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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 763-770, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285283

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the scrotal thermographic profile and to verify the influence of temperature and humidity of the humid tropical climate on testicular temperature and seminal quality of Mangalarga Marchador stallions. The thermal profiles of the proximal, middle, and distal zones of the testicles and total surface temperature (TSTT) were recorded using an FLIR E60bx thermal imager. The average air temperature (°C) and relative humidity (%) were obtained 1, 5, 9, 33, and 66 days before semen collection and showed a mean value of 26.5±2.4 and 80.4±6.0 respectively. The scrotal surface temperature was close to 34°C and there was no variation with the age of the stallion, reproductive activity, and characteristics of the ejaculate (P>0.05). The only significant correlations obtained were between TSTT and minor defects (R = 0.41; P<0.05), between TSTT and total defects (R = 0.46; P<0.01), and between TSTT and percentage of morphologically normal sperm (R = -0.46; P<0.05). It was concluded that the Mangalarga Marchador stallions maintained the testicular temperature within favorable conditions for spermatogenesis, demonstrating the efficiency of testicular thermoregulation mechanisms in the Atlantic Forest biome.


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil termográfico escrotal e verificar a influência da temperatura e da umidade do clima tropical úmido na temperatura testicular e na qualidade seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador. Os perfis térmicos das zonas proximal, média e distal dos testículos e a temperatura da superfície total (TSTT) foram registrados usando-se um termovisor FLIR E60bx. A temperatura média do ar (° C) e a umidade relativa (%) foram obtidas um, cinco, nove, 33 e 66 dias antes da coleta de sêmen e apresentaram valor médio de 26,5 ± 2,4 e 80,4 ± 6,0, respectivamente. A temperatura da superfície escrotal foi próxima a 34°C, e não houve variação com a idade do garanhão, a atividade reprodutiva e as características do ejaculado (P>0,05). As únicas correlações significativas obtidas foram entre TSTT e defeitos menores (R=0,41; P<0,05), entre TSTT e defeitos totais (R=0,46; P<0,01), e entre TSTT e porcentagem de espermatozoides morfologicamente normais (R=-0,46; P<0,05). Concluiu-se que os garanhões Mangalarga Marchador mantiveram a temperatura testicular dentro de condições favoráveis para a espermatogênese, demonstrando a eficiência dos mecanismos de termorregulação testicular no bioma Mata Atlântica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Spermatogenesis/radiation effects , Temperature , Testis , Body Temperature Regulation , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Humidity/adverse effects , Semen , Tropical Climate/adverse effects , Thermography/veterinary
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385404

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: A large body of evidence supports the protective role of the flavonol antioxidant compound quercetin in mammals. We tested the hypothesis that quercetin can protect against the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis defect like a reduction in gonadotropins and testicular hormones and abnormal semen analysis induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), possibly via the downregulation of oxidative stress (ROS) and p53-Bax-caspase-3 pathways. Rats were either exposed to a variety of unpredictable stressors daily before being sacrificed after 3 weeks (model group) or were treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight/day) at the same time the CUS were induced (treated group). Harvested testicular tissues were stained with basic histological staining, and testis homogenates were assayed for the tumor suppressor p53, apoptosis regulator Bax, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, harvested epididymis tissues were used to assess semen analysis, and blood samples were assayed for the testicular hormone testosterone, the adrenal cortex hormone corticosterone, and the anterior pituitary gonadotropins, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). CUS induced profound testicular damage and significantly (p<0.05) induced p53, Bax, caspase-3, MDA, and corticosterone, which were significantly (p<0.05) inhibited by quercetin except corticosterone. Whereas, quercetin significantly (p<0.05) increased FSH, LH, testosterone, Bcl-2, GPx, and SOD levels that were inhibited by CUS. In addition, CUS induced oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia, which were significantly (p<0.05) protected by quercetin. Thus, Quercetin protects against CUS-induced HPG defects in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of ROS-p53-Bax-caspase-3 axis.


RESUMEN: El papel protector del compuesto antioxidante flavonol quercetina en los mamíferos ha sido ampliamente reportado. Probamos la hipótesis que la quercetina puede proteger contra el defecto del eje hipotálamo-hipofisiario- gonadal (HHG) como una reducción de gonadotropinas y hormonas testiculares y análisis de semen anormal inducido por estrés crónico impredecible (ECI), posiblemente a través de la regulación reducida del estrés oxidativo (REO) y las vías p53- Bax-caspasa-3. Las ratas fueron expuestas a una variedad de fac- tores estresantes impredecibles diariamente antes de ser sacrificadas después de 3 semanas (grupo modelo) o fueron tratadas con quercetina (50 mg / kg de peso corporal / día) al mismo tiempo que se indujo la ECI (grupo tratado). Los tejidos testiculares fueron teñidos con tinción histológica básica y los homogeneizados de testículo se analizaron para determinar el supresor de tumores p53, el regulador de apoptosis Bax, el linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2), la caspasa-3, el malondialdehído (MDA), la glutatión peroxidasa (GPx) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD). Además, se utilizaron tejidos del epidídimo recolectados para evaluar el análisis de semen y se analizaron muestras de sangre para determinar la hormona testicular testosterona, la hormona corticosterona de la corteza suprarrenal y las gonadotropinas de la hipófisis anterior, la hormona estimulante folicular (FSH) y la hormona luteinizante (LH). El ECI indujo daño testicular importante e indujo significativamente niveles de (p <0,05) p53, Bax, caspasa-3, MDA y corticosterona, que fueron inhibidos (p <0,05) por la quercetina. La quercetina aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los niveles de FSH, LH, testosterona, Bcl-2, GPx y SOD que fueron inhibidos por ECI. Además, ECI indujo oligozoospermia, astenozoospermia y teratozoospermia, protegidos de manera significativa (p <0,05) por la quercetina. Por lo tanto, la quercetina protege contra los defectos de HHG inducidos por ECI en ratas, lo que está asociado con la inhibición del eje ROS-p53-Bax-caspasa-3.

