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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 23(1): 131-145, jan.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356775

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A presente revisão integrativa da literatura tem por objetivo investigar a relação entre sentido de vida (SV) e saúde mental em professores. As bases de dados acessadas para a busca das evidências foram: Web of Science - Coleção Principal, ERIC (ProQuest), PsycINFO, Scopus, SciELO e PePSIC. O período de publicação dos artigos abrangidos foi de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2020 para responder à questão norteadora: Como a relação entre sentido de vida e a saúde mental em professores é abordada na literatura científica? Dos sete artigos recuperados, verificou-se que o sentido de vida está associado negativamente com síndrome de burnout e estresse percebido e proporciona melhores índices de funcionamento psicológico e de satisfação vital em docentes.


ABSTRACT This integrative literature review aimed to investigate the relationship between the meaning of life and mental health in teachers. The database accessed for the search for evidence was: Web of Science - Main Collection, ERIC (ProQuest), PsycINFO, SciELO, and PePSIC. The articles covered were from January 2000 to December 2020 to answer the following guiding question: How is the relationship between the meaning of life and mental health in teachers addressed in the scientific literature? Of the seven selected articles, we found that the meaning of life is negatively associated with burnout syndrome and perceived stress and provides better rates of psychological functioning and vital satisfaction at teachers.


RESUMEN La presente revisión de literatura integradora tuvo como objetivo investigar la relación entre el sentido de la vida y la salud mental en los docentes. Las bases de datos a los que se accedió para buscar evidencia fueron: Web of Science - Main Collection, ERIC (ProQuest), PsycINFO, Scopus, SciELO y PePSIC. El período de publicación de los artículos fue de enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2020 para dar respuesta a la pregunta orientadora: ¿Cómo se aborda en la literatura científica la relación entre el sentido de la vida y la salud mental en los docentes? De los siete artículos seleccionados, se encontró que el sentido de la vida está asociado negativamente con el síndrome de quemarse y el estrés percibido y proporciona mejores índices de funcionamiento psicológico y satisfacción vital en profesores.


Subject(s)
Personal Satisfaction , Mental Health , Life , Faculty , Burnout, Psychological , Logotherapy
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(2): 152-154, Mar-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365700

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Taekwondo is a complex reactive sport that requires training in various tactics. Due to its significant impact and antagonism, athletes must master the tactics in the shortest time. Objective: To compare the impact of password and simulation training methods on athletes' reaction times. Methods: Taekwondo athletes› reactions and striking abilities were studied. The difference between the two training methods on taekwondo athletes' reaction and striking ability was analyzed by comparing the data before and after the athletes' training. Results: The mean reaction times of down kick, sidekick, and cross kick after training in the password and simulated training groups were compared, with P values of P=0.020<0.05, P=0.046<0.05, and P=0.028<0.05, respectively, showing statistical difference. In regard to the mean strike time of down kick, sidekick, and cross kick, a comparison of the password training group and the simulated training group resulted in P=0.950>0.05, P=0.417>0.05, P=0.552>0.05, respectively, with no significant statistical difference. Conclusions: The password training method is significantly better than the simulation training method for improving the reaction time. The training methods have no significant effect on strike strength. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: O taekwondo é um esporte complexo e reativo, que exige treinamento em várias táticas. Graças a seu impacto significativo e antagonismo, os atletas precisam dominar tais táticas no menor tempo possível. Objetivo: Comparar o impacto dos métodos treinamento password e treinamento por simulação no tempo de reação dos atletas. Métodos: A velocidade da reação e dos golpes de atletas do taekwondo foram estudadas. A diferença nos resultados entre os dois métodos de treinamento foi analisada, comparando-se os dados antes e depois do treinamento dos atletas. Resultados: Comparou-se os tempos de reação dos grupos password e simulação para o chute baixo, o chute lateral e o chute cruzado após os respectivos treinamentos, obtendo-se os valores P=0,020<0,05, P=0,046<0,05, e P=0,028<0,05, respectivamente, demostrando assim diferença estatística. Quanto ao tempo médio dos golpes chute baixo, chute lateral e chute cruzado, a comparação entre os grupos password e simulação resultou em P=0,950>0,05, P=0,417>0,05, e P=0,552>0,05, respectivamente, indicando ausência de diferença significativa. Conclusões: O método de treinamento password é significativamente melhor que o método de treino por simulação na melhoria do tempo de reação. Não houve diferença significativa no efeito dos métodos de treinamento sobre a força dos golpes. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação do resultado de tratamentos.


RESUMEN Introducción: El taekwondo es un deporte complejo y de reacción, que exige entrenamiento en varias tácticas. Gracias a su impacto significativo y antagonismo, los atletas necesitan dominar tales tácticas en el menor tiempo posible. Objetivo: Comparar el impacto de los métodos entrenamiento password y entrenamiento por simulación en el tiempo de reacción de los atletas. Métodos: La velocidad de la reacción y de los golpes de atletas del taekwondo fueron estudiadas. La diferencia en los resultados entre los dos métodos de entrenamiento fue analizada, comparándose los datos antes y después del entrenamiento de los atletas. Resultados: Se compararon los tiempos de reacción de los grupos password y simulación para la patada baja, la patada lateral y la patada cruzada después de los respectivos entrenamientos, obteniéndose los valores P=0,020<0,05, P=0,046<0,05, y P=0,028<0,05, respectivamente, demostrando así diferencia estadística. En cuanto al tiempo promedio de los golpes patada baja, patada lateral y patada cruzada, la comparación entre los grupos password y simulación resultó en P=0,950>0,05, P=0,417>0,05 y P=0,552>0,05, respectivamente, indicando ausencia de diferencia significativa. Conclusiones: El método de entrenamiento password es significativamente mejor que el método de entrenamiento por simulación en la mejoría del tiempo de reacción. No hubo diferencia significativa en el efecto de los métodos de entrenamiento sobre la fuerza de los golpes. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación del resultado de tratamientos.

