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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(5): 595-601, Set.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) is an amino acid leucine metabolite with several ergogenic benefits. It is known that it can benefit testosterone and cortisol concentration in athletes. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has focused on the effects of HMB supplementation on testosterone and cortisol in trained athletes. Objectives: The meta-analysis evaluates the effect of HMB supplementation on testosterone and cortisol in trained athletes and verifies conflicting results between studies. Methods: A systemic review was performed in Scopus, Medline, and Google scholar databases of articles published until August 2021. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias and assess the quality of the studies. Random effects model, weighted mean difference (WMD), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the overall effect. Results: Although the meta-analysis showed that HMB consumption does not alter cortisol and testosterone concentration, subgroup analysis based on exercise type exhibited a significant decrease in cortisol concentration in resistance training exercises (P<0.05) and a significant increase in testosterone concentration in combined aerobic and anaerobic sports (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that HMB supplementation in athletes can reduce cortisol concentration in endurance exercise and increase testosterone concentration in combined aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Evidence Level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução: o β-hidroxi β-metilbutirato (HMB) é um metabólito de aminoácido leucina e tem vários benefícios ergogênicos. Sabe-se que ela pode beneficiar a concentração de testosterona e cortisol em atletas. Porém, nenhuma revisão sistemática e meta-análise focou-se nos efeitos que a suplementação de HMB provoca sobre testosterona e cortisol em atletas treinados. Objetivos: A meta-análise tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito de suplementação de HMB na testosterona e cortisol em atletas treinados, além de verificar resultados contraditórios entre estudos. Métodos: Foi feita uma revisão sistêmica nas bases Scopus, Medline e Google scholar dos artigos publicados até agosto de 2021. A ferramenta de colaboração Cochrane foi utilizada para avaliar o risco de viés e também para avaliar a qualidade dos estudos. Modelo de efeitos aleatórios, diferença média ponderada (ADM) e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC) foram utilizados para estimar o efeito geral. Resultados: Embora a meta-análise tenha evidenciado que o consumo de HMB não altere a concentração de cortisol e testosterona, a análise do subgrupo com base no tipo de exercício exibiu uma diminuição significativa na concentração do cortisol nos exercícios de treinamento de resistência (P<0,05) e um aumento significativo na concentração de testosterona em esportes combinados aeróbicos e anaeróbicos (P<0,05). Conclusão: Os resultados indicam que a suplementação de HMB em atletas pode reduzir a concentração de cortisol em exercícios de resistência e aumentar a concentração de testosterona em exercícios aeróbicos e anaeróbicos combinados. Nível de evidência II; Estudos Terapêuticos - Investigação de Resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción: El β-hidroxi-β-metilbutirato (HMB) es un metabolito del aminoácido leucina y tiene varios beneficios ergogénicos. Está comprobado que puede beneficiar la concentración de testosterona y cortisol en los deportistas. Sin embargo, ninguna revisión sistemática y meta-análisis se ha centrado en los efectos que la suplementación con HMB provoca en la testosterona y el cortisol en atletas entrenados. Objetivos: El meta-análisis tiene como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con HMB sobre la testosterona y el cortisol en atletas entrenados, y verificar los resultados contradictorios entre los estudios. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistémica en las bases de datos Scopus, Medline y Google scholar de los artículos publicados hasta agosto de 2021. Se utilizó la herramienta de colaboración Cochrane para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo y también para evaluar la calidad de los estudios. Se utilizó un modelo de efectos aleatorios, una diferencia de medias ponderada (DMP) y un intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% para estimar el efecto global. Resultados: Aunque el meta-análisis mostró que el consumo de HMB no altera la concentración de cortisol y testosterona, el análisis de subgrupos basado en el tipo de ejercicio mostró una disminución significativa de la concentración de cortisol en los ejercicios de entrenamiento de resistencia (P<0,05) y un aumento significativo de la concentración de testosterona en los deportes aeróbicos y anaeróbicos combinados (P<0,05). Conclusión: Los resultados indican que la suplementación con HMB en los atletas puede reducir la concentración de cortisol en el ejercicio de resistencia y aumentar la concentración de testosterona en el ejercicio aeróbico y anaeróbico combinado. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.

2.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(2): 211-228, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385927

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipótesis organizacional sostiene que el índice digital D2:D4 (obtenido de la división entre la longitud de los dedos índice y anular) es un biomarcador que informa de la sobreexposición a la testosterona a nivel prenatal (Myers et al., 2018). El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar si el índice digital podría ser útil en el diagnóstico psicopedagógico del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), dado que los trabajos previos no son concluyentes en este punto (Stevenson et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2017). La muestra estudiada estuvo conformada por 82 estudiantes de ambos sexos (Medad = 11.77 años, DE = 2.97) de la región de Andalucía (España), igualada en edad, sexo y nivel cognitivo. La mitad de los participantes tenía diagnóstico de TDAH, la otra mitad, no. Los resultados reflejan menor índice digital en participantes del grupo con diagnóstico de TDAH (.945) versus el grupo control (.995), y estas diferencias son significativas (p = .000), independientemente del sexo. Además, la presencia de determinados comportamientos en el entorno doméstico (medidos con la Escala Conners) correlaciona positivamente con un bajo valor del índice digital (r = .47; p = .001) y con el diagnóstico psicopedagógico de TDAH.


