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1.
International Eye Science ; (12): 601-606, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012829

ABSTRACT

Beta-thalassemia major(β-TM)is an inherited disease caused by a defect in the synthesis of globin. The disease requires long-term blood transfusion and iron chelator treatment, which can cause various secondary changes in the body and eye tissues. Compared with normal peers, β-TM patients will show changes in the eye such as steeper corneal curvature, shallower anterior chamber, increased lens thickness, shorter axial length, and reduced tear secretion. At the same time, nutritional deficiencies and the use of iron chelator drugs will increase the risk of complicated cataract and retinal degeneration, thus affecting the quality of life of β-TM patients.This article combines relevant domestic and foreign literatures to explore and review the changes in the eye of β-TM patients, with a view to providing valuable insights for clinical practice.

2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 57: e12879, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528101

ABSTRACT

Variations in lipid profile have been observed in sickle cell disease (SCD) and understanding their relationship with disease severity is crucial. This study aimed to investigate the association of polymorphisms of the CETP gene and laboratory markers of disease severity with lipid profile in a pediatric population with SCD. Biochemical and anthropometric analyses and CETP and alpha-thalassemia genotyping were performed. The study included 133 children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA) or hemoglobin SC disease (SCC), in steady-state. The SCA and no hydroxyurea (no HU) groups had higher values of ApoB, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) compared to the SCC and HU groups. However, there were no significant differences in ApoA1 and HDL-C levels between the groups based on genotype. Furthermore, the groups with altered levels of ApoA1, HDL-C, and the triglyceride/HDL ratio exhibited lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels and higher white blood cell counts. Hb level was associated to HDL-C levels. Analysis of CETP gene variants showed that the minor alleles of rs3764261 (C>A), rs247616 (C>T), and rs183130 (C>T), as well as the TTA haplotype, are explanatory variables for HDL-C levels. These findings suggested that dyslipidemia in SCD, specifically related to HDL-C levels, may be influenced by individual genetic background. Additionally, further investigation is needed to determine if clinical manifestations are impacted by CETP gene variants.

3.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(4): 467-472, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528654

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) are at risk of developing abnormal lipid profiles. Lipid abnormalities, in turn, have a potential role in the pathogenesis of some clinical aspects of thalassemia Objectives: To evaluate lipid levels and atherogenic indices in β-TM patients compared to healthy children and for any association between lipid levels, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory biomarkers Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 79 patients with β-TM, aged 6 to 16 years, registered at the Basrah Center for Hereditary Blood Diseases and 85 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy children and adolescents. Complete blood count, serum lipids and ferritin, liver function tests, C-reactive protein (CRP), high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated Results: Patients with β-TM had significantly lower hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) and significantly higher very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides (TGs), LDL/HDL ratio, MDA, hs-CRP, total serum bilirubin (TSB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) than the control group (p < 0.05). A bivariate analysis revealed that TC has a significant positive association with Hb. The TG has a significant negative association with Hb and a positive association with serum ferritin. Furthermore, MDA, TG, TSB, ALT and AST were significantly positively correlated with serum ferritin (p < 0.05) Conclusions: Atherogenic dyslipidemia, defined as a high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and high TG level, is common among pediatric β-TM patients, it is associated with iron overload and places patients at an increased cardiovascular risk.

4.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2023 Sept; 66(3): 564-567
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223478

ABSTRACT

Background: Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited conditions characterized by abnormalities in the synthesis or structure of hemoglobin (Hb). According to estimates, approximately 7% of the world population is a carrier of Hb disorders, leading to high morbidity and mortality. To reduce the burden of these highly prevalent monogenic disorders, detecting them in the carrier stage is crucial to prevent disease progression. Aim: We aimed to estimate the prevalence and spectrum of hemoglobinopathies in females in the reproductive (20–40 years) age group. Settings and Design: It was a retrospective observational study carried out for 2.5 years (from January 2018 till June 2020). Materials and Methods: All the females in the age group of 20–40 years age whose blood samples were received in the department for High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were included. The cases with abnormal HPLC findings were analyzed for hematological parameters including hemoglobin, RBC count, and RBC indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), & red cell distribution width - coefficient of variation (RDW-CV)]. Statistical Analysis: Statistical package for social science (SPSS) statistics 21 version for Microsoft Windows (Chicago, USA) was used for statistical analysis of data. The data were described in terms of range, mean ± standard deviation (SD), frequencies (number of cases), and relative frequencies (percentage) as appropriate. Results: During the study period, 72.2% of the females were affected with ?-thalassemia trait, followed by HbD Punjab trait (17.8%), HbQ India trait (2.9%), ?-thalassemia major (1.8%), and two cases (1.2%) each of HbS trait, HbD Iran trait, and compound heterozygous of HbD Punjab and ?-thalassaemia, whereas HbE trait, compound heterozygous of HbQ and ?-thalassemia, compound heterozygous of HbJ-variant and ?-thalassemia had one case each (0.6%). Conclusion: Preventive strategies are cost-effective and include population screening, premarital screening, screening of spouses, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Educating the carrier females about the potential risk and various screening methods may help in controlling the disease.