3.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 21-28, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146468

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de insensibilidad a andrógenos (AIS en la sigla inglesa) es una entidad muy poco frecuente en endocrinología. Se caracteriza por la mutación del receptor de andrógenos de magnitud variable, por medio del cual individuos 46,XY no se virilizan normalmente, a pesar de conservar sus testículos y tener concentraciones de testosterona en rango masculino. El cuadro clínico es variable y depende la profundidad de la alteración del receptor. En un extremo, hay casos de insensibilidad androgénica completa (CAIS) con fenotipo femenino. En el otro extremo hay insensibilidad parcial (PAIS) que se extiende desde el fenotipo femenino, con o sin ambigüedad genital, hasta los casos de hombres infértiles o con subvirilización, que presentan insensibilidad androgénica más leve. En los fenotipos femeninos, los testículos suelen estar en posición ectópica y aquellos ubicados dentro del abdomen tienen riesgo de malignizarse, por lo que suelen extirparse. Estos son los casos de más difícil manejo, pues aparte de la necesidad de gonadectomía seguida de terapia hormonal femenina, existe una vagina estrecha y en fondo de saco ciego y que suele requerir corrección quirúrgica para permitir la actividad sexual. En este trabajo presentamos 5 casos de AIS vistos recientemente en 2 centros clínicos de Santiago y que ilustran la heterogeneidad de presentación. Además, hacemos una revisión actualizada de los criterios diagnósticos, los tratamientos más adecuados y el manejo global de esta condición.


The Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, in its English acronym) is a very rare entity in endocrinology. It is characterized by a variable magnitude androgen receptor mutation, whereby 46, XY individuals are not normally virilized, despite retaining their testicles and having testosterone concentrations in the male range. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the depth of the receptor alteration. At one extreme, there are cases of complete androgenic insensitivity (CAIS) with a female phenotype. At the other extreme, there is partial insensitivity (PAIS) that extends from the female phenotype, with or without genital ambiguity, to cases of infertile or undervirilized men, who have milder androgenic insensitivity. In female phenotypes, the testes are usually in an ectopic position and those located within the abdomen are at risk of malignancy, and therefore are usually removed. These are the most difficult cases to manage because apart from the need for gonadectomy followed by female hormonal therapy, there is a narrow vagina and a deep blind pouch that usually requires surgical correction to allow sexual activity. In this work, we present 5 cases of AIS recently seen in 2 clinical centers in Santiago and that illustrate the heterogeneity of presentation. In addition, we make an updated review of the diagnostic criteria, the most appropriate treatments, and the overall management of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/diagnosis , Phenotype , Disorders of Sex Development , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/genetics , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/therapy , Testis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Receptors, Androgen , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential
4.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(3): e1571, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144548

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El autoexamen de mama y el autoexamen de testículos son métodos de detección temprana sencillos, económicos, seguros, no invasivos, que no requieren ningún instrumento especial para su ejecución y que permiten una mayor conciencia y conocimiento del propio cuerpo. Objetivo: Determinar el conocimiento de la práctica del autoexamen de mama o testículo en un grupo de estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario sobre conocimientos de autoexamen de mama o testículo, consumo de tabaco, alcohol y variables sociodemográficas. El análisis de datos incluyó distribución de frecuencias, porcentajes y razones de prevalencia. Resultados: Del total de la muestra, el 43,9 por ciento eran hombres, de ellos el 30,7 por ciento manifestó conocer cómo se debía realizar el autoexamen de testículo. Los masculinos pertenecientes a estratos altos, los que se encontraban cursando tercer año y quienes tenían estudios afines con la facultad de salud mostraron las mayores tasas de conocimiento. De las mujeres, el 73,7 por ciento conocía cómo realizar el autoexamen de mama, demostrando tasas mayores de conocimientos las que cursaban cuarto año, las que pertenecían a estratos altos y las que tenían estudios afines con la facultad de salud. No se encontró asociación estadística con el conocimiento del autoexamen de testículo; mientras que ser mayor de 22 años y pertenecer a estratos altos fueron factores predisponentes para el autoexamen de mama. Conclusiones: Las mujeres tienen mayor percepción de la importancia del autocuidado para su salud, a la vez que manifiestan mayor conocimiento de los procedimientos para realizar el autoexamen. No obstante, existen hombres y mujeres que no saben aún como realizarlo, de ahí la importancia de desarrollar e implementar programas de educación, prevención y promoción del autoexamen en los estudiantes universitarios(AU)