Abstract The digital ratio D2:D4 (length of the index finger between the length of the ring finger) is a biomarker that reports the presence of high levels of testosterone during the prenatal period. A differential digital pattern (D2 < D4) has been found in several disorders (ASD or Klinefelter's syndrome) although data for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are not conclusive (Stevenson et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2017). The aim of this paper was to determine whether digital ratio can be used as an indicator in the psychoeducational diagnosis of ADHD. A sample of 82 students of both sexes aged between 6 and 16 years (M = 11.77, SD = 2.97) from the Andalusian Community was taken. Among the members of the sample there were no differences in terms of sex, age, or cognitive level. The sample was divided into two groups, the group with a psycho-pedagogical diagnosis of ADHD and the control or undiagnosed group. The group with ADHD consisted of 42 subjects and the control group consisted of 46 subjects. All sessions were conducted individually for each of the subjects and their families following these guidelines: the session began with the parent signing a consent form that allowed the therapist to proceed with the intervention. After that, the TONI-2 non-verbal intelligence test was given to the child by the therapist in a quiet room. At the same time, the parents responded to the Conners Scale questions on behaviour at home to verify the existence or not of behavioural symptoms compatible with the presence of ADHD. For parents of children with ADHD diagnosis, an interview was conducted to learn about the course of the disease to have a general profile of the patient and his or her disorder. Finally, the participants' right hand was scanned at the same school with an HP DeskJet 2630 scanner printer. Using the scanner and the Adobe Photoshop® tool, the length of the index and ring fingers was measured [(from proximal line of the finger to the end of the distal phalanx of the index (D2) and ring (D4) fingers]. The digital measurements from the scanned images were taken by the two researchers who signed the work, and there was more than 90 % agreement on the measurements. The results show a lower digital index in participants in the ADHD group (.945) versus the control group (.995), these differences being significant (p = 0.000), regardless of gender. In addition, the presence of certain behaviours in the home environment (measured with the Conners Scale) correlates positively with a low value of the digital index (r = .47; p = .001) and with the psycho-pedagogical diagnosis of ADHD. Significant differences have been shown in this study. Subjects with a psychopedagogical diagnosis of ADHD have been exposed to higher levels of testosterone during pregnancy since they present a lower D2:D4 ratio compared to the participants in the control group (without a diagnosis of ADHD), in line with the work of Martel et al. (2008) and Wang et al. (2017). In addition, this study has found that the group with psychopedagogical diagnosis of ADHD has a shorter index finger than the ring finger in both boys and girls, while for the control group the digital pattern is reversed or there is no difference between the two fingers. Therefore, we consider that the digital ratio biomarker (D2:D4) may be an additional useful criterion for the psychopedagogical diagnosis of ADHD or at least as a screening method.

3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(2): 238-243, mayo 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375867

ABSTRACT

Resumen Varón trans es aquella persona de sexo biológico femenino con identidad de género masculina que puede optar por recibir una terapia hormonal de reafirmación con testosterona. Hasta el momento, los efectos de este tratamiento sobre la reproducción son poco claros. Se evaluaron los niveles de hormona antimülleriana en varones trans durante el tratamiento con testosterona a corto plazo. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en 16 individuos que cumplían los requisitos para ser incluidos. Se midieron los niveles de gonadotrofinas, estradiol, testosterona y hormona antimülleriana en fase folicular temprana, previo al inicio deltratamiento hormonal de reafirmación (basal), mediante un método quimioluminiscente, y luego de 6 a 12 meses de tratamiento se determinaron los niveles de testosterona y hormona antimülleriana (control). La mediana de edad fue 22.5 años. Se obtuvieron niveles de testosterona y hormona antimülleriana basales de 0.58 ng/ml y 2.89 ng/ml respectivamente, valores dentro del rango correspondiente a mujeres biológicas. Todos los individuos, al momento del control semestral o anual del tratamiento hormonal, lograron alcanzar niveles de testosterona dentro del rango de referencia poblacional masculino (3-9 ng/ml). Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias significativas (p 0.7630) en los niveles de hormona antimülleriana basales y luego de 6 a 12 meses de iniciado el tratamiento con testosterona. Nuestro estudio reveló que, a pesar de la alta variabilidad biológica de la hormona antimülleriana, no se observaron cambios significativos en sus niveles durante el tratamiento hormonal de reafirmación en varones trans.


Abstract Trans man is a biological female person with male gender identity, who can choose to receive a gender-affirming hormone treatment with testosterone. So far, the effects of this treatment on reproduction are unclear. Anti-müllerian hormone levels were evaluated in trans men during short-term testosterone treatment. A prospective study was conducted on 16 individuals who met the requirements to be included. The levels of gonadotrophins, estradiol, testosterone and antimüllerian hormone in the early follicular phase were measured prior to the start of the hormonal firming treatment, by means of a chemiluminescent method. The testosterone and antimüllerian hormone levels were determinedafter 6 to 12 months of treatment. The median age was 22.5 years.Basal testos terone and antimüllerian hormone levels of 0.58 ng/ml and 2.89 ng/ml respectively were obtained, values within the range corresponding to biological women. By the time of the semi-annual or annual control of the hormonal firming treatment, all the individuals managed to reach testosterone levels within the reference range of the male population (3-9 ng/ml). However, no significant differences were observed in antimüllerian hormone levels(p0.7630) before and after 6 to 12 months of starting treatment with testosterone. Our study revealed that, despite the high biological variability of the antimüllerian hormone, no significant changes in its levels were observed during the firming hormone treatment in trans men.

4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(1): 23-26, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357111