3.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022202, 06 abr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363542

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tigecycline is an antimicrobial agent, approved for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections, hospital-acquired and community-acquired pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections and anaerobic or atypical infections. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of tigecycline in a teaching hospital and to compare data from patients who had their prescriptions audited by the hospital infection committee with those who did not have audited prescriptions. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study conducted at a teaching hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 including patients who received tigecycline. Demographic variables, comorbidities, microbiological findings, prescribed antibiotics and technical opinions issued by the Hospital Infection Control Service were collected. RESULTS: 71 patients were included, aged between 13 and 92 years, 63.4% were male and 56.3% were non-white. Tigecycline was the first antimicrobial choice in 19.7% (14/71) of the cases, while the use associated with other antibiotics was observed in 66.2% (45/71) of the prescriptions. mainly with meropenem (28.9%). Empirical use was performed in 69.0% of cases, after culture and the antibiogram in 31.0% and off label use in 81.7%. The microorganisms frequently identified by the culture tests were Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.7%) and Klebsiella penumoniae (11.8%). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that empirical and off label use is common in clinical practice and few prescriptions were guided by the results of the culture and the antibiogram, demonstrating the need for prescribers to evaluate the benefits/ risks of using this antibiotic, risk of resistance, adverse effects and drug interactions, in addition to cost.


INTRODUÇÃO: A tigeciclina é agente antimicrobiano, aprovada para o tratamento de infecções complicadas na pele e tecidos moles, pneumonia hospitalar e adquirida na comunidade, infecções intra-abdominal e infecções anaeróbias ou atípicas. OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso da tigeciclina em hospital de ensino e comparar dados de pacientes que tiveram suas prescrições auditadas pela comissão de infecção hospitalar com os que não tiveram prescrições auditadas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo observacional realizado em hospital de ensino de abril de 2012 a março de 2014 incluindo pacientes que receberam tigeciclina. Foram coletadas variáveis ​​demográficas, comorbidades, achados microbiológicos, antibióticos prescritos e pareceres técnicos emitidos pelo Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 71 pacientes, com idade entre 13 e 92 anos, 63,4% eram do sexo masculino e 56,3% eram não brancos. A tigeciclina foi primeira escolha antimicrobiana em 19,7% (14/71) dos casos, enquanto o uso associado a outros antibióticos foi observado em 66,2% (45/71) das prescrições. principalmente com meropenem (28,9%). O uso empírico foi realizado em 69,0% dos casos, após cultura e o antibiograma em 31,0% e o uso off label em 81,7%. Os microrganismos frequentemente identificados pelos testes de cultura foram Enterococcus faecalis (17,6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14,7%) e Klebsiella penumoniae (11,8%). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que o uso empírico e off label é comum na prática clínica e poucas prescrições foram orientadas pelos resultados da cultura e do antibiograma, demonstrando necessidade de prescritores avaliarem os benefícios/riscos do uso desse antibiótico, risco de resistência, efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas, além do custo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tigecycline , Hospitals, University , Cross Infection , Off-Label Use , Anti-Infective Agents
4.
Radiol. bras ; 55(2): 97-103, mar.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365297

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Identificar o perfil de utilização dos recursos didáticos pelos médicos radiologistas e residentes em radiologia e diagnóstico por imagem brasileiros. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo, realizado por meio de questionário eletrônico contendo perguntas referentes ao perfil do médico, formação, local de atuação, perfil de acesso a recursos educacionais e tipos de recursos mais utilizados. Resultados: Responderam ao questionário 265 médicos com idade média de 38,2 anos, sendo a maioria radiologistas formados (170; 64,2%), do sexo masculino (166; 62,6%), trabalhando em instituições privadas (174; 65,7%), sem vínculo acadêmico (167; 63,0%), atuando principalmente nas áreas de ultrassonografia (212; 80,0%) e tomografia computadorizada (206; 77,7%). A carga horária média de estudo semanal foi de 9,6 horas (mediana: 6 horas), sendo maior no grupo dos médicos que estão em formação e nos que atuam em instituições públicas e acadêmicas. Quanto ao recurso para o acesso do material de estudo, observou-se uma tendência pela maior utilização do computador (65,3%). A maioria dos respondentes optou por acessar materiais didáticos sem custo (61,9%), sendo os sites da web, livros e revistas eletrônicas os mais pesquisados. Conclusão: Os radiologistas brasileiros utilizam recursos eletrônicos e digitais como principais materiais didáticos, sendo os sites da web, livros e revistas eletrônicas as fontes mais utilizadas.


Abstract Objective: To profile the use of educational materials by radiologists and radiology residents in Brazil. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study in which an electronic questionnaire was sent via email to physicians working in the field of radiology. The questionnaire contained questions regarding the profile, education, and place of work of the physicians, as well as their access to educational resources and the types of educational materials they used most. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 265 physicians. The mean age of the respondents was 38.2 years. Of the 265 respondents, 212 (80.0%) worked with ultrasound, 206 (77.7%) worked with computed tomography, 170 (64.2%) were board-certified, 166 (62.6%) were male, 174 (65.7%) worked at private facilities, and 167 (63.0%) had no academic affiliation. The mean weekly total study time was 9.6 h (median, 6 h), being higher among physicians in training, among those who worked at public facilities, and among those who worked at teaching hospitals. Regarding the device employed in order to access educational materials, there was a trend toward greater use of computers, which were employed by 65.3%. The majority of the respondents (61.9%) chose to access educational materials that were free of charge, the most common sources being websites, eBooks, and online journals. Conclusion: Electronic and digital resources are the main means of access to educational materials used by radiologists in Brazil, the most commonly used resources being web sites, eBooks, and online journals.