Introduction: Breasts self-examination and testicles self-examination are simple, economic, safe, non-invasive early detection's methods that do not require any special tool for their performance and that foster a higher awareness and knowledge on your own body. Objective: To determine the knowledge of the breast or testicles self-examination practice in a group of university students. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. It was performed a questionnaire on the knowledge of the breast or testicles self-examination, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and socio-demographic variables. Data analysis included frequencies and percentages distribution, and prevalence ratios. Results: From the total of the sample, 43,9 percent were men, and 30,7 percent of them expressed to have knowledge on how to perform the testicles self-examination. Males corresponding to high strata, the ones that were in third year of the major, and those who had studies related to the Health's Faculty showed higher rates of knowledge. From women, 73,7 percent knew how to perform the breasts self-examination showing higher rates of knowledge the ones that were in the fourth year of the major, the ones that belonged to higher strata and the ones that had studies related with the Health's Faculty. There was not found statistic association with the knowledge on testicles self-examination; while being older than 22 years old and belonging to high strata were predisposing factors for breasts self-examination. Conclusions: Women have higher perception of the importance for health of self-care, while they show more knowledge on the procedures to perform self-examination. Nevertheless, there are men and women that do not know yet how to perform it, that is why it is important to develop and implement programs of education, prevention and promotion of the self-examination in university students(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Prevention/methods , Testis/abnormalities , Breast Self-Examination/methods , Students , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(6): 429-433, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1012762

ABSTRACT

Bats belong to the order Chiroptera, family Phyllostomidae, and present a wide diversity of reproductive strategies. However, information on the reproductive biology of male bats is scarce, mainly in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Thus, this study evaluated the seasonal testicular histomorphometry of the bat Carollia perspicillata in fragments of the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco state. To this end, adult males were collected, euthanized for removal of the testicles, and later submitted to a routine histological technique. Histomorphometric analysis included assessment of the areas of tubular and intertubular compartment occupation, as well as quantification of spermatocytes, rounded spermatids, elongated spermatids, and Sertoli and Leydig cells. Results indicated that this bat species presents reproductive seasonality, because significantly higher averages of the testicular parameters were observed in the rainy season, which is a period of greater availability of food resources. Such inferences indicate that there is a synchrony between peak spermatogenesis and hormonal inversion in the months of high precipitation; furthermore, a higher carrying capacity of the Sertoli cells is noted. C. perspicillata males possibly present greater sperm and androgenic activity in the rainy season, associated with increased tubular area and number of spermatogenic cells, as well as with the intertubular area and number of Leydig cells, respectively.(AU)


Os morcegos pertencem a ordem Chiroptera, família Phyllostomidae, e apresentam ampla diversidade de estratégias reprodutivas. Entretanto, as informações relacionadas à biologia reprodutiva dos machos são escassas, principalmente no Nordeste do Brasil. Dessa forma, o trabalho avaliou a histomorfometria sazonal testicular de Carollia perspicillata em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco. Para tanto, os machos adultos foram coletados, eutanasiados para a remoção dos testículos, e posteriormente submetidos à técnica histológica de rotina. As análises histomorfométricas avaliaram as áreas de ocupação do compartimento tubular e intertubular, assim como a quantificação dos espermatócitos, espermátides arredondadas, espermátides alongadas, células de Sertoli e de Leydig. Os resultados indicaram que a espécie apresenta sazonalidade reprodutiva, visto que maiores médias significativas dos parâmetros testiculares foram encontradas na estação chuvosa, que é um período de maior disponibilidade de recursos alimentares. Tais inferências indicam que existe uma sincronia entre o pico de espermatogênese e investimento hormonal nos meses de alta precipitação, atrelado a isso, nota-se ainda, uma maior capacidade de suporte das células de Sertoli. Os machos de C. perspicillata possivelmente apresentam uma maior atividade espermática e androgênica na estação chuvosa, associadas ao aumento da área tubular e do número de células espermatogênicas, assim como da área intertubular e do número das células de Leydig, respectivamente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Seasons , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Chiroptera/physiology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 895-900, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954204

ABSTRACT

La reserpina es un antipsicótico e hipotensor arterial que reduce significativamente los niveles de monoaminas centrales, y también es utilizada para modelar los cuadros depresivos humanos en animales de laboratorio. Este trabajo estudió, en ratas Wistar machos adolescentes, cómo la reserpina afecta indicadores moleculares de la función testicular, la cual se ha visto alterada en humanos deprimidos. Una semana luego de finalizado el tratamiento con reserpina (4 dosis de 0,0 o 1,0 mg/Kg, cada 2 días) la respuesta ansiosa y depresiva fue evaluada en un laberinto en cruz elevado. Posteriormente, se sacrificaron los animales y disecaron los testículos, los cuales fueron fijados e incluidos en bloques de parafina de donde se obtuvieron cortes histológicos de 6 µm de espesor. Estos se utilizaron para medir el diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos y para medir por inmunohistoquímica el porcentaje de células intersticiales (células de Leydig) positivas a (1) Factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro, (2) antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (BDNF y PCNA, respectivamente, por sus siglas en inglés), y a (3) caspasa-3. Se obtuvo también un índice de positividad al receptor de andrógenos en las células intersticiales. La expresión del receptor de andrógeno fue evaluada utilizando una escala semicuantitativa de escores (0, 1, 2 y 3) y el resto de las moléculas por presencia o ausencia de expresión de cada antígeno investigado en 300 células por preparado. Los resultados comportamentales indicaron alteraciones en la respuesta de ansiedad y una significativa depresión motora (e.g., mayor latencia en conductas de escape del sector blanco) en los animales tratados con reserpina. No se observaron diferencias en los diámetros de los túbulos seminíferos ni en la expresión del receptor de andrógeno, mientras que sí se encontró mayor proporción de células intersticiales positivas a BDNF y PCNA, y menor proporción de células positivas a caspasa-3, en los animales tratados. Los resultados corroboran la capacidad de la reserpina para reproducir rasgos comportamentales de la depresión. La administración de la droga, sin embargo, no parece reproducir a nivel testicular los efectos deletéreos encontrados en humanos deprimidos, e incluso los resultados sugieren que la reserpina puede mejorar algunos aspectos de la funcionalidad testicular relacionadas con la actividad de las células intersticiales en ratas.