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise is an important factor in regulating energy balance and body composition. Exercise itself is a kind of body stress. It involves the central nervous system, cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, and other systems. Sports have various effects on the hormones in adolescent height development. Objective: This article analyzes the effects of different time and load exercise training on the levels of serum testosterone, free testosterone, and cortisol in young athletes. Methods: The athletes' blood samples were collected at the quiet time in the morning before each experiment, immediately after exercise, and at three time intervals the next morning. Then blood testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), and corticosteroids (C) were measured. Results: One-time and one-day high-volume training can cause a decrease in serum testosterone and free testosterone levels and an increase in cortisol hormones in young athletes. The testosterone level of young athletes rises immediately after exercise. Conclusion: Hormonal changes after physical exercise provide a scientific basis for athlete exercise load prediction and exercise plan formulation. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: O exercício físico é um fator importante na regulação do equilíbrio energético e da composição corporal. O exercício em si é um tipo de estresse corporal. Envolve os sistemas nervoso central, cardiovascular, respiratório, endócrino e outros. O esporte tem vários efeitos sobre os hormônios no desenvolvimento da altura do adolescente. Objetivo: Este artigo analisa os efeitos de diferentes tempos e cargas de treinamento sobre os níveis de testosterona sérica, testosterona livre e cortisol em jovens atletas. Métodos: Foram coletadas amostras de sangue dos atletas pela manhã antes de cada experimento, imediatamente depois de exercício e em três intervalos de tempo na manhã seguinte. Em seguida, foram medidos testosterona sérica (T), testosterona livre (FT) e corticosteroides (C). Resultados: O treinamento de alto volume uma vez por dia pode causar diminuição dos níveis de testosterona sérica e livre e aumento do cortisol em jovens atletas. O nível de testosterona de jovens atletas aumenta imediatamente depois do exercício. Conclusões: As mudanças hormonais depois de exercício físico fornecem uma base científica para a previsão da carga dos exercícios e para a formulação do plano de treinamento. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El ejercicio físico es un factor importante en la regulación del equilibrio energético y la composición corporal. El propio ejercicio es un tipo de estrés corporal. Afecta a los sistemas nervioso central, cardiovascular, respiratorio y endocrino, entre otros. El deporte tiene varios efectos sobre las hormonas en el desarrollo de la estatura de los adolescentes. Objetivo: Este artículo analiza los efectos de diferentes tiempos y cargas de entrenamiento sobre los niveles de testosterona sérica, testosterona libre y cortisol en jóvenes atletas. Métodos: Se tomaron muestras de sangre de los atletas por la mañana antes de cada experimento, inmediatamente después del ejercicio, y en tres intervalos de tiempo a la mañana siguiente. Luego se midieron la testosterona sérica (T), la testosterona libre (FT) y los corticosteroides (C). Resultados: El entrenamiento de alto volumen una vez al día puede causar una disminución de los niveles de testosterona sérica y libre y un aumento del cortisol en los atletas. El nivel de testosterona de los jóvenes atletas aumenta inmediatamente después del ejercicio. Conclusión: Los cambios hormonales después del ejercicio físico proporcionan una base científica para predecir la carga de ejercicios y formular el plan de entrenamiento. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933416

ABSTRACT

Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is an age-related testosterone deficiency syndrome. With the increasing aging of society, LOH results in impaired quality of life of middle-aged and elderly men. Although domestic and international guidelines have been issued in recent years, and the management of LOH became more standardized, numerous controversies still remained in the diagnosis of LOH, the benefits of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and therapeutic targets. Based on comparison of different guidelines, this review focuses on age cut-off , specific signs and symptoms of LOH, diagnostic cut-off level of testosterone, the advantages and disadvantages of TRT treatment, and non-testosterone therapy.

6.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 256-260, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933068

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation of serum testosterone level with severity and characteristics of coronary plaque, stent implantation rate and major cardiovascular adverse events(MACE)in elderly male patients with coronary heart disease(CHD).Methods:In this retrospective study, a total of 63 elderly male patients of the Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou with coronary angiography(CAG)-confirmed CHD and to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI)were selected.According to serum testosterone level, they were divided into the low testosterone(low T)group and the normal testosterone(normal T)group.Optical coherence tomography(OCT)was performed in both groups to define the characteristics of coronary artery lesions and guide stent implantation.The correlation of serum testosterone level with blood lipids, glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c), degree of coronary artery lesions, plaque characteristics, stent implantation and MACE in two groups were analyzed.The in-stent restenosis rate after stent implantation and the variation of minimum lumen diameter of stent were determined during 12 months follow up in both groups.Results:Total cholesterol(TC), low-density lipoprotein(LDL-C)and HbA1c were higher in the low T group than in the normal T group( t=7.808、-5.871、6.611, all P<0.05). When taking testosterone as the independent variable, and TC, triglycerides(TG), LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)and HbA1c as the dependent variables, linear regression analysis showed that TC, LDL-C and HbA1c were negatively correlated with testosterone level( β=-0.733, -0.716, -0.581, P<0.05). More than 2 vascular lesions were more common in low testosterone group versus the control group( χ2=8.66, P<0.05). Mixed plaques, lipid plaques, and calcified plaques were more commonly found in low testosterone group versus the control group( χ2=7.87, P<0.05). Unstable plaques were more common in the low T group( χ2=6.14, P<0.05). The low T group vs the normal T group, coronary stent implantation rate were 93.3%(28/30 cases) vs.66.7%(22/33 cases), the difference was statistically significant( χ2=6.82, P<0.05). When testosterone, TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c were taken as the independent variables, and the stent implantation rate was the dependent variable, logistic regression analysis results showed that only testosterone, TC and HbA1c were independently correlated with stent implantation rate( OR=0.971、425.523、0.004, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in minimum stent lumen diameters between the two groups under OCT-guided coronary stent implantation( t=-1.064, P>0.05). During 12 months follow up, the MACE0 incidence was 26.7%(8/30 cases, in low T group)than 6.1%(2/33 cases, in normal T group), with statistically significant difference( χ2=5.00, P<0.05). When taking testosterone, TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C and HbA1c as the independent variables, and MACE as the dependent variable, logistic regression analysis results showed that only testosterone and LDL-C were independently correlated with MACE( OR=0.968, 0.008, P<0.05). Conclusions:Serum testosterone level is negatively correlated with TC, LDL-C and HbA1c, and may be correlated with the degree of coronary artery lesions, plaque properties, MACE and stent implantation rate of CHD patients.Serum testosterone can be used to evaluate the characteristics and conditions of CHD, and help to predict the prognosis of CHD.The OCT is a good guide tool for coronary stent implantation.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931694