5.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(3): 350-357, July-Sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Hypogonadism is one of the most frequent complications in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients and early recognition and treatment is the core element in restoring impaired gonadal function. Despite the high burden of disease, relevant studies are scarcely addressing the gonadal function of such patients in Bangladesh. The pattern of gonadal function in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients must be characterized before planning a generalized management plan. Moreover, since iron overload is a key reason behind hypogonadism in thalassemia patients, investigating the role of serum ferritin level as a diagnostic tool for hypongadism was also an aim of this study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Transfusion Medicine of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 94 patients were enrolled in this study. A detailed history and thorough clinical examination were carried out in each patient and recorded using a pretested structured questionnaire. In addition, the laboratory assessment of serum ferritin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and estradiol in serum were also performed. The data were analyzed using the STATA (v.16). Results: The mean age of the patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia was 18.81 ± 4.65 (SD), with 53.3% of the patients being male. The overall prevalence of hypogonadism was 35.11%, 18.1% being normogonadotropic, 11.7% being hypogonadotropic and 5.3% being hypergonadotropic. The serum ferritin level was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with hypogonadism (Eugonadal: 2,174.79 (± 749.12) ng/ml; Hypogonadal: 3,572.59 (± 1,199.49) ng/ml). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum ferritin was high (0.83) and the p-value was highly significant (< 0.001). Conclusion: Therefore, the serum ferritin level and gonadal hormone analysis of transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients can be considered a screening tool for assessing gonadal function and early detection and prevention of hypogonadism.

6.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(supl.2): S140-S147, July 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514184

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Colombia has been subject to intense genetic and cultural currents due to its geographical location. Hemoglobinopathies are the most common recessive diseases found worldwide and represent an important public health problem, according to the region and ancestry of each country. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of hemoglobin variants according to the geographical region in a population group adjusted to sex and age in Colombia. Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study of hemoglobin variants performed by electrophoresis in patients treated at and/or referred to specialized care institutions in Bogota, Colombia between January 2009 and December 2020. Results: A total of 2,224 results were analyzed, 48.4% male and 51.5% female; 63.3% of patients were without alterations, 14.3% presented with thalassemia, 17.3%, HbS, 2.3%, HbS/C, 1.8%, HbC, 0.5%, HbE and 0.5% persistent HbF, with HbS being more prevalent in males (p = 0.005). When assessing the geographical regions of Colombia, a higher prevalence of HbS was found in the Pacific (p = 0.005) and Caribbean regions, while Thalassemia and HbS were more prevalent in the Andean and Orinoquia regions, and it was rare to find any hemoglobinopathies (p = 0.0001) in the Amazonian region. Conclusions: The main hemoglobinopathies found in Colombia are HbS, predominantly in males, and Thalassemia. The distribution of hemoglobinopathies in different geographical regions of Colombia is influenced by ancestry.