Reserpine, a drug that depletes central monoamines, has been used as an antipsychotic and arterial hypotensive, and to model depression in animals. The present study analyzed, in adolescent male rats, the effects of chronic reserpine treatment on molecular indexes of testicular function. A week after termination of the treatment (4 doses of 0,0 or 1,0 mg/Kg/every 48 h) the animals were tested for anxiety response and depression patterns in an elevated plus maze. They were then euthanized, their testes dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin to obtain blocks. Histological sections (6 µm) were obtained and used to measure the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the expression in Leydig cells of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Caspase-3 and androgen receptors, by immunohistochemistry. Behavioral results indicated significant alterations in anxiety responses and a significant motor depression (e.g., greater latency to escape from the white sector). There were no differences between groups in the diameter of seminiferous tubules nor in the androgen receptors positivity. Reserpine-treated animals, however, exhibited more BDNF and PCNA positive cells, and less positive Caspase-3 cells in Leydig cells, than control animals. The results corroborate the efficacy of reserpine to reproduce some of the behavioral components of depression. The drug, however, does not seem to exert in rats the same effects on testicular function that have been found in humans diagnosed with depression. Furthermore the drug seems to enhance some aspects of testicular function related to Leydig cells function in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reserpine/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/drug effects , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Leydig Cells/drug effects , Testis/cytology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Caspase 3/drug effects
7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 24(2): 99-103, abr.-jun./2017. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-966774

ABSTRACT

A pesquisa teve por objetivos avaliar a biometria testicular, coletar o sêmen e analisar as características morfológicas dos espermatozoides de cachorros-do-mato Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. Foram utilizados cinco animais, maiores de três anos de idade e com peso superior a 6 kg. Os animais foram anestesiados com xilazina 2%, cloridrato de ketamina 10% e atropina 1%. Foi determinado o volume testicular (testículos medidos com paquímetro). O sêmen foi coletado pelo método de eletroejaculação e a morfologia espermática analisada pelo método de preparação em câmara úmida, sendo realizado também o teste supravital (corante eosina/ nigrosina). O volume médio dos testículos foi 2,96 ± 0,56 cm3. A análise da morfologia espermática teve média de 54,2 % de defeitos totais e alta incidência de caudas dobradas e enroladas, gotas citoplasmáticas e defeitos no formato da cabeça. No teste supravital obteve-se 77,4 ± 5,17 % de células vivas. Conclui-se que os cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous) possuem volume testicular menor que outros canídeos selvagens; que a técnica de coleta de sêmen foi eficiente para a espécie e que o sêmen apresenta elevada patologia espermática, talvez devido à pequena variabilidade genética da população.


This research aimed to evaluate the testicular biometry, collect semen and analyze the morphological characteristics of the sperm of crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. Five animals older than three years-old and weighing more than 6 kg were used. The animals were anaesthetized with 2% of xylazine, 10% of ketamine hydrochloride, and 1% of atropine. The testicular volume was determined (testicles measured with caliper ruler). The semen was collected by the electroejaculation method, and the spermatozoa morphology was analyzed by the preparation in a humidified chamber method. The supravitally test was also performed (eosin /nigrosine pigment). The average volume of the testicles was 2,96 ± 0,56 cm3. Analysis of the morphology had a mean of 54.2% of total defects and high incidence of bent and rolled tails, cytoplasmic droplets and head shape defects. In supravitally tests were obtained 77.4 ± 5.17% of alive cells. We conclude that the crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) have lower testicular volume than other wild canids, that the semen collection technique was efficient for the species, and that the semen has high sperm pathology, perhaps due to the low genetic variability of the population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Semen , Cryopreservation
8.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 39(2): 107-110, dic. 2016. ilus, graf, map, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-953607

ABSTRACT

Los tumores germinales mixtos representan el 40-60% de las neoplasias testiculares, pueden presentarse en testículos descendidos o no, y en sitios extratesticulares. Están asociados a condiciones como criptorquidia, atrofia testicular y hernia inguinal. Pueden debutar con síntomas que incluyen aumento unilateral del volumen escrotal, con o sin dolor. Microscópicamente se observan varias combinaciones de componentes histológicos germinales, es indispensable la determinación del porcentaje de cada uno de ellos, y la medición de marcadores tumorales, por sus implicaciones pronósticas. El tratamiento principal está basado en la orquiectomía radical y dependiendo del estadio la quimioterapia y o radioterapia complementaria. En los pacientes adecuadamente tratados, la sobrevida es muy buena, aun en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad. Se presenta masculino de 20 años con dolor de inicio súbito y sensación de masa en testículo derecho. Ecografía revela lesión sólida que compromete parénquima testicular. Se realiza orquiectomía radical. Estudio anatomopatológico muestra tumor maligno con áreas sólidas y quísticas, tipo tumor germinal mixto con componente de carcinoma embrionario, teratoma maduro, y tumor de seno endodérmico, sin componente seminomatoso.