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of letrozole combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) on pregnancy rate and prognosis in patients with refractory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods:A total of 102 patients with refractory PCOS who received treatment in Jinhua Hongyue Women's and Children's Hospital between May 2019 and May 2020 were included in this study. They were randomly assigned to observation and control groups ( n = 51/group). All patients received the same treatment in the early period. During later ovulation induction period, patients in the control group were administered HMG and those in the observation group were given letrozole combined with HMG. Before treatment and 3 months after treatment, sex hormones [follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E 2), testosterone (T)], arterial hemodynamic indicators around the follicle [end diastolic velocity (EDV), peak systolic velocity (PSV), pulsation index (PI)], endometrial thickness and classification were compared between the two groups. The ovulation rate and pregnancy rate as well as pregnancy outcomes at 6 months of follow-up were recorded in each group. Results:After 3 months of treatment, FSH, LH, E 2 and T levels in each group were significantly decreased compared with those before treatment (all P < 0.05). FSH, LH, E 2 and T levels in the observation group were (1.85 ± 0.45) U/L, (9.86 ± 1.47) U/L, (81.25 ± 10.47) pmol/L, (1.75 ± 0.26) nmol/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the control group [(3.12 ± 1.47) U/L, (12.58 ± 2.14) U/L, (109.25 ± 27.14) pmol/L, (3.58 ± 0.76) nmol/L, t = 5.90, 7.48, 6.87, 16.27, all P < 0.05). EDV in each group was significantly decreased after 3 months of treatment compared with that before treatment (both P < 0.05). After treatment, EDV in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group [(3.12 ± 1.42) cm/s vs. (5.14 ± 1.89) cm/s, t = 21.14, P < 0.001]. PSV in each group was significantly increased after treatment compared with that before treatment (both P < 0.05). After treatment, PSV in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group [(13.36 ± 2.01) cm/s vs. (10.24 ± 2.47) cm/s, t = 4.21, P < 0.001]. In each group, PI measured after treatment was not significantly different from that measured before treatment (both P > 0.05). After treatment, endometrial thickness in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group [(9.09 ± 1.58) mm vs. (8.41 ± 1.42) mm, t = 2.28, P < 0.05]. Ovulation rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group [88.24% (45/51) vs. 70.59% (36/51), χ2 = 4.85, P < 0.05]. There were no significant differences in endometrial type, biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, and premature delivery rate between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusion:Letrozole combined with HMG has an ideal effect on refractory PCOS. It can improve the levels of sex hormones, restore the hemodynamic status in ovarian stroma and increase ovulation rate.

8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 274-286, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928554

ABSTRACT

Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) refers to the failure of spermatogenesis, which affects approximately 1% of the male population and contributes to 10% of male infertility. NOA has an underlying basis of endocrine imbalances since proper human spermatogenesis relies on complex regulation and cooperation of multiple hormones. A better understanding of subtle hormonal disturbances in NOA would help design and improve hormone therapies with reduced risk in human fertility clinics. The purpose of this review is to summarize the research on the endocrinological aspects of NOA, especially the hormones involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis (HPTA), including gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone, and leptin. For the NOA men associated with primary testicular failure, the quality of currently available evidence has not been sufficient enough to recommend any general hormone optimization therapy. Some other NOA patients, especially those with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, could be treated with hormonal replacement. Although these approaches have succeeded in resuming the fertility in many NOA patients, the prudent strategies should be applied in individuals according to specific NOA etiology by balancing fertility benefits and potential risks. This review also discusses how NOA can be induced by immunization against hormones.


Subject(s)
Azoospermia/etiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Sperm Retrieval , Testis , Testosterone/therapeutic use
9.
Ibom Medical Journal15 ; 15(3): 245-251, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398763

ABSTRACT

Testosterone concentration is a contributing factor to rape tendency. Our research aimed to determine the plasma testosterone concentrations in male rapists. Subjects (100) recruited from Enugu state prison grouped viz: Violent-rapist (VR), nonviolent-rapist (NVR), violent child-molester (VCM), nonviolent child-molester (NCM), and none rapist (NR). The blood sample was collected in the morning (8-9) for four months by veno-puncture and used in the determination. The testosterone levels determination was by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The results indicated the mean age of 33 (VR), 34 (NVR), 46 (VCM), 47 (NCM), and 32 (NR). The age at first intercourse was highest in NCM (18) and lowest in VR (13). Heterosexuals were highest in VR (14) and lowest in NCM (6). Homosexuals were highest in NCM (4) and non in VM, NVR, and NR (0). In bisexuals, NVR and NCM were the highest (4), the NR (1) was the lowest. The concentrations of testosterone (in ng/100ml) were 8.65 (VR), 9.23 (NVR), 9.63 (VCM), 7.73 (NCM) and 7.95 (NR). The testosterone concentration of the VR, NVR, and VCM is higher than NR. The NCM was lower than the NR. This result suggests that VR, NVR, and VCM are associated with higher testosterone concentrations in males. The modest associations indicate that there might be other influencing factors. The relationship between testosterone levels in rapists and child molestation is, at best, tentative. In some people, hormonal factors might influence the likelihood of rape and child molestation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Crime , Research Subjects , Child Abuse, Sexual , Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase
10.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e210116, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352216

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo analisa a percepção de homens usuários de testosterona acerca dos efeitos adversos no uso do hormônio, a fim de refletir sobre a eficácia e o alcance de ações em saúde voltadas para essa prática. Os dados empíricos foram obtidos a partir de 21 relatos de história de vida de homens que utilizam a testosterona, com ou sem acompanhamento médico, de perfil variado, coletados em 2016 majoritariamente no Rio de Janeiro. A discussão se apoia nos estudos de gênero e de masculinidades para argumentar como os homens interpretam os impactos do uso da testosterona a partir de uma valorização de características masculinas associadas a um ideal normalizador de masculinidade. Os resultados apontam uma percepção generalizada no campo de que o hormônio causa pouco ou nenhum mal, através de um processo de invisibilização ou ressignificação dos efeitos potencialmente negativos. Além disso, há um movimento de deslocamento dos problemas associados ao uso a personagens estereotipadas, num processo de desresponsabilização de si e reafirmação de atributos de um ideal de masculinidade. Com isso, busca-se contribuir para a construção de ações em saúde mais adequadas ao cotidiano dos usuários e, portanto, mais eficazes.