5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1027-1038, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364695

ABSTRACT

Resumo A violência contra o professor é uma preocupação global e traz impacto negativo para o desenvolvimento da sociedade. Nesse contexto, o estudo objetivou revisar definições de violência contra o professor para desenvolver consenso integrado e modelo conceitual. Foi realizada uma revisão de escopo de literatura para incluir artigos que pudessem responder à pergunta norteadora da pesquisa: "Quais são as definições e as dimensões da violência do aluno contra o professor no ensino?" Nos estudos incluídos na revisão, identificou-se que a violência contra o professor pode ser definida como o conjunto de ações e situações provocadas por estudantes de forma insidiosa ou crônica no local de trabalho e/ou meio digital, mediadas por percepção de violência, mecanismo de enfrentamento do professor e gestão organizacional da violência. O modelo integrado de violência contra o professor compreende antecedentes conceituais, como a experiência anterior com violência contra o docente, definição cultural de violência e percepção de vitimização. A violência propriamente dita contra o professor é um construto multidimensional que resulta da interação com o estudante nos contextos organizacional e social. As consequências da violência contra o professor incluem danos psicológicos, emocionais, biológicos, profissionais e sociais.


Abstract Violence against teachers is a global concern and has a negative impact on the development of society. In this context, this study aimed to review definitions of violence against teachers to develop an integrated consensus and conceptual model. A scoping review of the literature was carried out to include articles that could answer the guiding question of the study: "What are the definitions and dimensions of student violence against teachers in teaching?" The studies included in the review, it was identified that violence against the teacher can be defined as a set of actions and situations caused by students in an insidious or chronic way in the workplace and/or through digital medium, mediated by the perception of violence, the copping mechanism of the teacher and the organizational management of the violence. The integrated model of violence against teachers comprises conceptual antecedents, such as previous experience with violence against the teacher, the cultural definition of violence and the perception of victimization. Violence against teachers is a multidimensional construct that results from the interaction with the student in the organizational and social context. The consequences of violence against the teacher include psychological, emotional, biological, professional and social harm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Faculty , Educational Personnel , Schools , Students/psychology , Violence
7.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363527

ABSTRACT

This article considers the lived challenges facing three educators as they adapt, plan, and teach online lessons as a response to the Coronavirus disease. The closure of schools has forced many educators into new and uncertain territory and practices. Teaching online has been challenging in different terms and has also forced a deeper reflection on the nature of education. A self-study methodology was used to analyse the perceptions and feelings of the participants as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. In conclusion, migrating quickly to a virtual environment deeply challenges educators' teaching praxis beyond their technical proficiency and includes the ability to be coherent with their deeper beliefs, values, theoretical approaches, and practices as educators.


Este artigo considera os desafios enfrentados por educadores ao se adaptar, planejar e ministrar aulas online em resposta ao novo cenário gerado pelo Coronavírus. O fechamento de escolas forçou muitos educadores a territórios e práticas novas e incertas. A educação remota tem sido um desafio em diferentes termos e tem gerado reflexões sobre a natureza da educação. A metodologia auto-estudo foi utilizada para analisar as percepções e sentimentos dos participantes em decorrência desta pandemia. A rápida migração para um ambiente virtual desafia profundamente a práxis pedagógica dos educadores, além de sua proficiência técnica, incluindo a capacidade de ser coerentes com suas crenças, valores, abordagens teóricas e práticas.


Este artículo considera los desafíos que enfrentan los educadores a adaptarse para planificar e impartir clases en línea en respuesta al nuevo escenario generado por el virus Covid-19. Los cierres de escuelas han obligado a muchos educadores a vivir en territorios y prácticas nuevas e inciertas. La educación y las tecnologías para la enseñanza digital ha sido desafiante y ha generado reflexiones sobre la educación. La metodología de autoestudio se utilizó para analizar las percepciones y sentimientos de los participantes debido a la pandemia. La rápida migración a un entorno virtual desafía profundamente la praxis pedagógica de los educadores, además de su competencia técnica, incluida la capacidad de ser coherentes con sus creencias, valores, enfoques teóricos y prácticos.

8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363544

ABSTRACT

O estudo documental analisa o que é essencial para a for-mação inicial e continuada de professores e para o trabalho pedagógico da Educação Física. As fontes foram documentos da ANFOPE, CNE, CNTE, CONFEF/CREF, MEC, MNCR, poder legislativo. Concluímos que existe um embate entre perspectivas: utilitarista e pragmática, que considera essenciais a exploração, terceirização, precarização da formação e do trabalho docente; e contra hegemônica, na qual o essencial é a vida humanizada, fundada na valorização da docência e do magistério, na formação e atuação profissional, na defesa dos serviços públicos e na luta por outro modo de produção da vida.


The documentary study analyzes what is essential for the initial and continuing education of teachers and for the pedagogical work of Physical Education. The sources were documents from ANFOPE, CNE, CNTE, CONFEF/CREF, MEC, MNCR, and legislative power. We conclude that there is a clash between perspectives: utilitarian and pragmaticconsiders essential the exploration, outsourcing, precariousness in tea-cher training and teacher work; and counter-hegemonic, for which the essential is the humanized life, based on the appreciation of teaching, on professional training and performance, on the defense of public servi-ces, and on the struggle for another way of production of life.