7.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2023 Jun; 66(2): 327-331
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223441

ABSTRACT

Context: ?-thalassemia trait is usually diagnosed by raised hemoglobin A2 (HbA2). The presence of megaloblastic anemia can cause an increase in HbA2 and create a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we have analyzed the effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on HbA2 and diagnosis of ?-thalassemia trait in cases of megaloblastic anemia with raised HbA2. Materials and Methods: Cases of megaloblastic anemia with raised HbA2 on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were supplemented with vitamin B12 and folic acid. Post-treatment evaluation was done after 2 months. Cases showing adequate hematological response were subjected to statistical analysis. Based on post-treatment HbA2 value, the cases were diagnosed as normal, borderline raised HbA2, or ?-thalassemia trait. Pre- and post-treatment values of red cell parameters and HbA2 were analyzed. Results: There was a significant decrease in HbA2 value after vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation. The diagnosis was changed in 70.97% of the cases after treatment. The chance of inconclusive diagnosis was decreased from more than 50% to less than 10%. Pre-treatment mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and HbA2% showed a significant difference between the thalassemic and normal groups. Conclusions: Megaloblastic anemia can lead to false-positive diagnosis of ?-thalassemia trait on HPLC. Repeat HPLC should be done after adequate supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid in cases of megaloblastic anemia with raised HbA2. Red cell parameters are not helpful to suspect ?-thalassemia trait in presence of megaloblastic anemia. However, HbA2% on HPLC can be a useful parameter to suspect or exclude ?-thalassemia trait in cases of megaloblastic anemia.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221888

ABSTRACT

Introduction: India has a huge disease burden of thalassemia major with an estimated 40 million carriers and over a million thalassemia major patients. Very few patients are optimally treated, and the standard of care “hematopoietic stem cell transplant” (HSCT) is out of reach for most patients and their families. The cost of HSCT is significant, and a substantial proportion of it goes to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing of family members (HLA screening) in hope of getting a matched related donor (MRD) for HSCT. The aim of this study was to establish that a new proposed testing algorithm of HLA typing would be more cost-effective as compared to the conventional HLA screening within MRD families for possible HSCT. Material and Methods: Buccal swab samples of 177 thalassemia patients and their prospective family donors (232) were collected. Using a new HLA testing algorithm, samples were tested for HLA typing in a sequential manner (first HLA-B, then HLA-A, and finally HLA-DR) using the sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe method on the Luminex platform. Results: The new sequential HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 testing algorithm showed a 49.1% reduction in cost compared to the conventional HLA testing algorithm. Furthermore, 40 patients (22.59%) were found to have HLA-MRD within the family among other samples that were tested. Conclusion: The new HLA testing algorithm proposed in the present study for identifying MRD for HSCT resulted in a substantial reduction in the cost of HSCT workup.

9.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535906

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that can be prevented and cured, but it is still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Disseminated tuberculosis, although rare, can occur in individuals with underlying pathologies that affect the immune system. Currently, there are limited reports on disseminated tuberculosis in individuals with congenital disorders. Clinical case: We present a case of a patient with a history of ß thalassemia who was admitted to the emergency department with symptoms of abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms. The final diagnosis was disseminated tuberculosis. This case is of particular interest due to its atypical presentation, the initial suspicion of malignancy, and the extensive involvement of the disease despite the patient's absence of immunosuppression history. Conclusions: Disseminated tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients is a rare presentation associated with poor outcomes. The history of ß thalassemia may be a risk factor to consider based on the metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology of both diseases.


Introducción: la tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa prevenible y curable asociada a una alta morbimortalidad, la presentación de tuberculosis diseminada es poco frecuente y está asociada a patologías que comprometen el sistema inmunitario. En la actualidad hay pocos informes sobre tuberculosis diseminada y trastornos congénitos subyacentes. Caso clínico: paciente con antecedente de talasemia ß que ingresó al servicio de urgencias por dolor abdominal y síntomas constitucionales con diagnóstico final de tuberculosis diseminada. Es un caso de especial interés debido a la presentación atípica, la sospecha diagnóstica inicial de malignidad y el amplio compromiso de la enfermedad a pesar de que el paciente no tenía antecedentes de inmunosupresión. Conclusiones: la tuberculosis diseminada en el paciente inmunocompetente es una presentación poco frecuente asociada a desenlaces adversos. El antecedente de talasemia ß podría ser un factor de riesgo para tener en cuenta con base en las vías metabólicas involucradas en la fisiopatología de ambas enfermedades.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218944