Mixed germ cell tumors represent 40-60% of testicular tumors, they can occur in undescended testicles or not, and Extratesticular sites. They are associated with conditions such as cryptorchidism, testicular atrophy and inguinal hernia. They may present with symptoms including unilateral scrotal volume increase, with or without pain. Microscopically various combinations of components observed histological germ is indispensable determining the percentage of each, and measurement of tumor markers for prognostic implications. Treatment is based on surgical resection plus chemotherapy and / or adjuvant radiotherapy. In treated patients, survival is good, even in advanced stages of the disease. Male 20 years presents with sudden onset of pain and sensation of mass in the right testicle. Ultrasound reveals solid lesion that compromises testicular parenchyma. Radical orchiectomy is done. Pathological study shows malignant tumor with solid and cystic areas, with mixed germ cell tumor type component of embryonic carcinoma, teratoma, endodermal sinus tumor and without seminoma component.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Testicular Neoplasms , Scrotum/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers, Tumor
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(10): 1014-1020, out. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-841994

ABSTRACT

The pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782) is a species of the Felidae family, widely distributed in South America, included on CITES Appendix II and classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, with population trend decreasing. Based on this information, the objective of this study is to describe morphologically the testes and epididymal ducts of pampas cat. The animal, coming from the Federal University of Mato Grosso Zoo, Brazil, had died after anesthesia procedure and the male reproductive system was dissected to collect the testicles. The samples taken were fragmented and histologically examined. From the microscopic analysis of the testes were identified: vaginal and tunica albuginea, formed by dense connective tissue modeled with large amount of collagen fibers. The tunica albuginea fibrous septa emits into the body. The seminiferous tubules are coiled and coated internally by spermatogenic epithelium consisting of Sertoli cells, surrounded by a basement membrane in the presence of myoid cells. The interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules, is composed of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and Leydig cells in polyhedral shape. The epididymal ducts showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium with secretory cells of which stereocilia design, situated on a basement membrane filled by myoid cells. This epithelium has principal and basal cells, the main cell design stereocilia toward the lumen of the epididymal duct.(AU)


O gato-palheiro Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782) é uma espécie da família Felidae, com ampla distribuição na América do Sul. Está incluido no Appendix II da CITES e classificada como Próxima da Extinção na Lista Vermelha da IUCN, apresentando população em decrescimo. Com base nessas informações o objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar morfologicamente os testículos e ductos epididimários de L. colocolo. O animal, oriundo do Zoológico da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brasil, veio a óbito após procedimento anestésico e o sistema reprodutor masculino foi dissecado para coleta dos testículos. As amostras retiradas foram fragmentadas e histologicamente examinadas. A partir das análises microscópicas dos testículos foram identificados: a túnica vaginal e albugínea, formada por tecido conjuntivo denso modelado, com grande quantidade de fibras de colágeno. A túnica albugínea emite septos fibrosos para o interior do órgão. Os túbulos seminíferos são enovelados e revestidos internamente por epitélio estratificado constituído por células espermatogênicas e células somáticas de Sertoli, envolvidos por uma membrana basal com presença de células mioides. O tecido intersticial, entre os túbulos seminíferos, é constituído de tecido conjuntivo do tipo frouxo com vasos sanguíneos e linfáticos, e células de Leydig em formato poliédrico. Os ductos epididimários apresentaram epitélio cilíndrico pseudoestratificado com células secretoras dos quais projetam estereocílios, situados sobre uma membrana basal repleta por células mióides. Este epitélio apresenta células principais e basais, cujas células principais projetam estereocílios em direção ao lúmen do ducto epididimário.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Epididymis/anatomy & histology , Felidae/anatomy & histology , Seminiferous Epithelium/anatomy & histology , Testis/anatomy & histology , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary
10.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(4): e160077, 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-829286

ABSTRACT

Little is known about reproductive biology of endangered Steindachneridion parahybae , a gonochoristic teleost species inhabiting the Paraíba do Sul River Basin, and herein is the first description of intersex in S. parahybae juvenile. The normal appearance of ovaries and testes in juvenile from the same lot of breeding were also described for comparison, even as cytogenetic analysis was performed in these juveniles. One specimen was a priori classified as female due to the macroscopic characteristic of ovaries, with small yellow oocytes, without fringes (a main characteristic of catfish male), and larger than testes; however the microscopic analysis revealed the presence of ovotestes, including the complete spermatogenesis. S. parahybae had diploid number, 2n = 56 chromosomes with no evidence of differentiated sex chromosomes or supernumerary chromosomes among them. These findings may be due to the result of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds or may also be influenced by environmental conditions. The possibility of intersexes might also happen spontaneously and it cannot be ruled out. Therefore, the functional significance and reproductive consequences of this anomaly remain to be determined, suggesting that this species may be susceptible to endocrine disruption. These results contribute to gain expertise about reproductive biology of an endangered species in captivity.(AU)