El estudio documental analiza lo fundamental para la formación inicial y continua de los profesores y para la labor pedagógica de la Educación Física. Las fuentes fueron documentos de ANFOPE, CNE, CNTE, CONFEF/CREF, MEC, MNCR y poder legislativo. Concluimos que existe un choque de perspectivas: la utilitarista y pragmática considera imprescindible la exploración, la subcontratación, la precariedad en la formación y el trabajo docente; y contrahegemónicoa para lo cual lo esencial es la vida humanizada, fundada en la valorización de la docência y del magisterio, en la formación y actuación profesional, en la defensa de los servicios públicos y en la lucha por otra forma de producción de la vida.

9.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e54907, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367787

ABSTRACT

The teaching-service-community integration is an important strategy for achieving changes in the training of human resources in health, in order to train professionals with a profile to work in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, as per its Portuguese acronym). This study analyzed how it occurs and what are the contributions of the teaching-service-community integration in the view of professors from the first to the seventh period of Medicine, Nursing and Dentistry programs at a university in northeastern Brazil. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, with a quantitative approach. Data were collected using an interview form and analyzed with the help of SPSS software. The descriptive analysis of the data, the chi-square test and the calculation of the internal consistency of the evaluation scale were used. The study had the participation of 106 professors. Results show that practices were still predominantly performed in university clinics and hospitals, 76 (71.7%). Most professors, 59 (56.7%), consider the teaching-service-community interaction very important for the quality of training and recognize its importance in strengthening SUS, 89 (85.6%). Although there was resistance on the part of some professors to follow-up students in extramural services, most of them, 94 (89.5%), consider the role of professors as essential for changing health practices, especially professors in nursing and dentistry professors that carry out extramural practices (p < 0.01). Interdisciplinary practices were performed more frequently in the first two periods of the three courses and by the nursing course (p = 0.001). In turn, multiprofessional interaction predominates in the practical classes of the nursing course and practices held outside the university domain (p < 0.01). It is evident the need to institutionalize the teaching-service-community interaction, as well as to value initiatives that streamline and make teaching more flexible in multiprofessional and interdisciplinary activities, fundamental for the amendment of training in health.

10.
International Eye Science ; (12): 109-111, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906742

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To investigate the application of multi-mode teaching steered by “HOPE” in the clinical teaching of contact lens.<p>METHODS: Prospective study. Two classes(totally 80 students)of 2018 grade major in optometry, Nanjing Medical University, were randomly selected as experimental group(40 students, 18 males, 22 females)using multi-mode teaching(including problem-based learning, case-based learning and flipped classroom),and control group(40 students, 19 males, 21 females)using traditional teaching mode. At the end of the course, the teaching effects were evaluated by usual performance, network examination, theory test, operation test and questionnaire.<p>RESULTS: The assessment result at ordinary times: the points of experiment group(16.46±2.19)points was higher than the control group(13.81±2.95)points(<i>t</i>=6.36, <i>P<</i>0.01); Network examination result: the points of experiment group(9.37±1.57)points was higher than the control group(7.21±1.46)points(<i>t</i>=4.39, <i>P=</i>0.01); Theory of the assessment result: the points of experiment group(40.41±3.48)points was higher than the control group(36.29±3.34)points(<i>t</i>=9.25, <i>P</i><0.01); The assessment result of operation: the points of experiment group(18.22±2.69)was higher than the control group(16.28±2.52)(<i>t</i>=3.25, <i>P=</i>0.02); Total grade: the points of experiment group(84.46±5.26)was higher than the control group(73.69±6.35)(<i>t</i>=11.26,<i>P<</i>0.01). Contact lens teaching effect feedback questionnaire results showed that: students based on the concept of “HOPE” teaching mode were more satisfied than control group, and they think it had more advantages than traditional teaching group in learning initiative and improving teaching efficiency, cultivating clinical thinking ability, improving the communication power of expression(all <i>P<</i>0.05).<p>CONCLUSION: Multi-mode teaching(PBL, CBL and flipped classroom)steered by “HOPE” in the clinical teaching of contact lens can stimulate students'interest in learning, improve the quality of teaching and achieve better teaching effect.

11.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 304-307, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920639

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the current situation of teaching environmental sanitation in primary and secondary schools in Sichuan Province from 2017 to 2021, and to provide basis for the development of teaching environmental sanitation intervention measures in Sichuan Province.@*Methods@#A total of 7 510 primary and secondary schools were supervised and sampled from 2017 to 2021 according to the unified questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis method was used to analyze the monitoring results.@*Results@#The overall pass rate from 2017 to 2021 is only 51.70% (3 883), a total of 2 282 were sampled in 2017 and 1 414 were qualified, with the pass rate was the highest (61.96%),a total of 1 768 were sampled in 2019 and 750 were qualified, with the lowest pass rate (42.42%). The pass rate of different testing items in each year from 2017 to 2021 and the pass rate of the same test item in different years from 2017 to 2021 were statistically significant ( P <0.05). A total of 2 095 samples were inspected in rural areas in five years, and 1 177 were qualified, with the highest pass rate (56.18%). In urban areas, a total of 2 124 samples were inspected in five years, and 1 040 were qualified, with the lowest pass rate (48.96%). In the five year period of primary school, a total of 4 867 schools were sampled, and 2 626 were qualified, with the highest pass rate (53.93%). There were statistically significant differences in the qualification rate of desks and chairs, classroom lighting, blackboard illumination, per capita area of classrooms, and per capita area of student dormitories in different regions ( χ 2=9.87, 17.51, 37.69, 75.43, 11.22, P <0.05), and there were statistically significant differences in the pass rates of classroom lighting, per capita area of classrooms, per capita area of student dormitories, and ventilation of classrooms and student dormitories between different school sections ( χ 2=9.16, 39.37, 79.56 , 31.37, P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#The teaching environment of primary and secondary schools in Sichuan Province needs to be improved continuously, the qualified rate of classroom lighting and desks and chairs is low, and the investment in weak links should be increased.