ABSTRACT

Background: Thalassemia is a hereditary disease of defective hemoglobin synthesis. Thalassemia results from an anomaly of genes involved in the production of hemoglobin. Every year approximately 10,000 children are born with thalassemia in India. Parents of thalassemic children feel depressed, frustrated, and helpless and have numerous emotional, psychosocial, and financial sufferings. Methods: Parent's quality of life was evaluated by a standardized WHOQOL Bref scale and coping status was assessed using the coping health inventory scale (CHIP), a sample of 100 parents of thalassemic children admitted to thalassemia ward at HSK hospital, Bagalkot was selected using purposive sampling technique, descriptive survey design was adopted. Statistical data were tested and scrutinized using descriptive and inferential analysis. Results: Total 70% of parents experienced moderate QOL, 9% had good and 21% parents had poor QOL. The mean percentage of QOL of parents was 48.11% with a mean and SD was 63�. Most of the parents had moderate (88%), 08% had good and 4% of parents� level of coping status was low. No association was found between QOL scores with study variables. A significant association was found among coping strategies with the type of family (?2=8.66, p<0.05), previous knowledge regarding thalassemia (?2= 4.912, p<0.05), relationship with the thalassemic child (?2=6.37, p<0.05). A positive correlation (r= 0.0829 p<0.05) was found between QOL and coping strategies. Conclusion: Most parents had moderate QOL and coping strategies. This study is effective to identify the QOL and coping status of parents having a child with thalassemia.

11.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2023 Mar; 66(1): 81-84
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223390

ABSTRACT

Background: Ineffective erythropoiesis is a predominant feature in ?-thalassemia major (?-TM), causing marked erythroid expansion leading to highly raised levels of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), which, in turn, suppresses hepcidin production in liver resulting in increased iron absorption from gut. We aim to study the serum GDF-15 in polytransfused ?-TM patients and its correlation with serum ferritin and serum hepcidin. Method: Thirty-nine polytransfused ?-TM children aged between 5 and 17 years and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Complete blood count, serum GDF-15, serum ferritin, and serum hepcidin were performed. Results: The mean serum GDF-15, serum hepcidin, and serum ferritin levels were 638.65 ± 306.96 pg/ml, 108.21 ± 191.30 ng/ml, and 2274.60 ± 1216.08 ng/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P < 0.001, respectively). There was significant positive correlation of GDF-15 with blood transfusions (r = 0.415, P = 0.009), positive correlation with serum ferritin (r = 0.653, P = 0), and significant negative correlation with serum hepcidin (r = ?0.508, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that GDF-15 is an important regulator of hepcidin in ?-TM patients. GDF-15 and serum hepcidin together can be used to monitor iron overload and its related complications in such patients.

12.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(1): 7-15, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2* technique is used to assess iron overload in the heart, liver and pancreas of thalassaemic patients. Optimal iron chelation and expected tissue iron response rates remain under investigation. The objective of this study was to analyse serum ferritin and the iron concentration in the heart, liver and pancreas measured by MRI T2*/R2* during regular chelation therapy in a real-world cohort of patients with thalassemia. Methods We evaluated thalassaemic patients ≥ 7 years old undergoing chelation/transfusion therapy by MRI and assessed serum ferritin at baseline and follow-up from 2004-2011. Results We evaluated 136 patients, 92% major thalassaemic, with a median age of 18 years, and median baseline ferritin 2.033ng/ml (range: 59-14,123). Iron overload distribution was: liver (99%), pancreas (74%) and heart (36%). After a median of 1.2 years of follow-up, the iron overload in the myocardium reduced from 2,63 Fe mg/g to 2,05 (p 0.003). The optimal R2* pancreas cut-off was 148 Hertz, achieving 78% sensitivity and 73% specificity. However, when combining the R2* pancreas cut off ≤ 50 Hertz and a ferritin ≤ 1222 ng/ml, we could reach a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98% for cardiac siderosis. Only 28% were undergoing combined chelation at baseline assessment, which increased up to 50% on follow up evaluation. Conclusions Chelation therapy significantly reduced cardiac siderosis in thalassaemic patients. In patients with moderate/severe liver iron concentration undergoing chelation therapy, ferritin levels and myocardium iron improved earlier than the liver siderosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Thalassemia , Iron Overload , Chelation Therapy
13.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 500-504, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004815