Poco se sabe sobre la biología reproductiva de Steindachneridion parahybae , una especie de teleósteo gonocorístico en peligro de extinción que habita la cuenca del río Paraíba do Sul y en éste trabajo se describe por primera vez la aparición de individuo intersexo en juvenil de S. parahybae . También se describió el aspecto normal de los ovarios y de los testículos de individuos juveniles procedentes del mismo lote de cría para su comparación; se realizó además el análisis citogenético. Un espécimen fue clasificado a priori como hembra debido a las características macroscópicas de los ovarios, con pequeños oocitos amarillos, sin flecos (característica principal de los bagres macho) y más grande que los testículos; sin embargo el análisis microscópico reveló la presencia de un ovotestis, incluyendo una espermatogénesis completa. S. parahybae presentó un número diploide, 2n = 56 cromosomas, sin evidencia de cromosomas sexuales diferenciados o supernumerarios entre ellos. Estos hallazgos pueden deberse al resultado de la exposición de los individuos a desorganizadores endocrinos o estar influenciados por las condiciones ambientales. Sin embargo no se puede descartar la posibilidad de la presencia de intersexos de forma espontánea. Por lo tanto, la importancia funcional y las consecuencias reproductivas de estas anomalías permanecen aún sin ser determinadas, sugiriendo que esta especie puede ser susceptible a los disruptores endocrinos. Estos resultados contribuyen a ampliar el conocimiento de la biología reproductiva de esta especie en peligro de extinción en condiciones de cautiverio.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/anatomy & histology , Catfishes/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis/veterinary , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-462770

ABSTRACT

Objective Boy sexual development is affected not only by age, but also by environment factors .The present study was to survey and evaluate the status of sexual development in boys from Zhengzhou area and to explore their influencing factors. Methods The height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, penis and testicles in 3779 boys aged from 6 to 13 years old in Zhengzhou were measured .The penis length and testicular volume of different ages and their influencing factors were compared, and the beginning age and sexual development characteristics were explored .The development of genitalia and pubes were evaluated by Tanner staging criteria and standards, which were divided into five stages. Results There were 3779 boys, including 395 overweight cases (10.45%) and 208 obesity cases (5.50%).The testicular volume and penis length increased by age, which increased slowly at the age of 6 to 11, followed by a rapid increase after the age of 11 year old.Testicular volume increased more rapidly than that of penis length. The medians quartile of testicular volume in overweight group ,obese group and normal group were 2.50 mL, 2.50 mL, 2.00 mL, 2.00 mL,2.00 mL,1.00 mL respectively .The testicular volume in overweight group and obese group were significantly greater than that in nor -mal group (P<0.01) and there were no difference between overweight group and obese group .The penis length in overweight group and obese group were significantly less than that in normal group (P<0.01), and there was no difference between overweight group and obese group.Testicular volume and penis length were positively correlated with age, height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference and hip circumference; the correlation between testicular volume and height, penis length and age were the strongest. The age of development of testicle (average 12.02 years) in urban area was later by 2.73 years than that in the rural area (average 9.9 years), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001).The age of pubic development (P2) and maturity (P5) was (12.34 ±0.83) years and (12.39 ±1.24 ) years.The incidence of precocity in boys was 0.40%. Conclusion The sexual development of boys from Zheng-zhou area is similar to the results of large scale survey from China .Attention should be paid to the effect of obesity on sexual develop-ment, and early intervention should be given, the occurrence of adverse events of sexual development can be avoided .

12.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 2(1): 63-79, 2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-909562

ABSTRACT

La vitamina A es esencial para el desarrollo de las células germinales masculinas, la fertili-dad y la espermatogénesis normal. El ácido retinoico, metabolito activo de la vitamina A, es necesario para la maduración de las espermatogonias y la entrada correcta de las células germinales en la profase meiótica en los testículos. La expresión de Stra8, fundamental en la meiosis y la espermatogénesis normal, está directamente relacionada con la disponibilidad del ácido retinoico. Este artículo se centra en el proceso de espermatogénesis y la interacción de la vitamina A con el ciclo seminífero, a fin de explicar la relación existente entre la disminución de los aportes de vitamina A, y las alteraciones presentadas en la espermatogénesis de humanos y algunos animales. También, se consideran los efectos de otros genes implicados en la síntesis de la vitamina A, su transporte y su degradación, y se discuten los posibles mecanismos celu-lares que pueden verse afectados por la falta de señalización de la vitamina A, en particular, la regulación del ciclo celular y la interacción célula-célula, puntos críticos para la esperma-togénesis normal. En esta revisión de los 42 artículos científicos más relevantes del tema, se hizo una búsqueda de información en bases de datos como Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Redalyc y Pubmed, durante los meses de enero a abril de 2014. Se encontró que en diversos estudios se ha demostrado que se puede controlar in vitro la proliferación de células germinales y su dife-renciación, y además, que un deficiente consumo de vitamina A estaría relacionado con la disminución de la fertilidad masculina.


Vitamin A is essential for the development of male germ cells, male fertility and normal sper-matogenesis. Retinoic acid, an active metabolite of vitamin A, is necessary for the maturation of spermatogonia and the correct entry of germ cells in meiotic prophase in the testicles. Stra8expression, which is essential for normal spermatogenesis and meiosis, is directly related to the availability of retinoic acid. This review of 50 scientific articles relevant to the topic will focus on the process of sperma-togenesis and interaction of vitamin A with the seminiferous cycle, in order to explain the re-lationship between the decrease in vitamin A and alterations in spermatogenesis of humans and some animals. Also, it considers the effects of other genes involved in the synthesis of vitamin A, transport, and degradation. Similarly, potential cellular mechanisms that may be affected by the lack of signs of vitamin A will be discussed, in particular the regulation of cell cycle and cell-cell interactions, which are critical for normal spermatogenesis. In conclusion, studies have shown that you can control in vitro germ cell proliferation, and differentiation and poor intake of vitamin A can be related to a decrease in male fertility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spermatogenesis , Meiosis , Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents , Testis , Tretinoin , Vitamin A
13.
Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 13(3): 131-135, 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-694000

ABSTRACT

The Heteroptera are known for their odour, for being pests or for being disease carriers. However, they are still not extensively studied, perhaps because they form a very large group. Therefore, with the aim of enhancing the knowledge of the morphology of the testes of this insect order, we collected and analysed 18 species of terrestrial Heteroptera from the northwestern part of São Paulo. The analysis of these species revealed some differences between the testicles of these species, including their shape (elongated, oval, round or pecten), the morphology of the testicular lobes (elongated and paired side by side or united in a single region), the colours of the peritoneal sheath that surrounds the lobes (red, orange, yellow or translucent), and the number of testicular lobes (one, two, four, five, six or seven). Because the aspects analysed were highly variable, our study suggests a need for further analysis of Heteropteran testicular morphological differences.