12.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 26: e210312, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360498

ABSTRACT

A educação centrada no estudante, como principal responsável na construção do seu próprio conhecimento, é extremamente importante para que as metodologias de ensino tradicionais cada vez mais sejam substituídas por metodologias ativas de ensino-aprendizagem. Trata-se de relato de experiência entre monitores e docente da disciplina de Política de Saúde e Gestão da Assistência Farmacêutica do curso de Farmácia da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), com o objetivo de relatar a experiência no desenvolvimento de jogos educativos como estratégia na construção do conhecimento na área da Assistência Farmacêutica. A gamificação se mostrou uma estratégia pedagógica aplicável ao ensino remoto e em turmas com grande quantidade de estudantes, sendo capaz de motivar e facilitar o aprendizado, tornando esse processo mais prazeroso e estimulando os estudantes de Farmácia a superarem os seus próprios resultados de aprendizagem.


The adoption of a student-centered learning approach as the main means of building students' knowledge is extremely important to ensure that traditional teaching methodologies are increasingly replaced by active teaching-learning methodologies. The aim of this experience report involving monitors and professors on the module Health Policy and Pharmaceutical Care Management of the pharmacy degree offered by the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo was to document the experience of developing educational games as a knowledge building strategy in the area of Pharmaceutical Services. Gamification showed itself to be a teaching strategy that can be applied to remote teaching with large classes, being capable of motivating and facilitating learning, making the process more pleasurable and encouraging pharmacy students to surpass their learning outcomes.


La educación centrada en el estudiante como principal responsable por la construcción de su propio conocimiento es extremadamente importante pensando en que las metodologías de enseñanzas tradicionales sean cada vez más substituidas por metodologías activas de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Se trata de un relato de experiencia entre monitores y docente de la asignatura de Política de Salud y Gestión de la Asistencia Farmacéutica del curso de Farmacia de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas de la Universidad de São Paulo, con el objetivo de relatar la experiencia en el desarrollo de juegos educativos como estrategia en la construcción del conocimiento en el área de la Asistencia Farmacéutica. La ramificación mostró ser una estrategia pedagógica aplicable a la enseñanza remota y en grupos con gran cantidad de estudiantes, siendo capaz de motivar y facilitar el aprendizaje, haciendo el proceso más placentero e incentivando a los estudiantes de farmacia a superar sus propios resultados de aprendizaje.

13.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 35: 1, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1360650

ABSTRACT

Abstract Teacher education programs should have as one of their purposes the promotion of self-regulatory skills for learning among students who aspire to be teachers so that they can take a leading role in their learning and foster these skills in their future students. Considering the importance of knowing what students in teacher education programs do to study and learn, as well as how efficacious they feel to deal with academic demands, this study is part of a larger research and aims to investigate the learning and study strategies and self-efficacy for learning beliefs of 220 students enrolled in teacher education programs in Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics of a Higher Education Institution in the state of Piauí, and examine them in relation to age, gender, licentiate area, and course semester. Brazilian translations of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI — Third Edition) and the Self-efficacy for Learning Form were used for data collection. Scales were administered in the classrooms both through online platforms and in paper and pencil. Nonparametric inferential statistical approaches were used to test hypotheses regarding group differences. Statistically significant differences were found in LASSI in relation to gender, licentiate area, and course semester. Overall, students in Physics dealt better with anxiety; in Mathematics showed more favorable attitudes towards learning; in Chemistry reported managing their time better; in Biological Science showed significantly lower scores on many scales than did other students. Findings from this study could help inform curricular design decisions regarding teacher education programs and inform the design of interventions to strengthen the learning and study strategies and the self-efficacy for learning beliefs of future teachers.

14.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 46(1): e050, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360847

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: O estágio curricular é um momento de integração dos discentes com o mundo do trabalho, etapa indispensável no processo de desenvolvimento e aprendizado de competências específicas da atividade profissional, de acordo com os princípios e as diretrizes do Sistema Único de Saúde. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender as necessidades pedagógicas dos supervisores do estágio supervisionado do curso de Terapia Ocupacional e as características desejáveis em um supervisor de estágio, a partir da visão dos discentes. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal e exploratório de natureza qualitativa, com uso de análise temática de conteúdo, compreendida em três etapas: pré-análise, exploração de material e tratamento dos resultados. Participaram do estudo 24 supervisores de estágio e 15 discentes do curso de Terapia Ocupacional que preencheram dois formulários semiestruturados on-line: um para os supervisores e outro para os alunos. Resultado: Para os supervisores, a presença do aluno no serviço contribui para as trocas no cotidiano do trabalho e instiga o preceptor a buscar mais conhecimento, porém esperam maior reconhecimento da atuação do supervisor e consideram importante um fluxo contínuo para a formação em docência dos profissionais do serviço, em especial sobre avaliação de desempenho e práticas inovadoras. Por sua vez, os discentes têm a expectativa de encontrar supervisores que apresentem, de forma segura, contribuições significativas para a aprendizagem por meio da experiência profissional. Conclusão: Este estudo possibilitou compreender as necessidades pedagógicas da supervisão de estágio, a relevância da formação para docência nos serviços e a importância do acolhimento e acompanhamento dos discentes com orientações ao longo do processo de aprendizado. A partir desses pressupostos, foi desenvolvido um desenho de curso para capacitação pedagógica na modalidade a distância para supervisores de estágio.