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the collection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in pediatric patients with thalassemia major (TM) weighing 20 kg or less. 【Methods】 PBSCs collection data of 170 pediatric patients with TM weighing 20 kg or less from January 2013 to December 2020 in our center were reviewed. Safety was assessed by the occurrence of adverse events during apheresis procedures, and efficacy was evaluated by the number of CD34+ cells collected. 【Results】 A total of 171 PBSCs procedures were performed on 170 patients with TM weighing 20 kg or less, with a median age of (4.98±1.53) years and a median weight of (17.30±2.18) kg. The probability of collecting at least 1×106 CD34+ cells/kg during a single course of apheresis was 99.41% (169/170), with a median (5.88±4.23) ×106 CD34+ cells collected per kg of weight of the recipient. A minimum pre-apheresis hemoglobin (Hb) of 60 g/L in patients with TM weighing 20 kg or less was safe and feasible. The most common adverse event of G-CSF mobilization in TM patients is bone pain, with the incidence of 7.65% (13/170), which was higher than that of healthy children donors in our center. The most common adverse events during the collection were pain at the puncture site of the femoral vein (6.47%, 11/170) and low pressure of the fluid (2.92%, 5/170). And no serious complications related to PBSCs mobilization, central venous catheter(CVC)placement or the apheresis procedure occurred. 【Conclusion】 PBSCs collection by COM.TEC blood cell separator in children weighing 20 kg or less is safe and efficacious.

14.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 782-786, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004740

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To investigate the changes in cellular immunity (peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets) and humoral immunity (serum immunoglobulin and ferritin) status among children with thalassemia who received repeated transfusions in Yunnan. 【Methods】 Forty-six children with thalassemia who underwent repeated blood transfusions from January 2020 to October 2022 were selected as the observation group. Forty children with thalassemia who did not receive blood transfusion were included in control group 1, and 46 healthy children underwent physical examination were included in control group 2. The differences in lymphocyte subsets, serum immunoglobulin levels and ferritin concentrations were compared among the three groups. 【Results】 For lymphocyte subsets: CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ in the observation group was lower than the control group 1 and 2: 57.60±8.36 vs 64.57±7.56 vs 66.58±5.65, 33.16±5.67 vs 38.62±8.36 vs 38.62±6.41 and 1.49±0.09 vs 2.32±0.15 vs 2.13±0.16, respectively; CD16+ CD56+ in the observation group was lower than the control group 2: 11.21±5.06 vs 16.70±7.92; CD8+ in the observation group was higher than control group 1 and control group 2: 26.63± 1.75 vs 20.60±1.43 vs 18.92±0.84; CD19+ in the observation group was higher than the control group 2: 24.06±6.42 vs 19.67 ±8.42, P<0.05, but no significant difference was noticed between the two control groups(P>0.05). For serum immunoglobulin and ferritin: IgG and ferritin in the observation group were higher than control group 1 and control group 2: 10.59±3.88 vs 7.02±3.88 vs 5.58±1.98 and 2 037.37±1 377.59 vs 72.63±56.71 vs 59.48±33.88. IgA in the observation group was higher than the control group 2: 1.06±0.92 vs 0.39±0.32(P<0.05), but no significant difference was noticed between the two control groups (P>0.05). The difference of IgM and IgE between the three groups was not significant (P > 0. 05). 【Conclusion】 The proportion of lymphocyte subsets in thalassemia children with repeated blood transfusion was imbalanced,and the level of immunoglobulin in humoral immunity was abnormal.

15.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 468-475, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995126