Os Heteroptera são organismos conhecidos pelo seu odor, por serem pragas ou por serem transmissores de doenças, contudo, eles ainda são pouco estudados, talvez por formarem um grupo muito grande. Portanto, com o objetivo de ampliarmos as informações dos aspectos testiculares deste grupo analisamos 18 espécies de Heteroptera terrestres pertencentes a oito famílias que foram coletadas no Noroeste Paulista. Através das análises dessas espécies foi observado diferenças testiculares quanto: a sua forma (alongadas; ovalados; forma de concha, denominada pecten; ou arredondados); a morfologia dos lobos (alongados e pareados lado a lado ou unidos em uma única região, na forma de um “ofiuroide”); às cores da bainha peritoneal (alaranjada, amarelada, avermelhada ou transparente); ao número de lobos testiculares (um, dois, quatro, cinco, seis, sete). Devido aos aspectos analisados serem muito variáveis, nosso estudo sugere um aprofundamento maior na questão que envolve as diferenças morfológicas testiculares.

14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(11): 1205-1212, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658095

ABSTRACT

Codornas do tipo carne e tipo ovos foram analisadas para determinar o desenvolvimento reprodutivo, a puberdade e o início da senilidade. Para tal, 288 codornas (144 codornas de corte e 144 de postura) foram acompanhadas desde a eclosão até os 360 dias de idade. As aves foram distribuídas por idade em 18 grupos, sendo 8 codornas/grupo/tipo de codorna. Após 35 dias as codornas foram mantidas em condições de fotoperíodo de dias longos (17luz: 7escuro). O peso vivo e os valores morfométricos e histológicos testiculares foram determinados em cada período. Os dados obtidos foram analisados para determinar a curva de crescimento e o comportamento dos parâmetros analisados. O modelo que mais se adequou aos dados foi o modelo não linear de Gompertz (Y=A exp [-B e (-kt)]). O peso vivo e as características testiculares macro e microscópicas apresentaram comportamento alométrico entre si, sendo que, aproximadamente aos 60 dias os machos apresentaram-se sexualmente desenvolvidos, e estabilizaram o peso corporal por volta dos 100 dias. O testículo direito é mais cranial que o esquerdo e diferem em relação a comprimento e largura, porém não foi observada diferenças (P>0,05) para peso testicular. As codornas de corte apresentaram peso corporal e peso testicular maiores que as codornas de postura, porém as codornas de postura apresentaram peso relativo testicular maior. Durante todo o período analisado os machos puderam ser considerados sexualmente aptos. Os reprodutores apresentaram características sexuais ativas até os 360 dias de idade, representadas pelo tamanho testicular e pela atividade celular nos túbulos seminíferos.


Meat- and egg-type quails were analyzed to determine reproductive development, puberty and the onset of senility. For this purpose, 288 quails (144 meat- and 144 egg-type quails) were followed from hatch to 360 days old. The birds were distributed by age in 18 groups, 8 quails/group/type of quail. After 35 days quails were maintained under long daylength conditions (17L: 7D). The live weight and the macro and microscopical testicular characteristics were determined in each period. The data were analyzed to determine the growth curve and the behavior of parameters. The model that best fits the data was the non-linear Gompertz model (Y = A exp [-B and (-kt)]). Live weight and testicular morphometric parameters had an allometric behavior among themselves, and at approximately 60 days the males had sexually development, and body weight stabilized at about 100 days. The right testicle was more cranial than the left, differing in the length and width, but no difference in testicular weight (P>0.05) was observed. The meat quails had a larger body weight and testicular weight than the egg quails, but the egg-quail had a higher percentage of testes in relation to body weight. During the whole adult period the males could be considered sexually fit. Breeders had active sex characteristics until 360 days of age, represented by testicular size and by cellular activity in the seminiferous tubules.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coturnix/growth & development , Testis/growth & development , Seminiferous Tubules/growth & development , Aging , Reproduction , Sexual Maturation
15.
Ciênc. rural ; 38(5): 1308-1312, ago. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-488016