Abstract: Introduction: Curricular internship supervised by professors and professionals from services linked to the Unified Health System. Objective: To understand the pedagogical needs of internship supervisors in the occupational therapy course and the desirable characteristics of an internship supervisor, from the student perspective. Method: Cross-sectional and exploratory study of a qualitative nature, using thematic content analysis, comprising three stages: pre-analysis, exploration of material with treatment of results. Twenty-four internship supervisors and fifteen students from the occupational therapy course participated in the study, using two online semi-structured forms, one for supervisors and one for students. Results and Discussion: For the supervisors, the presence of the student in the service contributes to exchanges in the daily work, and instigates the preceptor to seek more knowledge, but they expect greater recognition of the supervisor's performance and considered it important to have a continuous flow for training in teaching service professionals, in particular on performance evaluation and innovative practices. Students expect to find supervisors who make significant contributions to their learning in a safe way, through professional experience. Conclusion: The study revealed the pedagogical needs of internship supervision, the importance of training for teaching in services, and the importance of welcoming and monitoring students with guidance throughout the learning process. Based on these assumptions, a course design was developed for remote pedagogical training for internship supervisors

15.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 46(1): e002, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360850

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: The educational environment for the clinical teaching of undergraduate medical and nursing students influences the students' perception of significant aspects of satisfaction in the clinical learning environment. Objective: To transculturally adapt, with the concept, content and construct validity, the instrument "Undergraduate Clinical Education Environment Measure - UCEEM" into the Brazilian Portuguese language and validate the translated and adapted version; involving medical and nursing students, while experiencing clinical teaching during their undergraduate course. Method: This is a methodology study aimed at the translation, adaptation and transcultural validation process, which is divided into six steps, as proposed by Beaton. The steps consisted in the translation, translation synthesis, back-translation, proofreading by the experts committee, pre-testing and submission of the final version of the instrument to the author. Five bilingual translators participated in this process (three for the translation and two for the back-translation), as well as eight expert professionals who work as academic faculty and have Master's and Doctoral degrees. The validation was carried out at two moments: the first one by using semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence (pre-test), involving 30 medical and nursing students going through clinical teaching; and the second moment, the validation and assessment of the psychometric properties with 161 students from these same courses. Result: The transcultural adaptation carried out by eight expert professionals in this area was performed based on the experts' considerations, in addition to the analysis and considerations of the researcher and author of the original instrument. The result of this phase led to the final version of this instrument in Brazilian Portuguese, which shows 26 items divided into two dimensions and four subscales that were maintained according to its original form. Following the filling out of the instrument by the nursing and medical students, the analysis of the Theory of Response revealed to be reliable, as determined by a Cronbach's alpha of 0.917. According to Spearman's correlation test, the results indicate a positive correlation between the questions. Conclusions: The Portuguese version of the UCEEM instrument showed to be adequate and useful to evaluate the satisfaction with the educational environment in clinical teaching according to the perception of medical and nursing students.


Resumo: Introdução: O ambiente/clima educacional para o ensino clínico destinado a estudantes de Medicina e Enfermagem influencia a percepção deles sobre os aspectos significativos de satisfação no ambiente clínico de aprendizagem. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivos adaptar transculturalmente com validade de face, conteúdo e constructo o instrumento Undergraduate Clinical Education Environment Measure (UCEEM) para o português do Brasil e validar a versão traduzida e adaptada com estudantes de Enfermagem e Medicina que vivenciam o ensino clínico durante a formação. Método: Trata-se de um estudo metodológico para tradução, adaptação e validação transcultural, processo dividido em seis fases propostas por Beaton. As etapas consistiram em tradução, síntese das traduções, retrotradução, revisão pelo comitê de experts, pré-teste e envio da versão final do instrumento adaptado à autora do instrumento. Participaram do processo cinco tradutores bilíngues (três para tradução e dois para retrotradução) e oito profissionais experts que atuam como docentes e possuem título de mestre e/ou doutor. A validação foi realizada em dois momentos. No primeiro, realizaram-se as equivalências semântica, idiomática, cultural e conceitual (pré-teste) com 30 estudantes de Enfermagem e Medicina vivenciando o ensino clínico. No segundo, efetuou-se a validação com avaliação das propriedades psicométricas de 161 estudantes desses mesmos cursos. Resultado: A adaptação transcultural foi realizada por oito profissionais experts da área, além contar com a análise e as considerações da pesquisadora e autora do instrumento original. O resultado dessa etapa conduziu à versão final do instrumento em português, que apresenta 26 itens divididos em duas dimensões e quatro subescalas, as quais foram mantidas conforme original. Após o preenchimento do instrumento por estudantes de Medicina e Enfermagem, a análise de Teoria de Resposta ao Item revelou confiabilidade, determinada pelo alfa de Cronbach, de 0,917. No teste de correlação de Spearman, os resultados apontaram a existência de correlação positiva entre as questões. Conclusão: A versão em português do instrumento UCEEM mostrou-se adequada e útil para avaliar a satisfação com o ambiente educacional no ensino clínico pela percepção dos estudantes de Medicina e Enfermagem.