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the costs and effectiveness of five common screening modes and genetic screening for thalassemia in China in order to find the optimal way and provide evidence for the implementation of thalassemia prevention and control projects in Hunan Province.Methods:From June 2020 to April 2021, 12 971 couples from 14 cities and autonomous prefectures in Hunan Province were selected as the study population. The diagnosis of thalassemia was based on the results of genetic testing. Results of routine blood test and hemoglobin electrophoresis were collected and analyzed. The efficacy of five screening modes, at the cut-off value of <80 fl or 82 fl for the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), was analyzed by positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Jorden index and cost-effectiveness ratio. Sensitivity analysis was used to assess the feasibility of genetic screening at different costs after fixing the costs of routine blood and hemoglobin electrophoresis. The five thalassemia screening models are as follows: Mode 1: The woman had a blood routine test first. If the result was positive, the spouse required a blood routine test. If both results were positive, a thalassemia gene test should be offered to the couple. Mode 2: Both husband and wife were screened by blood routine and hemoglobin electrophoresis. If one or both of them were positive, both would be tested for thalassemia gene. Mode 3: The couple received blood routine tests initially. If either was positive, both should receive hemoglobin electrophoresis testing. If either was positive, both parties will conduct thalassemia gene testing. Mode 4: The woman was screened by blood routine and hemoglobin electrophoresis. If any one of them was positive, the woman would be tested for thalassemia gene. If the gene test result was positive, the spouse should receive thalassemia gene. Mode 5: Both spouses conducted a blood routine test. If either was positive, both would conduct hemoglobin electrophoresis test. If both were positive, both spouses should receive thalassemia gene testing. Gene testing mode: The woman would be tested for thalassemia, and her spouse would have thalassemia test too if her result was positive.Results:When using MCV<80 fl as the cut-off for diagnosing thalassemia, the Youden indices of the five prenatal screening modes in Hunan Province were 0.551, 0.639, 0.898, 0.555 and 0.356, while when using MCV<82 fl as the cut-off, the Youden indices were 0.549, 0.629, 0.851, 0.548 and 0.356. When the MCV cut-off value was <80 fl, the missed diagnosis rates of the five screening modes were 44.44%, 0.00, 0.00, 18.52% and 62.96%, and the cost-effectiveness ratios were 21 709, 250 939, 76 870, 138 463 and 92 860 yuan (RMB)/couple, respectively. When the price of genetic testing was lower than 55 yuan (RMB), the cost-effectiveness ratio of genetic screening was lower than that of Mode 3.Conclusions:MCV<80 fl can be considered as the positive criteria in blood routine screening for thalassemia in Hunan Province, and the cost-effectiveness ratio of Mode 3 (the couple received blood routine tests initially. If either was positive, both should receive hemoglobin electrophoresis testing. If either was positive, both parties will conduct thalassemia gene testing) is the best. Genetic screening has certain advantages with the decreasing price.

16.
International Journal of Pediatrics ; (6): 100-103, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989045

ABSTRACT

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, applied in the treatment of blood tumors and non-tumor diseases in children, has improved the survival rate and life span of the patients.However, with the extension of survival time, various endocrine complications will appear in these survivors of childhood cancer and reduce the quality of life.Complications related to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children are caused by primary disease and/ or treatments before and after transplantation, including abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, hypogonadism, short stature and so on.Regular endocrine evaluations can help physicians find the endocrine dysfunctions of children with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible.This review summarizes the common endocrine complications and follow-up evaluation of children with thalassemia and acute leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in order to provide reference for the monitoring of endocrine function in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

17.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 137-140, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973377

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the growth and development status of children with severe β-thalassemia major (β-TM) in Bazhong area and its correlation with hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and serum ferritin (SF) level, and to provide a theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of children with β-TM in Bazhong area. Methods A total of 292 children with β-TM admitted to Bazhong Central Hospital from January 2019 to December 2020 were selected. The Z-score method was used to evaluate the growth and development of the children. According to the growth and development of the children, they were divided into the normal group (normal growth and development, n=163) and delayed group (growth and development delay, n=129). Another 60 healthy children were selected as the control group. The levels of HGB, serum SF, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free tetraiodothyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were compared among the three groups of children, and clinical data such as age, sex and age of onset were collected from the case system. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to analyze the independent risk factors of growth and development delay in β-TM children. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the correlation between growth retardation and HGB and serum SF levels in β-TM children. Results The serum SF and TSH levels in the delayed group were significantly higher than those in the normal group and the control group, while the levels of HGB and serum FT4 were significantly lower than those in the normal group and control group (P2000 ng/mL were risk factors for growth retardation in β-TM children (P2000 ng/mL, the height, weight, and HGB and serum SF levels should be monitored regularly.

18.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 427-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972934

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the feasibility of secondary transplantation for patients with acute leukemia after failure of the first haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods Two acute leukemia patients underwent the first haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from two donors with thalassemia, and the number of collected CD34+ cells was 2.57×106/kg and 1.99×106/kg per donor, respectively. The first haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation failed. Secondary transplantation was performed from two non-thalassemia donors, and the number of collected CD34+ cells was 4.28×106/kg and 5.75×106/kg per donor, respectively. A reduced-intensity conditioning regimen consisting of fludarabine (Flu), busulfan (Bu) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) was adopted for the secondary transplantation. Results For two recipients, the time of secondary transplantation of neutrophil and platelet was +12 d and +10 d, +10 d and +10 d, respectively. Up to the final follow-up (+1 062 d and +265 d after secondary transplantation), the primary diseases of both two recipients have been completely relieved without evident post-transplantation complications. Conclusions Secondary transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning regimen may successfully treat acute leukemia after failure of the first haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 830-836, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982137