Abstract This article analyzes the perception of male users of testosterone about the adverse effects of the hormone, aiming to challenge the effectiveness and scope of health actions for this practice. Empirical data were obtained in 2016, mostly in Rio de Janeiro, from life history interviews with 21 male users of testosterone, with or without medical monitoring, from different backgrounds. In the light of gender and masculinity studies, it discusses how men interpret the impacts of testosterone use from a social valuation of certain traits associated with a normalizing manhood ideal. Results indicate an invisibilization or re-signification of potentially negative effects of the hormone, culminating in a widespread perception that it causes little or no harm. The problems associated with testosterone use acquire stereotyped characters, through a process of denying self-responsibility and reaffirming attributes of an ideal type of masculinity. This study is expected to contribute to the development of more adequate and thus more effective health actions to users' daily lives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Testosterone/adverse effects , Masculinity
11.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(6): 516-520, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388692

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El rol de la testosterona exógena en la función sexual femenina ha sido estudiado durante muchos años, con resultados contradictorios. En el último tiempo se ha promovido el uso de pellets de testosterona como una solución para mejorar la libido femenina, la cognición, la fuerza muscular y los sistemas cardiovascular y óseo, e incluso evitar el envejecimiento. Por ello, revisamos las publicaciones para tratar de responder si esto es una moda o el tratamiento más innovador del último tiempo. MÉTODO: Se analizaron las bases de datos PubMed/Medline, Trip Database, Cochrane, SciELO, Scopus, UpToDate, Ovid, ProQuest, Science Direct y ResearchGate. RESULTADOS: De acuerdo con la evidencia, la mejor testosterona disponible es la transdérmica y debe ser usada solo en el trastorno del deseo sexual hipoactivo (TDSH). Los trabajos que evalúan los pellets de testosterona tienen sesgos metodológicos importantes. Si bien son útiles para mejorar la función sexual femenina, producen concentraciones plasmáticas suprafisiológicas de testosterona, por lo que no se puede establecer su seguridad a largo plazo. Tampoco hay datos suficientes que avalen su uso para mejorar el rendimiento cognitivo y el bienestar general, en el tratamiento de enfermedades cardiovasculares o en la prevención de enfermedad ósea. CONCLUSIONES: La testosterona solo se recomienda en el tratamiento del TDSH por vía transdérmica. No recomendamos el uso de pellets de testosterona para el tratamiento de la disfunción sexual ni como hormona antienvejecimiento, ya que no hay estudios consistentes sobre su seguridad, eficacia y efectos adversos a largo plazo.


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The role of exogenous testosterone in female sexual function has been studied for many years with contradictory results. In recent times, the use of testosterone pellets has been promoted as a solution to improve female libido, cognition, muscle strength, cardiovascular system, bone and even prevent aging. Therefore, we will review the publications in order to answer whether this is a fad or the most innovative treatment of recent times. METHOD: The databases PubMed/Medline, Trip Database, Cochrane, SciELO, Scopus, UpToDate, Ovid, ProQuest, Science Direct and ResearchGate were analyzed. RESULTS: So far, the evidence best testosterone available is transdermal testosterone and that it should be used only in hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Papers evaluating testosterone pellets have significant methodological biases. While they are useful in improving female sexual function, they produce supra-physiological plasma levels of testosterone, so their long-term safety cannot be established. There is also insufficient data to support their use in improving cognitive performance and general well-being, treatment of cardiovascular disease or prevention of bone disease. CONCLUSIONS: Testosterone is only recommended for the tratment of HSDD via the transdermal route. We do not recommended the use of testosterone pellets for the treatment of sexual dysfunction or as an anti aging hormone, as there are no consistent studies on its safety, efficacy, and long-term adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/drug therapy , Drug Implants , Androgens/biosynthesis
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(11)nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389387

ABSTRACT

Background: Familial hyperaldosteronism type I is caused by the generation of a chimeric aldosterone synthase enzyme (ASCE) which is regulated by ACTH instead of angiotensin II. We have reported that in vitro, the wild-type (ASWT) and chimeric aldosterone synthase (ASCE) enzymes are inhibited by progesterone and estradiol does not affect their activity. Aim: To explore the direct action of testosterone on ASWT and ASCE enzymes. Material and Methods: HEK-293 cells were transiently transfected with vectors containing the full ASWT or ASCE cDNAs. The effect of testosterone on AS enzyme activities was evaluated incubating HEK-cells transfected with enzyme vectors and adding deoxycorticosterone (DOC) alone or DOC plus increasing doses of testosterone. Aldosterone production was measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Docking of testosterone within the active sites of both enzymes was performed by modelling in silico. Results: In this system, testosterone inhibited ASWT (90% inhibition at five pM, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) =1.690 pM) with higher efficacy andpotency than ASCE (80% inhibition at five pM, IC50=3.176 pM). Molecular modelling studies showed different orientation of testosterone in ASWT and ASCE crystal structures. Conclusions: The inhibitory effect of testosterone on ASWT or ASCE enzymes is a novel non-genomic testosterone action, suggesting that further clinical studies are needed to assess the role of testosterone in the screening and diagnosis of primary aldosteronism.

13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(6): 702-710, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350351

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Functions attributed to androgens have increased, ranging from the role in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and reproductive behaviors to modulation of cognition, mood and some other functions. Sex differences and changes in circulating sex hormones affect human sensory function. In the literature, authors reported this kind of influence for olfaction predominantly in females. Objective: To investigate the effects of low testosterone levels on olfactory functions in males, in this prospective clinical study. Methods: Male patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were included. Thirty-nine patients with prostate cancer whose testosterone levels were lower than 50 ng/dL due to castration, were the study group. Thirty-one patients with prostate cancer who were not castrated with testosterone levels higher than 50 ng/dL were selected as the control group. Acoustic rhinometry and peak nasal inspiratory flow tests were performed for all participants; and for evaluation of olfactory function, both groups completed the Connecticut chemosensory clinical research center olfactory test. Results: The mean ages of the patients and controls were 69.6 ± 7.2 (57-89) and 66.3 ± 5.8 (50-78) years, respectively (= 0.039). There was a significant difference between groups in terms of testosterone levels (p < 0.0001). The multivariate logistic regression revealed testosterone level as the only predictive factor determining the difference between the groups. In terms of olfactory parameters, all scores were lower in the emasculated group (butanol threshold test p = 0.019, identification p = 0.059, and Connecticut center score p = 0.029) There was a significant correlation between testosterone levels and olfactory parameters (p = 0.023; p = 0.025 for identification and Connecticut center scores, respectively). Conclusion: Low testosterone levels in males have negative effects on olfactory functions. Further molecular research is required to understand the connection between testosterone and olfaction.