16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(5): e20210510, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360878

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To report, under the light of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, the experience of students with advanced educational practices, involving the production and use of technologies in the postgraduation nursing course of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Methods: Experience report of students from the post-graduation nursing program from the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, about the production of knowledge using educational technology and the application of active methodologies in the teaching-learning process for face-to-face and distance teaching. Results: The post-graduate students participated in the educational process in a creative way, both during in-person and distance teaching. They created: domino games, educational videos, parodies, conceptual maps, virtual role-playing, an interactive quiz, among others. Final considerations: The experience of the students with the advanced educational practices, including the production and use of technologies in nursing post-graduation showed that the teaching-learning process can be innovative and planned to go beyond traditional methods.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Relatar, basada en la Teoría de las Inteligencias Múltiples de Gardner, experiencia de discentes sobre las prácticas educativas avanzadas con la producción y uso de tecnologías en el posgrado en Enfermería de la Universidad Federal de Pernambuco. Métodos: Relato de experiencia de discentes del Posgrado en Enfermería de la Universidad Federal de Pernambuco sobre la producción del conocimiento mediante el uso de tecnologías educativas y aplicabilidad de metodologías activas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en la enseñanza presencial y remota. Resultados: Los pos graduandos participaron del proceso educativo de manera creativa, tanto en el contexto presencial cuanto remoto. Construyeron: dominó, vídeos educativos, parodias, mapas conceptuales, escenificaciones virtuales, concurso interactivo, entre otros. Consideraciones finales: La experiencia de los discentes sobre las prácticas educativas avanzadas con la producción y uso de tecnologías en el posgrado en Enfermería mostró que el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje puede ser innovador y pensado además del tradicionalismo.


RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar, à luz da Teoria das Inteligências Múltiplas de Gardner, a experiência de discentes sobre as práticas educacionais avançadas com a produção e uso de tecnologias no curso de pósgraduação em Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Métodos: Relato de experiência de discentes do Programa de Pós-graduação em Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco sobre a produção do conhecimento mediante o uso de tecnologias educacionais e acerca da aplicabilidade de metodologias ativas no processo de ensino-aprendizagem no ensino presencial e remoto. Resultados: Os pós-graduandos participaram do processo educacional de forma criativa, tanto no contexto presencial quanto remoto. Construíram: jogo de dominó, vídeos educativos, paródias, mapas conceituais, encenações virtuais, quiz interativo, entre outros. Considerações finais: A experiência dos discentes sobre as práticas educacionais avançadas com a produção e uso de tecnologias na pós-graduação em Enfermagem mostrou que o processo de ensino-aprendizagem pode ser inovador e pensado para além do tradicionalismo.

17.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210310, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360440

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo descrever as relações entre objetivos, conteúdos e métodos de ensino em subáreas de conhecimento de Enfermagem a partir do consenso de professores especialistas. Método estudo Delphi em quatro rodadas. Participaram 112 professores de cursos de graduação de Instituições de Ensino Superior públicas do Brasil divididos em sete painéis por subárea. Os dados foram analisados pela técnica de Análise de Conteúdo à luz dos conceitos de conhecimento dos objetivos e conhecimento pedagógico de conteúdo de Shulman, transformados nas variáveis qualitativas de interesse, objetivos, conteúdos e métodos de ensino em torno das quais foi buscado consenso. Resultados somente as subáreas Enfermagem em Saúde Coletiva e Enfermagem na Gestão e Gerenciamento acordaram objetivos. Conteúdos acertados foram relacionados às políticas públicas e aos programas do Sistema Único de Saúde. Métodos sugerem a coexistência de tradição e inovação. Conclusões e implicações para a prática a tomada de consciência das relações entre os objetivos, conteúdos e métodos utilizados pelos professores impacta a promoção do diálogo e a integração entre as subáreas, implicando, na prática, uma formação profissional potencializada ou frágil em qualidade resolutiva de problemas de saúde.


Resumen Objetivo describir las relaciones entre objetivos, contenidos y métodos de enseñanza en subáreas del conocimiento de Enfermería a partir del consenso de profesores especialistas. Método estudio Delphi en cuatro rondas. Participaron 112 profesores de cursos de pregrado de instituciones públicas de educación superior de Brasil, divididos en siete paneles por subárea. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la técnica de Análisis de Contenido a la luz de los conceptos de conocimiento de los objetivos y conocimiento pedagógico del contenido de Shulman, transformados en variables cualitativas de interés, objetivos, contenidos y métodos de enseñanza en torno a los cuales se buscó el consenso. Resultados solo las subáreas Enfermería en salud colectiva y Enfermería en gestión y Gerenciamiento acordaron objetivos. Los contenidos del consenso se relacionaron con las políticas públicas y los programas del Sistema Único de Salud. Los métodos sugieren la coexistencia de la tradición e innovación. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica la conciencia de la relación entre los objetivos, contenidos y métodos empleados por los docentes incide en la promoción del diálogo y la integración entre las subáreas, implicando en la práctica una formación profesional potencializada o frágil en términos de resolución de problemas de salud.


