercise appears to be important factor for increasing immunity, Athletes are susceptible to illness, in particular upper respiratory track infection, during periods of intense training and after competition. In addition, in elite athletes, frequent illness is associated with overtraining syndrome, a neuroendocrine disorder resulting from excessive training. Through this paper, we want to investigate the effects of exercise on the immunosuppression such as exercise induced lymphopenia, asthma, anaphylaxis, URT (upper respiratory track), and TB (tuberculosis) infection. and also, we want to suggest a direct mechanism, protection and therapy of exercise induced immunosuppression.

Anaphylaxis , Asthma , Athletes , Humans , Humidity , Immunosuppression Therapy , Lymphopenia