Resumo Introdução: As funções atribuídas aos andrógenos aumentaram, variam desde o papel no eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-gonadal e comportamentos reprodutivos até a modulação da cognição, humor e outras funções. As diferenças entre os sexos e as mudanças nos hormônios sexuais circulantes afetam a função sensorial humana. Na literatura, os autores relataram esse tipo de influência para o olfato, principalmente no sexo feminino. Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos dos baixos níveis de testosterona nas funções olfativas em homens, neste estudo clínico prospectivo. Método: Pacientes do sexo masculino com diagnóstico de câncer de próstata foram incluídos no estudo. Compreenderam o grupo de estudo 39 pacientes com câncer de próstata cujos níveis de testosterona eram inferiores a 50 ng/dL devido à castração. Foram determinados como grupo controle 31 pacientes com câncer de próstata que não foram emasculados, com níveis de testosterona superiores a 50 ng/dL. Testes de rinometria acústica e pico de fluxo inspiratório nasal foram feitos para todos os participantes; e para avaliação da função olfativa, ambos os grupos concluíram o teste olfativo do Connecticut chemosensory clinical research center. Resultados: A média da idade dos pacientes e controles foi de 69,6 ± 7,2 (57 ± 89) e 66,3 ± 5,8 (50 ± 78) anos, respectivamente (= 0,039). Houve uma diferença significante entre os grupos em relação a níveis de testosterona (p < 0,0001). A regressão logística multivariada revelou o nível de testosterona como o único fator preditivo que determinou a diferença entre os grupos. Em termos de parâmetros olfativos, todos os escores foram menores no grupo castrado (teste do limiar de butanol p = 0,019, identificação p = 0,059 e escore do Connecticut center p = 0,029). Houve uma correlação significante entre o nível de testosterona e os parâmetros olfativos (p = 0,023; p = 0,025 para identificação e escore do Connecticut center, respectivamente). Conclusão: Baixos níveis de testosterona em homens têm efeito negativo na função olfativa. Mais pesquisas moleculares são necessárias para entender a conexão entre testosterona e olfação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Olfaction Disorders , Smell , Testosterone , Prospective Studies , Rhinometry, Acoustic
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5)oct. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385477

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Considering that the submandibular gland (SMG) of postnatal mice performs active cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation which are regulated by proto-oncogene products in cancerous cells, the expression and localization of a proto-oncogene product HER (human epidermal growth factor receptor)-2 was examined in SMG of postnatal mice. In Western blot analysis, the expression for HER-2 was high until pre-puberty, and it decreased from puberty to young adult stages with male SMG more dominant. In immunohistochemistry, the immunoreactivity was positive in acinar and ductal cells of newborn SMG with distinct localization at the intercellular apposition sites. The immunoreactivity in acinar cells progressively decreased to negligible levels by pre-pubertal stage, while it remained positive in most ductal cells throughout the postnatal time-course. The immunoreactivity in cells of terminal tubules and intercalated ducts, both of which have a high potential to produce cells, were seen at levels similar to those of more proximal ducts, while the immunoreactivity in ductal basal cells was significantly high, but the granular convoluted tubule cells were seen at negligible levels in male and at faint levels in female. In immuno-electron microscopy of excretory ducts, the immunoreactivity was dominantly localized on the basal infolding membranes as well as vesicles and vacuoles of various sizes, but rarely in Golgi apparatus and mitochondria. The immunoreactivity without association to any membranous structures were also seen, though not numerous. The relation of expression levels of HER-2 in various portions of normal SMG to those in their cancerous ones is briefly discussed.


RESUMEN: Considerando que la glándula submandibular (GSM) de ratones postnatales realiza la proliferación celular activa, apoptosis y diferenciación que están reguladas por productos protooncogénicos en células cancerosas, la expresión y localización de un producto protooncogénico HER (receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano) - 2 se examinó en GSM de estos ratones. En el análisis de Western blot, la expresión de HER-2 fue alta hasta la prepubertad, y disminuyó desde la pubertad hasta las etapas de adultos jóvenes con GSM macho más dominante. En inmunohistoquímica, la inmunorreactividad fue positiva en las células acinares y ductales de GSM de recién nacido con una localización distinta en los sitios de aposición intercelular. La inmunorreactividad en las células acinares disminuyó progresivamente a niveles insignificantes en la etapa prepuberal, mientras que permaneció positiva en la mayoría de las células ductales durante el transcurso del tiempo posnatal. La inmunorreactividad en las células de los túbulos terminales y los conductos intercalados, los cuales tienen un alto potencial para producir células, se obser- vó a niveles similares a los de los conductos más proximales, mientras que la inmunorreactividad en las células basales ductales fue significativamente alta, pero en el túbulo contorneado granular las células se observaron en niveles insignificantes en los machos y en niveles débiles en las hembras. En la microscopía inmunoelectrónica de los conductos excretores, la inmunorreactividad se localizó de manera predominante en las membranas de pliegues basales, así como en vesículas y vacuolas de varios tamaños, pero raramente en el aparato de Golgi y en las mitocondrias. También se observó la inmunorreactividad sin asociación a ninguna estructura membranosa, aunque no numerosa. Se discute brevemente la relación de los niveles de expresión de HER-2 en varias porciones de GSM normal con aquellos en sus cancerosos.

15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5): 531-541, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340059

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young bodybuilders, motivated by aesthetic results. Although the medical community condemns this practice for its potential deleterious effect, we must recognize the need for more scientific research on the likelihood and magnitude of the adverse events. Objective: To evaluate whether high-quality, scientific evidence supports that AAS negatively affect lipid profile and promote muscle hypertrophy in resistance training practitioners. Methods: A systematic review of the literature of randomized clinical trials was conducted in the PubMed / Medline, Scielo and Science direct databases. The searches were conducted by two independent researchers by June 2018. A significance level of 5% was considered in the analysis. Results: Six clinical trials involving 170 resistance training practitioners were included. A significant heterogeneity was found in studies evaluating the effects of AAS on lipid profile and muscle hypertrophy (I² = 97, 95 and 91%, respectively), with no significant effects on HDL-cholesterol (-5.62mg/dL, 95%CI −12.10, 0.86, p= 0.09), LDL-cholesterol (7.76 mg/dL, 95%CI −9.70, 25.23, p= 0.57) and muscle hypertrophy (2.44kg 95%CI 0.02, 4.86, p=0.05). Conclusion: Current evidence does not support that low-to-moderate doses of AAS cause serious negative effects on lipid profile or promote muscle hypertrophy in resistance training practitioners.