Abstract Aim to describe the relationships among objectives, content, and teaching methods in subfields of Nursing knowledge from the consensus of expert professors. Methods a Delphi study in four rounds. Participants were 112 professors from undergraduate courses at public Higher Education Institutions in Brazil divided into seven panels by subarea. The data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique in light of Shulman's concepts of knowledge of objectives and pedagogical knowledge of content, transformed into the qualitative variables of interest, objectives, content and teaching methods, around which consensus was sought. Results only the subareas of Collective Health Nursing and Nursing in Management and Administration agreed on objectives. Agreed contents were related to public policies and programs of the Unified Health System. Methods suggest the coexistence of tradition and innovation. Conclusions and implications for practice the awareness of the relationships among the objectives, contents, and methods used by the professors impacts the promotion of dialogue and the integration among the subareas, implying, in practice, a potentiated or fragile professional formation in resolute quality of health problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Specialties, Nursing/education , Education, Nursing/methods , Faculty, Nursing , Delphi Technique
18.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 26: e210621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364990

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão integrativa realiza um mapeamento da produção científica da última década com vistas às metodologias aplicadas no ensino de Ética, Bioética e Deontologia, objetivando categorizá-las e descrevê-las. Na busca pelos descritores "ensino" and "saúde" and "ética" or "bioética" or "deontologia", nas bases de Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) e Google Acadêmico, foram encontrados 34 artigos. As metodologias foram organizadas em: metodologias ativas e modelo tradicional. A síntese desta revisão afirma que as metodologias ativas oferecem aprendizagens mais significativas se comparadas ao modelo tradicional, sobretudo associadas ao uso da tecnologia. Além disso, pressupostos teóricos transversais e interdisciplinares também foram associados à aplicabilidade metodológica no ensino das temáticas em questão.


Esta revisión integradora realiza un mapeo de la producción científica de la última década, con relación a las metodologías aplicadas en la enseñanza de la Ética, Bioética y Deontología, con el objetivo de caracterizarlas y describirlas. En la búsqueda por los descriptores "enseñanza" and "salud" and "ética" or "bioética" or "deontología" en las bases Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS), Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) y Google Académico se encontraron treinta y cuatro artículos. Las metodologías se organizaron en: metodologías activas y modelo tradicional. La síntesis de esta revisión afirma que las metodologías activas ofrecen aprendizajes más significativos si comparadas al modelo tradicional, principalmente asociadas al uso de la tecnología. Además, presuposiciones teóricas transversales e interdisciplinarias también se asociaron a la aplicabilidad metodológica en la enseñanza de las temáticas en cuestión.


This integrative review maps out the scientific production of the last decade focusing on methodologies applied in teaching Ethics, Bioethics and Deontology, aiming to categorize and describe them. The review found thirty-four articles searching the keywords "teaching" and "health" and "ethics" or "bioethics" or "deontology" in the bases Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Google Scholar. The methodologies were organized into: active methodologies and traditional model. The synthesis of this review states that active methodologies offer more significant learning, when compared to the traditional model, especially due to technology. Moreover, transversal and interdisciplinary theoretical assumptions were also associated with methodological applicability in the teaching of the themes in question.

19.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220011321, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365158

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: Cardiovascular physiology learned by exercise science students is often quickly forgotten. We tested whether a state rotation model would help students to recall key principles of Cardiovascular Physiology (CV). Methods: Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in the Exercise Physiology Course at the School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, participated in the study. The students were randomly assigned into one of 4 stations, dedicated to recalling the concepts of the heart as a pump (e.g. preload, post-load, and contractility; station 1) and hemodynamics (e.g. serial and parallel conductance; station 2) by using the educational tool. Heart rate (HR) control by sympathetic nervous system activation (station 3) and HR control by vagal activation (station 4) were assessed by quantifying HR response to the Stroop color and word test and during face immersion in cold water, respectively. To evaluate the efficacy of the intervention, we used a Socrative app to launch eight multiple-choice questions before (PRE) and after (POST) the student's station rotation. The questions were related to the basic principles of exercise physiology and its consequences on the cardiovascular system. Results: The 4-station average score (% of corrected answers) achieved after the station rotation was higher than the score achieved before (71.21%, SD 14.50 vs. 31.07%, SD 18.04; for POST and PRE, respectively p < 0.005). Considering specific stations, the lowest score of corrected answers before the rotation was observed at station 2- hemodynamics when compared with station 1-heart as a pump and station 3/4 - autonomic control (18.9%, SD 0.9 vs. 46.5, SD 24.1 and 34.8, SD 2.1 for hemodynamics, heart as a pump and autonomic control, respectively). Interestingly, after the rotation, there was a significant increase in corrected scores for all stations (33.9, SD 9.8; 80.5, SD 4.6 and 90.2, SD 2.3, for hemodynamics, heart as a pump, and autonomic control, respectively). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of the educational tool was effective to recall CV principles that are essential to a better understanding of the CV responses to exercise and applying the concepts in exercise testing and prescription for different populations.

20.
Rev. bras. ciênc. esporte ; 44: e010121, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365597

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Nos esportes coletivos, a análise do desempenho e a condução do processo de ensino-aprendizagem implicam, implícita ou explicitamente, escolhas metodológicas. Neste trabalho, serão apresentadas algumas das principais abordagens teórico-metodológicas que embasam a análise do desempenho e o ensino-aprendizagem nos esportes coletivos e suas implicações práticas. Será discutida a integração desses conteúdos com o intuito de contribuir com o suporte científico para a prática pedagógica do professor/treinador.


ABSTRACT In team sports, the performance analysis and the teaching-learning process imply, implicitly or explicitly, methodological choices. In this work, we will present some of the main theoretical-methodological approaches that support performance analysis and teaching-learning in team sports and their practical implications. We will discuss the integration of these subjects in order to contribute with scientific support to the pedagogical practice of the teacher/coach.


RESUMEN En los deportes de equipo, analizar el rendimiento y conducir el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje implica, implícita o explícitamente, elecciones metodológicas. En este trabajo presentaremos algunos de los principales enfoques teórico-metodológicos que sustentan el análisis del desempeño y la enseñanza-aprendizaje en los deportes de equipo y sus implicaciones prácticas. Discutiremos la integración de estas temáticas con el objetivo de contribuir con el soporte científico de la práctica pedagógica del profesor/entrenador.

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