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of testicular arterial vessels in caprines with different degrees of scrotal division. Scrotal configurations were classified as follows; Group I: scrotum without bipartition; Group II: scrotum showing a ventral division until the middle of the testis; and, Group III: scrotal separation extended beyond the middle of the testis. A colored vinyl acetate solution was injected into 60 testicular arteries (30 pairs). After, the samples were submitted to corrosion cast method to obtain tubular vascular models for macroscopic analysis. We observed that the testicular arteries emerge from the abdominal aorta, cross the inguinal canal to become coiled and involved by the pampiniform plexus. Close to the caudal extremity of the testis, the arteries become divided in cranial and caudal branches that emit collateral vessels to originate emerging branches. Testicles with intermediate level of scrotal division (group II) showed a smaller amount of those branches than the others, being the most populated the ventrolateral and the dorsolateral quadrants. The origin, distribution and localization of the testicular arteries did not show any differences related to the degree of scrotal division in caprines.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a distribuição dos vasos arteriais nos testículos em caprinos com diferentes graus de divisão escrotal. A configuração escrotal foi classificada da seguinte forma: Grupo I: constituído por caprinos com escroto único, Grupo II: com escroto separado até a metade do testículo e Grupo III: com separação escrotal estendendo-se além da metade do testículos. As artérias foram injetadas e coradas com solução de acetado de vinil, sendo os orgãos (30 pares) submetidos à corrossão para obtenção dos moldes vasculares. As artérias testiculares emergem da aorta abdominal, com trajeto retilíneo, atravessam o canal inguinal, apresentam-se espiraladas e envolvidas parcialmente pelo plexo pampiniforme. Próximo à extremidade caudada do testículo, dividem-se mais freqüentemente nos ramos cranial e caudal, os quais emitem vasos colaterais, de onde emergem ramos penetrantes. Os testículos dos animais com nível intermediário de divisão escrotal (Grupo II) apresentam menor quantidade destes ramos, sendo os quadrantes mais povoados o ventrolateral e o dorsolateral. Conclui-se que a origem, o trajeto e a distribuição das artérias testiculares não apresentam variações relacionadas ao grau de divisão escrotal em caprinos.

16.
Rev. chil. urol ; 73(2): 106-109, 2008.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-547812

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estimar la precisión de dos herramientas diagnósticas diferentes: el examen físico realizado por urólogo pediátrico y la ecografía inguino-escrotal, en la localización de un testículo no palpable(TNP) diagnosticado por médico pediatra. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron los datos de 46 pacientes derivados a urología pediátrica con el diagnóstico de testículo no palpable. A todos se les realizó una ecografía inguino-escrotal y resueltos quirúrgicamente según los resultados ultrasonográficos, entre exploración inguinal y laparoscopía.Se compararon los hallazgos clínicos por especialista, los resultados ecográficos y los hallazgos quirúrgicos. De este modo se estimó porcentualmente la precisión en la localización testicular del examen físico por urólogo pediátrico y de la ecografía en un TNP diagnosticado por manos no especializadas. Resultados: 46 pacientes con TNP referidos al urólogo pediátrico, de los cuales 36 eran unilateral y10 bilaterales, con un total de 56 gónadas evaluadas. Se realizó ultrasonografía en 50 casos (89 por ciento), todas en el mismo centro. De los 56 casos, 40 (71 por ciento) fueron sometidos a cirugía. De estas 56 gónadas estudiadas, 18 (32 por ciento) fueron palpables por el especialista, en todas la ecografías demostró igual localización; 14 de los 18 testículos se sometieron a cirugía, ninguno de ellos resultó ser falso positivo. De los 38 TNP para el urólogo, 24 (63 por ciento) fueron identificados por ecotomografía; 13inguinales y 11 intra-abdominales, resultando 3 de las 24 ser falsos positivos ecográficos al compararlos con los hallazgos quirúrgicos. La ecografía no logró identificar 14 (57 por ciento) de las 24 gónadas no palpables, 10 (71 por ciento) de ellas resultaron efectivamente ausentes en la laparoscopia y 4 (28 por ciento) falsos negativos; 2 inguinales (1 de tamaño normal, 1 de tamaño disminuido), 1 intra-abdominal y 1 ectópico perineal pequeño. Conclusión: La evaluación clínica del urólogo pediátrico...


Objective: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of two different approaches to non-palpable testis (NPT): physical examination conducted by a pediatric urologist and inguino-scrotal ultrasound. Material and Methods: Data from 46 patients referred to the pediatric urologist with the diagnosis of non palpable testicle was prospectively analyzed. Every patient had clinical and imagenologic information. Surgical findings were matched to preoperative paraclinical evaluation. Surgery for NPT was performed either inguinally or laparoscopically. Percentage of accuracy in the location of testicle was estimated for every evaluation. Results: Forty six patients with NPT were referred to the pediatric urologist. Out of these 36 and 10presented with presented with unilateral and bilateral disease, respectively. A total of with 56 gonads were evaluated. Ultrasound was performed in 50 cases (89 percent) at the same site. Of these 56 cases, 40(71 percent) underwent surgery. Out of 56 of these gonads 18 (32 percent) were palpable by the specialist, all them confirmed the same location showed in the ultrasound ; 14 of the 18 testes underwent surgery, none of them turned out to be false positive. Of the 38 NPT evaluated by urologist, 24 (63 percent) were identified by ecotomography. Thirteen corresponded to inguinal and 11 intra abdominal. 3 false positives were verified when compared with sonographic findings. Ultrasound failed to identify 14 (57 percent) of 24non-palpable gonads, 10 (71 percent) of them were actually not found in laparoscopy and 4 (28 percent) were false negatives; 2 inguinal (1 normal size, reduced in size 1), 1 and 1 intra-abdominal perineal ectopic small. Conclusion: In one third of cases, the clinical re-evaluation of pediatric urologist identify NPT diagnosed by medical non specialists, with an excellent accuracy in testicular location, hence pre-operative ultrasound evaluation might not be mandatory. Inguino-scrotal ultrasonography identifies most of NPT...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Ultrasonography , Cryptorchidism/diagnosis , Physical Examination , Retrospective Studies
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