Subject(s)
Receptors, Androgen , Cholesterol/blood , Testosterone Congeners/pharmacology , Resistance Training , Skeletal Muscle Enlargement/drug effects , Testosterone Congeners/adverse effects , Lipids
16.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 425-431, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341176

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sarcopenia has been acquiring a growing importance in the scientific literature and in doctors' offices. As the population ages, it becomes increasingly essential to know, prevent, and treat this clinical condition. The purpose of the present review is to bring up the current evidence on the diagnosis of this pathology, in a practical way, as well as the main current treatment options.


Resumo A sarcopenia vem ganhando cada vez mais importância na literatura científica e nos consultórios médicos. Com o envelhecimento da população, essa condição clínica se torna cada vez mais imprescindível de se conhecer, se prevenir e de se tratar. O objetivo desta revisão é trazer as evidências atuais sobre o diagnóstico dessa patologia, de forma prática, bem como as principais opções atuais de tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Testosterone , Creatine , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/therapy , Leucine
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 78-82, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report is of three cases of sicca syndrome, initially suspected to be Sjögren's syndrome, which was ruled out by clinical and laboratory investigations. The patients were a 24-year-old woman, a 32-year-old man, and a 77-year-old woman with chronic symptoms of sicca syndrome, including dry eye syndrome. The first case was associated with the use of isotretinoin, a retinoic acid. The second was associated with the use of anabolic androgenic steroids, and the third was related to a prolactin- secreting pituitary adenoma. All cases manifested sicca, including dry eye syndrome, after those events, and the manifestations persisted. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral atrophy of the lacrimal gland. The medical history, ocular examinations, laboratory exams, and magnetic resonance images confirmed dry eye syndrome; however, the exams were all negative for Sjögren's syndrome. The lacrimal gland was absent on magnetic resonance imaging in all three cases. The clinical history revealed that the signs and symptoms appeared after chronic exposure to retinoic acid, anabolic androgenic steroids, and a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, respectively. Chronic isotretinoin, anabolic androgenic steroids, and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma or, in this last case, its inhibitory treatment, can cause lacrimal gland atrophy, sicca syndrome, and dry eye syndrome, and a differential diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Further studies on doses, time, and other susceptibilities to the long-lasting adverse effects of retinoic acid, anabolic androgenic steroids, and the repercussions of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma are necessary to confirm and expand upon these associations.


RESUMO O relato descreve três casos de síndrome de sicca, inicialmente suspeitos de serem a síndrome de Sjögren, que fo­ram negados pela investigação clínica e laboratorial. O primeiro associado ao uso de isotretinoína, um ácido retinóico, o segundo ao uso de esteroides androgênicos anabolizantes e o terceiro relacionado ao adenoma da hipófise secretora da prolactina, todos manifestaram sicca, incluindo a síndrome do olho seco após esses eventos e as manifestações persistem. A ressonância magnética revelou atrofia bilateral da glândula lacrimal. Eles eram uma mulher de 24 anos, um homem de 32 anos e uma mulher de 77 anos com sintomas crônicos da síndrome de sicca, incluindo a síndrome do olho seco. A história médica, o exame ocular, os exames laboratoriais e a ressonância magnética foram confirmados como síndrome do olho seco, no entanto, todos os exames foram negativos para a síndrome de Sjögren. A glândula lacrimal estava ausente na ressonância magnética nos três casos. A história clínica revelou que sinais e sintomas se manifestaram após exposição crônica ao ácido retinóico, esteróides anabolizantes androgênicos e adenoma secretivo da prolactina hipofisária, respectivamente. Isotretinoína crônica, esteroides anabólicos androgênicos e adenoma hipofisário secretor de prolactina ou, neste último caso, seu tratamento inibitório pode ser a causa da atrofia da glândula lacrimal, síndrome da sicca e síndrome do olho seco e diagnóstico diferencial da síndrome de Sjögren. Estudos adicionais sobre doses, duração e outras suscetibilidades aos efeitos adversos duradouros do ácido retinóico, esteroides androgênicos anabólicos e repercussões do adenoma da hipófise secretora da prolactina são necessários para confirmar e detalhar essas associações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Dry Eye Syndromes , Sjogren's Syndrome , Lacrimal Apparatus , Prolactin , Atrophy , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/chemically induced , Dry Eye Syndromes/pathology , Isotretinoin/adverse effects , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/chemically induced , Sjogren's Syndrome/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Androgens , Lacrimal Apparatus/pathology , Lacrimal Apparatus/diagnostic imaging
18.
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 89(11): 905-912, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375552

ABSTRACT

Resumen ANTECEDENTES: La hipertecosis estromal ovárica es un tumor androgenizante del ovario, raro, que puede manifestarse como: hiperandrogenismo, carcinoma de endometrio, obesidad e hipertensión. En la bibliografía solo se encuentran algunos reportes de casos y pequeñas series de casos. CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de 20 años, con sangrado vaginal continuo, hirsutismo, clitoromegalia, implantación androide del vello púbico y facial. En la ecografía del ovario derecho se advirtió una lesión sólida en su interior. Concentraciones elevadas de testosterona libre, testosterona e hidroxiprogesterona. Se sospechó un tumor androgenizante del ovario. Se practicó la salpingooforectomía derecha por vía laparoscópica. El reporte de patología fue: parénquima ovárico con extensos nidos de células estromales luteinizadas con hiperplasia estromal. Diagnóstico: hipertecosis estromal. CONCLUSIÓN: Ante la coexistencia de signos de virilización, alteración en la regularidad y frecuencia del ciclo menstrual, con altas concentraciones de andrógenos y una lesión tumoral ovárica en el estudio ecográfico debe sospecharse hipertecosis estromal ovárica. El tratamiento de elección es la resección quirúrgica del ovario afectado. Debido al bajo potencial de malignidad de estas lesiones puede considerarse el acceso laparoscópico.