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the possible causes of abnormal hemoglobin electrophoresis results.@*METHODS@#The hemoglobin electrophoresis results of 5 696 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College from September 2018 to July 2021 were collected, and the abnormal results and clinical significance were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The results of 486 patients (accounting for 8.53%) were abnormal, of which 300 cases had increased HbA2, 135 cases had decreased HbA2, 44 cases had increased F alone, and 7 cases had abnormal hemoglobin bands. Among the 486 patients, 246 patients were thalassemia gene positive (the positive rate was 50.62%), including 29 cases of α thalassemia, 208 cases of β thalassemia and 9 cases of αβ thalassemia. Among the patients with elevated HbA2, 68.67% were detected β thalassemia, 3.00% αβ thalassemia, 9.33% were suspected to be caused by macrocytosis, 6.33% by thyroid dysfunction, and 12.67% by uncertainty of the method. Among the patients with reduced HbA2, 21.48% were detected α thalassemia, 60.00% iron deficiency anemia, 8.15% were suspected to be caused by thyroid dysfunction, and 10.37% by uncertainty of the method. Among the patients with elevated F alone, the results of thalassemia gene detection were negative, 40.91% of them were suspected to be caused by macrocytosis, 27.27% by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin, 29.55% by special physiological condition of pregnant women, and 2.27% by hyperthyroidism. Abnormal hemoglobin bands were detected in 7 patients, including 4 cases of hemoglobin D, 2 cases of hemoglobin E, and 1 case of hemoglobin J.@*CONCLUSION@#Thalassemia, iron deficiency anemia, macrocytosis such as megaloblastic anemia and non-severe aplastic anemia, thyroid dysfunction, hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin, abnormal hemoglobin diseases, the uncertainty of the method are all important causes of abnormal hemoglobin electrophoresis results. In clinical work, the patient's indicators should be comprehensively analyzed to determine the possible cause.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , beta-Thalassemia/genetics , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Fetal Hemoglobin/analysis , alpha-Thalassemia , Blood Protein Electrophoresis , Hemoglobin A2/analysis , Hemoglobins, Abnormal/analysis
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1815-1819, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the detection rate and hematologic phenotype of HKαα thalassemia in south Guangxi, in order to provide reference for the prevention and control of thalassemia and prenatal and postnatal care consultation in this region.@*METHODS@#Gene testing was performed on pre-marital medical examinations, pre-pregnancy eugenic health examinations, prenatal examinations and hospitalized thalassemia-positive persons in south of Guangxi, and the results were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 183 190 thalassemia patients were included in this study, the age was mainly concentrated in 26-35 years old (101 709 cases, accounting for 55.521%), and 40 HKαα mutations were detected, detection rate was 0.022%, including 5 cases in Nanning, 22 cases in Qinzhou, 2 cases in Fangchenggang, 11 cases in Beihai. A total of 29 ethnic groups were included in the survey, but HKαα gene was observed only in Han nationality (0.0380%) and Zhuang nationality (0.0068%). A total of 8 genotypes carrying HKαα mutations were detected in this study ( HKαα/--SEA, βN/ βN, HKαα/αα, β-28/ βN, HKαα/αα, β-50/ βN, HKαα/αα, βCD17/ βN, HKαα/αα, βCD27/28/β N, HKαα/αα, βCD41-42/ βN, HKαα/αα, βCD71-72/ βN, and HKαα/αα, βN/ βN). Except for most cases with HKαα/αα, βN/ βN genotypes with no significant changes in the hematological indexes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) of other genotypes were decreased, showing microcytic hypochromic performance, mild anemia or no anemia.@*CONCLUSION@#HKαα carrier is often misdiagnosed as -α3.7 carrier, which easily leads to missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously improve the diagnostic level of laboratory testing personnels and genetic counselors to avoid unnecessary interventional puncture operations and birth of children with moderate and severe thalassemia.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Adult , beta-Thalassemia/genetics , alpha-Thalassemia/genetics , China , Genotype , Phenotype , Mutation
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