Abstract BACKGROUND: Ovarian stromal hyperthecosis is a rare ovarian androgenizing tumor that can manifest as hyperandrogenism, endometrial carcinoma, obesity and hypertension. Only a few case reports and small case series are found in the literature. CLINICAL CASE: 20-year-old patient with continuous vaginal bleeding, hirsutism, clitoromegaly, and android implantation of pubic and facial hair. Ultrasonography of the right ovary showed a solid lesion inside the ovary. Elevated concentrations of free testosterone, testosterone and hydroxyprogesterone. An ovarian androgenizing tumor was suspected. A laparoscopic right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The pathology report was ovarian parenchyma with extensive nests of luteinized stromal cells with stromal hyperplasia. Diagnosis: stromal hyperthecosis. CONCLUSION: In the coexistence of signs of virilization, alteration in the regularity and frequency of the menstrual cycle, with high concentrations of androgens and an ovarian tumor lesion in the ultrasound study, ovarian stromal hyperthecosis should be suspected. The treatment of choice is surgical resection of the affected ovary. Due to the low malignant potential of these lesions, laparoscopic access can be considered.

19.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(4)2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389656

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: los niveles de vitamina D (VD) plasmática se han investigado sobre todo en mujeres, no obstante también son relevantes en hombres, y no sólo en relación al estado de salud ósea. Un estudio previo realizado hace dos décadas en una pequeña muestra de hombres y mujeres uruguayos reveló serias deficiencias de VD. Por otra parte, el magnesio posee importantes efectos no solo relacionados a los niveles de VD, también afecta el hueso directa e indirectamente. Objetivos: analizar posibles interrelaciones entre valores de VD plasmática, testosterona plasmática, densitometría ósea, y otros parámetros en una población de jóvenes varones uruguayos. Métodos: durante julio-agosto de 2015, cien hombres uruguayos afiliados al sistema prepago de salud fueron invitados a participar en nuestra Unidad de Metabolismo Fosfocálcico, para ser estudiados con técnicas de antropometría, laboratorio y densitométricas. Los datos colectados fueron analizados estadísticamente. Resultados: los hombres estudiados mostraron bajos niveles de VD plasmática (96% insuficientes-deficientes), que no mostraron correlaciones significativas con ninguno de los parámetros estudiados. El magnesio plasmático se correlacionó significativa e inversamente con los z-scores densitométricos, lo que fue más intenso en hombres con sobrepeso y con VD ≥15 ng/ml. Conclusiones: a pesar de lo pequeño de la muestra, los resultados confirman la presencia de bajos niveles de VD en hombres aparentemente saludables. Los hallazgos dan razones para pensar en posibles recomendaciones para mejorar el espectro preventivo enfocado en osteoporosis y cáncer colorrectal.


Summary: Background: serum vitamin D (VD) levels have been mainly studied in women, but they are relevant also among men, not only regarding bone health status. A previous small-size study performed two decades ago in Uruguayan women and men revealed serious deficiencies of VD. On the other hand, magnesium has important effects not only related to vitamin D levels but directly and indirectly affect bone. Purpose: to analyze possible interrelationships among values of serum VD, magnesium, testosterone, bone densitometry and other parameters in young Uruguayan male population. Methods: during July-August 2015, one hundred Uruguayan men affiliated to the prepaid healthcare system, invited to participate by our Unit of Bone Metabolism, were studied with anthropometry, laboratory and, densitometry techniques. Collected data were statistically analyzed. Results: the studied men showed low serum VD levels (96% insufficient-deficient), which did not show significant correlations with any of the studied parameters. Serum magnesium was significantly and inversely correlated with densitometric z-scores, even stronger among men with overweight and with VD≥15 ng/ml. Conclusions: despite the sample size, results confirm the presence of low serum VD levels in apparently healthy men. Findings give reasons to think about possible recommendations to improve the preventive scope regarding osteoporosis and colorectal cancer.


Resumo: Introdução: os níveis plasmáticos de vitamina D (DV) têm sido investigados principalmente em mulheres, porém também são relevantes em homens, e não apenas em relação à saúde óssea. Um estudo anterior realizado há duas décadas em uma pequena amostra de homens e mulheres uruguaios revelou graves deficiências de VD. Por outro lado, o magnésio tem efeitos importantes não apenas relacionados aos níveis de VD, mas também afeta o osso direta e indiretamente. Objetivos: analisar as possíveis relações entre os valores plasmáticos de VD, testosterona plasmática, densitometria óssea e outros parâmetros em uma população de jovens uruguaios. Métodos: durante o período de julho a agosto de 2015, cem uruguaios filiados ao sistema de saúde pré-pago foram convidados a participar de nossa Unidade de Metabolismo Fosfocálcico, para serem estudados com técnicas antropométricas, laboratoriais e densitométricas. Os dados coletados foram analisados estatisticamente. Resultados: os homens estudados apresentaram baixos níveis de VD plasmático (96% insuficiente-deficiente), que não apresentou correlações significativas com nenhum dos parâmetros estudados. O magnésio plasmático foi significativa e inversamente correlacionado com os escores z densitométricos, que foi mais intenso em homens com sobrepeso e VR ≥15 ng / ml. Conclusões: porém, na pequena amostra, os resultados confirmam a presença de baixos níveis de VD em homens aparentemente saudáveis. Estes achados propõem pensar sobre possíveis recomendações para melhorar o espectro preventivo com foco na osteoporose e no câncer colorretal.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2449-2468, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888869

ABSTRACT

Orally administered drug entities have to survive the harsh gastrointestinal environment, penetrate the enteric epithelia and circumvent hepatic metabolism before reaching the systemic circulation. Whereas the gastrointestinal stability can be well maintained by taking proper measures, hepatic metabolism presents as a formidable barrier to drugs suffering from first-pass metabolism. The pharmaceutical academia and industries are seeking alternative pathways for drug transport to circumvent problems associated with the portal pathway. Intestinal lymphatic transport is emerging as a promising pathway to this end. In this review, we intend to provide an updated overview on the rationale, strategies, factors and applications involved in intestinal lymphatic transport. There are mainly two pathways for peroral lymphatic transport-the chylomicron and the microfold cell pathways. The underlying mechanisms are being unraveled gradually and nowadays witness increasing research input and applications.

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